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'''MSS Ravenna M-345''' & '''346''' is an anonymous [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing manual]] of the Bolognese tradition, probably written at the beginning of the 16th century.{{cn}} The original currently rests in the holdings of the [[Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma]] in Rome, Italy. This manuscript is unique in that apart from the standard teachings of later Bolognese sources, it also treats the use of Medieval weapons and armor. Cesari and Rubboli speculate that it was written by [[Guido Antonio di Luca]], the master who taught both [[Antonio Manciolino]] and [[Achille Marozzo]], but this ascription has yet to receive popular support.{{cn}}
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'''MSS Ravenna M-345''' and '''346''' are an anonymous [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing manual]] of the Bolognese tradition, probably written at the beginning of the 16th century.{{cn}} The original currently rests in the holdings of the [[Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma]] in Rome, Italy. This manuscript is unique in that apart from the standard teachings of later Bolognese sources, it also treats the use of Medieval weapons and armor. Cesari and Rubboli speculate that it was written by [[Guido Antonio di Luca]], the master who taught both [[Antonio Manciolino]] and [[Achille Marozzo]], but this attribution has yet to receive popular support.
  
 
== Provenance ==
 
== Provenance ==
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|-  
 
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| '''Of the Battle-Axe in Full Armour'''
 
| '''Of the Battle-Axe in Full Armour'''
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1. Finding yourself opposed to your enemy with axe in hand in guardia alta [high guard], with the left foot forward, and with the right hand raised high, finding the left forward with the heel [butt end or lower part] of the axe, you will be able to pass forward with your right foot, and deliver a mandritto [right blow] to the head, provoking the enemy to defend himself with the axe, or with the haft, and that so done you will come to find yourselves with the hafts of the axes crossed together, whereby you will be attentive, so that your enemy wanting to pass forward with his left foot, to beat the haft of your axe with the heel of his, and then to wound your chest or face with the said heel, you will in that tempo [moment of time] lift your axe up high, letting his blow go by void, and suddenly deliver a chop to his head, and this you will do every time that you have found yourself with axes crossed, and your enemy has moved to make such an effect with the heel of his axe.  
 
1. Finding yourself opposed to your enemy with axe in hand in guardia alta [high guard], with the left foot forward, and with the right hand raised high, finding the left forward with the heel [butt end or lower part] of the axe, you will be able to pass forward with your right foot, and deliver a mandritto [right blow] to the head, provoking the enemy to defend himself with the axe, or with the haft, and that so done you will come to find yourselves with the hafts of the axes crossed together, whereby you will be attentive, so that your enemy wanting to pass forward with his left foot, to beat the haft of your axe with the heel of his, and then to wound your chest or face with the said heel, you will in that tempo [moment of time] lift your axe up high, letting his blow go by void, and suddenly deliver a chop to his head, and this you will do every time that you have found yourself with axes crossed, and your enemy has moved to make such an effect with the heel of his axe.  
  
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| 2. Finding yourself with axe in hand opposed to your enemy with your left foot forward in guardia alta, or with the right in porta di ferro stretta [narrow iron door], you will pay attention, so that your enemy wanting to offend you with some blow to the head, if you are in porta di ferro, in that tempo you will take a large step forward with your left foot, speading your arms well outstretched, so that you receive his blow on the haft of your axe between your hands, suddenly turning the heel of your axe with the left [hand] over his head, and catching his neck on the left side, you will procure to pull him strongly backward to the ground, but be aware, that in your stepping it is necessary, that your left leg is positioned to the outside of his right side.
 
| 2. Finding yourself with axe in hand opposed to your enemy with your left foot forward in guardia alta, or with the right in porta di ferro stretta [narrow iron door], you will pay attention, so that your enemy wanting to offend you with some blow to the head, if you are in porta di ferro, in that tempo you will take a large step forward with your left foot, speading your arms well outstretched, so that you receive his blow on the haft of your axe between your hands, suddenly turning the heel of your axe with the left [hand] over his head, and catching his neck on the left side, you will procure to pull him strongly backward to the ground, but be aware, that in your stepping it is necessary, that your left leg is positioned to the outside of his right side.
 +
 
* Porta di ferro stretta seems to be equivalent to the guard of the dague, or pflug. It also appears in Manciolino's instructions on the bill. See e.g. Talhoffer 1459 131r.
 
* Porta di ferro stretta seems to be equivalent to the guard of the dague, or pflug. It also appears in Manciolino's instructions on the bill. See e.g. Talhoffer 1459 131r.
 
| 2. Trovandoti con l'Accia in mano contra al tuo nemico col tuo piede manco innanzi in guardia alta, overo col destro in porta stretta di ferro, starai aveduto, perciò che volendoti con alcun colpo offendere il tuo nemico la testa, passerai in quel tempo se sarai in porta di ferro, gran passo col tuo piede manco innanzi, alargando le braccia ben distese, sì che tu raccogli il suo colpo sopra l'asta de la tua Accia tra l'una e l'altra tua mano, volgendo subito con la manca il calcio de l'Accia tua sopra la sua testa, et pigliatelo nel collo da la banda sinistra, ti procaccierai di tirarlo per il contrario a forza in terra, ma sii accorto, che nel tuo passare farà bisogno, che la tua gamba manca sia posta per fuori dal suo lato destro.  
 
| 2. Trovandoti con l'Accia in mano contra al tuo nemico col tuo piede manco innanzi in guardia alta, overo col destro in porta stretta di ferro, starai aveduto, perciò che volendoti con alcun colpo offendere il tuo nemico la testa, passerai in quel tempo se sarai in porta di ferro, gran passo col tuo piede manco innanzi, alargando le braccia ben distese, sì che tu raccogli il suo colpo sopra l'asta de la tua Accia tra l'una e l'altra tua mano, volgendo subito con la manca il calcio de l'Accia tua sopra la sua testa, et pigliatelo nel collo da la banda sinistra, ti procaccierai di tirarlo per il contrario a forza in terra, ma sii accorto, che nel tuo passare farà bisogno, che la tua gamba manca sia posta per fuori dal suo lato destro.  
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| 6. You will moreover be attentive to harass your enemy, at all times, that being in a quarrel with him, given the opportunity [ti venesse colto di] you can catch him with the horn [the bec de faucon] of the axe in some part of the leg, or of the arm, or in the neck, or in some other part of his person.
 
| 6. You will moreover be attentive to harass your enemy, at all times, that being in a quarrel with him, given the opportunity [ti venesse colto di] you can catch him with the horn [the bec de faucon] of the axe in some part of the leg, or of the arm, or in the neck, or in some other part of his person.
 +
 
* Venire colto seems to be a common enough Italian idiom but I don't know what it means.
 
* Venire colto seems to be a common enough Italian idiom but I don't know what it means.
 
| 6. Serai anchora aveduto di atterrare il tuo nemico, ogni volta, che essendo seco a zuffa, ti venesse colto di poterlo prendere col corno de l'Accia in alcuna dele gambe, o delle braccia, o nel collo, o in alcuna altra parte dela persona.
 
| 6. Serai anchora aveduto di atterrare il tuo nemico, ogni volta, che essendo seco a zuffa, ti venesse colto di poterlo prendere col corno de l'Accia in alcuna dele gambe, o delle braccia, o nel collo, o in alcuna altra parte dela persona.
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| 7. So that you you will never have to give in [rimanere], being given the opportunity [venedoti colto di], wound with a thrust in the face, or in whatever other part his body is convenient [ti venesse destro], that you find unarmed, such as the testicles, or groin, as you please.
 
| 7. So that you you will never have to give in [rimanere], being given the opportunity [venedoti colto di], wound with a thrust in the face, or in whatever other part his body is convenient [ti venesse destro], that you find unarmed, such as the testicles, or groin, as you please.
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* I'm not sure what venire destro means either, or rimanere in this context.
 
* I'm not sure what venire destro means either, or rimanere in this context.
 
| 7. Così non ti dovrai mai rimanere, venendoti colto, di ferirlo di una punta ne la faccia, o in qualunque altra parte de la persona ti venesse destro, che non si trovasse armata, come ne li testicoli, o petenecchio, che dir ti piaccia.
 
| 7. Così non ti dovrai mai rimanere, venendoti colto, di ferirlo di una punta ne la faccia, o in qualunque altra parte de la persona ti venesse destro, che non si trovasse armata, come ne li testicoli, o petenecchio, che dir ti piaccia.
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| 9. But if you found yourself with your right foot forward in the manner of the porta di ferro stretta, and that your enemy thrust at you with the spike of the axe, to wound your throat, or groin, or foremost foot, you will be able in that same tempo to try taking with the horn of your axe that of your enemy, giving him a tremendous pull toward you in order to remove it from his hands, and maybe it will be no marvel, removing it from them, with this being so, that in that tempo, that he will strike the blow at you, you take his axe and pull, he not having in it more force than this, that he could have, I firmly believe, that you will accomplish your intention, yet even it did not come to you, subsequently you will move your right foot somewhat forward giving him the spike [of your axe] with all your force in the groin on [or above] the testicles and note, that if you are wary with this art, and courageous, the enemy may do what he wants, and yet he will remain, against his will, conquered and taken prisoner.
 
| 9. But if you found yourself with your right foot forward in the manner of the porta di ferro stretta, and that your enemy thrust at you with the spike of the axe, to wound your throat, or groin, or foremost foot, you will be able in that same tempo to try taking with the horn of your axe that of your enemy, giving him a tremendous pull toward you in order to remove it from his hands, and maybe it will be no marvel, removing it from them, with this being so, that in that tempo, that he will strike the blow at you, you take his axe and pull, he not having in it more force than this, that he could have, I firmly believe, that you will accomplish your intention, yet even it did not come to you, subsequently you will move your right foot somewhat forward giving him the spike [of your axe] with all your force in the groin on [or above] the testicles and note, that if you are wary with this art, and courageous, the enemy may do what he wants, and yet he will remain, against his will, conquered and taken prisoner.
 +
 
* I don't understand a lot of this.
 
* I don't understand a lot of this.
 
| 9. Ma se tu ti trovassi col tuo piede destro avanti in guisa di porta stretta di ferro, et che lo nemico tuo, ti spingesse del spontone de l'Accia, per ferirti la gola, o il pettenicchio, o li piedi anteposti, potrai far opra di prendere nel medesmo tempo con il corno de l'Accia quella de lo nimico, dandogli una grandissima tratta verso di te per cagione di levargliela di mano, et forse non serà meraviglia, levandogliela, con ciò sia cosa, che in quello tempo, che ti tirerà il colpo, tu prendi l'Accia sua et tiri non havendo egli in lei più forza di quello, che haver si pote, porto ferma credenza, che ti verrà colto il tuo pensiero, pur se non ti venisse, successivamente scorrerai col tuo piede destro alquanto innanzi dandogli del spontone con tutta la forza tua nel pettenecchio sopra gli testicoli et nota, che se con questa arte tu starai aveduto, et animoso, faccia ciò che vole el nemico, et pur rimarà , mal suo grado, vinto et pregione.
 
| 9. Ma se tu ti trovassi col tuo piede destro avanti in guisa di porta stretta di ferro, et che lo nemico tuo, ti spingesse del spontone de l'Accia, per ferirti la gola, o il pettenicchio, o li piedi anteposti, potrai far opra di prendere nel medesmo tempo con il corno de l'Accia quella de lo nimico, dandogli una grandissima tratta verso di te per cagione di levargliela di mano, et forse non serà meraviglia, levandogliela, con ciò sia cosa, che in quello tempo, che ti tirerà il colpo, tu prendi l'Accia sua et tiri non havendo egli in lei più forza di quello, che haver si pote, porto ferma credenza, che ti verrà colto il tuo pensiero, pur se non ti venisse, successivamente scorrerai col tuo piede destro alquanto innanzi dandogli del spontone con tutta la forza tua nel pettenecchio sopra gli testicoli et nota, che se con questa arte tu starai aveduto, et animoso, faccia ciò che vole el nemico, et pur rimarà , mal suo grado, vinto et pregione.
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| If you are in ''coda lunga stretta'' however with your left foot forward, and your opponent throws a partisan thrust to your chest, you should immediately pass your right leg forward. Having driven your sword's true edge into his weapon, you should push it far over to his right, beating it to the floor on that side. You should then turn your left leg so that it straddles your right,* then without hesitation pass forward with your right to give him a ''roverso'' to the face, or thrust to the chest. As before having parried your enemy's attack, you can grab the pole of his weapon by raising your left hand, not releasing it for any reason.
 
| If you are in ''coda lunga stretta'' however with your left foot forward, and your opponent throws a partisan thrust to your chest, you should immediately pass your right leg forward. Having driven your sword's true edge into his weapon, you should push it far over to his right, beating it to the floor on that side. You should then turn your left leg so that it straddles your right,* then without hesitation pass forward with your right to give him a ''roverso'' to the face, or thrust to the chest. As before having parried your enemy's attack, you can grab the pole of his weapon by raising your left hand, not releasing it for any reason.
 +
 
* i.e. performing a girata or analogous action.
 
* i.e. performing a girata or analogous action.
 
|  
 
|  
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| '''On the method of fighting with the sword and grabbing gauntlet'''
 
| '''On the method of fighting with the sword and grabbing gauntlet'''
 +
 
You can set yourself against your enemy in ''coda lunga e stretta'' with your left foot forward, keeping your glove hand together with your sword hand, making sure that your right foot pushes your left forward from this position. Do not attempt an attack but keep your eye fixed on the enemy's sword hand. When he attempts any type of blow to your upper body, in whichever manner he pleases, be they ''stoccate'', ''imbroccate'', overhand, underhand, or attacks of any other type, you should parry with your sword in ''guardia di testa'', and with gracious dexterity grab his sword from the inside with your gauntlet hand.
 
You can set yourself against your enemy in ''coda lunga e stretta'' with your left foot forward, keeping your glove hand together with your sword hand, making sure that your right foot pushes your left forward from this position. Do not attempt an attack but keep your eye fixed on the enemy's sword hand. When he attempts any type of blow to your upper body, in whichever manner he pleases, be they ''stoccate'', ''imbroccate'', overhand, underhand, or attacks of any other type, you should parry with your sword in ''guardia di testa'', and with gracious dexterity grab his sword from the inside with your gauntlet hand.
 
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{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
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== Copyright and License Summary ==
 +
 +
For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the [[Talk:{{PAGENAME}}|discussion page]].
 +
 +
<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
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{{sourcebox
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| work        = Images
 +
| authors    =
 +
| source link =
 +
| source title=
 +
| license    = public domain
 +
}}
 +
{{sourcebox
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| work        = Translation
 +
| authors    = [[Jon Pellett]]
 +
| source link = http://www.angelfire.com/planet/megalophias/anonimopollaxe.html
 +
| source title= MEGALOPHIAS His Page
 +
| license    = noncommercial
 +
}}
 +
{{sourcebox
 +
| work        = Translation
 +
| authors    = [[Piermarco Terminiello]]
 +
| source link = http://schoolofthesword.com/Three%20Short%20Chapters%20from%20the%20Anonimo%20Bolognese.pdf
 +
| source title= School of the Sword
 +
| license    = noncommercial
 +
}}
 +
{{sourcebox
 +
| work        = Transcription
 +
| authors    =
 +
| source link =
 +
| source title= [[Index:Anonimo Bolognese (MSS Ravenna M-345/M-346)]]
 +
| license    =
 +
}}
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{{sourcebox footer}}<section end="sourcebox"/>
  
 
[[Category:Treatises]]
 
[[Category:Treatises]]

Revision as of 21:55, 4 January 2015

Anonimo Bolognese
MSS Ravenna M-345/346
Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma, Rome, Italy
Noscans.png
(No scans available)
WiktenauerLeng
WierschinHils
Type Fencing manual
Date ca. 1510s
Place of origin Bologna, Italy
Language(s) Italian
Ascribed to Guido Antonio di Luca
Other translations Traduction française

MSS Ravenna M-345 and 346 are an anonymous Italian fencing manual of the Bolognese tradition, probably written at the beginning of the 16th century.[citation needed] The original currently rests in the holdings of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma in Rome, Italy. This manuscript is unique in that apart from the standard teachings of later Bolognese sources, it also treats the use of Medieval weapons and armor. Cesari and Rubboli speculate that it was written by Guido Antonio di Luca, the master who taught both Antonio Manciolino and Achille Marozzo, but this attribution has yet to receive popular support.

Provenance

Contents

???
???
???

Gallery

Additional Resources

References

Copyright and License Summary

For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.

Work Author(s) Source License
Images
Public Domain.png
Translation Jon Pellett MEGALOPHIAS His Page
CCBYNCSA30.png
Translation Piermarco Terminiello School of the Sword
CCBYNCSA30.png
Transcription Index:Anonimo Bolognese (MSS Ravenna M-345/M-346)
CCBYSA30.png