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Burgkmair Turnierbuch

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Tournaments

Images

Images

Draft Translation (from Mair) Draft translation
by Per Magnus Haaland

Draft Translation (from Schemel) Draft translation
by Per Magnus Haaland

Burgkmair Tournierbuch (ca. 1520s)
by Michael Chidester

Munich Transcription (1540s) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Vienna Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Wolfenbüttel I Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Wolfenbüttel II Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]

New York Transcription (1838) [edit]

The various old and new noble and knightly German forms and Disciplines of jousting or ”tilt”, as they call it nowadays.

Ettliche weilend des Aller durchleuchtig isten hochmechttigisten Fürsten und herren herrn Maximilionn Römischenn Keyserß &c hochloblichister gedächnus Ritterspile zum tail durch fr maiestätt selbß erfunden anngeben unnd sonnst mitt anndern zu lust und kurtz weill gebrãucht werdenn.

Title and dedication

To the eternal memory of the late Roman Emperor Maximilian, I have here gathered these jousting or tilt games, and put them in order. The late emperor Maximilian himself devoted himself and exercized himself in them, and he even invented many of them as well. Therefore lest this honourable and sportly exercise of the nobility would to perish, I have here given them to posterity, especially for the eternal praise to those who still devote themselves and love it, which can be understood here, how to do that they have before their eyes, so that they be able to reconstruct each and everyone of them.

In the third part follows hereby explained how the man and horse is to be equipped in all kinds of jousting of peace and of war and on the battle field, for sport and in ernest, with all equipment and armour, all parts, such as caparisons, saddles, chanfrons, peytrals, barding and weapons, what they may be called, and how they are put on.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 10.jpg



Herr Antony von Iffon, always torney master.

Imperator Caeser Maximiliani Augusti praeexercitamenta militaria.

Bei Raÿ Zhai': zeittenn ist herr Antonni vonn Iffonn oberster durniermaister Beweßen.

Er hat das Ehrlich Ritterspill,
Thurnier gebrauchet also vill,
lustig herfür bracht an den tag,
Darumben auf solche ansag,
nach Ritterlichem gemueth und hertz,
hab Ich gepessert disen schertz.





Maximilian Fechtbuch 11.jpg

Dise manier braucht man zum durnier, zu fuoß Iber die schranncken mit spieß prechenn, darnach mit den schwertter ainn annder zw schlagenn.

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Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º 085r.png

Torney on foot in a hall(?). First to break the lances, and then they hit each other with the swords.

Foot tourney is arranged thus: the man is equipped with a full field armour but on his right hand he wears a torney gauntlet, and on his left a plate gauntlet with plate for gripping, on his head a torney helmet with a small mantle. First they attack each other with the lances over the fence. If they break the lances, then thereafter they use their swords, as is shown in the following picture.

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Fighting on life and death must be done as follows with a surcoat, arm armour and pauldrons, and helmet or head armour, with full cuisses and greaves, as well as gauntlets and besagews, and also whatever weapons for anyone who wishes not to lose the fight, as can be seen in this following picture.

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Here they fight on life and death.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 12.jpg

Dises ist ainn feld durnier, oder auff ainnem platz, das si die stanngenn brechen darnach mit denn schwerttern ain annder zu schlagen.

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Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º 063r.png

Jousting either in ernest or for sport, is performed thus: the rider wears an armour that in German is called "den geschifften küriss". The lance has a vamplate. The horse is equipped with a caparison made out of leather. The mane and neck of the horse is covered in steel armour, as well as the chanfron, as the picture clearly shows.

Tourney on horse, both for sport and in ernest is arranged thus: the man is wearing an articulated field armour, the lance has a vamplate, and the horse is wearing an old armour saddle, steel criniere, and leather peytral and croupiere, steel chanfron, and all equipment as is shown in this picture.

How to tourney on horse for sport and in ernest.

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[7] In this manner the jousters enter the arena.[1]

Mair's tournament 08.png

[8] Here they engage each other, either for sport or in ernest.

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Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º 076r.png

This is the right old tournament armour, with all parts and how they are arranged.

Old torney on horse for sport is usually done in this manner: the man is equipped with an old field armour, without leg armour and sabatons, only a pair of boots with soft bootlegs, old shoulders and old arm harness. On the head an old tournament helmet and in with his old tournament gauntlets. On the chest there is a chain that a battle club is hanging from. The man is sitting on an old tournament saddle, and the horse is adorned with an old steel crupier, peytral and flanchards, that are attached to the saddle, as well as old steel peytral and chanfron as the following pictur shows.

Burgkmair Hohenzollern Sigmaringen MS 18b.png

In this manner is the old tourney with clubs done.

Jousting

Images

Images

Draft Translation (from Mair) Draft translation
by Per Magnus Haaland

Draft Translation (from Schemel) Draft translation
by Per Magnus Haaland

Burgkmair Tournierbuch (ca. 1520s)
by Michael Chidester

Munich Transcription (1540s) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Vienna Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Wolfenbüttel I Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Wolfenbüttel II Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]

New York Transcription (1838) [edit]

Maximilian Fechtbuch 13.jpg

Sir Wolffgang von Bolhaim, always a master of joust of war and piece.

Beÿ Raÿ Zhaie: zeittenn ist herr Wolffganng vonn bolhaim Rennen und gestoch maister Beweßenn.

Rennen und Stechen manichfalt,
hat Er getrieben der gestalt,
aus zuethuen seiner Maÿestat,
Wie mann vor nie gesehen hat,
hab Ichs gestelt in solche weiß,
dardurch erlangt groß lob und preiß.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 14.jpg

Das welsch gestoch Iber das dill, wie mans gebraucht hatt Im, 1511, Jarr bei Kaißer Maximilions Seittenn.

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Italian jousting over the tilt barrier is done thus: the rider is equipped with a field armour that we in German call "ain geschifften feldküriss". He wears a helmet suitable for this sort of jousting, and on his left side he carries a shield with a grill. He sits on a high knight's saddle. The hit, or strike is on the shield. The horse is covered with a silk caparison, and its forehead is protected by a steel chanfron, as the picture shows.

Foreign gestech over the tilt is performed thus: the man is equipped with an articulated field armour, and a Stech helmet, they carry a grill to hit with the coronell. On the lance there is placed a large vamplate, he sits on a high armour saddle, and the horse is wearing a silk caparison and a steel chanfron as is shown in this picture.

Foreign Gestech over the tilt where you break the lances.

Mair's tournament 15.png

[15] This way they enter the arena to compete over the tilt barrier.

Mair's tournament 16.png

[16] This is the way jousting over the tilt barrier is done the Italian way.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 15.jpg

Das loblich gemain Teutsch gestech daß sy fallenn miesenn.

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Common German jousting is done thus: the rider wears a common jousting armour, and in the lance he has coronells and a vamplate. He sits on a cushion, without saddle. The horse has covered eyes, as well as ears. The caparison is wholly made out of silk. Furthermore, the rider has large enough bundles of straw on the chest under the caparison, as is illustrated on the picture.

The new common joust of peace is arranged thus: the man is equipped with a common joust of piece armour, as well as his helmet, on his chest he has an arret, and a lance rest in the back as well, wherein you insert the lance. The lance has a coronell, and a large vamplate covering half the man's arm. He has a shield also on his left side, where the lance is to hit. The man sits on a saddle for joust of peace or on a little cusion. The horse is adorned with a caparison for joust of peace, and under it a straw padded peytral that goes all the way to the saddlebow. The horse is also blindfolded and its ears muffled, and also has a steel chanfron, as is shown in the following picture.

The new common German joust of peace.

Mair's tournament 11.png

[11] Thus they enter the arena, in common German jousting, or tilt.

Mair's tournament 12.png

[12] Thus they run at each other in said common German jousting.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 16.jpg

Das gestech Inn hochen zeugenn fn verschlossen settlenn, brechenn die Stanngen.

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Old jousting, or tilting as it is called today in old high armour (German: Im hohen zeug), where both break their lances, they enter the field (German: auf die pan), or the arena. The rider himself wears a common jousting armour, he has small rings[2] with a vamplate. He sits on an old high jousting saddle. The horse’s chest guard is stuffed with straw, and padded under the silk caparison. The chanfron is made out of steel, as can be seen in the picture here.

The old German joust of peace in high armour, breaking the lances. They must(!) be equipped thus: the man is wearing a common armour for jousting of peace, he holds a lance with a coronell and thereon a vamplate. He is sitting on a straight old saddle, the (horse's) chest protection is filled with straw, and the horse is covered by a silk caparison and a steel chanfron, as is displayed on this picture.

The old German gestech in high armour, when you break the lances.

Mair's tournament 01.png

[1] Here they both go forth to the jousting field, and descend into the arena in the old armour that the Germans call "high" (in dem alten hohen Teutschen zeug).

Mair's tournament 02.png

[2] Here they both ride towards each other in said old high armour.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 17.jpg

Das gestech Im bainn harnisch und lidernn barscha, unnd brechenn die stanngenn.

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Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º 066r.png

Jousting in steel leg armour, as well as leather caparison, i.e. horse cover, is this: the rider wears field armour and a metal helmet. On his left side he carries a shield. He sits on a high knight saddle, the lance is made with a vamplate, whereas the horse is covered with a leather caparison, as is shown in the picture.

Gestech in leg armour and leather barding is done thus: the man wears a field armour, a stech helmet, and has a shield on his left side, and an arret, wherein you place the lance and where(upon) the vamplate is inserted. He sits on an armour saddle, and the horse is also equipped with a leather barding, criniere and peytral, flanchard out of leather that is fastened to the saddle, and a steel chanfron as is shown in the following picture.

Gestech in leg armour and leather peytral where they break the lances.

Mair's tournament 09.png

[9] This way the two combatants proceed to the arena in steel leg armour.

Mair's tournament 10.png

[10] Then they run towards and engage each other in metal leg armour.

Coursing

Images

Images

Draft Translation (from Mair) Draft translation
by Per Magnus Haaland

Draft Translation (from Schemel) Draft translation
by Per Magnus Haaland

Burgkmair Tournierbuch (ca. 1520s)
by Michael Chidester

Munich Transcription (1540s) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Vienna Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Wolfenbüttel I Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

Wolfenbüttel II Transcription (ca. 1600) [edit]

New York Transcription (1838) [edit]

Maximilian Fechtbuch 18.jpg

Das ist das welsch Rennenn Inn dem, Armettin migenn die stangen brechenn, auch mag manß zu feldt brauchenn.

Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º 064v.png
Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º 065r.png

Italian jousting in armentin, as they call it, is done thus: the rider wears an articulatedly-attached field armour, and a has a sleeve/shirt in a knightly fashion. Furthermore, he sits on a high saddle. The lance has vamplates. The horse is blindfolded and covered with a silk caparison, and wears a steel chanfron, as you see in the picture.

The foreign Rennen in armentin must be arranged thus: the man must wear an articulated field armour, leg armour and sabatons, as well as armour skirt. He sits on a high armour saddle, the lance as a large vamplate, and the horse is blindfolded and wears a silk caparison, and has a steel chanfron, as the following picture shows.

Foreign Rennen in armentin, where you break the lances.

Mair's tournament 19.png

[19] Thus the combatants enter the arena to compete in Italian Armentin.

Mair's tournament 20.png

[20] Then they ride towards each other in said Italian armentin.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 19.jpg

Diß haist mann das Buntt Rennen unnd migenn auch fallenn oder die dartzenn gannd hin Speckh.

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Jousting called ”den Bund” in German is performed thus: the rider himself wears a helmet that we in German call "ain Rennhuet", and a harness equipped with a large hook. Furthermore he wears a metal beard, that flies off at first contact with the lance. On the arms there is no armour, but on the other hand his knees must be protected with what is called "die straiffteschen". No saddle is to be used. The lance has a movable vamplate, that covers half the man’s arm. The horse is covered in a silk caparison, and blindfolded by it, as you may understand from this picture.

Joust of war called bundt is performed thus: the man is equipped with a back and front harness, and an old helmet for joust of war with a large steel beard, that flies off at lance contact, and the arm is bare, and he has a large arret in which the lance is inserted and onto which is fastened a vamplate covering half the man's arm, as well as a strafe flanchard, he sits without saddle but on a small cushion and the horse is adorned with a silk caparison, as the following illustration is showing.

[No translation]

Mair's tournament 23.png

[23] In this manner they enter the arena to the joust in what the Germans call "den bund".

Mair's tournament 24.png

[24] Here they ride at each other, in said sportly joust.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 20.jpg

Dises haist mann das geschifft dartzschenn Rennenn.

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The commonly practised sportly jousting, that the Germans call "das geschifften Tarschen Rennen", is performed as follows: the rider is clad in field armour, and an old helmet with a steel beard attached to it, that flies off at first contact with the lance. His boots and thighs are covered in armour, and the horse has a caparison. The lance has a large movable vamplate, that covers half the rider’s arm, as can be seen on the picture.

Rennen with spring targes is performed thus: the man is equipped with an old field armour, leg armour and sabatons, as well as an old iron hat. He carries a large spring iron beard made so that it flies away when struck by the lance. The horse is wearing an armour saddle, and a steel cross crupier, a criniere, and a chanfron and flanchard attached to the saddle, as shown in the picture.

This is joust of war with spring targes.

Mair's tournament 03.png

[3] Here they both enter into the arena with shields that the Germans call "die geschifften dartschen".

Mair's tournament 04.png

[4] Then they engage each other in this manner with said shields.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 22.jpg

Dises haist mann das geschifft scheiben Rennenn, und ist Besorglich.

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Jousting in articulated armour, in German called "das geschifft scheuben rennen", ie with movable discs, is done thus: the rider is fully covered in armour, and an old helmet. Furthermore he has a disc, and a steel beard attached, that by the contact or hit of the lance, flies off. He sits on a knight saddle. The lance has vamplate, that covers half the man’s arm. The horse is blindfolded and covered by a silk caparison, and its forehead is protected by a steel chanfron as shown in this picture.

Rennen with spring discs is done thus: the man is wearing a full field armour and an old iron hat, a spring disc (attached to) a steel beard, that flies off at lance impact. He sits on an armour saddle, the lance has a large vamplate that covers half the arm. The horse is covered by a silk caparison and blindfolded, as well as equipped with a steel chanfron, as is shown in the picture below.

Rennen with spring discs.

Mair's tournament 17.png

[17] Thus they enter the arena to compete with discs, that the Germans call "die geschifften scheuben".

Mair's tournament 18.png

[18] Here they engage each other with said discs.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 23.jpg

Diseß Rennenn braucht man mit blossem haubt unnd wüllin krentzenn und die schilt oder dartzen fast angetzogen unnd fallenn Auch.

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Jousting with linen bindles, that Germans call "das rennen mit dem Wulst", is performed thus: the rider has a large linen bindle on his head, and apart from that completely without armour. He carries a metal beard hanging from his neck, with a large hook that supports the lance, and this hook is the only thing aimed at by the lance hit. Furthermore, he has armour plate protection over his knees. The lance has a vamplate, that covers half the man’s arm. He sits on a pillow. The horse is covered and blindfolded by a silk caparison, as you can see in the picture.

Joust of war with linen bundles is done thus: the man is equipped with an old armour for joust of war, on his head a linen bundle, but apart from that he is bare. He has a large steel beard which is the target area, and a large arret, onto which the lance is inserted, and the lance has a large vamplate, that covers half the man's arm. The horse is covered with, and blinded by a silk caparison, as is displayed in the illustration below.

Joust of war with linen bundles and with the targes attached.

Mair's tournament 13.png

[13] Here the combatants enter the arena to compete with linen bindles, or "in Wulsten" as Germans use to call it.

Mair's tournament 14.png

[14] Here they ride together with said linen bindles.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 24.jpg

Dißes haist mann das pffanen Rennenn, unnd ist garbesorglich dann sy miessenn fallenn.

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Pan jousting, or in German "das pfannen rennen", is performed in this manner: the rider has no armour at all, on his chest he has a large shield with a steel grill, in which the lance is stuck, and must keep it there. He sits on the horse without any saddle. The horse itself is covered and blindfolded by a silk caparison, as is clearly displayed in this picture.

The joust of war with steel pans is usually done in this manner: the man is wearing an old armour both in front and back, to which a large arret is attached, and into which the lance is put, as well as a large vamplate that covers half of the arm. On the chest is attached a large iron grill, which is the target area. Apart from that he is completely without armour, and without saddle, except for a small cushion. The horse is adorned and blindfolded by a silk caparison, as shown in the picture below.

In this manner the joust of war with the steel pans is performed.

Mair's tournament 25.png

[25] Thus they enter the arena to compete in jousting with pans, called "in der pfannen" in German.[3]

Mair's tournament 26.png

[26] Then they run at each other in said pan joust.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 27.jpg

Das ist das feldt Rennenn mit stöchlin, geligern und mann haist es daß bunt Rennenn.

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In field jousting, where all armour must be plate armour, that the Germans call "den Bund in stechlin geliger", is done thusly: the man himself is completely covered by a full field armour, and an old helmet covers his head, to which a metal beard is attached which flies off at first contact with the lance. The lance has a vamplate. Furthermore the horse is equipped with armour that Germans call "das Creutz geliger", as can be seen in this picture.

The field Rennen called ”Den bundt” in steel barding is arranged thus: the man is equipped with a complete field armour, and an old iron hat, and a big iron beard in front of him, that flies off when hit by the lance, that is equipped with a vamplate. The horse is wearing an old armour saddle, a steel cross crupier, peytral, criniere, as well as the chanfron, also the flanchard that is fastened to the sadle, as the following picture shows.

The field Rennen called ”den Bund” in steel barding.

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[5] Here they both proceed to the arena to compete in field jousting with plate armour that the Germans call "das Stechlin geliger".

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[6] Here they both engage each other in said jousting with plate armour, as mentioned.

Maximilian Fechtbuch 28.jpg

Diß ist das gemain scharff Rennenn unnd wan man wil so haist es denn schwaiff gerennt, und migen fallen.

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The common strifing joust or tilt called "der schwaiff"[4] by the Germans, is to be performed as follows: the rider wears shoulder and chest armour that must be equipped with a large hook. On his head he wears an old helmet with a long steel beard hanging from it, that immediately flies off at lance contact. The arms are unprotected, and on his knees he is protected by the armour called "streiffteschen" in German. The lances have moveable vamplates that cover half the man’s arm. The horse is blindfolded by his silk caparison, as you may discern from this picture.

This armour belongs to oblique joust of war, with all its accessories.

The common oblique joust of war is performed thus: the man is equipped with an armour for joust of war, and a large arret as well as a lance rest, wherein the lance is inserted. He wears an old helmet for joust of war, and in front he has a steel beard that flies off at lance hit. The arm is bare and on the legs he has a leg flanchard. The lance as a sharp point, and a large vamplate covering half the man's arm. He sits on a little joust of war saddle. The horse is adorned with a joust of war caparison and is blindfolded and has his ears muffled, as the following picture is showing.

Common oblique joust of war, called Schwaiff.



Mair's tournament 21.png

[21] Thus they enter the arena to compete in strifing jousting, called "der schwaiff" in German.

Mair's tournament 22.png

[22] Then they ride towards each other in said strifing jousting.

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Cod.Guelf.1.6.3 Aug.2º 082r.png

This harness belongs to the battlefield on horse or on foot, with all its parts.

For war and battlefield one has to be equipped thus: a field armour, with front and back plate, as well as its cuisses and greaves, its arm armour, and spaulders, its plate gauntlets, and its closed helm, as well as its mantle. The man sits on a steel fitted saddle. The horse is wearing steel cruppers, crinier, and a flanchard attached to the saddle, as well as peytral and chanfron, as is shown the following picture.

The armour for the battlefield must be equipped thus.

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Foreign joust of peace over the fence or free jousting with all its equipment.

The new foreign joust of peace over the fence is done as follows: the man has an articulated field armour, and a new helmet for joust of peace, has a grill in front where the hitting is done with the coronell on the lance, also with a large vamplate. He sits on a high armour saddle. The horse is adorned with a silk caparison and a steel chanfron as is shown in the following picture.

The new foreign joust of peace over the tilt, where you break the lances.

  1. Illustrations 7 and 8, with their captions, are placed after 12 in the manuscript. In this presentation, they've been moved to their numeric sequence.
  2. Coronels?
  3. Curious little bugger, ain't ya?
  4. Schweiff means to strife, drift or to sweep by. So, in a sense, horse drifting. Or maybe not.