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Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[No Image]

[1] In the name of God and Saint George, we begin our system with Grappling on foot, seeking to gain superior holds. Holds are not superior unless they give you an advantage. Thus we four Masters seek to achieve advantageous holds through the techniques you see depicted here.

Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png

[2] [The Long Guard]

I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,
And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.

I am Posta Longa and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.


Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.
If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.

Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png

[3] [The Boar's Tooth]

I seek to reverse the fight,
And from this position I will force you to the ground.

I counter you with Dente di Zenghiaro. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to Porta di Ferro, which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.


I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.
Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.

Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png

[4] [The Iron Gate]

If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe
That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.

I wait for you without moving in Porta di Ferro, ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am Porta di Ferro, full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.


If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]
By my strength, that one <that is, you> will suffer many calamities.

Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png

[5] [The Guard of the Forehead]

I advance upon you with my arms well forward
To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.

I am Posta Frontale, used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to Porta di Ferro. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.


Behold! I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,
In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.

Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png

[6] With this move I will either force you to the ground
Or else your left arm will be dislocated.

This is the first play of Abrazare and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.

In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.
I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.

Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png
Cod.1324 29r-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png

[7] Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,
Or I will force you into the lower lock.

As the Scholar of the First Abrazare Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the Zugadore who fights with the First Abrazare Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.

I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;
Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png

[8] And I will put you on the ground on your back,
And I will not let you back up again without injury.

The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the Zugadore takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the Zugadore to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the Zugadore is thrown to the ground onto his back.

I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.
Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.
[1]

Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png

[9] Even if you were a master of grappling,
I will force you to the ground with this technique.

This is the Fourth Play of Abrazare, by which the Scholaro [Student] can easily force the Zugadore to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.

In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,
If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png

[10] With the grips that I have on you above and below,
I will break open your head on the ground.

This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.

Because of capturing, <by> wrestling above and below
You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png

[11] Your hand in my face is well placed,
But I will now show you some other moves.
 

I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

I served up the palms to the face.[2] But still I cheerfully moved
Those [palms] from that place, <in order that> I would therefore be able to
Bury you using the other capturing.

Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png

[12] By putting my head under your arm,
I will easily throw you to the ground.

From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.

You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;
This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left <and put> the head of this person <that is, me> under the shoulder.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png

[13] Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,
Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.

When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.

I but hold this finger to the left ear during wrestling,
In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png

[14] With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,
But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.

You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.

<If you>, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,
This capturing nevertheless puts <and buries> you in the deepest ground.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png

[15] This is a grappling move that involves the Gambarola,
But be aware that this move will not always work.

This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [Gambarola] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.

Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.
However, it is not suitable; it often fails at holding.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png

[16] This is a good hold to practice,
For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.

This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.

By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.
In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png

[17] I will strike you so hard in the groin
That all of your strength will be taken away.

This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.

In this way, <I> myself would destroy your testicles with a hard
Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png

[18] I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose
That I will immediately make you let go of me.

If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.

I will redouble so many[3] pains which your nose is suffering
That I believe you will quickly release me [who am] fighting with you.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png

[19] No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself
And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.
 

This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.

[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]

I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).
Nevertheless, <you>, miserable ruined one, will depart
By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.

[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png

[20] I will hurt you under your chin so badly
That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.

If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.

And I drag many pains to you below your chin,
So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png

[21] With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,
But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.

This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a presa or a ligadura.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.
But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.

[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-d.png

Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draf Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png

[1] With a short staff I bind your neck,
And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.

See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.

Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png

[2] If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,
Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.

If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.

[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png

[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].

[Based on the description, the placement of this image is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]

[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.

[Based on the description, the placement of this image is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]

Images

Images

Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[No Image]

[1] These five figures are the guards of the dagger; and some are good in armor; and some are good without armor; and some are good both in or out of armor; and some are good in armor but not good without armor; and all these are displayed below.

[2] [Full Iron Gate, Single]

I am Full Iron Gate Single. And I am good in armour and without armour, because I can ward off an attack with or without moving to grapple. And I can play with or without a dagger when I make my covers.

[3] [Full Iron Door, Doubled]

I am Full Iron Gate Doubled, and I am good in armour and without armour, but in all situations I am better in armour than without armour, and with a guard like this I cannot use a dagger.

[4] [Middle Iron Gate, Doubled]

I am Middle Iron Gate with dagger in hand and I am doubled, and I am better and more strong than any of the others, and I am good in armour and without armour, and I can cover low and high on either side.

[5] [Full Iron Door, Doubled and Crossed]

And I am Full Iron Gate with the arms crossed and doubled. And I am like a mighty fortress, and in armour I am especially strong. But without armour I am not sufficient, because I cannot cover long.

[6] [Middle Iron Gate, Doubled and Crossed]

And I am Middle Iron Gate doubled and crossed [with dagger]. And I am good in armour but not without armour, because I cannot cover long, but I can cover above and below, from the right and the left, with or without a dagger.

[No Image]

[7] I am the noble weapon named the dagger who plays at very close range, and he who understands my malice and my art will also gain a good understanding of many other weapons. And since I finish my fight fiercely and quickly, there is no man who can stand against my method. Whoever witnesses my deeds of arms will see me make covers and thrusts as I move to grapple, and will see me take away the dagger by dislocating and binding arms, and against me neither weapons nor armour will be of any use.

[8] Everyone should take care when facing the perilous dagger, and your arms, hands and elbows must go quickly against it, to do these five things, namely: take away the dagger; strike; dislocate the arms; bind the arms; and force your opponent to the ground. And never fail to do one or the other of these five things; And may he who seeks to defend himself protect himself in this way.

[9] With the fendente I can strike to the head and the body from the elbow up to the top of the head. But below the elbow I cannot be sure that I can make this strike without danger, and therefore I am reluctant to strike lower.

[10] From the left (reverse) side, you can strike from the elbow to end at the temple of the head. And these are called the colpi mezani (middle strikes). And these reverse strikes from the left cannot be delivered if you are still waiting to make cover against your opponent’s attack.

[11] From the right side you can strike or cover if needed, and your target ranges from the elbows to the temples of the head. And this strike is more safely made from the right side than made from the left side.

[12] The dagger that goes through the middle towards the head strikes below the chest and never higher. And while striking you should at all times make cover with your left hand.

[13] After taking away your dagger, to signify my victory
I hold it in my raised hand in this manner.

In my right hand I hold your dagger, and I gained it through my skill, which is so good that if you draw a dagger on me, I will take it from your hand. And I know well how to strike to finish you, no matter what advantage you might have.

Now sealed with the palm, thus I carry the safe dagger.
With my hands I would lift [the dagger] itself, all having been carried.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-a.png

[14] Because I triumph over those who fight with me,
I carry torn-off broken arms as a decoration.

I choose to symbolize my skill with the broken arms I carry. And I do not lie when I tell you that I have broken and dislocated many arms in my life. And whoever chooses to go against my art, will find me always ready to use that art against him.

Whereas I would overcome all which can war with me;
Distinguished, I carry before me broken arms in [my] hands.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-b.png

[15] Locking the arms of all opponents
In such a way that none can safely extend their right hand,
To show my success I carry a pair of keys in my hand.

I am the Master of the unlocking and locking of the arms of those who choose to oppose me. I will cause them great pain and suffering with my techniques of binding and dislocating. And therefore I carry these keys to signify the value of my art.

Nailing together the arms of all fighting in the region
In such a way that they would not be able to extend the safe right,
Now happily I thus collect two keys in my hands.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-c.png

[16] You ask how I force others to the ground under my feet with such prowess,
I tell you that because I grapple each man and throw him down;
The victory palm is appropriately held in my right hand.

You ask how it is that I have this man held under my feet. Thousands have suffered this fate because of my art of Abrazare. And I carry the victory palm in my right hand, because no one can stand up to my grappling skills.

You ask why I, boasting, ruined so great [a person] with [my] feet:
Because by wrestling men of courage, I assert to lay them all low;
Certainly the palm is extended to stand on our right.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-d.png

Images

Images

Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png

[17] I am the First Master of the Dagger, full of guile,
And with my left hand I will wind the dagger around your arm,
And truth to tell I can make many other plays,
And my students will do them cunningly.

I am the first master and I am called Remedy, because I know how to remedy so well that you cannot harm me whereas I on the contrary can strike you and hurt you. And I cannot make a better play against you than to make your dagger go to the ground, by turning my hand to the left.

The first master of the dagger, I am called caution itself;
At any time, the left hand having been extended to lift the dagger away.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png

[18] If I make a turn around your arm with my dagger,
I will strike you in the chest, and it will not be taken from me.

I will turn my dagger around your arm. And because of this counter you will not be able to take the dagger from me. And also with this turn I can drive it into your chest without a doubt.

Truly I sweep the dagger away around your shoulder.
Not wasting that [attack], I would pulp you, miserable, in the chest.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06a-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png

[19] With your right arm locked under my left,
I can cause you much harm while keeping you trapped.

I will lock your arm in the middle bind, and I will do it in such a way that you will not be able to give me any trouble. And if I wish to put you to the ground I will do so with little effort, and you will have no chance of escaping.

[In the Getty, the Scholar steps with his left foot in front of his opponent's right, not behind.]

And behold your right [arm] confined under my left
Shoulder. Far too many misfortunes delay you, the imprisoned one.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png

[20] If you wind around my arm and try to lock it in this way,
I will put you in the lower bind and this hold will make things hard for you.

I make the counter to the play that came before me. You can see the kind of position that I have put him in. I will break his arm or quickly throw him to the ground.

It is permitted that you hold me pressed hard inward, the lower key having been retained [and]
Then pressed hard, [which] will harm the shoulder.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png

[21] If I can turn this arm of yours,
I will make you suffer with a middle bind.

This is a good cover from which to take the dagger from your hand, and with this grip I will be able to bind you well. And this art is so effective that if I place my right hand under your right knee, then I will put you to the ground.

If I myself can now turn the shoulder using the hands,
You, sad, will remain eternally in that middle key.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png

[22] You will not make me suffer in the middle bind
When I meet you with this counter and make you let go.

I make the counter to the play that came before me, so that you will not be able to throw me to the ground, nor take the dagger from me, nor bind me either. You will have to let go, or else you will be quickly stabbed by my dagger.

You will not make [me] endure in the middle key. But now,
By means of that my[4] counter, it is convenient for you if you will yield to me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-d.png

[23] This is a play with no counter, and it is inevitable that the player will go to the ground and lose his dagger if the student performs this technique as depicted. And when the player is thrown to the ground, the student can finish him in various ways.

[24] This play is rarely used in the art of the dagger, yet it is an additional defense to know. For after beating aside the attack in this way, the scholar can then strike with a counter to the ribs or the stomach.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png

[25] This bind is easy for me to do
And from it I will be able to strike you in the back.

I am a counter to the First Dagger Remedy Master. Woe to he who remedies with techniques that allow his left hand to be seized. And from this hold I will be able to drive the dagger into his back.

[These two images seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]

It is neither labor nor pain to me to make a persistent bind,
By which route now I will be able to injure you,
And possibly I will strike your kidneys with a great wound.

[The Paris resembles the Getty.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png

[26] I make the counter-counter to the First Master,
For the counter-counter is a fine master.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png

[27] I make the counter-counter against the First Master,
And I will be first to take away the dagger every time.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-f.png
MS Latin 11269 43v-a.png

[28] I counter the First Dagger Master
And I will strike your arm from above.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

I am of the first king; you retain the dagger, openly
I make the counter. This is well known [to] strike the shoulder.
[5]

Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png

[29] I make the counter to the First Master
With this cover I will hurt him and worse.

I am also the counter of the First Dagger Remedy Master, and when his student grips me like this [10], I will strike him, and make him let go. And if he tries to do other plays against me, I will counter him without hesitation.

I certainly keep the counter of the first master,
And I will now prove this covering using many bad things.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png

[30] In the previous counter I told you that you could hurt him and worse;
Here I show you how this can be done.

This flows from the counter referred to in the previous play. It also flows from the counter referred to two plays back [10], where the Counter Remedy Master has trapped the hand of his opponent with his dagger, and where he told you that he can drive the dagger into his opponent’s back. My play comes from that play, but where he says you drive the dagger into your opponent’s back, I drive it into his chest. But this still flows from the previous play, even though I choose to finish it differently.

[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's left foot.]

Using a counter to the former, which threatens many evils,
I direct myself in these circumstances so that I would strike the associate with a deadly wound.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08a-c.png
MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png

[31] I am well placed and positioned to force you to the ground;
If you do not know the counter, I will throw you down immediately.

I am the student of the first Master of [Dagger] Remedies. And with this grip I seek to take your dagger and bind your arm, and since I do not believe that you know how to counter me, I will do this to you without delay.

[The Getty resembles the Paris. These two images may show progressive stages of the technique.]

I am ready now to beat you, gloomy, into the ground.
And if the counter would miss, I would do this to you readily.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-e.png
MS Latin 11269 25r-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png

[32] I make the counter like this,
And I know well how to strike you from here.

I counter you like this, so that you will neither take my dagger nor bind my arm, and my dagger and I will remain at liberty. And then I will be able to strike you when you let go of me in such a way that you will have no defense.

Now I do this counter quickly; you see duly just as it were.
The spirit becoming enflamed, I would then beat your limbs.

Pisani-Dossi MS 06b-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png

[33] To make a much stronger cover I cross my arms in this manner;
And from here I can do all the previous remedies.

This cover is known to be much stronger and I make it so as to be able to obstruct you with various plays. And you cannot overcome such a strong cover, because two arms can easily oppose one arm.

I cover myself using great bodily strength, as you see the movements.
I attack in this way before anyone can bring about anything.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png

[34] With this counter the previous cover will meet with failure;
After I have made you turn I will strike you with my dagger.

This is the counter to the cover that came before, that I told you was much stronger. And I will turn him with my left hand. Having turned him, I will not fail to strike him.

Now, by means of this counter, I cheat the earlier plays
In such a way, and I would turn you behind in order to wreck you <that is, bring you to ruin> with wounds.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png

[35] Since my Master’s technique will not fail me,
I will break your arm over my shoulder.

With this excellent presa that I have made against you, I will not fail to break your arm over my left shoulder. And afterwards I can strike you with your own dagger, since this play will not fail me.

Because of how that master now brings about the taking,
I believe you will not withdraw without shoulders having been broken.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png

[36] You will not break my arm over your shoulder,
For with my counter I will throw you to the ground.

I make this counter to you who in the previous play intended to break my arm over your shoulder. I will throw you to the ground to your death with great force and you will cause me no further injury.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png

[37] Your dagger will quickly be taken from you,
When I twist it upwards close by your elbow.

I am in a good position to take the dagger from your hand, and to do it I push the point upwards, close to your elbow. And you will lose it, and I will quickly strike you with it. I took the dagger in this way because I was not able to bend your arm.

I seize the dagger using a sudden violent whirling motion near the elbow;
Yet before [that], I strongly turn the lower arms.
[6]

Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png

[38] My dagger will not be taken by your turning it,
And I will strike you with it without fail.

I make the counter of the play that came before, so that you will not be able to take my dagger in that way. I will press my dagger into your hand, to make you let go, and with the cruel point I will strike you for your trouble.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07a-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png

[39] I will have no problem making you fall to the ground,
But you will have a major problem trying to get up.

In this way you will be driven into the ground, and you will not be able to make any defense or counter. And I will quickly make the dagger that you hold in your hand go far from you, because of my skillful knowledge of this art.

[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar steps outside of his opponent's right leg.]

It is not any work to me, laying you out fallen.
You will not be able to rise free[ly] without a large wound.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-a.png

[40] I do not want to fall to the ground with the previous play,
So with this grip I will take away all of your strength.

What you plan to do cannot always be done. I am the counter of the scholar who came before, and this counter will make him look very foolish, because in this way I will make him let go my leg. And I will drive the dagger into his face to demonstrate that he is indeed a great fool.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-b.png

Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png

[41] And I make cover with arms crossed,
And I can make all the previous remedies,
Nor will I fail to cover any of the backhand strikes,
For I can do them all, one by one.

I play with my arms crossed, and can make all the remedies that were previously shown. And if we were both armoured, you could not make a better cover. No other crowned [Dagger] Remedy Master makes a stronger cover than I, for I can play both to the right and to the left, and I can cross from both underneath and from above.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png

[42] You won’t be able to make the plays that came before, nor the plays from the backhand strikes [that follow],
Because with this counter, your cover will be completely lost.

I counter the [Dagger] Remedy Master who made the cross before me, so he will not be able to cause me any problems with his crossing. I will give a push to his elbow to make him turn, and then I will quickly strike him.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png

[43] Take the dagger, dislocate your arm, bind you,
Or throw you to the ground–I can do all of these things.

I believe that this very strong grapple is fatal to anyone, because I can break your arm, throw you to the ground, or take your dagger. I can also hold you bound in the upper bind. And as a result of these four things, you will be unable to get away.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png

[44] As for the four plays you mentioned, you won’t be able to do any of them to me,
And with this counter I will throw you to the ground.

I know the counter to the previous play. And with this grapple I will counter all four of the plays he said he could do before. And as soon as he sees me, I will throw him to the ground, for this grapple is strong and fierce.

Pisani-Dossi MS 07b-f.png
MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png

I certainly cover myself during wrestling using arms as in the cross.
And I can make sport with all the first rules.
 

MS Latin 11269 23v-c.png
MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png

By this counter your covering is refuted; and behold:
Neither the play of the reversed palm, nor the prior [plays]
Accomplish. Then you, miserable one, will die lying on your back.

MS Latin 11269 22r-b.png

Images

Images

Complete Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png

[45] Here begin the powerful plays of the backhand attack,[7]
Through which many have been killed.
And the plays of my scholars will follow,
And so we begin the defense to the backhand attack.[8]

Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png

[46] With this play of the Master, your dagger will be taken
And I will strike you a mortal blow.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png

[47] Here I believe I will throw you to the ground.
First I will do this to you, and then I will do worse to you.

Here begin the plays of the reverse strikes,[9] through which countless men have lost their lives. And the plays of my scholars will follow, demonstrating the cover made with the right hand. This play depicted is easy to do, and in this way I will throw this man into the ground.

[In the Getty, this Scholar is the Master.]

I believe you, treacherous one, will now indeed touch the earth.
And itself <read: I> would do worse to you, henceforth lying dead.

[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png

[48] You will go to the ground because of your lack of knowledge,
And in armour this is a particularly safe throw.

With this method you will be driven into the ground. And I could not make a safer throw, being armoured. But even without armour, there is nothing you can do. And even if you were strong and powerful, I would still be able to do this to you.

You, incautious one, will touch the earth with [your] chest prostrated.
This armor-wearer will more safely impart the play.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png

[49] This leads to a broken ruined arm,
As you will find out when I have you in this hold.

You will go to the ground and your arm will be dislocated by the skill of my crowned Master. And there is not one counter that you can do to me, for I hold you like this…

Each is able to break the shoulder of the associate in wrestling, as I comprehend.
It will be pleasing to know whatever has been imparted.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png

[50] I will have no trouble dislocating your arm
And I will easily take your dagger from you.

…and will make you suffer greatly.

Pisani-Dossi MS 08b-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png

[51] This is another powerful dislocation
From which I will be able to kill you with your own dagger.

This is a lock that has no counter and no defense. And in this way I can take your dagger, and it will be no trouble to bind or dislocate your arm. You will not be able to get away without my permission. And I can ruin your arm if I choose.

He was able to dislocate[10] the shoulder of any companion for himself,
And sentence him to death with the point of the dagger.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png

[52] I take your dagger as I wish,
And now if I choose, I can bind you in the lower lock.

You will lose your dagger by the way I hold you. And after taking your dagger I can bind you. and make you suffer in the lower lock, which is one of the key binds, and which I will use on you. And whoever is put into this lock cannot escape, because of the great pain and suffering they will be forced to endure.

I now take hold of your dagger, nor can I be mistaken.
And if I want, I am able to bind you, who is [sic] being overthrown <read: thrown back> in the key.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png

[53] I will turn your dagger upwards with my right arm,
And I will quickly bind you in the lower lock.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png

[54] This is called the strong lower lock,
And it is a bind with a great risk of death
But this lock, truth to tell,
If not properly applied can be escaped from.

This is called the lower lock, also known as the “strong key”, and from this bind I can kill you, whether you are armoured or unarmoured, because from here I can strike you in all of your most vulnerable places. And no one can escape from this bind. And if you are put into it, as depicted in the drawing, there you will remain enduring much pain and suffering.

The lower key is brought under the strong name;
It is the bind of death by means of excessive distinction.
If any enters into this, he will hardly prevail to escape this.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-d.png
MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png

[55] This is how to do the counter to the Master's cover to the reverse strike,[11]
And with this bind I will make you drop to the ground on your knees.

This is the counter to the Third Daga Remedy Master, who covers the reverse attack.[12] I have made this bind against him. Whether he is armoured or unarmoured, this bind is strong and secure. And if I trap a man who is unarmoured in this way, I will ruin his hand and dislocate it. And the pain will be so great I will make him kneel at my feet. And should I wish to strike him, this I can also do.

[In the Getty, the Master's left foot is forward.]

I, the efficient counter of the master, during this wrestling
Finish whomever by means of the reverse palm of the hand;
And you will sink down on bended knee by means of this taking.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09a-e.png
MS Latin 11269 31v-c.png

Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png

[56] I am a Master who covers with both hands,
And I can hurt you from above or below.
If I give a turn to your shoulder without releasing your arm,
Then in this way I and my students will put you in great pain.

I am the Fourth [Dagger Remedy] Master, and I play from this grip. From covers like this my students will hurt many…

Using both hands, <I> the master now take hold of the associate.
From above and beneath, I am able to injure you with a weapon.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png

[57] My Master spoke truly and unerringly:
I can take your dagger, while you cannot escape.

…And if I turn to the right without releasing your arm, I will take your dagger and put you in great pain.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png

[58] I am well positioned to force you to the ground,
And if you don't end up with a broken head, you can count yourself lucky.

This is an upper bind that locks you up very well. I will take your dagger from you and throw you to the ground. And I can also dislocate your arm. If however you grip your right hand with your left hand, then you can counter me and make me let go of you.

[These two images may show the beginning and end of the technique.]

I am certainly prepared in order to cast you down into the earth.
And I will give many evils to your head, if it remains because of courage.
[13]

[In the Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, but inside (in front) of his opponent's leg.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-d.png

[59] This is another lock that will throw you to the ground,
And against such a hold no one is safe.

This is another upper bind that is very powerful. And with this I am certain to throw you to the ground. And if I wish I can dislocate your arm. To counter me, you grip your right hand with your left hand. Then your grip will be strong and mine will be weak.

[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]

This movement is another to strike down the associate to the earth.
Nevertheless, it is not safe because he attempts a similar playing.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png

[60] As I see this you will quickly go to the ground,
Of this I am certain, and you won't be getting back up.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png

[61] I can also throw you to the ground like this,
And once you are on the ground it will go badly for you.

After I made the cover of my Master, I put my left hand under your right elbow. And my right hand quickly gripped you under your knee in such a way that I could throw you to the ground, and there was no counter that you could do to me.

Certainly in this way I can send you a second time
To the ground. Hereafter, <I> myself will approve worse things to you.

Pisani-Dossi MS 09b-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png

[62] I will give a turn to your dagger,
And in that way it will be quickly taken from you.

With my right hand I will make a horizontal turn to your dagger, pushing it round close to your arm that I am holding. And your dagger will be mine to control. And then I will deal with you as you deserve.

In this way, <I> myself coil your dagger up using the whirlwind,
Because I would capture you, whether you would prevent or you would fight back.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png

[63] If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow,
You will feel it instantly taken from you.

If I raise your dagger upwards close to your elbow, I will keep it in my hand and strike you for certain. But I will need to make this play very quickly, to make sure that you cannot counter me with your left hand.

Now if I attempt to lift your elbow [and] very own dagger,
You yourself certainly will see it has been suddenly freed.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-b.png
Cod.1324 36r-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png

[64] I moved my right hand like this,
And I will make you strike yourself in your thigh with your own dagger.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png

[65] Against the Master who covers with both hands
I make this counter as my defense.
 

I am the Counter-remedy against the Fourth [Dagger] Remedy Master. And I counter all his plays that came before me. And with one quick wrench like this I will ruin this student’s hand and his master’s too. And if they are well armored the ruin of their hands will be all the more certain.

By this means I will now seek the opponent, using both palms[14]
In order to defend myself, just as the master does
Who seizes the companion with both hands during wrestling.

[The Paris resembles the Getty image.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-c.png

Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-e.png

[66] I want each of my students to know
That you cannot defend against the collar grab unless you move quickly.
And with the strike that I make against your elbow,
I will quickly feel your arm dislocate.

I am the Fifth Dagger Remedy Master who defends against the collar grab made by this player. Before he can strike me with his dagger I destroy his arm like this, because the grip he has on me is actually to my advantage. And I can do all of the covers, holds and binds of the other remedy masters and their students who came before me. And I say this from experience: all who study this art should be aware that you cannot successfully defend the collar grab unless you move quickly.

You would grasp my chest. Thus far you have not been able to wound me.
I will, nevertheless, dislocate this, your shoulder, during wrestling.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-f.png

[67] After striking against your elbow, I will continue on
To quickly seek to find your dagger.

This is another way to destroy the arm. And from this play I can move to other plays and holds…

I would now strike close by your elbow. You will then move past me,
And I, the strong one, will unexpectedly attempt your dagger.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-d.png

[68] I will get rid of your spear with my arms in this way,
Then I will turn and hit you,
And if I cannot do it this way
Then I will use the technique I described before.

…Also, if you are pinned by a spear then by making this strike against it you will either unpin yourself or break off the haft from the spearhead.

Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-c.png

[69] If I want to get this spear off me,
I had better hit it hard from above,
So that I will break the staff of your spear
And then I will want to come to the close.

This is another way to make you let go, and is also a better method of breaking off the head of a spear…

Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-a.png

[70] By striking to your wrist or to your elbow,
I will either dislocate it, or you will quickly let go.

…Also if I strike you hard in the wrist joint of the hand holding my collar, I am certain to dislocate it unless you let go.

I wish to tell you the counter. As the student strikes down with his arms to dislodge the player's hand, the player quickly withdraws his hand from the student’s collar, and he then quickly strikes the student in the chest with his dagger.

Either I will strike over the elbow, or near the fist,
And in this place I will dislocate the wretched one. Henceforth you will quit the entire chest.
[15]

Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-c.png

[71] I am confident and certain that you will go to the ground,
And I care little or nothing for your dagger.

This play will make you let go of me. And in addition, if I advance my right foot behind your left foot, you will be thrown to the ground without fail. And if this play is not enough, I will try others on your dagger, because my heart and my eyes are never focused anywhere other than upon taking away your dagger quickly and without delay.

I am able to safely believe that you will go into the ground now;
Neither will your dagger be able to accomplish harming me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-b.png

[72] I choose to try this method of throwing you to the ground,
And if this does not work I will try a different play.

I will throw you to the ground like this, before your dagger can get near me. And if your dagger comes down the center line to strike at me, I will release my grip and deal with your dagger, so that you will not be able to injure me in any way. Then with the remedy plays I will make you suffer.

I put to the test where I would at once lay you sharply on your back.[16]
If, perchance, I do not strew you, I will [scribal error] <actually try> something better.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-d.png

[73] You will find out that over my right shoulder
I will not fail to break your arm.

This player had me grabbed by the collar, but before he could strike me with his dagger I quickly seized his left hand with my hands and pulled his arm over my shoulder so as to dislocate it, and then I completely dislocated it. But this play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.

I will not have been cheated of breaking the left shoulder;[17]
I am holding that which is loaded[18] down on the right using the leg during wrestling.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-e.png

[74] By the way I seize you and hold you,
I will force you to the ground shoulders first.

In this way I will hurl you to the ground without fail. And I will surely take your dagger. And if you are armored that may help you, since I will be aiming to take your life with your own dagger. But even if we are armoured, this art will not fail me. And if you are unarmored and very quick, other plays can be made besides this one.

[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is inside (in front) of his opponent's left leg.]

I hold you using this form, and I will catch the lamenting one;
Now, with the leg, you will be strewn as deep into the earth as possible.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-f.png

[75] To take your dagger I make a cover like this,
And then with other plays I will make you suffer.

This cover is very good in armor or without armor. And against any strong man such a cover is good for covering an attack from below as well as from above. And from this play you can enter into a middle bind as shown in the third play of the First Dagger Remedy Master. And if the cover is made in response to an attack from below, the student will put the player into a lower lock also known as “the strong key”, as shown in the sixth play [38] of the Third [Dagger] Remedy Master who plays to the reverse hand attack.

Now I make this cover, for which reason <read: in order that> I would be able to take away the dagger,
Not to mention [that] I can strike you using many plays.

Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-a.png

[76] If I can turn this arm of yours,
Then I will force you into the lower lock.

If I can turn this arm I will be certain to put you into the lower lock also known as “the strong key”. I will however be able to do this more safely if I am armored. I could also do something else against you: if I grip your left hand firmly and seize you under your left knee with my right hand, then I will not lack the strength to put you to the ground.

If I can now twist your shoulder while fighting,
I will readily cause [that] you will be overwhelmed in the lower key.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-b.png

[77] Whether you try to strike at me from above or below,
You will lose your dagger from this crossing.

With arms crossed I await you without fear. And I don't care whether you come at me from above or below, because however you come at me, you will be bound. You will be locked either in the middle lock or the lower lock. And if I wished to make the plays of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master, I would cause you great harm with these plays. And I will have no difficulty in taking your dagger.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is forward.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-c.png

[78] By holding your arm with my two hands,
I will take away the dagger from you, as you deserve.

This grip is sufficient to prevent you being able to touch me with your dagger. And from here I can do the play that comes after me. And I could also certainly do other plays to you. I disregard the other plays for now, however, because this one is good for me and very fast.

Now because I am holding you using both hands during wrestling,
I certainly would take hold of [your] dagger just as if you had truly deserved.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-d.png

[79] The student who came before me did not make this play,
So I show how to take away the dagger in his place.

This is the play referred to by the student who came before me, and I take away this dagger as he indicated. And to disarm him I push his dagger downwards and to the right as written above. And then by making a turn with his dagger I will thrust the point into his chest without fail.

[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, and his opponent's right foot is forward.]

Now I teach taking the dagger away while wrestling the associate;
This first student does not know how to play.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-d.png

[80] So that this student cannot dislocate my arm, I pull it towards me and bend it. And the farther I pull it towards me and bend it, the better, because in this way I make the counter to the Remedy Master of the close play of the dagger.

[edit]   Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

MS Latin 11269 36v-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-e.png

[81] There is no man who knows more about dagger versus dagger than I.
Whether in armor or without, I will gravely injure you,
And when fighting at the barrier I truly love
To vanquish everyone with these close plays.

I am the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I tell you that this cover is good either in armor or without armor. And with this cover I can cover attacks from all directions and enter into all of the holds and binds, and strike to finish, as the students who follow me will show. And each of my students will make this cover, and then they will make the plays shown after, as they are qualified to do.

I do not recognize the man with whom I can’t play.
If we both lead while turning dagger in dagger,
Either I would be armed [with both], or by chance we would be without weapons,
And that movement is pleasing, provided that it would be a close play.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-e.png
MS Latin 11269 36v-a.png

[82] I made the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master who preceded me. And as soon as I have made this grip I will be able to strike you. And because I position my left hand in this way, I will not fail to take away your dagger. I can also put you in the middle bind, which is the third play [3] of the First Dagger Remedy Master. I could also make other plays against you, without abandoning my dagger.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-a.png

[83] From the cover of my Master which is so perfect,
I will strike you in the chest with a half turn of my dagger.

I have made this half turn from the cover of my Sixth Master and I have quickly positioned myself to strike you. And even if you were armored I would care little, for in that case I would thrust this dagger in your face. However, as you can see, in this case I have thrust it into your chest because you are not armored and you do not know the close range game.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-b.png

[84] With my Master’s cover and with a half turn to the outside,
I can still strike or bind you or take away your dagger.

I have not abandoned the cover of my Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master. I turn my left arm over your right. And moving my right foot at the same time as my left arm I turn myself to the outside. You are now partly bound, and you will have to admit that you will quickly lose your dagger. And I make this play so quickly that I have no concern or fear of your counter.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown, and both he and his opponent have their right feet forward.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-f.png

[85] From the cover my Master made
With this grip and cover I will give you grief.

Having made the cover of my Master, I made this grip. And I can strike you whether you are armored or unarmored. And I can also put you into the lower lock of the first scholar of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-f.png

[86] Without abandoning the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master, I make this turn [with my dagger]. Your right hand will lose the dagger, and seeing that you have been reversed, my dagger will quickly strike you, and your dagger will be lost to you. Also I can make a turn with my left arm and make you suffer in the lower lock.

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-a.png

[87] If you and I are both armored,
I will thrust the knife into your hand, as you can see.

Although I am placed after the counter-remedy to the Sixth Master, I should logically be placed before him, because I am a student of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and my play belongs to him. And this play makes more sense in armor than unarmored, because if he is armored I can strike him in the hand where he cannot fully protect himself; whereas if he is unarmored, I would aim to strike him in the face or in the chest, or in some other vulnerable place.

[This play has been moved to its proper location as given in Fiore's explanation.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-d.png

[88] With my left hand I will turn you and expose you
And with this counter, I will be able to strike you hard.

I make the counter-remedy of the Sixth King [Dagger Remedy Master], turning your body with an elbow push, and in this way I can strike you, because with this elbow push that I quickly do, I will be able to defend against many close plays. And this is a particularly good counter-remedy to the all of the holds of the close-range game.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-c.png

[89] With my left hand placed in my defense as shown,
I will quickly cause you harm with this counter.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-c.png

[edit]   Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-e.png

[90] If I am armored this is a good cover to choose,
And from here I can enter quickly into the middle bind,
And the fight will be over
For there is no good defense against it.

I am the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master and I play with arms crossed. And this cover is better made when armored than unarmored. The plays that I can do from this cover are the plays that came before me, especially the middle bind which is the third play of the first Dagger Remedy Master. Also I can turn you by pushing your right elbow with my left hand. And I can strike you quickly in the head or in the shoulder…

I, well-fortified, make this cover in arms,
And suddenly, I will enter[19] into the middle key, which ends all
Wars; neither is any strong against the conducting of war,
Nor is any opposition able to oppose me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-c.png

[91] In armour this is a very strong cover
Because from here you can bind either above or below;
One way you go to the lower bind,
The other way you go to the upper bind or the middle bind.

…And this cover is better for binding than any other cover, and is a very strong cover to make against the dagger.

[In the Paris, this Scholar wears a crown.]

That movement certainly prevails over the dagger while held in the cross[ing],
And on the other hand it can work above and beneath in armor.
This lower play openly goes to the outside
Bind. The middle [bind] lies below, or perhaps [the] highest.

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-f.png

[92] You will not be able to put me into the middle bind,
Whereas I am going to strike you as I turn you.

This is the counter remedy to the plays of the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master who came before me. With the push that I make to his right elbow, let me tell you that this counter-remedy is good against all close range plays of the dagger, the poleaxe, and the sword, whether in armor or unarmored. And once I have pushed his elbow I should quickly strike him in the shoulder.

[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is forward.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-f.png

[edit]   Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[93] 

I am the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I cross with my dagger. And this cover is good both armored or unarmored. And some of my plays are shown before me, and some are shown after me…

In this way, I carry my dagger while fighting during the cross[ing]. Any defense
Which the dagger offers does not oppose itself in the play,
But I will be strong to lay waste in playing using many moves.

Cod.1324 31v-c.png

[94] …In the play that is shown before me, three plays back [72], the Zugadore was struck in his hand with the point of his opponent's dagger. Similarly in this play I could strike downwards to his hand just as in the earlier play I struck upwards to his hand.

Also, I could seize his hand at the wrist with my left hand, and then strike him hard with my right hand, just as you will find demonstrated by the ninth student [108] of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master, who strikes the Zugadore in the chest. Also, I could do the last play that follows after [109] where I drop my own dagger and take his.

[95] I am the counter-remedy to the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master that preceded me, and to all of his students…

[This counter was moved before [97] and [98] because it is unclear how they relate to the Eight Master.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-b.png

[96] After this turn that I make you do
I will strike you and force you to the ground.

…If I extend my left hand to his elbow, I can push it so strongly that I can strike him obliquely. Also, as I make him turn I can throw my arm around his neck and hurt him in a variety of possible ways.

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-b.png

[97] This is a guard that is a strong cover in armor or unarmored. It is a good cover because from it you can quickly put your opponent into a lower lock or “strong key.” This is what is depicted by the sixth play [54] of the Third [Dagger Remedy] Master who defends against the reverse hand strike and who uses his left arm to bind the Zugadore’s right arm.

Cod.1324 29r-a.png

[98] This cover that I make like this with arms crossed is good in armor or unarmored. And my play puts the Zugadore into the lower lock, which is also called the “strong key,” which the scholar who preceded me told you about, namely the sixth play [54] of the Third Master who defends with his right hand against the reverse hand strike. And this play is made similarly to the play that immediately preceded me, but is begun in a slightly different way.

And our counter–remedy again is the elbow push.

[The Master in the right image is missing both garter and crown.]

[edit]   Images

Images

Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD) Complete translation
by Colin Hatcher

Draft Translation (from the Paris) Draft translation
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-d.png

[100] From this grip that I have I can do many plays.
Take away the dagger, break, strike or bind.
And the quickest is to take the dagger from your hand,
so as to avoid any risk of harm from the player.

I am the Ninth King [and Dagger Remedy Master] and I no longer have a dagger. And this grip that I make from the low attack is similar to the grip made by the Fourth King [and Dagger Remedy Master], only this one is made against the low attack instead of the high attack, and my plays are not the same as his. This grip is good whether in armor or unarmored, and from it you can make many good strong plays, as shown below. Whether in armor or unarmored there is no doubt of their effectiveness.

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-e.png

[101] If I rotate the dagger close to your elbow,
Your dagger will be mine for certain.

I have followed on from the presa of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master. Taking my right hand from the grip, I seize your dagger as shown and I rotate it upwards close to your elbow. And I will then thrust the point into your face for certain, or I will deal with you as the next student will demonstrate.

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-c.png

[102] The first student of this Master
Takes away the dagger and makes this play.

I complete the play of the student who came before me, and from his grip this is how he should finish his play. Other students will make different plays from his grip. Watch those who follow, and you will see their techniques.

The student will perhaps be able to make this play of that master [of yours],
And would have snatched the powerful dagger away.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a Master's crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-b.png

[103] I can dislocate your arm like this,
And I can also bind you in the lower bind.

My Master's grip has already been demonstrated. Here my right hand leaves his grip. And if I grip you under your elbow, I can dislocate your arm. And also from this grip I can put you into a bind, namely the “strong key” [lower bind], which is one the third King and [Dagger Remedy] Master showed in his plays In his sixth play [38] he shows you how this one is done.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]

I can truly dislocate your shoulder in this same way;
Furthermore, I can lead to using the lower key.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-a.png

[104] If I can give your arm a half turn,
You will quickly find yourself in the lower bind.

I have arrived at this position from the grip of my Master [Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], and I do not remain in this grip but move into the lower bind, also known as the “strong key.” This I can do without difficulty, and I can then easily take your dagger.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]

I prepare to take away your life using the
Lower bind, if by chance I can twist your shoulder.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-f.png

[105] Without releasing my grip I enter underneath your arm,
And from behind your shoulder I will hurt you grievously.

I have not abandoned the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], but I have quickly entered under his right arm, to dislocate it with this grip. I can do this whether he is wearing armor or not, and once I have him held from behind and in my power, I will show him no mercy as I hurt him.

Behold! I crossed beneath the shoulder during play,
And furthermore, I left behind the taking. But I will burden the back.

Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-d.png

[106] Although this play is not often employed,
It can be done well, if you practice it.

I did not abandon the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and the Zugadore saw that he could not break my grip on his arm. And as he pressed downwards towards the ground with his dagger, I quickly reached through his legs from behind and grabbed his right hand with my left hand. And once I had a good grip on his hand, I passed behind him. And as you can see in the picture, he cannot dismount his own arm without falling. And I can now also do the play that follows me. If I let go of the dagger with my right hand, and I grab his foot I will send him crashing to the ground, and I cannot fail to take his dagger.

It is granted that this play could scarcely be learned by this art,
Yet this one honestly succeeds by means of the practiced man.

Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-d.png

[107] The student who preceded me performed the first part of this play, and I make the finish by driving him into the ground, as has already been explained. Although this play is not commonly performed in the art, I wish to show you that I have a complete knowledge of it.

Cod.1324 31r-c.png

[108] I made the cover of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and then quickly I gripped him in this way with my left hand. And then I drew my dagger and thrust it into his chest. And if I do not have time to draw my dagger, I will make the play that follows me.

[109] With this play I complete the play of the student who preceded me, who left his [sheathed] dagger where it was and instead decided to take your live dagger. I have already explained how this play is performed.

[No Image]

[110] The Counter-remedy to this Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master's play is as follows: when the Zugadore with his left hand has seized your right hand that has the dagger, then you should quickly seize your dagger near the point and strongly draw or pull it back towards you so that he has to let go of it, or alternately press the dagger point into his elbow to make him think twice.

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-a.png

[1] I know how to cover cuts and thrusts with my dagger.
Come one by one, that this play will not fail.
And my Scholar will show the proof:
Doing it according to what you find depicted.

Here begin sword against dagger plays, and you will have a significant advantage if you know how to do these.[20] The Master waits in a guard named Boar’s Tusk, a guard that will protect me from both cuts and thrusts. As I beat back[21] my opponent’s sword, I pass backwards with my right foot, for I know the Narrow Play so well it cannot fail me. Attack me one by one as you wish. None of you will escape as I destroy each of you with this turn of my dagger.[22]

Here the sword and the dagger begin to play. The advantage is great to he who knows how to do it. The Master awaits in this guard with the dagger, and the guard is called Boar's Tusk. Come cuts or thrusts, I know how to guard myself from these: I will withdraw my right foot as I deflect. I understand the narrow play so well that I cannot possibly fail. Come one by one whoever wants to work against me, and if you don't flee from me, I will waste you in one turning.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-b.png

[2] The proof is found depicted here:
You see that I can strike you without difficulty.

I have made the cover against the thrust that my Master showed you, and now I quickly strike my opponent in the face or the chest. With dagger versus sword you should always aim to close with your opponent.[23] Here, since I am at close range I can strike you effectively, and like it or not, you will have to endure it.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is outside of (behind) his opponent's.]

This is made plain in the picture, constructed with great care, having been pointed out by a witness.
And henceforth you will see how I am able to subdue utterly with the dagger.

My Master makes this cover against the thrust and immediately strikes to the face or to the chest. And with dagger against sword, I always seek the narrow play. Here I am in the narrow and I can strike you well. Like it or not, you must suffer.

[In the Paris, this Scholar is the Master and his left foot is outside of (behind) his opponent's.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-c.png

[3] The sword has won against the dagger here,
Because I have turned you and pushed you.

If the attacker[24] in the previous picture had known how to defend himself, he would have reached across with his left hand and seized the opponent behind his left elbow, turning him in the manner shown here. Then he would have no need of a counter to the remedy of the dagger Master.[25]

Your dagger is not strong; I set your back in motion so that I have compelled [you] to turn
Around. You will not be able to reveal to me [your] sad face.

If the Player that came before me had known to do this defense, he would have put his left hand to the Scholar behind his elbow in this way, turning him in the way that is demonstrated here. Then I should have had no need to make the counter to the Master who is in guard with the dagger.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-d.png

[4] If someone would attack me with a sword to my head,
I would make this cover with a quick catch;
I would turn him with the left hand
And then I would strike with a dagger in his back.

If the dagger Master is attacked with a downward strike to the head, he passes forward immediately making the cover shown, turns his opponent by pushing his elbow, and then strikes him immediately. He can also bind the opponent’s sword with his arm, as shown in the fourth play of the sword in one hand.[26] You will also find this Middle Bind shown in the third play of the dagger,[27] which is made a hands-breadth from the face.[28]

And whoever would have struck the sword into me and under the crown of the head,
I will have made this covering, the elbow having been seized by the left [hand];
And using my own hand, the back of the one playing would be turned.
Thence the dagger would have struck, his kidneys having been penetrated.

If, to the Master that stands in guard with the dagger against the sword, someone comes attacking with a downward blow to his head, he steps forward and he makes this cover quickly, and from the turn [the Master] pushes his elbow and then he can immediately strike him. Also, he can bind the sword with his arm in the way that the fourth play of the sword in one hand is done, and you can also find the Middle Bind in the third play of the dagger (where the hold is a hand's width from the face).

Pisani-Dossi MS 35a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-a.png

[5] Because you have not struck me in the back,
I make this counter without trouble.

Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-b.png

[6] This match is one of dagger to sword:
The sword invites against the dagger that he holds,
And he will demonstrate through his Scholar
The way in which this play may be done.

This is one way to defeat[29] dagger against sword. The man with the dagger grabs the man with the sword by the collar[30] and warns: “I will strike you with my dagger before you can draw your sword from its scabbard.” The man with the sword says “Try and strike me then, for I am ready.” And as the man with the dagger attacks, the man with the sword responds in the manner shown in the next picture.

This is a match which is of the dagger against the sword. He who has a dagger and holds the swordsman by the chest says "I will strike with my dagger before you draw your sword from the scabbard." He of the sword says "Attack, for I am ready." And with that, the swordsman does that which is depicted hereafter.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

MS M.383 18v-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-c.png

[7] In this fashion the sword defends against the dagger:
I will strike you with the sword; the dagger can do nothing.

When the man with the dagger raises his arm to strike me, I immediately press the sheath of my sword against his dagger arm in such a way that his arm is jammed. I then quickly draw my sword, and I can strike him before he has a chance to even touch me with his dagger. I could also take the dagger from his hand using the method of the First Dagger Remedy Master,[31] or I could put him into the middle bind, using the third play of the First Dagger Remedy Master.[32]

When he lifts his arm to give it to me with the dagger, instantly I put my scabbard on his dagger arm in such a way that he cannot give me grief. And quickly I draw my sword, and I can strike before he can touch me with his dagger. Also, I can take the dagger from his hand in the same way as does the First Master of dagger. And again, I can bind him in the Middle Bind, which is the third play of the dagger (of the First Master who is Remedy).

MS M.383 17r-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-c.png

[8]
 

Here is another way for the sword to defeat the dagger. In this one I hold my sword with its point on the ground, as you see drawn here, and I say to the man with the dagger, who has grabbed me by the collar: “Go ahead and attack me with your dagger from this position. And when you try I will strike against your arm with my sword still in the scabbard, then I will draw my sword as I pass backwards with my right foot, and in this way I will be able to strike you with my sword before you are able to strike me with your dagger.[33]

That best moving of what will have been played, and [is] careful in the art.
I would neither cover nor likewise strike the point to that left unprotected.

Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-d.png

[9] This is another odd match:
The sword makes an invitation against the dagger.
The sword will make the play of the Scholar
And will demonstrate that the dagger can do nothing.

This is a similar defense to the one shown before, although it is done slightly differently. As the man with dagger raises his arm to strike, I quickly raise my sheathed sword up under his dagger, aiming the point of my sheathed sword into his face, while at the same time passing back with my lead foot.[34] From here I can strike him as you see drawn in the next picture.

[In the Getty, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 35b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-a.png

[10] I will strike the eye in your face with my scabbard
And I won't refrain from striking you with the sword.

This is the continuation of the play of the Master who made the preceding defense. And I am performing it exactly as he said to do it. And as you can plainly see, you will give me no trouble with your dagger.

Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-a.png

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[1] Here are three opponents who all want to kill this Master. The first aims to kill him with a thrust. The second intends a cut. The third will throw his sword at the master like a spear. If the Master can perform a mighty deed[35] and avoid being killed, then God will have indeed blessed him with great skill.[36]

We are three players that wish to strike this Master. One would strike with the point, another the edge, and another wants to throw his sword against the aforesaid Master, so that it will be a great feat indeed if this Master is not killed. May God make him suffer.

[2] Whether throwing the sword or striking cuts and thrusts,
Nothing will trouble me because of the guard that I hold.
Come one by one whoever wants to go against me
Because I want to contend with them all.
And whoever wants to see covers and strikes,
Taking the sword and binding without fail,
Watch what my Scholars know how to do:
If you don't find a counter, they have no equal.

You are cowards[37] and know little of this art. You are all words without any deeds. I challenge you to come at me one after another, if you dare, and even if there are a hundred of you, I will destroy all of you from this powerful guard. …

If a wild one throws a sword, or if
The other would prepare to cut to pieces, still that one would only favor me with the point;
This caution teaches, in order that I would not be ridiculed or alarmed.

You are wicked and of this art you know little; you do things that words cannot describe. Come one by one whoever knows what to do and is able, and even if you are a hundred I will waste all of you with this guard (which is so good and strong). …

Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-d.png

[3] With a step, I have made a cover with my sword
And it has quickly entered into your chest.

…I will advance my front foot a little off the line, and with my left foot I will step crosswise,[38] and as I do so I will cross your swords, beating them aside and leaving you unprotected. I will then strike you without fail. And even if you throw your spear or sword at me, I will beat them all aside in the same manner I described above, stepping[39] off the line as you will see me demonstrate in the plays that follow, and which you would do well to study. And even though I am only holding the sword in one hand, I can still perform all of my art, as you will see demonstrated in this book.

Taking a step, I cover my limb using my raging sword;
Thence I will penetrate your breast immediately with it.

…I advance my forward foot slightly out of the way, and with my left I step to the side. I cover myself during that step, beating your swords and finding you uncovered, and I will be certain to strike you. And whether lance or sword is thrown at me, I will beat them all just as I have said, stepping out of the way according to that which you see in my plays hereafter. Watch what I show to you, and with the sword in one hand I will make my art.

Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-d.png
MS M.383 19r-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-a.png

[4] In order to wound you again with this, my point,
I have added my left hand to the sword.

This is a play where if you wish to make this kind of thrust, you should be armoured. If your opponent strikes at you with a thrust or a cut, you first make your cover, and then quickly counter attack as shown.

[The Getty resembles the Pisani Dossi, including the lack of armor.]

In order to do it again, I will strike a bargain with you using my gloomy point;
Then the left hand retains that sword with strength.

This is a play in which he who wants to thrust the point wants to be armored. When someone strikes at you with the point, or with the edge, make the cover and immediately thrust this in the way that is depicted.

[The Paris resembles the Pisani Dossi, including the lack of armor.]

MS M.383 19r-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-b.png

[5] Here I have struck you in your head
From the cover that I have made so quickly.

Here I struck the forehead, causing a bloody wound,
Because in giving this [wound], I cover myself in rapid motion with a cover.

Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-a.png

[6] Again I have struck your head without stepping
Because of the good cover that I knew to make.

I have rendered you completely unprotected, and now I will easily strike you in the head. And if I choose to pass forward with my rear foot, I can perform close range techniques against you, such as locks, dislocations and grapples.

I have found you completely uncovered and I have struck you in the head for certain. And if I want to step forward with my rear foot, I can make many narrow plays against you (that is, the binds and breaks of grappling).

Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-d.png

[7] In this way, I uncover you to strike you with my point
To defend myself from you from each neglect and shame.

I have done what my teacher[40] told me to do. That is to say I stepped off the line making a strong cover. And having rendered my opponent unprotected I now easily place a thrust into his face. And with my left hand I will demonstrate that I can take his sword, and send it to the ground.

I uncover you in order to strike a bargain with the point extended. I will avenge after this;
The soul having been ground into small pieces, we will be perfected.
[41]

I have done that which the Master has said—that is, I stepped out of the way making a good cover. And I found the player uncovered such that I certainly want to thrust my point in his face. And I want to try this with my left hand, to see if I can make your sword hit the ground.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-c.png

[8] Because of the hand that I have put beneath your hilt,
If your sword doesn't hit the ground, call me feeble.
 

From this position I can easily strike or stab you. And if I advance my front foot forward, I can lock you in the middle bind, as shown in the third play of the first Remedy Master of the dagger.[42] Alternately I can do the play shown next, and strike and lock you as shown there.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's opponent has his right foot forward.]

You would mock me with your voice, and I shall call you blind;
If your sword, when I catch it by the hilt openly,
Will not fall to the ground, your weakness will remain henceforth.

Pisani-Dossi MS 13b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-c.png

[9] With my left arm, I have bound your right
And will you be presented with many strikes.

Here both your sword and your arm are effectively trapped, and you will not be able to escape before I strike you as described, because you have shown you know nothing of this play.

Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-b.png

[10] Because of the way in which I have caught your sword,
Quickly I will have your hand empty.

Here I can easily strike you while taking your sword, and by rotating it in your hand I will make you drop it as the only way to prevent yourself being thrown to the ground.

I decide to pluck the sword out of your slow hands;
This more-clever hand snatched that of yours in such a manner.
[43]

Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-b.png
MS Latin 11269 12r-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-d.png

[11] I will make you turn with the left hand
And in that, I want to give you a great blow.

Here I can strike you from the front, but this is not enough. By gripping your elbow I make you turn away, then I wrap[44] my sword around your neck from behind, and you will have no defense to this.

At any time, with the hand, I would have turned the elbow, turning my sword around.
I make you covered in blood. I cannot be deceived.

Pisani-Dossi MS 14a-d.png
MS Latin 11269 12r-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-a.png
MS Latin 11269 12r-b.png

[12] Because of the turn that I have given you by your elbow
I believe I have cut you across the throat.

In the previous drawing I told you I would turn you and then quickly wrap my sword around your neck, as shown here. And if now I fail to cut your throat, then I am a pathetic fool.

[The Getty resembles the Pisani Dossi.]

Now I consider cutting the middle of your neck using the sword;
Then, therefore, I am superior because I throw this forearm back.

Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-a.png
MS Latin 11269 12r-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-b.png

[13] This is a good break of the point on the ground
And in this fashion you will come to be in the narrow.

You aimed[45] a thrust at me and I beat it to the ground. Do you see how you are now unprotected and can be struck? And I can also turn you and do you even more harm, by striking you from behind.

Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-c.png

[14] I have sending you to the ground in my thoughts:
Again, you are uncovered so that I can strike you.

Because I turned you by pushing your elbow, I have quickly come to this position and from here I can throw you to the ground, where you will no longer be able to fight me or anyone else.

Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-d.png

[15] Either your sword is bent or it is broken
And I can strike you from above or from below with mine.

This opponent struck at my head, and I beat his sword to the ground, coming to the position you see depicted here. Now after forcing you to turn away I will aggressively[46] wrap my sword around your neck.

Pisani-Dossi MS 14b-d.png

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[1] We are two guards that are similar to each other, and yet each one is a counter to the other. And for all other guards in this art, guards that are similar are counters to each other, with the exception of the guards that stand ready to thrust—the Long Guard, the Short Guard and the Middle Iron Gate. For when it is thrust against thrust the weapon with the longer reach will strike first. And whatever one of these guards can do so can the other.

And from each guard you can make a “turn in place” or a half turn. A turn in place is when without actually stepping[47] you can play to the front and then to the rear on the same side. A half turn is when you make a step forwards or backwards and can switch sides to play on the other side from a forwards or backwards position. A full turn is when you circle one foot around the other, one remaining where it is while the other rotates around it.

Furthermore you should know that the sword can make the same three movements, namely stable turn, half turn and full turn.

Both of these guards drawn below are named the Guard of the Lady.

Also, there are four types of movement[48] in this art, namely passing forwards, returning,[49] advancing,[50] and withdrawing.[51]

[Text spans both images.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-a.png

[2] Six Masters we are, and we dispute one to another
Each does something that the others do not:
And every one of them holds his sword in guard;
We will explain and demonstrate that which they are.

For throwing I am well-prepared,
On a big step I will make a bargain.

We are six guards and each of us is different from the other, and I am the first to speak of my purpose. My method is to throw my sword. The other guards follow after me. I believe they will tell you themselves about their particular virtues.

Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-b.png

[3] Against the grip of hand and also the throw,
With this guard, I know well how to ward.

I am a good guard, in armor or without armor, and against a spear or a sword thrown from the hand, I am confident I will not be harmed, because I know how to beat them aside and thus evade them.

Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-c.png

[4] In order to strike farther and to step stronger
Against armor I want to stand in this way.

I am the guard to use if you want to extend a long thrust, because my grip on the sword increases its reach. I am good to use against you if you and I are armored, because I can make a quick thrust to the front which will not miss you.

Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-d.png

[5] Against dagger and against sword, armored
And unarmored, I want to be found in this way.

I am a good guard against sword, axe and dagger if I am armored, because I grip the sword with my left hand at the middle. And this is particularly useful against the dagger, which can do more harm to me at close range than the other weapons.

Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-e.png

[6] This grip is the noble Stance of the Queen:
She defends against cutting and thrusting in every way.

I am named the Guard or Post of the Lady, and[52] I am different from the four[53] sword guards[54] that came before me, even though they are themselves different from each other.[55] And although the next guard that opposes me seems to be my guard also, you will note that I am not using my sword reversed as a poleaxe, whereas that is how he is using his.[56]

Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-f.png

[7] This sword I use for a sword and an axe:[57]
With harness and without, whoever can take me, go ahead.

This sword is being used as both a sword and a poleaxe. And its great force can stop any attack from a lighter weapon. This guard is also the High Guard of the Lady, who with her skill can fool the other guards, because you will think she is going to attack you with a strike, but instead she will attack you with a thrust. All I have to do is raise my arms above my head, and I can then quickly launch a thrust at you.

Pisani-Dossi MS 17b-f.png

[8] Downward Blows

We are downward blows and we dispute
By cleaving the teeth with proper intention:
We have not delayed in wounding
And we return to guard from move to move.

We are the downward blows.[58] In this art our method is to cut with precision[59] from the teeth down to the knee. And we can easily end up in any of the low guards. We are highly effective[60] in breaking the other guards, and with each blow we leave a trail[61] of blood. We downward blows strike fast, and thereafter we return to our guard back the way we came.


Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-e.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-f.png

[9] Under Blows

We are the blows called Under,
Who always seek to strike the hands;
And we dispute from the knees up
And we teach a lesson by returning with downward blows.

We are the rising blows, and we go from the knee to the middle of the forehead, following the same path that the downward blows follow. And we return[62] down the same path as we ascend, unless we choose to remain high in the Long Guard.


Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-f.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-a.png

[10] Middle Blows

We middle blows go thwarting;
From the knee and above we go wounding;
And we beat the thrusts out of the way
And, redoubling the blow, striking is our deal;
And if we of the middle blow enter cleaving,
We waste many people with such blows.

We are the middle blows, and we are so-called because we go crosswise through the middle of the path of both the downward blows and the rising blows. And we strike with the true edge of the sword from the right, and with the false edge of the sword from the left. And our path could be anywhere between the knee and the head.


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[11] The Thrusts

Thrusts we are, of greatest offense
And we make our dispute to all strikes;
Venomous we are, more than a serpent,
And we kill more people than any strike;
And our thrusts to the blows do say:
So little do you cut that we sew like a needle.

We are the cruel and deadly thrusts. Our target is the body’s center line, and we can strike anywhere between the groin and the forehead. And we thrusts can be made in five ways: two of us can be made from high guards, one from each side, and two can be made from low guards, also one from each side. The fifth one comes from a center line guard, and can be made from Middle Iron Gate, the Short Guard, or the Long Guard.


Pisani-Dossi MS 13a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-a.png

[12] The Iron Gate (Powerful)[63]

We are called stances and guards by name,
And we are each one similar and contrary to another;
And following the way we stand and are positioned,
We will demonstrate how to make one against another.

The Full Iron Gate, I am low to the ground
So that I always restrain cuts and thrusts.

Here begin the guards of the two handed sword, of which there are twelve. The first is the low[64] Iron Gate, which is a very strong guard, and a good guard in which to wait for an attack by every kind of hand-held weapon, whatever its length,[65] as long as you have a good sword that is not too long. And from this guard if you make cover with a passing step you move to the Narrow Game.[66] Or you can exchange thrusts, striking home with yours.[67] Or, as you step, you can beat the opponent’s thrust to the ground.[68] And this guard can cover attacks from all angles.


Each one <read: us> calls the position by name, and the deceptive guard.
The second is similar to another, and indeed to the counter.
And just as this has been placed, so we understand similar action.

I am called the Iron Gate, equal to the earth from all;
I always prepare something again, chop and strike with the point.

Here commence the guards of the sword in two hands, and there are 12 guards, and the first is the Full Iron Gate which stands in great strength and is good for awaiting all hand-held weapons, both extended and withdrawn, as long as she has good sword (not one of too much length). She steps with a cover and goes to the narrow, she exchanges thrusts and she delivers her own; she also beats thrusts to the ground and always goes with steps, and against all blows she makes a cover. And whoever joins a brawl with her will make great defense without fatigue.



[[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-a|p=1}}


[[File:MS Latin 11269 12v-a|p=1}}

[14] The Stance of the Queen on the Right (Powerful)

I am the Stance of the Queen, noble and proud
For making defense in every manner;
And whoever wants to contend against me
Will want to find a longer sword than mine.

This is the Guard of the Lady,[69] from which you can make all seven of the sword’s strikes and cover them too. And from this guard you can break the other guards with the strong blows you can make, and you can also quickly exchange thrusts. Advance your front foot offline, and then pass diagonally with your rear foot. This will take you to a position where your opponent is unprotected, and you will then be able to quickly strike him.[70]


Brave, elevated, I am the Lady’s Position, high,
And in any quarter by this manner I defend limbs with fury.

This is the Stance of the Queen,[71] which can make all seven blows of the sword and can also cover all blows. She breaks the other guards through the great blows that she makes, and she is always ready for the exchange of thrusts: the foot which is in front advances out of the way and the one behind steps to the side. And her companion is made uncovered, and that one can immediately strike him for certain.


Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-c.png

[15] The Stance of the Window (Fluid)

I am the royal Stance of the True Window
And I am always ready for the whole art.

This is the Window Guard who is always quick, skillful[72] and deceptive. She is a master at covering and striking. She threatens all opposing guards, whether high guards or low guards. She moves quickly from this guard to other guards to confuse her opponent. And she is a very good guard from which to make powerful thrusts, break the opponent’s thrust or exchange points.


I am this the regal Position, certainly, of the True Window,
And fleeting,[73] I always disclose in accordance with my clear art.

This is the Stance of the Casement Window on the right, which is always ready with malice and trickery, and she is the Master of covering and of striking and with all the guards she makes her disputes (with the high and with the low). She often goes from one guard to another in order to fool her companion, and she throws great thrusts, and knows how to break and to exchange them—those plays she can make very well.



Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-c.png


Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-d.png

[16] The Middle Iron Gate (Stable)

The Middle Iron Gate, I am strongest
For giving death with thrusts and downward blows:
And by extending my sword, I feel that
From the narrow play I always defend myself.

This is Half Iron Door, because it stays in the middle and is a strong guard. But, she wants a long sword. She throws strong thrusts and beats with force the swords upwards, and returns with a downward blow for the head or arms, and returns to its guard. But it is called Door, because it is strong and it is a strong guard that badly it can break without danger, and without coming to the close.


I am the strong Iron, and named[74] Door[75] in the Middle,
And I give heavy blows, and I seek death with the point.

This is the Middle Iron Gate because she stands in the middle, and she is a strong guard but she doesn't want her sword extended. She throws strong thrusts and beats swords upward with strength, and returns with a downward blow through the head or through the arms and then simply returns to her guard. But she is well-named "gate" because she is strong; she is a strong guard that cannot be broken easily without danger and coming to the narrow.

Pisani-Dossi MS 18a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-a.png

[17] The Extended Stance (Fluid)

I am the Extended Stance with my short sword
And I often strike the throat with cunning.

This guard is the Long Guard, which is full of deception. She is skilled in probing[76] the guards to see if she can deceive her opponent. If she needs to strike the opponent with a thrust, she is well-suited to do it. As for the opponent’s blows, she knows how to avoid them and then strike back with blows of her own. This guard employs deception more than any other guard.


I remain the short sword, but, however, in this Position I am called
Long, very often cutting the neck using this clever device.

This is the Extended Stance which is full of deceit; she probes the other guards to see if she can deceive a companion. If she can strike with a thrust, she knows how to do it well; she voids the blows and she can wound when she is able. More than any other guard, her tactic is deception.



Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-a.png


Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-b.png

[18] The Headband Stance called the Crown (Fluid)

The Headband Stance, I am called the Crown;
I will pardon no one, not from the edge nor from the point.

This is the Forehead Guard,[77] called by some instructors[78] the Crown Guard. She is a very good guard for crossing swords,[79] and is also very good against thrusts. If she is attacked with a high thrust, she crosses swords while stepping off line . If she is attacked with a low thrust, she also steps offline, but this time she drives the opponent’s sword to the ground . She can also do other things. For example, in response to a thrust she can pass backwards with the front foot and respond with a downward strike to the head or arms, ending in the Boar’s Tusk, then she can quickly throw a thrust or two with advancing steps, then deliver a downward strike, ending in that same guard.


I am called the famous Crown, the Frontlet Position itself.
I don’t spare each one,[80] destroying with cuts and the point.

This is the Headband Stance, and some Masters call her the Stance of the Crown. She is good at crossing, and she is also good against thrusts because if a point comes attacking upwards, she crosses, stepping out of the way. And she also steps out of the way if a point comes attacking low, beating the thrust to the ground. Again, she can do it differently, such that in the attack of a thrust she returns her foot behind and comes with a downward blow through the head and through the arms and goes to the Boar's Tusk, and then suddenly throws a thrust or two with an advance of her foot and returns with a downward blow from her own guard.



Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-b.png


Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-c.png

[19] [The Stance of the Queen on the Right]

Again, I am the Stance of the Queen against the Boar's Tusk;
With malice and trickery, I will give of [my sword] in a brawl.


I am the Boar’s Tooth Position placed opposite the Lady’s,[81]
Bearing wily[82] hindrance to many chest[s].
[83]

This is the Stance of the Queen, which can make all seven blows of the sword and can also cover all blows. She breaks the other guards through the great blows that she makes, and she is always ready for the exchange of thrusts: the foot which is in front advances out of the way and the one behind steps to the side. And her companion is made uncovered, and that one can immediately strike him for certain.



Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-c.png


Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-d.png

[20] The Wild Boar's Tusk (Stable)

I am the strong Stance of the Boar's Tusk.My tactic against all the guards is to probe.

This is the Boar’s Tusk,[84] because it strikes the way the wild boar strikes.[85] Sometimes it makes powerful thrusts from below up into the face, without stepping forward, and it returns along the same path with a downward strike to the arms. Other times as it thrusts the point of the sword high into the face, it advances the front foot forwards, then returns to its guard with a downward strike to the head or the arms. Then it quickly launches another thrust with another advance of the front foot. And this guard can mount a good defense against the Narrow Game.


I am the Position of the Wild Boar, brave and immoderate of strength,
Well-proved to extend with all precautions.

This is the Wild Boar's Tusk since the tusk of a wild boar has a similar method of striking. She attacks with great underhand thrusts ending in the face and doesn't move a step, and then returns with a downward blow down to the arms. And sometimes she throws her point to the face and goes with the point high, and in that throw of the point she suddenly advances the foot which is in front and returns to her guard, and immediately throws another thrust with an advance of the foot, and thus defends well against the narrow play.


Pisani-Dossi MS 18b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 19a-a.png

[21] The Shortened Stance (Stable)

I am the Shortened Stance and I hold my sword long;
Often I thrust the point and then return with cunning.

This is the Short Guard that is more effective with a longer sword. It is a deceptive guard but it is risky to wait in. It is constantly moving, trying to see if it can enter with a thrust and a step against the opponent. And this guard is more effective in armor than without armor.


I am this, the Shorter Position, and I go back over the long sword.
I often threaten with the point; nevertheless, thenceforth I return thither.

This is the Shortened Stance, which wants a long sword, and she is a malicious guard which doesn't have stability. Also, she always moves and watches to see if she can enter with her point and with a step against her companion, and more appropriate is this guard in armor than without armor.


Pisani-Dossi MS 19a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 19a-b.png

[22] The Stance of the Queen on the Left (Powerful)

I am the left Stance of the True Window;I am just as swift in this one as from the right.

This is the Guard of the Lady on the left, and she is always quick to cover or strike. She generates powerful blows and easily breaks the thrust, driving it to the ground. Also, because of her skill in traversing, she can quickly enter into the Narrow Game, a game she is very familiar with.


I[86] am called the On the Left Position itself, and Of the True Window.
Thus, I am certainly fast on the right, just as this way on the left.

This is the Stance of the Queen on the left, and she is always ready to cover and to strike. She makes great blows and breaks the thrusts, beating them to the ground, and she enters into the narrow play by knowing how to thwart. Such a guard knows how to make these plays well.




Pisani-Dossi MS 19a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 19a-c.png

[23] The Stance of the Long Tail (Stable)

Stance of the Long Tail, I am extended to the ground
Forward and backward, I always make offense:
And if I step forward and enter with a downward blow,
I come to the narrow play without fail.

This is the Long Tail Guard Guard that extends behind you down to the ground. She can attack with a thrust, and can also move forwards to cover and strike. And if she passes forward while striking downwards she can easily enter the Narrow Game. This is a good guard to wait in, because you can quickly transition from it into other guards.


Behold! I am dragged forward into the ground, the Long Tail Position. And before
And after I very often drive, piercing blows to blows.

This is the Stance of the Long Tail which is extended toward the ground. She can thrust the point behind and she can cover and strike in front, and if she steps forward and attacks with a downward blow, into the narrow play she enters without failure. And such a guard is good for waiting, because from her someone can enter into the others quickly.




Pisani-Dossi MS 19a-c.png
MS Latin 11269 13v-d.png

[24] The Two-Horned Stance (Fluid)

I make myself called the Stance of the Anvil
If I have enough deceit, I will not challenge it.

This is the Two Horned Guard, which is held so strongly locked in position that its point cannot be moved off the center line. And this guard can do all of the things that the Long Guard can do. And the same is true of the Window Guard and the Forehead Guard.

[In the Novati, the left hand is not reversed; this may be due to an error on the part of the artist hired to clean up the Pisani Dossi manuscript images before publication.]


I am surely called by all the actual Two-Horned[87] Position.
Don’t even ask how deceptive, how clever I would be according to you.

This is the Stance of the Two-Horned Anvil, which is so strongly enclosed that she always remains with her point toward the middle of the way. And she can do that which the Extended Stance can do, and this can similarly be said of the Stance of the Window and the Headband Stance.


Pisani-Dossi MS 19a-d.png
MS Latin 11269 13v-d.png

[25] The Stance of the Boar's Tusk in the Middle (Stable)

This is the Middle Boar’s Tusk, so named because the boar has two tusks, one low and this one in the middle, by which I mean this one stays on the center line. And the Middle Boar’s Tusk can do whatever the Low Boar’s Tusk can do. Just as the wild boar strikes diagonally with its tusks, so you strike diagonally with your sword, in such a way as to displace[88] your opponent’s sword, from which position, having uncovered your opponent, you can launch thrusts, or destroy his hands, head or his arms.

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[No Image]

[26] I am the sword, deadly against all weapons. Neither spear, nor poleaxe, nor dagger can prevail against me. I can be used at long range or close range, or I can be held in the half sword grip and move to the Narrow Game. I can be used to take away the opponent’s sword, or move to grapple. My skill lies in breaking and binding. I am also skilled in covering and striking, with which I seek always to finish the fight. I will crush anyone who opposes me.[89] I am of royal blood. I dispense justice, advance the cause of good and destroy evil. To those who learn my crossings I will grant great fame and renown in the art of armed fighting.

[27] By crossing with you at the tip of the sword
I have settled my point in your chest from the other side.

Here begins the Wide Play of the sword in two hands.[90]

This Master who is crossed at the point of his sword with this player says: “When I am crossed at the points, I quickly switch my sword to the other side, and strike him from that side with a downward blow to his head or his arms. Alternately, I can place a thrust into his face, as the next picture will show.”

[In the Pisani Dossi, the player is wearing a crown.]

I hold the sword constricted in the cross[ing] with the point.
Of the others I am first; I burden the chest with the point.

Here begins the wide play of the sword in two hands with a little crossing; the honor will be to whoever will know to make it.

This Master who is here crossed with this player says "When I am crossed at the tip of the sword, I quickly give a turn to my sword and thus I strike with a downward blow from the other side (that is, through the head and through the arms), or I thrust the point into his face as you see hereafter in my depiction."

[In the Paris, both Masters have their right feet forward. In the Morgan, the player is wearing a garter and crown.]


[[File:MS M.383 13v-t|lbl=13v|p=1}}

Pisani-Dossi MS 19b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 19b-b.png

[28] With the strike of which the Master spoke who came before,
I have quickly put the point of my sword in your throat.

I have placed a thrust into his face, as the previous Master said. Also, I could have done what he told you, that is, when my sword was crossed on the right I could have quickly switched sides to the left, striking his head or arms with a downward blow.”[91]

Now hear my discussion of the earlier master:
The impatient point of the sword approaches the juicy throat.

I have set my point in his face as said my Master who came before. Also, I could have made the [other] play that he said—that is, to have attacked with my sword immediately when I was beside the crossing of the right side: from the other side (that is, from the left) I should have immediately turned my sword into a downward blow to the head and to the arms, as has said my Master that came before.

Pisani-Dossi MS 19b-b.png

[29] By crossing at mid-sword, I will strike your left arm;
I will do this quickly because the time is short.
 

I too am crossed in the Wide Play, but this time at the middle of the swords. And immediately after making my cross I let my sword drop down[92] to slide forwards and backwards over his hands. Or, if I choose to pass forward with my right foot and move offline, I can then make a thrust into your chest, as you will see drawn next.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the player is wearing a crown.]

I, the clever one, holding the sword now in the middle, with the sword
As if in a cross, would certainly beat your left[93] shoulder
So much this time, however greatly briefness would be recommended.

Again I am crossed here for the long play, at mid-sword. And immediately when I am crossed, I allow my sword to run off over his hands, and if I want to step out of the way with my right foot, I can thrust my point into his chest as is depicted hereafter.

[In the Morgan, the player is wearing a garter and crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 19b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 19b-d.png

[30] From the Master who crosses at mid-sword,
I do that which he said well.

Here you see me completing the play of my teacher. I have made his cover, and then immediately I do what he said to do, that is I strike first to my opponent’s arms, and then I continue with a thrust into his chest.

I strike a bargain with you just as that earlier master before said.
He who holds back the sword in the cross[ing], he would be able to deceive.

The play of my Master I have completed, in that I have made his cover and I have quickly executed his saying: I have struck first his arms, and then I have placed my point in his chest.

Pisani-Dossi MS 19b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-a.png

[31] Also from this same crossing
I have grasped your sword in this way:
And before your sword escapes my hand,
By striking I will deal with you like a foul villain.

My master previously[94] instructed me that when I am crossed at mid-swords with my opponent, I should immediately advance forward and seize his sword as shown, and then strike him with a cut or a thrust.[95] Also I could destroy his leg as you see drawn next, by stomping with my foot against the side of his knee or under the kneecap.[96]

My Master who came before has taught me that when I am crossed at the mid-sword, I should immediately advance forward and grab his sword (as in this match) in order to strike him with edge or point. Also, I can waste his leg in the way that you will be able to see depicted hereafter by striking with my foot over the back of his leg or under his knee.

Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-b.png

[32] There is no question of the saying of the earlier Master,
And I make with intent the play that he has said.

As the previous student told you, our Master taught us this technique.[97] Here I show you how it’s done, and as you can see my opponent can do nothing to stop me.


The Scholar who came before me says of his Master and mine that he has taught this play, and I do it to crumple [my opponent]. Without a doubt, to do it is little trouble to me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-c.png

[33] I have uncovered you well by stepping out of the way
And I will surely strike your arm while turning.

This play is named “The Peasant’s Strike”[98] and you do it like this: take a narrow stance[99] with your left foot forward, and wait for the Peasant to attack first with his sword. When he launches his attack, immediately advance your left foot to the left off the line,[100] and step diagonally off line to the left with your right foot, receiving his strike in the middle of your sword. Now let his sword slide off yours to the ground, and then quickly counter-attack with a downward strike to his head or arms, or a thrust into his chest as you see drawn in the next picture. This is also a good play if you are fighting sword versus poleaxe, or against a heavy or light staff.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]


This play is called the Villain's Strike, and is made in this way: that is, that one should await the villain in this way until he strikes with his sword. And he who awaits the blow should stand in a small stance with the left foot forward. And in that moment when the villain attacks to harm you, advance your left foot out of the way against the right side.[101] And with your right foot step out of the way to the side, catching his blow at the mid-sword and allowing his sword to run off toward the ground, and then quickly respond with a downward blow (through the head or through the arms) or with your point in the chest as depicted here, this is also good.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-d.png

[34] The strike to your arms, that play I make,
And from the narrow play I will cause you other trouble.

In the previous drawing you saw the Peasant’s Strike, in which you saw a thrust well-placed into the attacker’s chest. And alternatively he could have struck a downward blow to the opponent’s head or the arms, as I explained previously. Also, if the opponent seeks to counter me by striking back up with a rising blow to my arms from the left, I quickly advance my left foot and place my sword over his, and from this position he can do nothing to me.


This is the Villain's Strike which appeared here before me, so that I have put my point into his chest well. And so I could [also] have made a cut through the head and through the arms with a downward blow as was said before. Also, if the player wanted to come against me such that he would strike me with a backhand blow under my arms, I would immediately advance my left foot and thrust my sword over his, and then he cannot do anything to me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 20a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-a.png

[35] When a sword flies for your leg
Make a downward blow to his face or around to his throat:
His arms will be wasted more quickly than his head,
Because the distance is manifest for a shorter time.

If your opponent strikes to your leg, withdraw your front foot, or pass backwards and strike downwards to his head, as shown in the drawing. With a two handed sword it is unwise to strike to the knee or below, because it is too dangerous for the one striking. If you attack your opponent’s leg, you leave yourself completely uncovered. Now, if you have fallen to the ground, then it is all right to strike at your opponent’s legs, but otherwise it is not a good idea, as you should generally oppose his sword with your sword.

When one strikes for your leg, withdraw the foot which is forward or return it behind, and throw a downward blow to his head as depicted here. Note that the sword in two hands should not attack from the knee down, because the danger to he that attacks is too great. He that attacks for the leg remains wholly uncovered, unless he would drop to the ground—then he could strike the leg well, but otherwise [he could] not when fighting sword to sword.

Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-b.png

[36] When I am crossed with someone and come to the narrow,
I strike his testicles with my right foot.

This play, where I strike you with a kick to the groin, is made to hurt you so much that your cover will falter. When you make this play you should do it quickly, to prevent your opponent from being able to counter it.

The counter to this play must be done quickly, and is made by the player grabbing the student’s right leg with his left hand, and then throwing him to the ground.


In this match I strike you with my foot in your testicles, and I do it to give you pain and to make your cover waver. Thus, in making this play I want to do it suddenly so that the counter is doubtful.

The counter of this play wants to be made quickly, such that the player should catch the Scholar by the right leg with his left hand, and then he can throw him to the ground.

Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-c.png

[37] This is a cruel exchange of thrusts:
In the art, a more deceptive thrust than this cannot be made.
You attacked me with the point and I have given you this;
And I can make more secure it by voiding out of the way.

This play is named “The Exchange of Points”,[102] and it is done like this: when your opponent thrusts at you, quickly advance your front foot off the line, and with the other foot step to the side,[103] also moving off the line, crossing his sword with your hands[104] low and with your point high into his face, or chest, as you see drawn here.

If, suddenly, we turn our sword by means of the play,
Thus we have the strength to injure the head using the palm during the play.

This play, which is called the Exchange of Thrusts, is made in this way: that is, that when he attacks with the point, quickly advance your forward foot out of the way and with your other foot step to the side (also out of the way), crossing his sword with your arms low and with the point of your sword up in his face or in his chest, as is depicted here.

Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-d.png

[38] Because of your hilt, which I hold in my hand,
I will make you bleed with my point in your face.

This play comes from the exchange of points that came before me. If you make the thrust, and your opponent fails to immediately position his point either into your face or into your chest, perhaps because you are in armor, then you should quickly pass forward with your left foot, and seize his sword as shown here. Then strike him hard with your sword, since you have his sword gripped and he cannot escape.

Although you hold me with hands, anything is overthrown. I would
Strike you in this way, [your] dripping[105] face having been split with the point.

From this exchange of thrusts that came before me comes this play. Given that the Scholar who came before me did not immediately thrust his point into the face of the player, or that he failed such that he could not thrust into [the player's] face nor into his chest, or that the player was armored, then immediately the Scholar should step with his left foot forward, and he should grab [the player] in this manner, and his sword should throw a good strike because the player has his sword caught and he cannot flee.

Pisani-Dossi MS 20b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 21a-b.png

[39] Here we stand crossed near the ground:
And more knowledge of plays will be given.

This is another defense you can make against the thrust. When someone thrusts at you as described in the “Exchange of Thrusts”,[106] two plays before me, then you must advance and step off the line. You should do the same thing in this play, except that in the “Exchange of Points” you thrust back with your hands low and your point high, as I explained earlier. But in this play, which is named “Breaking the Thrust”,[107] you proceed with your hands high and as you advances and step off the line you strike downwards, crossing the opponent’s thrust at mid-sword, and driving it to the ground. Then you quickly close to grapple.[108]

We remain in the form of the cross now in this playing.
The knowledgeable one will always have more conquering plays.

[The Paris resembles the Pisani Dossi image.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 21a-b.png

[40] I beat your point to the ground very quickly
And in this way, I strike you without a doubt.

The student who preceded me beat his opponent’s sword to the ground. Now I am going to complete his play, as follows: after I beat my opponent’s sword to the ground I stomp on it with my right foot.[109] This will either break it or prevent him from being able to lift it. But wait—there’s more. As soon as I have pinned his sword to the ground with my foot, I strike him with the false edge of my sword under his beard or into his neck. And then immediately I will return with a downward strike of my sword to his arms or his hands, as you see drawn here.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Scholar stomps with his left foot and his opponent's right foot is forward; the Scholar's opponent is also left-handed.]

Now your wicked hand would suddenly drag the point through the
Earth. Henceforth, I would strike you immediately with a high wound.

Pisani-Dossi MS 21a-a.png

[41] From the crossing at the ground which the Scholar makes
I come to cut your face because of my swiftness;
And your sword will end up bent or broken
And it will no more be able to work or deal.

Here is another drawing of the “Breaking the Thrust” play, that you saw first two drawings previously. After I have beaten his sword to the ground I quickly pin it to the ground with my right foot, and then strike him in the head, as you see shown here.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Scholar stomps with his left foot and his opponent's right foot is forward.]

So, of course, quickly I would tear open your face by means of this action.
The student teaches [that] by means of this cross[ing], the leading sword [was] covered
By the ground. But your sword will depart either bent
Or broken, and never will you be able to wield that sword <by laboring>.

Pisani-Dossi MS 21a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 21a-d.png

[42] From the play that came before, I enter into this one:
I make it quickly and cut your face.

This is another play that flows from the “Breaking of the Thrust” play. After I break his thrust, if he raises his sword to cover as I strike upwards, I quickly drop the hilt of my sword inside his right arm, near his right hand, then I grab my blade near the point with my left hand, and then strike him in his face.[110] Or alternatively, if I chose, I could drive my sword edge into his neck, slicing him across his throat.

Pisani-Dossi MS 21a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-a.png

[43] I will make you turn by pinching your elbow
And with that, I will strike you without any delay.

Also, after I have beaten aside or crossed my opponent’s sword, I can press my left hand to his right elbow and push strongly. This will turn him and leave him unprotected, after which I can strike him.

Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-b.png

[44] Because of the turn that I have given you by the elbow
I have quickly struck your head from behind.

The student who preceded me spoke truly when he told you that he could turn the opponent and cut to his head. In addition, before you could turn back to make cover I would give you a major wound in your back with the point of my sword.

Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-b.png
MS Latin 11269 28v-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-c.png

[45] I appear to come from the right, but I enter on the left
To give you this thrust with great pain and harm;
I make myself called Deceitful Thrust by name;
And I am so cruel as I exchange the point of the sword.

This play is named “The False Point” or “The Short Point”,[111] and I will explain how to do it. I make it look like I am making a powerful attack against my opponent with a crosswise strike to his head. As he makes cover I strike his sword but only lightly. Then I quickly turn my sword to the other side of his blade, gripping my sword with my left hand at about mid-sword. From there I can quickly make a thrust into his throat or chest. This play is however better in armor than without armor.

[The Getty resembles the Pisani Dossi image.]

I steal in on [you] in the sly part from the honest part;[112]
Therefore, you will quit this sorrowful life by means of the point.

Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-c.png
MS Latin 11269 28v-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-d.png

[46] To the Deceitful Thrust that you wanted to strike at me,
I have struck the counter by turning myself and my sword
Such that I have positioned my point in your face,
In this way I have removed all of your plays.

This play is the counter to the previous play, the False Point or the Short Point. And this counter is made like as follows: when the student strikes my sword lightly and then turns his sword around to the other side, I turn my sword around his in exactly the same way, stepping sideways to the left as I do so to gain his unprotected side. From here I can make a thrust into his face. And this counter is good both with or without armor.

Pisani-Dossi MS 21b-d.png
[No Image]

[47] Here ends the Wide Play of the sword in two hands, made up of plays that are all connected to each other, including remedies and counters from both the right and left sides, and counter-thrusts and counter-cuts to each situation, with breaks, covers, strikes and locks, all things that can be easily understood.

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[No Image]

[48] Here we begin the Narrow Play of the two handed sword, in which you will see all manner of covers, strikes, locks, dislocations, sword disarms and throws to the ground. There will also be the remedies and the counters needed for each situation, whether you are attacking or defending.

Here begins the play of the sword in two hands, the narrow play, the method of breaking all thrusts and cuts, in the which will be every method of covering, striking, and binding, and dislocations, and grapples, and takings of the sword, and beating to the ground in diverse ways. And there will be remedies and counters of every category that should offend or defend.

[49] Because of the way that we stand here crossed,
The play is given to whoever knows more and is swifter:
But since many plays are made from such a crossing,
We will only be making the strongest counters.

We stand with crossed swords, and from this crossing either one of us can make all of the plays that follow. And as I told you earlier, these plays will follow one after the other.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Scholar is wearing a crown.]

We stand here crossed and from this crossing that we make, all the plays that follow us can be made, and by one of us as easily as the other. And all of these plays will follow, one after the other, as was previously said.

[In the Morgan, the Scholar is wearing a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 22a-a.png
MS Latin 11269 26r-c.png

[50] Because of your hilt which I hold in my hand,
I will strike you and your sword will be forfeit to me.
 

Using the crossing my Master made with his right foot forward, I now complete the first play as follows: I pass forward with my left foot, and I reach over my right arm with my left hand, seizing his sword-grip in the middle, between his hands. And from here I can strike him with either my edge or my point. This grip can be made when fighting with the two-handed sword or the one-handed sword. And I can make this grip by reaching either under or over the crossed swords.

I would strike, and I will hold your sword; restrained by no
Pledge, you conduct yourself so disgracefully
By laws holding me, [which] pierced, you will now die.

From the crossing that the Master has made with his right foot forward, I complete the first play—that is, I step with my left foot and I pass my left hand over my [right] arm and grasp the hilt of his sword in between his hands (in the middle of the hilt), and then I could strike with edge and point. And this catch can be made as easily with the sword in one hand as with the sword in two hands, and this catch can be made as easily crossing under the hands as over.

[In the Paris, the Scholar's sword is in front of his arm.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 22a-b.png
MS Latin 11269 26r-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 22a-c.png

[51] Because my sword has received a blow
And because of this catch, my pommel strikes you in the face.

This is another play that flows from the crossing of my Master. And from that crossing I can make this play and all of the others that follow. In this play I grip my opponent at the elbow as shown, and then strike him in the face with the pommel of my sword. After that I can also strike him in the head with a downward strike before he has a chance to make cover against me.

I strike to your face using this hilt, obviously ferocious.
This because you had knocked the sword using the deepest touch.

This is another play that comes from the crossing of my Master, and as he is crossed, he can make this play and the others that follow after—that is, he can make or grasp the player in this way to strike him in the face with the pommel of his sword. Also, he can strike him in the head with a downward blow before [the player] could make a cover ready.

Pisani-Dossi MS 22a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 22a-d.png

[52] This is another strike with my pommel,
Following which the art and the Masters are ready.

This is another pommel strike, which is effective against a man with or without armor. Make this strike quickly if his face is unprotected, and you will certainly hurt him. I can tell you from experience that with this strike you’ll have him spitting out four teeth. From here, if you wish, you can also throw your sword around his neck, as my fellow student will show you next.

This second blow is striking the companion in return using the hilt,
While yet in this place [both] the art and master himself would be speeds.
[113]

This is another strike of the pommel and it can be done quickly; if his face is uncovered then do it without fear, because it may be done armored or unarmored. You will bore four teeth from his mouth with this play (as has been proven), and if you wanted, you could throw the sword to his neck as does the Scholar who is after me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 22a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-a.png

[53] I send you to the ground in this match;
I have not failed to thrust my sword to your neck.

As the student who preceded me told you, after doing the previous play I now put the sword-edge into your neck. And from here, if I discover that you have no neck armor, I will easily cut your throat.

I, the great one, throw you to the ground, you anticipating something,
I am not cheating to put the sword to your neck using this action.

From the play that came before me and as the Scholar has said, I have placed my sword at your neck and I could cut your throat well because I feel that you do not have an armored collar.

[The Morgan and Paris resemble the Getty, but the Scholar's right foot is inside of (behind) his opponent's right foot.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-c.png

[54] From the right cover I have caught you so well,
That I will lay you out on the ground.

A covering more on the right foretells when I will catch [you] by the throat;
You, sad, are then laid out into the dark earth.

This play is made in this fashion: that is, that one goes with a middle blow against a middle blow to his left side, and then quickly goes to the narrow with a cover. He throws his sword to the neck of his companion, at the same time grasping his right hand with his left (as you see depicted here). He can then throw him to the ground without fail, thrusting his right foot behind [the player's] right.

Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-c.png

[55]

This play is performed as follows: against a crosswise strike from his left, you meet it with a crosswise strike of your own from your left.[114] Then you quickly move to close range under cover, and then throw your sword around your opponent’s neck, as you see drawn here. From here you can easily throw him to the ground.

[In the Pisani Dossi MS, the Scholar's right foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's right foot.]

During a similar play, we bring you down into the deep earth.
I will accomplish this also; nevertheless I myself <I> remain on my feet.

This is another catch to throw someone to the ground, sword and all—that is, that this Scholar crosses with the player on the right side and steps into the narrow; he pinches the right elbow of the player with his left hand, and then quickly he throws his sword to [the player's] neck, grasping his own sword at the middle (his right foot behind the right of the player). In this way, he throws [the player] to the ground with little honor.

[56] If he covers from his right side, seize his sword with your left hand as shown and strike him with a thrust or a cut. Then after striking him hard, if you wish, you can drop your own sword and cut his face or neck with his own sword, in the manner shown by the student in the next picture.[115]

This is another method of throwing someone to the ground, and it is done in this fashion: the Scholar crosses with the player on the right side and comes to the narrow. He grasps the sword of the player with his left hand (passing the middle of the sword), …

[Text accompanies subsequent image.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-b.png

[57] I have in hand the catch that I have sought with you
For throwing you to the ground with your sword.

Following on from the play of the student before me, I cut my opponent’s face with his own sword, then force him to the ground. Here I am demonstrating just how effective this art really is.

I undertake with my hands the special taking for a
Long time, so that I am able to pitch you, miserable one, into the earth.

…and immediately he throws his sword to the ground and thrusts the player's own sword to his neck, grasping the hilt in the middle—that is, between the hands of the player—with his right foot behind [the player's] right. And in this fashion he throws him to the ground with his own sword.

Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-a.png

[58] This is the cover of the backhand
For making plays of the greatest deceptiveness.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-b.png

[59] From the cover of the backhand have I enclosed you here:
You will not be defended from the narrow play nor from strikes.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-c.png

[60] This is a strong catch that comes from the backhand:
You are finished striking and your sword is lost.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-c.png
Cod.1324 21v-a.png

[61] If he covers from his left side, grab his left hand including his pommel with your left hand, and pull it upwards and backwards. From there you will be able to strike him with thrusts and cuts.

MS Latin 11269 28r-b.png

[62]

In order for you to be able to overthrow my sword, with the left hand
You have come. But here also, you yourself will die by means of the counter.

[This Master appears to be missing his crown.]

MS Latin 11269 28r-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-c.png

[63] In this fashion I have bound you so well
That you would be trapped in armor or without:
And your sword will be useless against me;
I make this counter of the taking of the sword with certainty.

If I am crossed at Narrow Play with someone, I can quickly make this move[116] to prevent him from attacking me by taking my sword, or a lock.

This is another counter against the taking of the sword, and it can be made readily and quickly in this fashion. When one comes to cross with you and steps or advances close with his left foot forward, then grasp his hand at the wrist with your left hand (from under his hilt) and turn his sword toward your left side in such fashion as is depicted here. And thus you strike him in the chest, or in the belly, or wherever he likes least.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-c.png

[64] When I am crossed I move to the Narrow Game, and I place the hilt of my sword between your two hands. Then I push your two hands upwards so that your sword is high. From here I throw my left arm over your arms from the left, binding[117] them with your sword pinned under my left arm. Then I will strike multiple times until I am exhausted. The student who follows me will show you what happens next.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-a.png

[65] I locked your arms with my left arm,
And this play is better armored than unarmored:
Also, I counter the taking of the sword,
According to where Master Fiore put me.

The student who is before me has completed the play which I said to do. Your arms have been bound in ligadura mezana (middle bind). Your sword is prisoner, and it can not help you. And with mine I can cause you a lot of injuries. Without doubt I can put my sword to your neck. I can immediately do the play which is after me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-a.png

[66] This play follows on from the previous one, where the student struck his opponent multiple times while using his left arm to keep the opponent’s arms and sword pinned. Now I throw my sword at my opponent’s neck as depicted. Then I throw him to the ground to complete the play.

MS Latin 11269 28v-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-d.png

[67] I have locked your hand with my sword,
And I will give you a bargain with many strikes to your head;
And I make the counter to the middle taking of the sword:
This bind I have made which arises thus.

On my sword I enclose the palm. You, miserable, also endure many wounds
To the crown of your head. But whatever I bring about
Myself, I make the counter[118] with the sword. And it has very much superior
Power in the bind, because it furnishes very many deeds.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-d.png
MS Latin 11269 28v-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-d.png

[68] I have hindered your sword with my arm,
And I have fixed the point of mine in your face:
And I make the counter to the takings of the sword
And all the various other narrow plays.

When I am crossed, I pass with a cover, and I injure you in your arms in this part. And this thrust you get in the face. And if I advance the left foot, both your arms will be bound. Or, that in the other play after me of grabbing you, you are bound at the sword by the hilt's retention.

From the crossed swords I pass with cover and bind[119] your arms as shown, then I thrust my sword into your face. And if I advance the left foot forward I can bind both your arms. Or alternately I can do the play shown next, where I bind your sword by gripping your cross-guard.[120]

[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown. In the Morgan and Paris, the Master has his hand in position but hasn't grabbed his opponent's arm.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 22b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-b.png

[69] I have trapped your sword by the hilt,
And I will make you a great bargain with my edge and my point:
Also, I am the counter to the sword in the raised hand;
I can strike you and you are not able to touch me with the sword.

This is the grip that the student before me said to do to you. I can injure you without danger. I retain your sword's hilt, I will give you cuts and thrusts cheaply (with no risk?). And this play breaks all sword-disarms, and doing it immediately spoils the narrow play.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]

I, the very strong, seize your sword in the cross[ing].
From here I would pierce you, already gloomy, with the
Cutting point. And I am called “counter of the sword”, raising
The hand higher. And I prevail to strike a bargain openly with your limb.
You will not be able to touch the sword with any violations.

Here I am making the bind that the previous student told you about, and from this position I can strike you with impunity. I have your sword bound by its cross-guard, and from here I can strike you with both cuts and thrusts. In addition, if done quickly this play can defeat all attempts to take my sword, and if it is done quickly enough it will defeat the opponent’s Narrow Game.

[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]



Pisani-Dossi MS 23a-b.png

[70] This play is taken from the first play of the First Dagger Remedy Master, who places his left hand over the opponent’s wrist[121] to take the dagger from his hand. In similar fashion the student here places his left hand over the opponent’s right forearm, rotating it outwards to remove the sword from his right hand…[122]

Using the sword to strike back, I become acquainted with your very own shoulder,
Or I would pierce you, or even at once I would confine this <that> arms.

MS Latin 11269 27v-c.png

[71]

…Or from here he can transition to a middle bind, as shown in the second play of the above-mentioned First Dagger Remedy Master.[123] And that bind belongs to this student.[124]

How prudently I drive your very own shoulder and sword by means of [their being]
Joined together. And soon I am able to strike a bargain with you.

MS Latin 11269 27v-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-d.png

[72] You wanted to lock my sword under your arm
But the counter makes evil come to you here.

I am the counter to the student who preceded me, if he tries to use the second play of the First Dagger Remedy Master against me that you heard about previously, and this is how I am done. And when I do this play I doubt you will be able to remain on your feet holding your sword.[125]

You wanted to confine the sword under your very own deceptive
Shoulder. I am the counter, and this overthrows you to the greatest extent.

Pisani-Dossi MS 23b-d.png

[73] I am also a counter to the student who tried to use the second play of the First Dagger Remedy Master against me.[126] From the previous picture, if I now start to cut into his throat, he will stand up a little, and then if I move quickly, I can throw him backwards to the ground.

Pisani-Dossi MS 24a-a.png

[74] From the cover on the right side, thus have I caught you:
My sword will be in your face, and you will be laid out on the ground.

You will be on your back again on the earth, and my sword will hold
Your face. This thoroughly teaches the covering of the powerful right.

Pisani-Dossi MS 24a-a.png
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[75] This taking of the sword is called Above;
Which was made a thousand times and more by Fiore Furlano.

This is a high sword disarm. With my left hand I pin his hands, while at the same time I press forwards against his blade with the grip of my sword so that he loses his grip on his sword. Then I will deal him several good strikes. The student who comes after me will show how this play finishes with the opponent’s sword lying on the ground.

That movement by which I rob the man during the playing with the sword
Is called by nearly all “the high on the right” in close fighting weapons,
Which I, Florius, myself demonstrated by many exchanges.

This is the taking of the sword from above: with the hilt of my sword I push forward and with my left hand I grasp his arms in such a way that it would serve him well to lose his sword. And then the Scholar who is after will make a bargain with great strikes. This play he demonstrates as the sword of the player is positioned on the ground.

[In the Paris, the Scholar reaches in front of his opponent's sword, and his foot is outside of (behind) his opponent's.]

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[76] Following the disarm performed by the student who came before me, you will feel your sword fall to the ground. And now there is no question as to whether I can strike you.

Because of the catch of the Scholar who came before me which I have made, your sword has fallen to the ground. You can feel that I could thus make you truly wounded.

Pisani-Dossi MS 24a-c.png

[77] Here I make the taking of the sword in the middle,
And I will give you grief with my sword or yours.
 

This is how you do the middle sword disarm. The rotation of the opponent’s sword is the same as in the first disarm, but the grip on his arm is not the same.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's.]

I immediately execute the “middle sword taking”
Blow, pressing your limbs using a raging sword,
Either with my own, or by chance yours, which you rely on to be present.

This is the taking of the sword from the middle: whoever knows how to make such turnings of the sword makes this one just as the first is made, save only that the catch is not the same. The first taking of the sword binds both of the arms, but I do not want to have such trouble so I separate one arm and hand from the other. He is not so strong that he could hold [his sword] and keep it from falling. As was said above, I am the taking of the sword from the middle, which was made a thousand times by Fiore Furlano.

[In the Morgan, the Scholar's left foot is outside (in front) of his opponent's.]

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[78] This is the taking of the sword from below:
It will be made well by whoever is a gifted Master in the art.

This is another sword disarm, named the low disarm. The low disarm is performed in a similar way to the high disarm, with the same rotation of the opponent’s sword, following the same path. With your right hand you press his blade forwards, making his sword handle rotate upwards, and you must keep your left hand on his handle as it turns.

The sharp sword is seized thus in the lower position,
Because a skilled person in this art would make anything endure.

This is another taking of the sword, called Below: make this one in the same way as you do those from above and from [the middle][127]—that is, with a turn of the sword. This one follows the way of the others, with the right hand carrying forward a full rotation with the hilt, and the left hand should follow with a full turn.

Pisani-Dossi MS 24a-d.png
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[79] I take this sword for my own:
I will do you villainy with a rotation and a taking.
 

Here’s another way you can take his sword if you are crossed at close range: put your right hand above his and grab his sword at mid-blade keeping it upright, then immediately drop your sword to the ground. Now with your left hand you grab your opponent’s sword under the pommel, and turn it to his left.[128] Then immediately your opponent will be forced to release his sword.

I consider the sword to be mine, which you certainly see.
And by means of turning, I would certainly provide shame for you.
And also I would draw back using my very own hands, unless the fates disagree.

This is another taking of the sword, and it is done in this way: that when one is crossed in the narrow, the Scholar should thrust his right hand under his [sword] and grasp that of the player at the middle or above, immediately releasing his own sword to hit the ground, and with his left hand he should grasp under the pommel of the player's sword and give it a full rotation to the right, and then suddenly the player will have his sword lost and the Scholar, righting [the stolen] sword with a half turn, can strike the player.

Pisani-Dossi MS 24b-a.png

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[1] Here are three friends who seek to kill this Master, who is waiting for them with his two handed sword. The first intends to throw his sword at the Master like a spear. The second aims to strike him with a cut or a thrust. The third intends to throw two spears he has made ready, as you see drawn here.

[2] I wait in this guard—the Boar’s Tusk—for these three to attack, but I could also wait in other guards, for example, left side Guard of the Lady or left side Window Guard, and with any of these I would be able to defend just as well as I can with the Boar’s Tusk. Each of these guards uses the same method of defense. I wait unperturbed for them to come at me one after the other, and my defense will not fail against cuts, thrusts, nor any handheld weapon they throw at me. I advance my right front foot off the line and with my left I step obliquely, beating the incoming weapon aside towards my opponent’s left side. And in this way I make my defense, first by making cover and then quickly counter attacking.

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Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-b.png

[3] We are two Masters that await the throw
We have little care of lances, darts, and swords.
And the defense that we make with our swords
We could similarly [use to] defend ourselves with staffs
With the step and the beat that we make;
In the narrow, the edge and the point we use.
And even if it were Pulicano, who was a great thrower,
Against us he would not have honor.

I wait here in the Boar's Tusk for I know all cuts and thrusts, and I know how to turn away thrown lances, and swords, and darts, and I know how to recover from everything. And that which I do, the Stance of the Long Tail (Posta de Coda Longa) could also do: I step out of the way to the side, beating aside that which comes thrown toward me. When I have deflected the point I am doubtful of the advance of the weapon; so that the person doesn't strike me through another turn, it is best that I beat [his weapon] quickly.

Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-b.png

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[No Image]

[1] We are six guards for armored fencing,
Which art we know how to perform in its completeness.
And this art concludes everything in the right truth:
It applies poleax, sword, and dagger to great extremes.
And here we'll explain how the art can come:
Masters and students will do it without lying.

We are 6 masters who are very knowledgeable in the art of armed fighting, and each one of us is an expert in this art. Hand-held weapons do not worry us, because we know how to defend against any cuts and thrusts that may come our way.

We are in deeds of arms six greatly skillful acts.
Whatever master of arms will acquire these,
He will surpass sword or dagger and then two-edged ax.

Here begins the sword in armor, and great will be the Master who can make these plays. These Masters are six and each one is in guard; they will not delay in covering and striking. And whoever knows most in this, their art, will have a part in all of the following plays.

Pisani-Dossi MS 25a-a.png

[2] The Shortened Stance, the Serpent

I am the Shortened Stance, the Serpent,
And I have a fine point for passing through armor.

I am the Short Serpent Guard, and I consider myself superior to the other guards. And when I thrust those I strike will be well-marked.


I am the Short Position itself. I am called by the proper name Serpentinus;
I am skilled at penetrating with a point.

In the Shortened Stance, the Serpent, do I want to come. If you are not well-armored, I will make you feel it! I hold myself better than any other guard for striking with the point. Because of my edges, I sign myself with the cross, and nothing can you do to me. In armor and without I want to prove it.



Pisani-Dossi MS 25a-a.png


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[3] The Stance of the True Cross

I am the stance called the True Cross
And cuts and thrusts mean nothing to me.

I choose to use the True Cross Guard against you. And your thrust will fail to strike me. I will make cover to your attack as I make my step, and my thrust will strike you without fail. Neither you or the other guards concern me, because I am so well versed in the art of armed fighting that my crossing cannot fail me. Step, cross and strike, and this art will never fail you.


In this Position of the Leopard,[129] I truly observe the Serene One,
And always checking the deepest cuttings of the point.

I am the Stance of the True Cross which I want to make to counter you. Your thrusts will not enter into me. I cover myself from you in the step that I make and my thrust will injure you without fail, so that you and the other guards can do little to me. I know armored fencing so well that I can never fail in the crossing (for stepping, crossing, and striking, the art wants these things without fail), and I break all your thrusts and I certainly will not fail: I come over and through, I go under the point and upward.



Pisani-Dossi MS 25a-b.png


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[4] The Raised Serpent

I am the Raised Serpent,
I shoot great thrusts down low.
I also cover against cuts and thrusts,
Those strikes are little trouble to me.

I am the High Serpent and I am well positioned to give great underhand thrusts, since I begin high but end low. I will throw a great thrust into you as I step. That is my skill and I do it well. Your cuts do not concern me in the slightest, because when it is time to hand out great thrusts, you’ll get a large portion from me.


I am called Serpentinus, and Raised. And, point high,
I put my members below the lowest flat [of the sword].

I am the Serpent and I am High and well-armored. I quickly make great underhand thrusts because I am high and return down low. I'll drive a strong thrust to you with a step: this is my art and I know how to do it well. I have not a care for your edges, for I know the art and I will give you the better part of my point.



Pisani-Dossi MS 25a-c.png


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[5] The Middle Iron Gate

I am the Iron Gate in the Middle:
And I am always ready to throw great thrusts.

My name is Middle iron Gate, and whether you are armoured or unarmored I make strong thrusts. I step offline with my left foot and I put a thrust into your face. I can also place my point and blade between your arms in such a way that I will put you into the middle bind, as depicted and identified earlier.


I am the guard in the formerly established Middle Iron Gate.
I do not do much harm with the point, and I am always frightful.

Of Iron, I am called the Middle Gate, because in armor or out I give strong thrusts. And I will step out of the way with my left foot and thrust my point in your face, or I will enter [with] my point and with the edge between your arms and force you into the Middle Bind (which was previously depicted and named).



Pisani-Dossi MS 25a-d.png


MS Latin 11269 19v-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 25b-a.png

[6] The Archer's Stance

I am the Archer's Stance, the sentinel,
And I am always ready to strike and cover.

I am known as the Archer’s Guard, and I throw great thrusts as I step offline. And if strikes or thrusts come against me, I make a strong cover, and then immediately I strike with my counter. This is my skill, and I never vary from it.

[The Getty resembles the Pisani Dossi image.]


Here the sword will shift into a Malignant Position by penetrating;
Now I cover with my arm, for I hold my limb strongly upright.

The Archer's Stance, by this name I am called. Great thrusts I give while stepping out of the way. And if you come against me with a blow of the edge, I make a good cover and quickly I strike my counter. This is my art and it does not change.



Pisani-Dossi MS 25b-a.png


MS Latin 11269 19v-c.png
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[7] The Stance of the Bastard Cross

Of the Stance of the Cross, I am the Bastard,
And I will not delay in making her plays.

I am the Hybrid Cross Guard, and I am related to the True Cross Guard, in that anything it can do, I can do also. I make strong covers, thrusts or cuts, usually avoiding your strike by stepping offline, and my strikes are my greatest asset.


I am the Position consecrated[130] as the True Cross by many masters.
The point is not a nuisance to me, nor will the cutting edge harm [me].

Of the True Cross I am the Bastard Stance (Posta di Crose Bastarda); that which she can do, I also choose to do. For my strategy, I make good covers, thrusts, and cuts, always while voiding blows out of the way, and with my blows I make my greatest bargain.



Pisani-Dossi MS 25b-b.png


[8] With this cover I believe that I can waste anyone,
Following that which you see the Scholar do.

This cover is made from the True Cross Guard, when I step diagonally offline. And so that you can see what can be done from this cover, my students will show the plays that follow it, and since they are experienced in mortal combat, they will show these skills without hesitation.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

By using this covering, you would now be sure to repel whomsoever,
Just as you will see the students play at any time.

I come with this cover from the Stance of the True Cross, stepping out of the way to the side. And you will see what I can do from this cover; through my Scholars I can show it, because they make my complimentary plays (those that are for combat to the death). The art they will show without a doubt.

Pisani-Dossi MS 25b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 25b-d.png

[9] This thrust exits from the Master's cover,
And the other plays hereafter may well arise.

I am the first student of the Master who came before me, and I make this thrust from his cover. You should also know that you can make this thrust from the True Cross Guard and from the Hybrid Cross Guard. As the opponent makes his thrust, the Master or his student who is waiting in one of these guards (or posts) keeps his body low and steps offline crossing the opponent's sword, with his point high into the opponent's face or chest, and with the hilt of his sword kept low, as shown here.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's opponent's right foot is forward.]

I would do other plays if ever it will be pleasing;
This point escapes from the deepest covering of the master.

I am the first Scholar of the Master that came before me, and I make this thrust because it is from his cover. Also, I say that this thrust could quickly be made from the Stance of the True Cross and from the Stance of the Bastard Cross, and I say that immediately as the player throws a thrust to the Master (or Scholar) who was in the aforesaid guards (or stances), the Master (or Scholar) should move lower with his body and step out of the way, crossing the way and thrusting upwards to his face or chest (the cross of the sword held low) as is depicted here.

Pisani-Dossi MS 25b-d.png

[10] If I see my thrust cannot penetrate his chest, or his face due to his visor, I can lift his visor in order to thrust into his face. And if this does not satisfy me, I can apply other stronger plays.

[11] When I closed with this opponent, his armor prevented me from striking him as shown in the previous play. So instead I push strongly against his elbow and make him turn away. Let’s see now if his armor is strong enough when he is attacked from behind.

[12]

When I saw that my sword was ineffective against you, I quickly applied this grappling technique. I believe, see and feel that your armor will be useless to you when I put you in this strong lower bind, which is shown further in the next[131] picture.

Indeed, by means of this lower bind you will depart on your face.
And moreover, I strike deadly wounds in your chest.

[13] I have you locked in the lower bind or “strong key”, and from this position you cannot escape regardless of how strong you are. I could hurt you or even kill you. I could stop to write a letter and you would not even be able to see what I was doing. You have lost your sword and your helmet, you have been humiliated[132] and you’ll soon be hurting.[133]

Pisani-Dossi MS 26a-a.png

[14] You go to the ground because of the point of the sword,
And if I do not do you worse you will have a bargain.

This play flows from the first Master who showed the True Cross Guard or the Hybrid Cross Guard, as follows: when the opponent makes a thrust at the Student who is waiting in guard, the student quickly steps off line to make cover, and counters with a thrust to the opponent’s face. Then the student advances his left foot behind[134] his opponent’s lead foot as shown, in order to throw him to the ground, using the point of his sword to hook around the opponent’s neck.

You will depart on your face, with the point of the sword in the ground,
And then I would make the unluckier thing itself settle in your mind.

When the Scholar that came before me [9] cannot finish the player with a thrust, he advances his left foot behind [the player's] right. And the point of his sword he thrusts under [the player's] throat to throw him to the ground as is depicted here.

Pisani-Dossi MS 26a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 26a-b.png

[15] You feel the sword that I have set at your neck
And I will show you death on the ground.

Also let me point out that if the Student has moved to close range, and finds himself unable to destroy his opponent with his sword, then he should use his sword to grapple as shown, that is, he should cast his sword to his opponent’s neck, then step with his right foot behind the opponent’s left foot, and throw him to the ground to the right.

I hold the point above the neck, and you feel that.
Now you will suffer the labor of death, the fates do not deny.

This Scholar that came before me [14], if he cannot throw the player to the ground with the point of his sword and with his left foot outside of [the player's] right, he steps with his right foot in front of [the player's] left and throws his sword to his neck. And this play I make on his behalf.

Pisani-Dossi MS 26a-b.png

[16] When I move from my guard to a close range cover and am unable to strike you with a cut, I strike you with a thrust. If I cannot strike you with either, I strike you with the cross guard or with the pommel, depending on my preference.

And when I choose to play at close range, and my opponent believes I intend to use my sword, I switch to grappling when this gives me an advantage, or, if not, I can strike him in the face with my cross guard as I told you before, whichever I like.

[17] As you saw, the student who preceded me struck his opponent in the face with the crossguard of his sword. Thereafter he can quickly strike him in the face with his pommel, as you see depicted below.

[18] Also let me tell you that the student immediately before me who struck his opponent in the face with the pommel of his sword, could also have done what I do, that is, step with his right foot behind his opponent’s left leg, and then hook his opponent’s neck with his sword handle, in order to throw him to the ground as I do.

Pisani-Dossi MS 26a-c.png

[19] If I turn myself close on your left side,
Your sword will be lost from your right hand.

This student is unable to strike his opponent effectively,[135] so he transitions to grappling as follows: he places his sword point to the inside of his opponent’s right arm. Then the student slides his sword and his left arm under the opponent’s right arm, so as to throw him to the ground, or lock him in the lower bind, known as the “strong key”.

The sword will fall on your right side.
I travel around quickly to the left, the limb having been drawn tight, if I am in front.

Again I, who am the fourth Scholar, say that our Master can make this play from the cover which he has made—that is, that he should step with his right foot forward, and he should thrust the point of his sword under [the player's] right arm, and then follow the sword with his left arm. And when he has passed the [player's] right arm with his left arm behind the [player's] elbow, he will twist him into the Under Bind without a doubt. That which he has not done, I do for him—he will have the honor, and I the trouble.

Pisani-Dossi MS 26a-c.png

[20] This play also flows from the True Cross Guard, as follows when a student is in that guard, and an opponent comes against him and suddenly attacks him, then the student should step off the line and thrust his sword point into his face as you see me do here.

MS Latin 11269 16v-b.png

[21] I have wasted your hand, you can feel it well,
And I could strike your face with my pommel.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the player is wearing the garter.]

You can perceive that I have beaten[136] your hand[137] with great wounds.
I would be able to make a bargain at the same time using the hilt.

My Master has shown me that when I am armored and someone wants to thrust his point in my face in this way, I should thrust the edge of my sword under his left hand and I should step with my right foot behind his left, and in this fashion I can strike his face with my pommel or with my elbow, as can do this Scholar who is after me. If I can perform such a play, it would not fail me.

[In the Morgan, both figures wear garters. It's unclear if this Scholar should also wear a Master's crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 26a-d.png
MS Latin 11269 16v-b.png
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[22] Here I waste your hand by coming to a bind
Which is so strong that I care nothing for your armor.

Here I strike you truly in the hand; the thing
I sought out with great pains will henceforth be bound to me, because he expresses contempt for grand weapons.

Again, as the Scholar who came before [21] said, I will not fail in that I could make these two plays that are after me—that is, the first play strikes with the pommel to the face and slams you to the ground; the other (which is the second) follows, that if I can advance my right foot and the cross of my sword, then with that I strike you in the ear and in the cheek, and in that way you will go to the ground without fail.

Pisani-Dossi MS 26b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 26b-b.png

[23] I will send you to the ground with my hilt,
And I will then waste you with my point.

Learned in my art, I will turn your body face-up onto the ground.
Henceforth, I will penetrate your gloomy self with my point.

The previous Scholar of the Master [22] is well-informed. With my pommel, I strike you in the face and then I throw you to the ground, in such a way that neither your breastplate nor your helmet will save you.

[In the Morgan, the Scholar's sword is behind his opponent's.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 26b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 26b-c.png

[24] You will either lose the sword from your left hand,
Or you will go to the ground because of this entry I make.

Either you will leave your very own sword from the left part,
Or you, gloomy one, are going into the ground. You cannot deny this.

This play has not failed, as said the second scholar that came before [22], because I could come to this play and strike you in the ear and in the cheek, and I hold myself certain of sending you to the ground. You will go to the ground and I will remain upright.

[In the Morgan, the player faces away from the scholar as in the previous play.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 26b-c.png
MS M.383 11v-d.png

[25] This catch makes me safe from your sword:
Mine is free and yours is imprisoned.
And the fourth play which is in the art of the poleax,
Troubles the sword in armor with this play.

This taking makes <me> safe from your sword. Therefore it happens that
Truly my <sword> is free. On the other hand, yours remains imprisoned.
And moreover, the sword brings about the play which is considered the fourth.
In the art of the two-edged axe,[138] [the reader] will easily see the same kind of thing.

I have little concern for the Master nor for his Scholars. I do this counter against him with good measure: that is, when he comes with the cover, I beat the elbow of his left arm with my left arm, and because of this he cannot make a defensive grapple and he can be harmed.

Again another counter I could make: I could turn his elbow with my left hand. Such a play is done well both armored and unarmored.

MS M.383 11v-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 26b-d.png

[26] This is a good strong grapple: as he makes his grip on the opponent’s right arm, the student steps with his left foot behind opponent’s left foot, and thrusts the point of his sword into his face. He can also throw him to the ground to the student’s right.

[27] This is the counter to the Remedy Master and all of his students. It is the case that every counter you use against a Remedy Master will also break the plays of all of that Remedy Master’s students. And this is true for the spear, poleaxe, sword, dagger, and grappling, that is, for the entire art.

Let me return to address the Remedy Master: when he is making his cover, the Counter-Remedy Master places his left hand behind his opponent’s right elbow and gives it a powerful push, turning him in order to strike him from behind as you see drawn next.

[28] I am the student of the Counter-Remedy Master who came before me and I complete his play as follows: when I have turned my opponent, I immediately strike him from behind, either under his right arm, or under his coif into the back of his head, or into his buttocks (excuse my language), or into the back of his knee, or in any other place where he is unprotected.

[29] This sword can be used as a sword or a poleaxe, and should not be sharpened from the guard down to one hand’s-width from the point. The point should be sharp and the sharp edge should be about a hand’s-width in length. The roundel below the hilt should be able to slide down the blade to a hand’s-width from the point and no further. The hilt needs to be strongly made with a heavy pommel with well-tempered spikes. The spikes should be well-tempered and sharp. The front of the sword should be as heavy as the back, and the weight should be from three and a half to five and a half pounds,[139] depending on how big and strong the man is and how he chooses to be armed.

[30] This other sword is fully sharpened from the hilt all the way to the point, except there is an unsharpened section in the middle[140] about a hand’s width, big enough for a gloved hand to be able to hold it there. Just like the previous sword, this sword should be sharp with a fine point. And the hilt should be strong with a heavy pommel and a sharp well-tempered spike.

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-a.png

[1] The Stance of the Shortened Serpent

I am the Shortened Stance, the Serpent, with axe in hand;
If my thrust does not miss, I will made trouble for you.
 

I am the Short Serpent Guard and I consider myself better than the other guards. And whoever receives one of my thrusts will bear the scars.[141] This guard delivers a powerful thrust that can penetrate cuirasses and breastplates. Fight with me[142] if you want to see the proof.


Behold, with grasping hands I am called the Short Spear Position
Among mortals. And if the spear point would not try to deceive,
Perhaps I will deceive you, Man. Jupiter is near on a mountain.

Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-b.png

[2] The Stance of the True Cross

I am the strong stance called the Cross:
Neither blows of the axe nor thrusts can bother me.

I am named the Guard of the True Cross, since I defend myself by crossing weapons, and the entire art of fencing and armed combat is based on defending yourself with the covers of crossed weapons. Strike as you wish, I’ll be waiting for you. And just as the student of the First Remedy Master of the sword in armor does, so I can do with a step and a thrust with my poleaxe.


Behold, I am a Position of strength, and I am called the Cross. No blow is
Bothersome to me, nor as yet the point of the poleaxe[143] at any time.


Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-c.png

[3] [The Stance of the Queen]

I am the Stance of the Queen, of pure loyalty:
I make great blows from a different measure.

I am the Guard of the Lady, and I go against the Boar’s Tusk guard. If he waits for me, I will make a powerful strike at him, in which I move my left foot off the line, and then I pass forwards, striking downwards at his head. And if he blocks strongly under my poleaxe with his, then even if I can’t strike him in his head I will not fail to strike his arms or hands.


Behold, I am pure of faith standing in the Position of the Woman.
And I work deadly things by doubling a strike of strikes.

Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-d.png

[4] [The Wild Boar's Tusk/Middle Iron Gate]

I am the Boar's Tusk, full of daring:
Blows of the axe can do nothing to me.

If my Middle Iron Gate is opposed by the Guard of the Lady, we both know each other’s game, for we have faced each other many, many times in battle with swords and with poleaxes. And let me tell you, what she claims she can do to me, I can do better against her. Also let me tell you that if I had a sword instead of a poleaxe, then I would thrust it into my opponent’s face as follows: when I am waiting in the Middle Iron Gate with my two-handed sword, if he attacked me with his poleaxe with a powerful downward strike from the Guard of the Lady, then I quickly advance forward striking him strongly under his poleaxe as I step off the line, and then I quickly grasp my sword in the middle with my left hand and make the thrust into his face. While there is little difference between we two guards, I am the more deceptive.


I am the strong Boar’s Tooth and, horribly daring,
By no means do I fear those strikes you make. It cannot be believed.

[The Paris image resembles the Pisani Dossi.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 27a-d.png

[5] [The Stance of the Long Tail]

I am the Long Tail, used against the Window Guard, and I can strike at any time. With my downward strikes I can beat every poleaxe or sword to the ground, setting me up nicely for close play. As you see the plays that follow, please consider each one in sequence.

[6] [The Stance of the Casement Window on the Left]

I am named Window Guard on the left, and I am made with the right arm pulled back.[144] This is not a good guard to wait in.[145] Everything I do is deceptive. You think that I am going to strike a downward strike, but I pass backwards and switch guards. So while I began on the left, I actually enter on the right. And I can quickly transition to the plays that follow.

MS Latin 11269 09r-c.png

[7] I have beaten your axe to the ground;
And mine will quickly be thrust in your face.

These are the plays that these guards put to the test. Each guard can do them, and each guard believes it will prevail. As is drawn here, whoever beats his opponent’s poleaxe to the ground can do these plays, and will succeed as long as the opponent fails to counter him.

[In the Getty and Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

I will certainly throw your poleaxe down to the earth,
But mine will strike the face with listless wounds.

Pisani-Dossi MS 27b-a.png
MS Latin 11269 09r-c.png

[8] This student puts his axe between his opponent’s legs, and covers his eyes with his left hand. When the opponent, who cannot see, tries to turn, he will surely fall to the ground.

Pisani-Dossi MS 27b-b.png

[9] I have come from the Boar's Tusk with my axe,
And with that I have wounded you in the face.

The previous student can also do this play when he is at close range, as you can see here. He steps with his left foot on top of his opponent’s poleaxe head, and draws back his own poleaxe, then thrusts it into his opponent’s face.

[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is on his opponent's poleax.]

Now from the Boar’s Tooth and the particular poleaxe, ready I immediately sprang forth.
And I pierced the face using that thing with the strength of oak.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 27b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 27b-c.png

[10] I have lifted your visor—you can feel it—
And I will bore out your teeth with my axe.

The previous student saw that it was not possible to strike his opponent in the face with his poleaxe, because his opponent’s visor is too strong. So he advances his left foot forward and lifts the opponent’s visor, and drives his point into his face with as much force as he can give to his poleaxe. You can add on this play to any of the previous plays, as well as to any of the plays which follow.

Lo, I press your very own face with the strong hand, and you feel that.
My sacred poleaxe will now extract these, your very own teeth.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 27b-c.png
Cod.1324 25r-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 27b-d.png

[11] Because of my hand which I have under your arm
I will cause you trouble in the strong key.

With this hold[146] I can strike you in the head with my poleaxe, and with my left arm I will put you in the Strong Lower Bind, which is more deadly than any other lock.

[These two images seem to show the beginning and end of the technique.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 27b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 28a-a.png

[12] I will make a quick rotation from this catch:
Your axe will be lost, and mine will strike you in the face.
 

With a half-turn of this poleaxe I will take it from your hands. And once I have taken it from you with this particular turn, I will strike you in the head with it, as the next student shows. And I do not believe you will survive this.

By means of this taking, I will possibly have made a whirling around.
From here yours will be plundered, but my poleaxe will strike your forehead.
In this way fate wants the strong to survive.

[In the Paris, the Scholar's right foot is forward and he wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 28a-a.png

[13] This play follows on from the student before me. As he clearly told you, you will likely drop to the ground dead after being struck in the head like this. And if this blow is not enough then I can give you another. If I choose I can also drag you to the ground by your visor, which is drawn next.

[14] I am demonstrating what the student before me said he would do to you, that is dragging you to the ground by your visor. This is a grappling technique that is one of the better ones you can do.[147]

Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-d.png

[15] This play is easy to understand, and you can clearly see how I can drag him to the ground. And when I have him on the ground, I can drag him behind me. And when the long tail of my poleaxe can no longer hold him, then he’ll feel my strikes.

[16] This poleaxe of mine is filled with a powder and is hollow and perforated.[148] And this powder is so strongly corrosive that the moment it touches your eye, you will no longer be able to open it, and you may be permanently blinded.

I am the poleaxe, heavy, vicious and deadly. I deliver blows more powerful than any other hand-held weapon. If my first strike misses, then my poleaxe becomes risky to hold on to and is no more of any use to me. But if my first blow is powerfully made on target, then I can stop any other hand-held weapon. And if I am accompanied with good protective armor, then I can defend myself with any of the powerful striking guards of the sword.

My most noble lord, my Marquis, there are some vicious things shown in this book that you would never do. I show you them purely to aid your knowledge.[149]

Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-b.png

[17] This is the powder that you use in the poleaxe drawn above. Take the sap of the spurge,[150] and dry it in a warm oven to make a powder. Now take two ounces of this powder and one ounce of powder of fior d'preda,[151] and mix them together. Now load this powder into the poleaxe shown above. You can do this with any good caustic powder, but you won’t find a better recipe than the one in this book.

Pisani-Dossi MS 36a-b.png

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[No Image]

[1] The extended lance which is used in hand;
The more it is extended, the less it deceives.
Six Masters stand in guard with it,
And with a step and a beat, they suddenly strike,
Both from the right side and from the left (for certain):
The beat is made to the side and not up;
And the beat wants to be one arm's length on the lance,
And whoever goes against it will make such a failure.

I am a noble weapon, Lance by name:
In the beginning of battle I am always used.
And whoever watches me with my dashing pennant
Should be frightened with great dread.
And if in the beginning I make my due,
Axe, sword, and dagger will I upset.

Here begins the art of the noble weapon called Lance; in the beginning of battle, on horse and on foot, is its use. And whoever watches it with its dashing pennant should be frightened with great dread. And it makes great thrusts which are dangerously strong, and with a single one it can give death. And if in the first blow it makes its due, then axe, sword, and dagger will all be upset.

Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-a.png

[2] I wait in this guard with my lance shortened:
My method is to beat and to exchange thrusts.

We are three masters using spear guards that are closely related to the sword guards. I am the first, which is the Full Iron Gate. I am positioned to quickly beat aside my opponent’s spear, and to do that I step crosswise off the line with my right foot, crossing his spear and beating it to the left. When you step and beat aside together, that combination is hard to beat.

This is commonly employed: changing, and withdrawing
The spear which has been extended in opposition; now I delay all with a short javelin.

We are three Masters in guard with our lances, and we conform to the grips of the sword. And I am the first, and I am set in the Full Iron Gate to beat the lance of the player quickly—that is, that I will step with my right foot out of the way to the side, and crossing his lance I will beat it to the left side such that the step and the beat are made in a single pass with the strike. This is a thing that cannot fail.

Pisani-Dossi MS 15b-a.png

[3] Your lance is extended and mine is shortened:
Attack and do not flee, so I may do you villainy.
 

I am positioned in the Middle Iron Gate. My method is to beat aside then counter-strike. Come against me as you will with short spear or staff, when I beat your weapon aside as I step I will never fail to strike you. When you are using a short spear or sword, all guards that are made with the point offline are sufficient for you to wait in when facing any long hand-held weapon. Guards that cover from the right are followed with a step and a thrust. Guards from the left side can also cover and beat aside, but these will wound with a strike, because they cannot effectively place a thrust.

Although my very own spear is shortened, nevertheless you will
Go away pierced. And you would throw only if it pleased you before. Do not
Flee from that place. Tearful rewards would flow to gloomy you.

I have set myself in the Middle Iron Gate with shortened lance, and to beat and to strike is always my method. Come whoever wishes with extended lance or staff and I will beat with a step and I won't botch the strike. And all the guards that stay off to the side with shortened lance or shortened sword are sufficient to await any extended hand-held weapon; those of the right side cover, and with the cover step and thrust the point, while the guards of the left side cover or beat and then strike with blows, but cannot thrust very well with the point.

Pisani-Dossi MS 15b-b.png

[4] I will beat your [lance] with my lance as I step
And then I will quickly encase it in your chest.

I am the noble Right Side Window, always ready to beat aside and counter-strike, and a long spear hardly bothers me. Also if I was using a sword I would wait for the long spear in this same guard, which beats aside and obstructs all thrusts. I can also exchange thrusts, or beat them to the ground without difficulty. I would finish this play with the play shown next.

Now penetrating, my spear refutes your javelin,
And in your chest I will rush forth a great wound.

I am the noble Stance of the Casement Window on the right; I am always quick to beat and to strike, and of extended lances I care little. I would also await an extended lance with a sword by standing in this guard, which beats and retards every thrust. I could also make the exchange of thrusts, or beat them to the ground (which cannot fail). In the play hereafter I want to finish.

[In the Paris, the Master's spear leaves his face uncovered, appearing to go behind his head.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 15b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 15b-d.png

[5] This is the strike of these three previous Masters,
And in this way their lance should end in your face or chest.
 

The three guards shown above (Full iron Gate, Middle Iron Gate and the overhead Right Side Window) should all finish with this strike, which is used to end the play and demonstrate their skill. Here I show the finishing strike for each of them.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]

This particular thing lies in ruins by means of the three preceding masters; it concerns striking back,
And the method is to cross the man through the chest with the javelin,
Or sooner the face and the visage with sad blood.

The three guards which came before should finish in this play—that is, the Full Iron Gate and the Middle Iron Gate and the Stance of the Casement Window, high on the right. In this play they finish the plays of their art. And I strike this man in the face on their behalf…

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 15b-d.png
MS Latin 11269 07v-c.png

[6]

This is the counter to the three spear masters shown above, who all finish their play with the strike shown above. Let me explain how to do it: When the Master believes he has driven my spear off-line, I rotate my spear and will strike him with the butt end, which is steel-capped, like the point. Thus, the plays of these masters pose little threat to me.

So that you would not harm me more, I stir up counters in opposition,
And I wedge into you, resisting, with beaten spikes.
[152]

…This is the counter to the three Masters of the lance that would finish in this play and in the way that was said. When the Masters believe my lance to be away from harming their persons, I give a turn to my lance and strike with its butt, since it has as good iron in the butt as in the point. The plays of these Masters bother me little.

Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-a.png

[7] We are three Masters who play on the left side:
Come one by one whoever wishes and we will waste him.
And for the fourth Master that finishes our plays in the art,
We have given him his fair share of the Crown.
This guard can suffice for me against any lance,
I cover myself both above and below by beating and stepping;
I do it with the butt low and with the other end high,
And I could make a cover and a strike without trouble.

We are three left side guards, and I am the first, in the Boar’s Tusk. The left side guards do the same as the right side guards. We step offline advancing our lead foot, and then we strike with our thrusts on the left side. Both right side and left side guards beat aside then thrust, because other attacks with the spear are not as effective.









We are three guards of the left side and I am the first, in the Boar's Tusk. Those guards that are on the right side do the same as we do on the left side: we step out of the way, first advancing the foot which is behind (as was said, out of the way), and with our thrusts on the right side we make a bargain. And to finish the beat, both the right side and the left converge in a thrust so that other offenses with the lance cannot follow.

Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-b.png

[8] I know how to ward any lance with this guard:
Strike, for I want to harm you with mine in your chest.

I am waiting for you in the Guard of the True Cross. You have clearly approached too close to me. I will pass backwards with my leading right foot, beating your spear offline to my right. My thrust will not fail me. Yours however will fail you.


I wait in the Stance of the True Cross, for you are too close for my play. I return backward the right foot which is in front, and I will beat your lance out of the way toward the right-hand side. My thrust will not fail: yours will be the failure.

Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-c.png

[9] I will finish you without fail in my turn,
Because I am the Master of all exchanges.

I am positioned in the Left Side Window Guard. If I do not strike you with a thrust you will be lucky. I will step offline to the left with my left foot, with my point held high and my arms low. Then I will thrust into your face and you will have no defense. The play that follows is the finish used by all three Masters. If you try it once, you won’t wish to try it again.


I appear in the Stance of the Casement Window on the Left; if I don't strike you with the point, you will have a good deal. I will hold the point high and I will carry my arms low, and I will step out of the way to the left-hand side with the foot that is behind. Then I will thrust the point in your face without any possible defense. We three Masters can all make the play which is after me; once you try it, you will not want to taste any more.

Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-d.png

[10] The art of the lance makes its end here.
armor and without, this is its greatest defense.

Here we end the plays of the spear that are made from the left side against threats and attacks. These three guards shown above are carefully chosen to easily defeat the long or the short spear, since they are effective in offense or defense.


The counter to this thrust is easily done: when your thrust is beaten offline, you turn the butt of your spear and strike with that. And with that I have now shown you enough of the plays of the spear.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]


The play of the lance finishes here and I make it from the left side; I am besotted with their plays. These three guards which were previously make me think that they will not fail against lance extended or shortened, for they are guards of great protection (in that in one jaunt they make both defense and offense).

And the counter to this thrust can be done well. When the thrust is broken with that strike, the butt should be turned [forward]. This may be enough of the play of the lance.


[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 16a-d.png

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[11] In this way I wait with the dagger and with the staff:
The staff will make a cover, the dagger will strike you in the chest.
And that which I do with a staff, I could also do with a sword,
Although I could find much stronger plays with the sword.

This master awaits these two with their spears. The Master, who is waiting with a staff and a dagger, sees that the first intends to attack with an overhand strike, while the second intends to strike underhand. Before one opponent attacks with his spear,[153] the Master tilts his staff to the right, similar to the guard Full iron Gate, turning himself without moving his feet nor lifting the staff off the ground. And the Master waits in this guard. As one opponent attacks, the Master pushes the spear aside with his staff to the left, using his dagger too if needed. Following that cover, the Master steps and strikes. Both attackers with their spears will discover that this is his defense.

In the same way, holding fast to dagger and staff,
I delay you while the staff offers cover to me, and that
Dagger strikes the breast. Nevertheless, I drive out everything the sword would have accomplished,
Using the staff. However, we can use the better
Plays herein easily, exercising the nimble shoulders.

For this play, which is of staff and dagger against a lance, the Scholar awaits him of the lance in the Full Iron Gate, turning his body but not moving his feet from the ground nor his staff toward the right side. And as he of the lance attacks the Scholar with his lance, the Scholar advances his left foot out of the way, beating and voiding the lance. And he steps close to him without delay and with the dagger he can strike him. This play he wants to make without fail.

Pisani-Dossi MS 15a-a.png

[12] This is the play of the Master who awaits the two opponents with their spears. The Master has a dagger in his right hand, and with his left hand he holds a staff vertically in front of him. He can show you this play, but I will demonstrate it for him. If my opponent had known what to do he could have easily avoided my dagger strike. If he had widened his grip on his spear, and made cover under my dagger (that is, a crossing) with the back end of his spear, then this would not have happened. If he had known how to do this counter with his spear, he would have destroyed me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 15a-b.png

[13] In that way that the previous Master has said,
I strike that one in the chest with the dagger.

This is the play of the Master who waits for those two with spears. The Master has in his right hand a dagger, and he keeps a stave straight in front of him in his left hand. He can do the play in this way. And I do it for him in his place. But if this player knew how to do well, he could have avoided the dagger’s point. If he had lifted his hands with the spear, and with the rest of the spear which remains at the rear-end, he had covered under my dagger, which means crossing, it would not have happened to him. And he could have damaged me with his spear, if he knew how to do this counter to me.

Pisani-Dossi MS 15a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 15a-c.png

[14] I wait here with two sticks and a dagger:
The one I will throw at you and with the other I will cover, coming to the narrow,
And quickly I will strike you in the chest with my dagger.

This Master defends with two cudgels against a spear, as follows: when the spear man approaches to attack, the Master with strikes at his opponent’s head with the cudgel in his right hand. Then he quickly strikes with the cudgel in his left hand so as to make cover against the spear, and then he strikes his opponent in the chest with his dagger, as is shown next.

Here, I delay you with two clubs at the same time and also a dagger.
But I will throw the first [club], and I will hold the remaining
Covering limb in that place, when we will both press in.
From here I would strike you quickly, but with the dagger in the opening of the breast.

Pisani-Dossi MS 15a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 15a-d.png

[15] That which the Master has said, so do I do,
I have placed the dagger in your chest without trouble.

I show the play of the Master before me. If he had known the counter, he would have obstructed me as follows: he would have lifted my hands with his spear by rotating it under my dagger, and in that way he would have been able to obstruct me and destroy me. So take this, since you know nothing.

This deed having been done, [that] which the master now says will be told,
And however I affix this particular dagger in the breast.

Pisani-Dossi MS 15a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 34a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 34a-b.png

[16] Here are three opponents who wish to kill this Master. The first intends to strike underhand, and he carries his spear at the mid-point. The second carries his lance couched and fully extended. The third intends to throw his spear. They have agreed that no one will make more than one strike each. Also they will take it in turns.

Here are three companions who want to strike this Master: the first wants to strike underhand and carries his weapon at the middle of the lance; the other carries his weapon in rest at the full of the lance; the third wants to throw his lance. And they are agreed that none should strike more than one blow per man, and that they should do it one by one.

[17] Even if Rolando and Pulicano were to make me an invitation with lances,
I would await them in this match with spear or with staff;
I will beat their lances and I will strike their heads
As I depart from this guard.

Attack me one after another if you choose. For I am not going anywhere. I am ready and waiting for you in the Boar’s Tusk guard. When the spear is launched against me, whether fixed grip or thrown from the hand, I quickly step off line by advancing my right foot and stepping crosswise with my left foot, beating aside the spear that comes to strike me. Even if I were attacked a thousand times, my defense would not fail me even once. What I can do with my ghiavarina I could also do with a staff or a sword. The defense I make against the spear I could also make against a sword or a staff. My plays are shown next.

If Roland, and likewise Pulicanus and the rude one, would attack me, the foot-soldier
With ashen spear, I would wait while considering,
And on the right he would hold either a javelin or a wild staff.
And I will strike a more furious blow against the spears.
To the greatest extent with this action I would withdraw while striking down the high heads.

Come one by one whoever wants to come, and I will run from no one. Again, I am positioned in the Boar's Tusk to wait, and when the lance will come against me (carried or thrown by hand) I immediately avoid its path—that is, I advance my right foot out of the way and with my left I step on the traverse, beating the lance that comes to strike me such that of a thousand, I couldn't fail to beat even one. This I do with the spear, and with the staff or with the sword I would also do it, and the defense that I make which is against the spear, I could also make against the sword or the staff. I ask that you view the plays that are hereafter.

Pisani-Dossi MS 34a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 34a-c.png

[18] I cut you in the head with my spear
From the guard of the Master which is so quick.

This is the play of the Master who waits with his ghiavarina in the Boar’s Tusk for an attack from the three on horseback. To enter into this play he steps off line and beats aside his opponent’s spear. And although he knows this play, I will demonstrate for him that my ghiavarina is so fast that I can strike my opponent with both thrusts or cuts against his head.

Now that lance cuts your gloomy head with a great wound.
And he moves with the caution of a proud master.
[154]

This play belongs to the Master who came before, who awaits him of the horse with his spear in Boar's Tusk. In stepping out of the way and beating as he does, he enters into this play and so that it is understood, I do according to his word and with the edge and the point I could strike him in the head, since I carry my spear with such readiness.

Pisani-Dossi MS 34a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 34a-d.png

[19] With the butt I have struck you with my spear,
But I have another point which is even sharper.

This is also a play made by the Master above, who waits in the Boar’s Tusk. In his place I can make this play instead of the other: if he beats aside my spear with his spear, I rotate my spear and strike him with the butt, which is capped with well-tempered steel.

I, the clever one, strike your lips with this hard thrust,
Anticipating renewing a wound with the heavy point.

Again is this the play of the aforesaid Master who was previously in the Stance of the Boar. In his stead I do this, which he also could have done: when the lance is beaten, I turn my spear and I strike him with the butt (since it is well-tempered iron).

Pisani-Dossi MS 34a-d.png

[edit]   Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris Draft translation by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-b.png

[1] I carry my lance in the Boar's Tusk:
To deviate yours, I will make mine enter.

I carry my lance in the guard Boar’s Tooth, because I am well-armoured and have a shorter lance than my opponent. My intention is to beat his lance offline as I raise mine diagonally. And this will result in our lances crossing each other at about an arm’s length from the point. My lance however will then run into his body, while his will pass offline far from me. And that is how this is done.

(This text applies to the drawing on the right.)[155]

[Now] I bear [my] spear, but brandishing with the Boar’s Tooth
And by my hand, I would be able to mark you with contrasting colors; I will penetrate your marrow.

I carry my lance in the Stance of the Wild Boar's Tusk because I am well-armored and have a shorter lance than my companion. And so I make my strategy to beat his lance out of the way (so that it is off to one side and not high), and thus will I strike with my lance to his and enter with an arm on my haft, and my lance will run into his person. And his lance will go out of the way far from me, and in such fashion will I do it as is written and depicted here.

Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-d.png

[2] In the Boar's Tusk I carry my lance;
To beat and to strike are always my method.

This is the counter to the previous play when one rides against another with sharp steel, but one has a shorter lance than the other. When he who has the shorter lance carries it low in the Boar’s Tusk, then he with the longer lance should similarly carry his lance low, as drawn here, so that the short lance cannot beat aside the long lance.

Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-c.png

So that you won't have advantage over me with your lance,
This carry of yours I will also make with mine.

[In the Getty, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]

This is the counter to the play of the lance which came before, that here one runs against the other with sharp iron and he has a shorter lance than the other. When he that has a short lance carries his low in the Boar's Tusk, he that has the long lance should similarly carry it low in the way which is depicted here, so that the short cannot beat the long.

Pisani-Dossi MS 29a-d.png
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Pisani-Dossi MS 29b-b.png

[3] Because of the short lance that I hold, I come in the Stance of the Queen:
To beat and to strike, I hold myself certain.

This is another way to carry your lance when fighting another lance. This Master has a short lance, so he carries it in Guard of the Lady on the left as you can see, so he can beat aside his opponent’s weapon and strike him.

Behold! I come, holding the lance in the Woman’s [Position] at the chest.
I do not fear touching the earth with pliant knees.
And I would strike a bargain by staining, nevertheless your lance will thrust forward.
[156]

This is another way to carry the lance. This Master has a short lance and carries it in the Stance of the Queen on the Left as you can see, to beat and then to strike his companion.

Pisani-Dossi MS 29b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 29b-c.png

[4] To waste you or your horse, I make this throw:
And I will come to you to attack with my sword.

[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]

If I throw my lance into the chest of your horse, your beat will fail. And as soon as I’ve thrown my lance, I will take up the sword for my defense and with your lance you will not do me offense.

Pisani-Dossi MS 29b-c.png

This Master also carries his lance in Guard of the Lady on the left, in order to knock aside the spear his opponent is about to throw at him. Just as he can beat it aside using his lance, so too he could beat it aside using a staff or a short sword.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]

Again, this Master carries his lance in the Stance of the Queen on the Left to beat the lance that the companion wants to throw. And that beat which he wants to strike with the lance he could also do with a staff or with a sword—except that if he throws his lance into the chest of my horse, my beat will be turned to failure.

[In the Morgan, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 30a-a.png

[5] Fleeing, I cannot make any other defense
And so I turn myself to the right and will make you offense.

This master who is fleeing is not wearing armor and rides a horse built for speed, and as he flees he constantly throws his lance point behind him so as to strike at his opponent. And if were to turn his horse to the right he could quickly enter into the Boar’s Tusk guard with his lance, or he could take the left side Guard of the Lady, to beat aside his opponent’s weapon and finish him in similar fashion to the first and the third plays of the lance.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

Correct in opposition, I would make you strong pains.
Whoever <I> runs away cannot defend his own body.

This Master who flees is not armored and is on a running horse, and he is always throwing thrusts with his lance backward to strike his companion. And if he were to turn to the right side he could easily enter into the Boar's Tusk with his lance or into the Stance of the Queen on the Left, and beat and strike as he could do in the first and third plays of the lance [on foot].

Pisani-Dossi MS 30a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 30b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 30b-b.png

[6] With my sword, I will beat your lance,
And with either the point or the edge I will strike you.

This method of carrying the sword against the lance is well suited for beating aside your opponent’s lance when you are passing him on his right side. And this guard is effective against all hand held weapons, namely pole axe, staff, sword etc.

The regal Form of the Woman is suitable, and piercing you
With the sword <with the point> and raging against [you], this spirit sends
To the shadows; the divine will of heaven would favor that manner.

This carry of the sword against the lance is very good for beating the lance while riding to the right side of your companion. And this guard is good against all other handheld weapons—that is, against the ax, the staff, the sword, and so forth.

[Morgan text accompanies previous pairing.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 30b-b.png
MS M.383 04r-d.png

[7] I make the counter to your guard,
And your horse I will strike without any trouble.

This is the counter to the previous play. This Master attacks with his lance held low in order to strike his opponent’s horse either in the head or the chest, and the opponent will be unable to beat aside such a low attack with his sword.

[In the Getty, the Master on the right is missing his crown. In the Pisani Dossi, both Masters are missing their crowns.]

This is the counter to the play that came before. And this Master with the lance carries it low to strike the horse in the head and in the chest, because his companion cannot reach so low with his sword.

MS M.383 04r-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 30a-c.png

This carry of the sword is very fine, and it is called by a name that was said before: I carry my sword in the left Queen's Stance. And if this one comes to me with the lance in rest (to strike me and not my horse), I will beat his lance and I will strike him with my sword without fail. Note that the sword cannot defend below the neck of a horse.

[Morgan text accompanies subsequent pairing.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 30b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 30b-d.png

[8] So that you do not beat my lance out of the way,
Under my left arm I carry it in rest.

This is another counter of lance versus sword. In this one, the man with the lance couches his lance under his left arm, so that his lance cannot be beaten aside. And in this way he will be able to strike the man with the sword with his lance.


Again this is another counter of lance against sword. He of the lance sets his lance in rest under his left arm so that his lance cannot be beaten aside. And in this fashion he can strike him of the sword with his lance.

[In the Morgan, the Master's opponent is wearing a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 30b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 31a-a.png

[9] At mid-lance thus I come, well-enclosed
So that you will delay in beating my lance.
I trust I will strike your horse without fail;
You will see my play carried out hereafter.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]

Drawing the members close at the same time, I, the harsh one, seize the javelin <I delay the javelin>
In the middle. You will have been hindered in breaking [me] open. Finally,
Your steed <horse>, having been struck a lethal wound, will depart.

[In the Paris, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 31a-a.png

Here the man with the sword awaits the man with the lance, and he is waiting in the Boar’s Tusk guard. As the man with the lance approaches him, the Master with the sword beats aside the lance to the right side, covering and striking with one turn of the sword.

[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]

This one with the sword awaits him with the lance. He waits in the Boar's Tusk as he with the lance comes, and then the Master with the sword beats his lance away toward the right side. And thus can the Master do with the sword—that is, he can cover in one rotation of the sword.

[In the Morgan, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]

[10] So that you cannot cross your sword with my [weapon],
I carry it low to waste your horse.

This is the counter to the preceding play of lance versus sword. Here the man with the lance strikes his opponent’s (the man with the sword) horse in the head, because he cannot beat aside the lance with his sword since it is too low.

[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]


This is the counter of the play of the lance and the sword that came before: that is, that he with the lance strikes to the head of the horse of his enemy (that is, of him with the sword), because he cannot beat a lance or sword which is so low.

[In the Morgan, the Master's opponent wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 31a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 31b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 31b-b.png

[11] Such a carry of the sword gives me four plays to make:
I could strike with the point and the edge without fail,
And also throw someone from horseback or take his sword.
Seldom are these things failures to me.

This way of carrying the sword is named “the Long Tail Guard”. When you are riding to your opponent’s right side, this is a very good guard to use against the lance and all other hand held weapons. Keep firmly in your mind that thrusts and strikes from the left side should be beaten aside to your outside line, beating them diagonally upwards, not vertically. And the downward strikes should similarly be beaten aside to the outside, lifting your opponent’s sword a little as you do so. You can make these plays as these drawings show.

Truly there are four ways of carrying a sword;
Verily he moves toward the plays. And by means of the sharp point being forward,
I would hit you. And he will cut the open limbs with cutting,
And again from your seat you will plainly depart
Without a sword. And that method seldom disappoints a man.

This carry of the sword is called the Stance of the Long Tail, and it is very good against lance and sword and against all other handheld weapons, while riding to the right side of the enemy. Bear in mind well that the thrusts and the backhand blows should be beaten out to the side and not upward, and the downward blows should also be beaten to the side (lifting the sword of the enemy slightly); [this guard] can make all the plays corresponding to the figures that are depicted.

Pisani-Dossi MS 31b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 31b-c.png
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[12] Of these two guards I make no comparison;
Whoever knows more, his judgment will overcome.
And whoever will know to watch for deception
Will be able to make the four aforesaid plays well.

This version of the Long Tail Guard is a good guard when your opponent attacks you from his sword on his left shoulder, as this opponent is shown doing here. And be advised that this guard will work against all attacks from both the right and the left sides, and against anyone, whether right handed or left handed. Hereafter begin the plays from the Long Tail that always begin with beating aside the opponent’s weapon, as you saw drawn in the first guard of the Long Tail.

[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]

Again this same Stance of the Long Tail is good when one comes against you with the sword on the left-hand side, as this enemy of mine does, and know that this guard counters all blows from the right side and from the left side, and counters anyone, be they right- or left-handed. And hereafter commence the plays of the Long Tail, which always beats in the fashion that was said earlier in the first Guard of the Long Tail.

Pisani-Dossi MS 31b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-b.png

[13] This is an equal crossing, without advantage;
Whoever has more art and malice begins the action.


These two Masters are here crossed at the full of the sword. And that which one can do, the other can do also—that is, he can do all the plays of the sword with this crossing. But crossing is of three categories (that is, from the full of the sword to the tip of the sword), and whoever is crossed at the full of the sword can withstand a little, and whoever is crossed at middle of the sword can withstand less, and whoever at the tip of the sword can withstand nothing at all. So the sword, as such, has three matters—that is, a little, less, and nothing.

Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-a.png

[14] This point I gladly have set in your throat
Per the third Master [13] who demonstrates such a guard.

This is the first play that comes from the Long Tail Guard shown above. Here the Master beats aside his opponent’s sword, and then places a thrust into his chest or his face, as you see drawn here.

I pierced through the exposed neck with the point of my sword.
For instance, the third master taught me thoroughly using principles.

This is the first play which belongs to the Guard of the Long Tail which appeared here before: that is, that the Master beats the sword of his enemy and thrusts the point into his chest, or into his face as depicted here.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-c.png

[15] Per the first Master that is in guard with the sword
I have given this strike to your head.

This is the second play that you can do after beating aside your opponent’s weapon. Here I strike this man over the head, because I see his head is unarmored.

Using a wound, I, the fighting one, terrify the neck with a wound.
Prudent with regard to this sword,[157] the first master teaches me truly.

This is the second play which can give a beat. I strike this man over the head, for I see well that he is not armored on his head.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-d.png

[16] By crossing ahead of your sword I have deviated it
And with mine I have given a great blow:
And also I could have given it to you with my point;
And none of the weapons that you have could stop me.

This is the another play, the third, where, after beating aside your opponent’s sword, you grab it with your left hand and strike him in the head. You could also strike him with a thrust.

Here is another play, which is the third that beats the sword of his enemy; he grasps with his left hand and strikes the [enemy's] head, and he could also strike thusly with the point.

Pisani-Dossi MS 32a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-a.png

[17] You will lose your sword because of this catch
Or you will go to the ground without any defense.

This is the fourth play, in which the student strikes his opponent in the head and then takes his sword in the manner shown here.

You, shamefaced, on account of this will either perhaps abandon your sword,
Or you will lie down, prostrate on the ground; there is no preventing [this].
[158]

This is the fourth play that the scholar wants to make—that is, take the sword in this way that you can see depicted here.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-b.png

[18] So that my sword would not be taken from me
Against you I have made this turn:
Such that that which you were wanting to do to me
Through this counter I will do to you.

This is the sixth [fifth] play, where you take away your opponent’s sword. You use the hilt of your sword to lift his hilt upwards, which will make his sword fall from his hands.

[This Master is missing his crown.]

This is the fifth play, in which he wants to take the sword of his companion with the hilt of his sword; the other hilt he will have above, and the sword will fall from [his companion's] hand for certain.

Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-c.png

[19] From horse to ground it will behoove you to go;
Maybe I will then know what I should do with you.

This is the fifth [sixth] play that flows from the cover where you beat aside his sword. Here I throw my arm around his neck and turn quickly, and with the base of my sword I drive him to the ground.

My counter is the second play that follows me, but this counter will not work if your opponent is armored.[159]

He disengages lest I trample the beating heart on the ground.
Anything that I would like concerning you I will be able to try afterward.

This is the sixth play that makes a cover with the beating of the sword. I throw my arm to his neck and quickly turn, and I will throw you to the ground, sword and all, without a doubt.

My counter is here after and is the seventh play. Well that he has not achieved being armored.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-c.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-d.png

[20] If it would behoove me to go to the ground, [sword] and all,
I could do no defense other than this strike.

This is the seventh play, which is the counter to the fifth [sixth] play above. It employs a strike to your opponent’s leg. But if your opponent is armored, you can’t trust this counter to work.


This is the seventh play which is the counter—that is, the strike that he makes to the leg of the other one. If your companion were armored, you could not rely on this.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 32b-d.png

[21] I want to make my defense against the point and the edge,
Such that the sword will not be taken from me nor caught,
And neither will I be thrown to the ground from my horse:
I will strike your face with my pommel without fail.

This is the eighth play, which is the counter to all of the preceding plays, but especially the plays of the mounted sword when the masters are in the Long Tail guard. When the Masters or their students are in this guard, and when I strike or thrust at them, and when they quickly beat my attack aside, then I quickly turn my sword and strike them in the face with my pommel. Then I move quickly from my position[160] and strike them in the back of the head with a horizontal backhand strike.

I now protect myself from the cutting, and also the strong point.
And I strike the face with the hilt <of the grip> lest this sword be seized
From me. I shall not yet be thrown to the farthest ground.

This is the eighth play and it is the counter to all the plays that came before, and especially of the plays of the sword on horseback and of the Masters that are in the Guard of the Long Tail. And when the Masters or Scholars stand in the aforesaid guard and I strike with a thrust or another blow, and they quickly beat my sword, I immediately give a turn to my sword and with my pommel I strike them in the face. And I can pass with my cover quickly and strike them behind the head with a backhand middle cut.

Pisani-Dossi MS 33a-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 33a-b.png

[22] So that you could not hit me in the face with your pommel,
I have taken your blow with the hilt of my sword.

I am the ninth play, which is the counter to the counter that preceded me. When he turns his sword, I quickly place my hilt as you see drawn here, so that he cannot strike me in the face with his pommel. And if I raise my sword up, and turn it to the left, you[161] could well have your sword taken away. And if I am unable to do that, I could instead strike you with a backhand strike to the face, or with a quick turn of my sword strike you in the head with my pommel. Here ends the plays of sword against sword on horseback. If you know more of this, please share it.

Here ends the plays of sword against sword on horseback. If you know more of this, please share it.

[This Master is missing his crown.]


The ninth I am, who makes the counter to that which came before me, so that when he gives a turn to his sword I quickly thrust my hilt (as you see depicted) so that he cannot strike me in the face with his pommel. And if I raise my sword high and give a turn to the left, it could very well be that his sword will be taken from him. And if that fails me and I cannot do it, so quickly will I make the turn that I will give to his face with the false edge of my sword (or I will strike him in the head with my pommel).

This finishes the mounted play of sword against sword, and whoever keeps it in mind will give a good deal.

Pisani-Dossi MS 33a-b.png
MS Latin 11269 05r-b.png

[23] In such a way have I grabbed you, running up behind,
That I will throw you from the horse—this I believe.

This is a grappling play, that is a play of the arms,[162] and this is how you do it: if your opponent is fleeing from you, you come up behind him to his left side. Now with your right hand grab the cheek piece of his bascinet, or if he is unarmored, grab him by the hair or by the right arm from behind his shoulder. In this way you will make him fall backwards to the ground.

[In the Getty and Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]

I hold you captured by the helmet, whereby you turn your back backward.
Afterward, I will send you with flying chest into the ground.

This is a play of grappling, and inasmuch as it is a play of grappling it is a play of the arms, and it is done in this way: when one flees from you and you come up behind him from the left side, grab him on the cheek of his helmet with your right hand (or, if he is unhelmed, grab him by the hair or the right arm from behind his shoulder), and in this way you will make him fall backward such that you will make him go to the ground.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 33a-c.png
MS Latin 11269 05r-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 33a-d.png

[24] You wanted to throw me from my horse
But with this counter you will go to the ground instead.

This is the counter to the previous play, and that play will not work when this counter is quickly applied as follows: when he grabs you from behind you quickly switch hands on the reins, and with your left hand you lock him up as shown here.

It is useful that you merely beat the ground
With the trampled corpse. The counter actions accomplish this. Spiteful,
You nevertheless wish to attempt that same thing on myself.

This is the counter to the play that came before; this counter goes in this way with the catch that was made: that is, that quickly when he grabs him from behind, [the Master] should immediately exchange the hand on the reins, and with his left arm he should grab him in this fashion.

Pisani-Dossi MS 33a-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-a.png

[25] I want to lift your leg with the stirrup,
And because of this, to the ground you will go.

This student is about to throw his opponent off his horse, by grabbing the stirrup and pulling it upwards. If his opponent does not fall to the ground, he’ll be helpless in the air, and unless his opponent is tied to his horse, this play will not fail him. If he does not have his foot in the stirrup, the student can grab him by the ankle and raise him up into the air in the same way, as I described above.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]

Lifting the leg simultaneously by the stirrup, this, my Powerful right [hand], turns you to the furthest. Nor will your leg be made better.

This Scholar wants to throw this one from his horse—that is, he grabs him by the stirrup and lifts him up. If he doesn't go to the ground, he would clearly be floating in the air! Assuming he isn't lashed to his horse, this play cannot fail. If he does not have his foot in a stirrup, grab him by the ankle and it will be even easier to lift him up than I said before so do as was written here earlier.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]

Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-b.png

[26] You wanted to throw me well from my horse;
With this counter, to the ground you will go.

Here is the counter to the previous play: when your opponent grabs your stirrup or your foot, throw your arm quickly around his neck, and in this way you will be able to unhorse him. Follow this advice and he’ll end up on the ground for sure.

Look how strongly I hold your neck by the shoulder, <in front of you>
Which in this way you evade the attempt: you vainly try
To fling the unarmed [man] to the ground.[163] But the counters conquer you.

This here is the counter of the play that appeared before it, so if one grabs you by the stirrup or by the foot, throw your arm to his neck. You should do this quickly, for in this fashion you could dismount him from his horse; if you do this, he will hit the ground without fail.

Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-b.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-c.png

[27] I want to throw you and your horse to the ground;
The breast of mine will go to the haunches of yours:
I will not release the bit of your horse,
And in the end you will not avoid the ground;
And when one is well-armored this is a fine hold,
Because against armor you cannot make an offense.

This is a method of throwing your opponent to the ground by throwing his horse. It’s done like this:[164] when you and your mounted opponent close, ride to his right side. Then throw your right arm over the neck of his horse, and grab the bridle close to where the bit enters its mouth, and forcefully wrench it upwards and over. At the same time make sure your horse’s shoulders[165] drive into his horse’s haunches[166] In this way you will bring down both him and his horse at the same time.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]

I will throw you and your horse, prevented by none,
By whose raging haunches the chest of mine will stay.
I will not relinquish the resounding bridle of your quadruped
While you would strike the muddy ground precipitously with the crown of the head.
That best deception certainly prevails when [one is] wearing armor; afterward
He himself begins to fear being unable to injure anyone in armor.

This is a play of throwing one to the ground, horse and all: that is, the Master rides to the right side of his enemy and throws his right arm over the neck of his [enemy's] horse. And he grabs the bridle of his [enemy's] horse behind the bit, rotates the head of the horse up, and he should spur his horse with his foot striking the rump or flanks. And in this way he will fall, horse and all…

Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-c.png

[28] This is the counter to the play before, where you throw your opponent to the ground together with his horse. This is an easy counter: when the student throws his arm over the neck of your horse to grab the bridle, you should quickly throw your arm around the student’s neck, and you will effectively make him let go. Just do as the drawing shows.

…This is the counter of the play that came before in which he wants to throw his companion to the ground along with his horse. This is an easy thing to remember, that when the Scholar throws his arm over the neck of his horse to grab the bridle, the player should quickly throw an arm to the neck of the Scholar, and thus he is forced to release it. Following that which you see depicted here, so should you do.

Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-d.png

[29] I seek to take the bridle from your hands
And I want to throw it over the head of your horse:
And when the bridle will be thrown over its head,
With my position I will lead you to a different country.

In this play you take the reins of your opponent’s horse out of his hands, as you see drawn here. When you and your mounted opponent close, ride to his right side, and throw your right arm over his horse’s neck and grab the reins near his left hand with your right hand turned down. Now pull the reins over his horse’s head. This play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]

This is a play of taking the bridle of a horse from the hand of your companion in the way that you see depicted here. The Scholar, when he goes against another on horseback, should ride to the right side and throw his right arm over the neck of the horse, grabbing its bridle near his hand on the left-hand side, and so take the bridle off the horse's head. And this play is more secure in armor than unarmored.

Pisani-Dossi MS 33b-d.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 34b-a.png
Pisani-Dossi MS 34b-b.png

[30] This Master has lashed a cord to his saddle
And to the foot of his lance, which is cruel and destructive,
To throw to the neck of his enemy,
In order to drag him to the ground; so do I say.

This Master has bound one end of a strong rope to his horse’s saddle, and the other end to the butt of his lance. First he strikes his opponent, then he will cast the lance to the left side of his opponent, over his opponent’s left shoulder, and in this way he can drag his opponent from his horse.

This Master has lashed a strong cord (that is, one end) to the saddle of his horse, and the other end is lashed to the foot of his lance. First he wants to strike, and then to put the tied part of the lance to the left of his enemy, throwing it over his shoulder, and thereby to be able to pull him off his horse and onto the ground.

Pisani-Dossi MS 34b-a.png

[31] This scoundrel was fleeing from me towards a castle. I rode so hard and fast at full rein that I caught up with him closed to his castle. And I struck him with my sword in his armpit, which is a difficult area to protect with armor. Now I withdraw to avoid retaliation from his friends.

Here ends the Flower of the Art of Combat,
In this way one man can stand against another:
Made by Fiore Furlano, son of Sir Benedetto;
Those who knew him can believe his words well.

Here ends this book that was written by Fiore the scholar, who has published here everything he knows about this art, that is to say, everything he knows about armed fighting is contained within this book. This same Fiore has named his book “The Flower of the Battle”. Let he for whom this book was made be forever praised, for his nobility and virtue have no equal, Fiore the Friulian, a simple elderly man, entrusts this book to you.

Florius, the most skilled authority, previously[167] brought forth
This book. It is therefore him, an accomplished,
Contributing man of the Friulian people, you are honoring.

  1. Nec sine is an emphatic, not a negation.
  2. Apposui is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.
  3. Tot: so many, such a number.
  4. Possibly a scribal error—the first sentence seems to be missing a “me” and the second has one it doesn’t need.
  5. The illustration clearly shows a thrust to the arm, not the shoulder.
  6. Alternative with accusatives in opposite order: “I would seize the arm(s) in front suddenly / <I> the strong one would bring the dagger around in a violent whirling motion close by the elbow.”
  7. Or "backhand cover"
  8. Or "of the backhand cover"
  9. Or "reverse cover"
  10. Denodare appears to be a technical term for breaking or dislocating limbs; appears only in Ducange.
  11. Or "Master's reverse cover"
  12. Or "with the reverse cover"
  13. Demittere mentem is recorded (by Bantam dictionary) as an idiom meaning “to lose heart”. Possibly mente sedebit is referencing this, in a pun (e.g., demittere in the sense of depose, and sedeo in the sense of hold court).
  14. Literally “the two palms”.
  15. Note: pectora is plural, perhaps meant to indicate both halves of the chest.
  16. Or “I put to the test where I would at once bend you back acutely.”
  17. Or “I will not be deceived while breaking the left shoulder.”
  18. Or possibly “weighed”.
  19. N.B. “I will enter” begins the fourth line in the Latin. It was moved to fit English sentence structure.
  20. Meaning “if you know how to use a dagger to fight against a sword”.
  21. The word Fiore uses is “rebatter” which means “to beat back”. This suggests a hard block, not a gentle parry.
  22. Fiore just writes “with a turn” (“in un voltare”), but I have added language to make it clearer that he is talking about the move with his dagger as well as the footwork.
  23. Here Fiore literally says “you need the close game”. Note that “zogo stretto” can mean both “Narrow Play”, or the “Narrow Game”, or simply “close range”. Here I believe the translation “close with your opponent” works best.
  24. “Zugadore” means “player”. Here I’ve used “attacker” to make the translation more understandable.
  25. Fiore is pointing out that this play is made early, after the opponent has made cover with his dagger but before the opponent has had time to launch a Remedy. Since the Remedy was never launched, no Counter is needed. Note Fiore calls the man with the dagger “the Master who waits in guard with his dagger”. I have shortened this to “dagger Master”.
  26. See Getty 20v-c and 20v-d.
  27. See Getty 10v-c.
  28. I can see no relevance to Fiore’s comment here that the middle bind is made “a hands-breadth from the face”. The middle bind technique in the dagger section is NOT made close to either your own face or your opponent’s face. It remains a mystery, other than to point out that the entire text of the Getty is written in loose rhyme. Here Fiore chooses the word “spana” to rhyme with the earlier word “mezana”. That appears to me to be the sole reason for its use here.
  29. Meaning here is a play where the attacker with the dagger is defeated.
  30. Cavezo means “collar”, that is, the front of the tunic up at the neck. In modern terminology it is a lapel grab.
  31. See Getty 10v-a.
  32. See Getty 10v-c.
  33. The conclusion to this play is not illustrated in Fior di Battaglia, but does appear in Blume des Kampfes; see Cod.5278 202r, MS B.26 32v, and Cod.10799 199r.
  34. Fiore literally says “returning my foot that is in front to the back”. This refers to a passing step backwards with the right foot.
  35. A “grande fatto” is something of great worth, like a mighty deed.
  36. “Tristo” can mean “sad”, but it can also mean “crafty”, “clever”, or “skillful”
  37. “Cativi” means “cowardly wretches”. Here Fiore’s Master is talking directly to the three men who seek his death.
  38. “ala traversa”—crosswise. Here this means sideways.
  39. Remember, “passando” might mean “passing” (passing step) or it might mean simply “stepping”.
  40. “Magistro” means both “Master” and “Teacher”. The translation “teacher” works well here.
  41. Lit. “made to the fingernails”, an expression meaning to be a perfect person.
  42. Getty 10v-c
  43. Romans used dative to describe body parts
  44. “Butare” actually means to “cast” or “throw”. I decided “wrap” would work better here.
  45. “Zitassi” means “cast” as in “threw”.
  46. “Ardito” means “bold”, “passionate” (“ardent”). But here I went after the meaning as I understand it, which is with intensity, thus “aggressively”.
  47. The expression “stando fermo” translates literally as “remaining firm”. In the context of Fiore’s art I interpret this “volta” when referring to step (footwork) to refer to weight transfers between the two feet with the feet turning slightly on the balls of the feet, but without actually stepping. Used in relation to the crossed swords, I translate “stando fermo” as “maintaining pressure”. In my interpretation this refers to crossed swords in front of the opponent’s sword attack, maintaining strong pressure against his blade, crossing his blade at the “front”, i.e. the incoming sword, and then thrusting to the “back”, i.e. at the opponent’s body. The “volta” or “turn” of the sword involved here is a clockwise rotation of the sword around its long axis, i.e. a “screwing” motion as you turn the sword from crossguard more vertical to crossguard more horizontal. This motion is of course the Germanic tradition “winden” or “winding” of the sword. Thus I translate “volta stabile” as a “turn in place”.
  48. Fiore’s word is actually “cose”—“things”. In this context it is better translated as “movements”, “steps” or “footwork”.
  49. “Tornare” literally means “to return”. Thus it is a “returning” step. Note it does NOT mean “to turn”. In certain instances “tornare” refers simply to a passing step backwards, i.e. the reverse of a passing step forwards. Elsewhere it is used by Fiore to show a second movement that returns along the path the first movement took.
  50. “Accressere” means literally “to increase”. The noun form would be “accresso” or “accressimento”. As I interpret it it refers to a shuffle step in any direction where the lead foot moves out away from the body first, resulting in an increase in distance between the feet. Fiore does not include passing steps forward or backward under this term.
  51. “Discressere” means literally “to decrease”. The noun form would be “discresso” or “discressimento”. As I interpret it this refers to a shuffle step in any direction where the first foot that moves, moves back towards the body, i.e. the distance between the feet is shortened (decreased). A shuffle step forwards thus is made up of two of Fiore’s “cose”: first an “accresso” as the lead foot moves forward, then a “discresso”, as the rear foot moves forwards too.
  52. The word Fiore uses is not “and” (“e”) but is “perche”, which usually translates as “because”. But if we translate the line with “because” then it reads “I am named the guard or post of the Lady, because I am distinct from the other sword grips.” That line then makes no sense at all, and certainly does NOT tell us WHY the high guard over the shoulder is named “Guard of the Lady”. I’ve changed it to make more sense.
  53. Fiore actually says “these other guards” (“queste altra prese”), not “the four sword guards shown above” but I have changed this so that the sentence makes more sense. Fiore is comparing the Guard of the Lady, which is number five out of the six guards shown in this section, with the previous four guards. This section is one of Fiore’s most poorly written passages, very hard to understand and a challenge to translate!
  54. Fiore uses the expression “prese de spada” which means literally “grips of the sword”. He means the guards.
  55. This sentence is confusing. I have therefore made an interpretive translation to make sense of the sentence. Here I believe Fiore means that the Guard of the Lady is different from the prior four guards shown, which are all low guards, in that the Guard of the Lady is a high guard (held above the shoulder).
  56. The sixth guard is indeed also the Guard of the Lady but the sword is held reversed so as to use it like a poleaxe. The character in the drawing here is simply pointing out that while you might think the two guards (fifth and sixth) are the same guard (both hold the weapon high on the right shoulder), they are different in that the sixth is wielding the sword reversed like an axe. The text of the sixth guard points out that notwithstanding this, this guard too is named “Guard of the Lady”.
  57. For more information about this sword, see Armored Sword 29.
  58. Fiore sometimes spells the word “fendente” for the plural, and sometimes “fendenti”.
  59. “Cum rasone” literally means “with reason”, which makes no sense. I decided to translate this as “with precision”, since “rasone” suggests mental calculation is involved.
  60. Fiore actually says “cum inzegno”—“cleverly”. But there is nothing “clever” about a fendente strike. It is a big downward hit. So I changed this word to “effectively”.
  61. Fiore actually uses the word “sangue segno”—“a sign of blood”, but I think the expression “trail of blood” works better.
  62. Another use of the “returning” concept—here making it clear that the verb is “return” not “turn” by spelling it “retornamo”—“we return”.
  63. “Pulsativa” actually means “good for hitting”. Fiore names only a few of his guards “pulsativa”, namely the ones from which you can strike really hard. Hence my choice of the translation “powerful”.
  64. The word is “tutta” Iron Gate. While this is sometimes translated as “Whole Iron Gate”, “Full Iron Gate” or “Complete Iron Gate” (“tutta” also meaning “all”), none of these translations make much sense to me. I note however that in the Morgan manuscript (Morgan 6r-b) Fiore uses “tuta” to refer to the base of the sword (at the crossguard). Thus in that case “Tuta” or “Tutta” carries the meaning of “at the base”, from where I get my translation “Iron Gate at the base”, or simply “low Iron Gate”.
  65. Fiore’s words are “longa e curta” (“long and short”). I’ve liberally translated that as “whatever its length.”
  66. “Strette” literally means “narrow”. At times Fiore uses it to refer to swordplay made when the defender covers (crosses swords) in front of the opponent’s blade with the right foot forward instead of the left. Fiore terms this configuration (both parties’ right foot leading at the crossed swords position, with the defender’s sword crossed in front of the attack), the “Narrow Game”, or “Zogho Stretto”. Why this “game” is “narrow” is beyond the scope of these footnotes.
  67. Fiore is referring here to the “scambiar de punta” (“Exchange of Thrusts”) of Getty 26v-a.
  68. Fiore is referring here to the “rompere de punta” (“Breaking of the Thrust”) of Getty 26v-c.
  69. I have deliberately translated this “Guard of the Lady” and not “Lady’s Guard” so as to leave open the possibility of a link between Donna and the Madonna. “Donna” means a “Lady”, with perhaps a reference to “Our Lady”, the Madonna.
  70. The last two words “per certo” (“for sure”) serve no purpose other than to rhyme with “discoperto”, so I have omitted them.
  71. “Donna” means noble lady or mistress, and is also the name of the chess piece. I use the latter translation because I believe the name is a reference to the versatility of the guard.
  72. “Di malizie” can mean “malicious” but can also mean “skillful”. I’ve chosen “skillful” as it makes more sense here.
  73. I.e. quick.
  74. This is an additional instance of “dicor,” which on 19v we identified as a pun (also meaning consecrated) when used to describe the True Cross.
  75. Note that this verse says “janua” rather than “porta” in the previous Iron stance; we’ve rendered “porta” as gate and “janua” as door.
  76. The word Fiore uses is actually “tastando”—“tasting”. I’ve translated this as “probing”.
  77. Frontale means “front” or “forehead” (The “frontale” is the name given to the armor a war horse wears around its head, protecting its forehead all the way down its nose). So the guard could translate as simply the Front Guard. I like the name Forehead Guard because Fiore links it to another part of the head when he says it is also named (by others) the Crown Guard.
  78. “Magistro” can mean “Master”, or simply “Instructor”.
  79. “Making the cross” i.e. crossing the opponent’s incoming sword with yours, is one of the fundamental skills of Fiore’s system.
  80. I.e. I show compassion to no one
  81. The text contains an error here; the illustration shows the Lady’s Position, not the Boar’s Tooth.
  82. Versito: full of stratagems, wily, cunning
  83. A revelation: the umlauts placed over the words seem to correspond with two words which form the name of a guard but which are not placed near each other.
  84. “Dente” means “tooth”, but Fiore is clearly here using the image of the boar’s tusks. The wild boar, when fighting, hooks diagonally with its tusks (elongated lower teeth).
  85. My translation here is fairly liberal. Fiore says literally “because it takes its method of striking from the wild boar.”
  86. The umlaut theory falls down here: there’s only one. Possibly, the “i” in ipse is meant to have two dots, which would make the pair here “I Myself.”
  87. The superscript says “certainly I”; we believe this note represents an incorrect reading of the line, and have not incorporated it into our translation.
  88. The expression “ala traversa” here just means crossing swords diagonally, but based on what comes after this I prefer my translation.
  89. The word Fiore uses is “languire” to make someone collapse, without either strength or spirit.
  90. “Spada a doy man” means “two handed sword” or “sword in two hands”. I prefer the latter however, because Fiore’s “sword in one hand” (shown elsewhere) is not a single hand or arming sword. It is the Italian “longsword” being wielded in one hand. In both “sword in one hand” and “sword in two hands” the same sword is being used—the two handed sword. So strictly speaking here this section is “the two handed sword being used with two hands”.
  91. In translating this text I have left out the repetition of the expression “what the previous Master told you”, as it is redundant. Generally when I translate Fiore I try to make the text make sense to the modern reader. This may sometimes mean leaving words out, altering an expression, or altering the tense of verbs entirely.
  92. “discorrere” means to run backwards and forwards. This suggests a sawing motion if applied to the sword, i.e. a push forward and a pull back.
  93. Levum previously appeared on 13v; it is likely laevum (“left”, rather than levum, “light” in the weight sense) despite not having the ae ligature used on earlier pages in this text (an e with a narrow loop sticking off the lower left side, pointing down and left). Several of these e-for-ae substitutions have happened; maybe he has stopped using the ae symbol.
  94. “Denanzi” or “denanci” means “in front of” when applied to position, and “previously” or “before” when applied to time.
  95. Fiore rarely uses the word “taglio” when talking of the sword striking as opposed to thrusting. For hitting he usually uses the word “colpo”, a “blow”.
  96. Fiore actually writes “against the back of his leg or under his knee” which makes no sense. The stomp depicted is effective against the inside of the knee joint from the side or just under the kneecap from the front. This is an example where my personal knowledge of the mechanics of this stomp contradicts the literal text, and where the literal text thus makes no sense.
  97. “Zogho” translates as “play” or “game” but could also translate as “technique”.
  98. A “Villano” is a peasant, i.e. a person not of noble birth. Fiore uses the term “Villano” to refer to a man lacking in skill. Fiore’s art, in Fiore’s own words, was not taught to commoners. The “Peasant’s Strike” is an over committed and uncontrolled downward strike, a strike that does not stop on the center line but continues to the ground. Because it is uncontrolled it lies outside Fiore’s Arte e Scientia. Thus it is attributed to a Peasant, who is unskilled in sword-fighting.
  99. Another example where the word “passo” does NOT mean “a passing step”. Here it translates best as “a stance” (foot position).
  100. Fiore actually writes that you should move your left foot off the line “inverso la parte dritta”, which translates “towards the right side”. However, you are NOT moving your left foot to your right side but to your left side. The translation “towards the right side” only makes sense if you translate it as “towards your opponent’s right side.”
  101. I understand "against the right side" to mean "toward the left side", but it's an odd expression.
  102. “Scambiar de punta” could translate as either “exchange of points” or “exchange of thrusts”. Both work here, but I favor the translation “exchange of points”.
  103. “Passa a la traversa” means “step crosswise”. I've used "step to the side". You will note that only a few words later Fiore uses the word “traversando” which here means “crossing” as in “crossing swords.”
  104. Fiore actually says “brazzi” (“arms”) low, but he means your hands.
  105. Madentem means dripping with either sweat or tears.
  106. There is a pun here, since this play could be called both “Exchange of Thrusts” and/or “Exchange of Points” (“punta”).
  107. There is a pun here too, since this play could be called both “Breaking the Thrust” and/or “Breaking the Point” (“punta”).
  108. “Le strette” (“La stretta”) means “close range” here.
  109. Fiore literally writes: “I put with strength my right foot above his sword.” I’ve translated all that simply as “I stomp on it.”
  110. Fiore says strike to the head, but clearly in this play the sword blade will strike into the opponent’s face. Thus it would not be an effective move if the opponent had a steel visor protecting his face.
  111. Other translations translate “Punta Falsa” as “False Thrust”. However, this is not a false thrust. It is a false (pretend) strike. The final killshot is a thrust, as Fiore says “into the throat or chest”, but that thrust is not “false”, i.e. not a feint. Therefore I choose to translate it as “False Point” or “Short Point”.
  112. Or “I extend underneath into the oblique part from the straight part.”
  113. The compound subject in the Latin necessitates the plural comparison, but would be rendered with a singular in English.
  114. I’ve added some language here to make the description understandable.
  115. Fiore actually writes “per lo mood ch’è depento”, “in the manner shown”, but this move is actually not shown until the next drawing.
  116. A presa is a grappling move, a grip (hold) or a grapple.
  117. Fiore uses “ferero” which translates as “strike” or “wound”, but this is clearly a bind.
  118. While contra is not normally a noun and contrario has been the noun for counter thus far, it seems to work best here to make contra a noun.
  119. Again Fiore actually says “fiero in gli toy brazzi”, “I hurt your arms”. But the move is a bind.
  120. “Elsa”, “elso”, “elzo”,”elço” are all variations on the word for “hilt”. But the picture clearly shows the bind is around his sword blade and the grip is made on the opponent’s cross-guard, not his sword handle. Hence I have translated “elzo” as “cross-guard”.
  121. Fiore actually writes that you grip him “below the dagger” Fiore means you grip the opponent’s dagger arm around the wrist. This play is taken from the dagger play at Getty 10v-a. I’ve changed the language to make this understandable.
  122. I’ve again added some language here to make this play more understandable.
  123. The second play of the First Dagger Remedy Master (the middle bind) is found at Getty 10v-c.
  124. “Ligadura” translates as “bind”, or “lock”, as in binding or locking a joint so that it cannot move. By “That bind belongs to this student” Fiore means that it is this student from this position who could demonstrate it for us.
  125. Meaning he is going to drive you forwards face first into the ground. Note, this counter is also seen in the dagger plays and is taken from Getty 10v-d.
  126. Meaning another counter against the student in Getty 29v-b.
  127. Text says "from below", but appears to be referring to the previous two sword-takings.
  128. Fiore says “a man riversa”, which means “to the left”. The turn however is clockwise, which is to your right. That means HIS left.
  129. The position shown is called True Cross in Fiore’s other manuscripts, whereas Vadi calls it the Leopard’s Tail. Vadi also has a Serene Leopard, but it is Fiore’s Bastard Cross (which is called the True Cross in this manuscript).
  130. Dicor could be a present passive indicative first person conjugation of either dicere (say, talk, name/call, et c) or dicare (dedicate, consecrate, deify, devote)—since the stances are usually named using the verb vocor, perhaps this was intentionally chosen as a pun. Also, in other Fiore texts this is the Bastard Cross.
  131. Here the word “subito” (immediately, quickly) means the picture following immediately after this one.
  132. Literally “lost your honor”.
  133. Literally “You’ll have short comfort.” The use of “festa” here is so as to rhyme with “testa” before it.
  134. Fiore actually says “outside the lead foot”, but I’ve translated it as a step behind the lead foot to make the meaning clearer.
  135. Fiore says unable to strike “cum danno”, “with danger”. “Effectively” seems a good choice here.
  136. Lit. “pounded to pulp”.
  137. Lit. “palm”.
  138. Bipennifera (two-edged axe) likely refers to the poleaxe, even though in that section the manuscript refers to it as “three-pointed” instead.
  139. A Medieval Italian pound was an approximate measure equal to 300-350 g, or 0.66 to 0.77 standard pounds. Fiore indicates here that the sword should be 5 to 7 [Italian] pounds, so taking the upper and lower values as bounds, this gives a potential range of 3.3 to 5.4 lbs. Values are derived from this link: Measurement in the Middle Ages.
  140. The “terza” of the sword is the same as the “mezza spada” or middle of the blade.
  141. Fiore literally says “will be marked”.
  142. Fiore literally says “defend yourself”.
  143. Literally “trident”, perhaps referring to the three striking surfaces of the weapon’s head (axe or hammer, hook, and spear point).
  144. Literally “I am made with a short right arm”.
  145. Literally “We do not have stability.”
  146. “Presa” means a hold, a grip or a grapple.
  147. Fiore actually writes that this grappling move is “better than the others”, but gives us no clue as to what the “others” are.
  148. As in full of holes.
  149. I believe this is not an apology for the poleaxe itself but an apology for showing the dirty trick of the corrosive powder. As such it should really be placed higher up.
  150. “Titimallo” refers to a plant named spurge, genus Euphorbia. Used in medieval medicine as a laxative, spurge has a poisonous milky white latex-like sap. For more information, see "Pollaxe in Armour" by Matt Easton and "Being wrong can lead to wonderful things" by Guy Windsor.
  151. Tom Leoni notes that this is a flower also used to create a powder commonly used as makeup. It had a swelling effect on the skin.
  152. Possibly “pulsating/throbbing teeth”.
  153. Fiore actually writes “When the opponent attacks…” But the guard must be assumed before the attack, not during it.
  154. Or “the precaution of the proud master moves me”.
  155. Fiore means that the text of 41r-a actually applies to the drawing at 41r-b (i.e. the drawing to the right, who is the rider winning the engagement, hence the “Re” [King]). I assume this was an error by the scribe. I've expanded the line so that it is comprehensible.
  156. Depending on the interpretation of the final abbreviation, the last line may be read in different ways; the final verb might be perdet (loses), raedet (pillages), or prodet (thrusts forward). We have chosen the last of these as it is least specific to whether the lance in question is winning or losing the fight, which is unclear from the rest of the verse.
  157. Supposing cuspide means sword and not point, ense could mean something other than sword, such as “sword technique” or “sword position”.
  158. Rebecca notes: small words like et or hoc may be left out in order to shape it into something like meter.
  159. I’ve expanded this sentence so that it makes more sense.
  160. Fiore actually writes “Then I pass from my quick cover” but the words make no sense, since he is not in a cover but has just hit his opponent in the face with a pommel strike. I’ve altered it to give it more sense.
  161. Note the switch from “he” to “you”. This is something Fiore does quite a lot.
  162. Abrazare comes from “A brazi”—“with the arms”.
  163. We have rendered per terram as “to the ground” rather than “through the ground”.
  164. I’ve removed the redundant repetition.
  165. Petto means chest but no part of a horse is named the “chest”, so I changed this to “shoulders” which refers to the area of the horse Fiore is talking about that would ram the opponent’s horse.
  166. The “groppa” means the crupper, which refers to the horse’s hind quarters.
  167. This word was the source of considerable trouble. We initially assumed, as others have, that it denoted that Fiore was deceased when the manuscript was prepared (quondam Florius, “the late Fiore”). However, further research on the word (which seemed merited since it could indicate a significant biographical fact) indicated that such a reading was simply not possible for most examples of the word in Medieval literature, e.g. “ubi quondam Deus” is probably not seeking to describe a deceased God. In fact, “quondam” is generally an adverb rather than a quasi-adjective, and some dictionaries, such as Lewis & Short, specify that it only has the meaning of “the late” if the person it is applied to is deceased. Rather than becoming trapped in a loop of circular reasoning (assuming Fiore is deceased and translating quondam that way, and then concluding that Fiore is deceased due to the translation of quondam), we interpreted the word in its more normal adverbial sense and applied it to “edidit”. For more definitions of quondam, see the entries in Logeion: http://logeion.uchicago.edu/index.html#quondam