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| Date              = [[year::1404|before 1404 (?)]]
 
| Date              = [[year::1404|before 1404 (?)]]
 
| Place of origin    = Milan, Italy
 
| Place of origin    = Milan, Italy
| Language(s)        = [[language::Middle Italian]]
+
| Language(s)        = Venetian (Italian){{#set: language = Middle Italian }}
 
| Scribe(s)          = Unknown
 
| Scribe(s)          = Unknown
 
| Author(s)          = [[author::Fiore de'i Liberi]]
 
| Author(s)          = [[author::Fiore de'i Liberi]]
 
| Compiled by        =  
 
| Compiled by        =  
| Illuminated by    = [[artist::Altichiero da Zevio]] (?)
+
| Illuminated by    = [[artist::Altichiero da Zevio]] (or follower)
 
| Patron            =  
 
| Patron            =  
 
| Dedicated to      =  
 
| Dedicated to      =  
Line 46: Line 46:
 
| below              =  
 
| below              =  
 
}}
 
}}
'''''Fior di Battaglia''''' ("The Flower of Battle", B1.370.A MS M.0383) is a contemporary copy<ref>It does not match the descriptions of any of the fencing manuscripts in the d'Este library in the 15th century.</ref> of an [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing manual]] authored by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]], probably created some time in or before 1404. The original currently rests in the holdings of the [[Morgan Library & Museum]] in New York City, New York. MS M.383 is written on vellum in a modern biding in a neat [[humanist]] script; the illustrations are inked sketches with gold leafing on the crowns and garters and silver enamel on the metallic elements of the weapons (this has degraded to a glossy black through oxidation and corrosion). This manuscript is typically referred to as the '''Morgan''' (or sometimes the Pierpont Morgan or PML).
+
'''''Fior di Battaglia''''' ("The Flower of Battle", B1.370.A MS M.0383) is an [[nationality::Italian]] [[fencing manual]] authored by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]], probably created some time in or before 1404. The original currently rests in the holdings of the [[Morgan Library & Museum]] in New York City, New York. MS M.383 is written on vellum in a neat [[semigothic]] script; the illustrations are inked sketches with gold leafing on the crowns and garters and silver leafing on the metallic elements of some weapons (this has oxidized to a very dark grey over the centuries). This manuscript is typically referred to as the '''Morgan''' (or sometimes the Pierpont Morgan or PML).
  
The treatise itself is the briefest known version of Fiore's work, containing only 19 folia (all individual leaves). It has a preface in Italian and one to four illustrated figures per page in the main body; the figures are accompanied by descriptive paragraphs set in poor Italian verse which are nevertheless fairly clear and informative, and generally comparable to that of the [[Fior_di_Battaglia_(MS_Ludwig_XV_13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]] (excepting differences in spelling), though at times they include additional explanation. The MS M.383 was almost certainly longer when it was first written; its text makes reference to sections on poleaxe, dagger, and grappling which are not present in the book's current state, as well as a certain play of the sword in one hand which is likewise missing from that section. Furthermore, the manuscript is composed of individual cut leaves rather than quires of bifolia, which means that there is no indicator of the original order of the surviving pages.<ref>The description in this section is derived from an examination of the manuscript by [[Michael Chidester]]; the presumed date is based on the fact that it seems to be related in some fashion to the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig XV 13]], which is presumed to date to 1404.</ref>
+
The treatise itself is the briefest known version of Fiore's work, containing only 20 folia (all individual leaves). It has a preface in Italian and one to four illustrated figures per page in the main body; the figures are accompanied by descriptive paragraphs set in poor Italian verse which are nevertheless fairly clear and informative, and generally comparable to that of the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]] (excepting differences in spelling), though at times they include additional explanation. The artwork is reminiscent of the work of [[Altichiero da Zevio]], but given the timeline it would more likely be the work of an artist influenced by him (or a manuscript produced fairly early in Fiore's career).
 +
 
 +
The MS M.383 was almost certainly longer when it was first written; its text makes reference to sections on poleaxe, dagger, and grappling which are not present in the book's current state, as well as a certain play of the sword in one hand which is likewise missing from that section. Furthermore, the manuscript is composed of individual cut leaves rather than quires of bifolia, which means that there is no indicator of the original order of the surviving pages.<ref>The description in this section is derived from an examination of the manuscript by [[Michael Chidester]]; the presumed date is based on the fact that it seems to be related in some fashion to the [[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13]], which is presumed to date to 1404.</ref>
  
 
== Provenance ==
 
== Provenance ==
  
The known provenance of the MS M.383 is:<ref>See [http://corsair.themorgan.org/msdescr/BBM0383a.pdf "Curatorial description".] [http://corsair.themorgan.org/msdescr/BBM0383.htm CORSAIR Collection Catalog]. [[Morgan Library & Museum]]. Retrieved 12 November 2012.</ref>
+
The known provenance of the MS M.383 is:<ref>Based in part on [http://corsair.themorgan.org/msdescr/BBM0383a.pdf "Curatorial description".] [http://corsair.themorgan.org/msdescr/BBM0383.htm CORSAIR Collection Catalog]. [[Morgan Library & Museum]]. Retrieved 12 November 2012.</ref>
  
 
* Probably written between some time in the first decade of the 1400s.
 
* Probably written between some time in the first decade of the 1400s.
 +
* before 1474 – owned by Niccolò Marcello di Santa Marina of Venice.
 +
* ca. 1699 – gifted to Apostolo Zeno (1668-1750), who created a [[Fior di Battaglia (MS XXIV)|copy of the preface]].
 
* before 1780 – it occupied ff 241-259 of a larger collective binding titled, ''Arte di armeggiare a piedi ed acavallo'' (codex Soranzo MCCLXI) in the Biblioteca Soranzo in Venice (Library of Jacopo Soranzo, Venetian senator, 18th century). The other contents of this codex are unknown.
 
* before 1780 – it occupied ff 241-259 of a larger collective binding titled, ''Arte di armeggiare a piedi ed acavallo'' (codex Soranzo MCCLXI) in the Biblioteca Soranzo in Venice (Library of Jacopo Soranzo, Venetian senator, 18th century). The other contents of this codex are unknown.
 
* 1780-1835 – the collection of the Venetian former Jesuit Matteo Luigi Canonici (1727-c.1806) (sold London, [[Sotheby's]], June 15, 1836, no. 40).
 
* 1780-1835 – the collection of the Venetian former Jesuit Matteo Luigi Canonici (1727-c.1806) (sold London, [[Sotheby's]], June 15, 1836, no. 40).
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{| class="treatise"
 
{| class="treatise"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! id="page" | Cover
+
! id="page" | [[Fiore de'i Liberi|1r - 2r]]
| {{treatise begin
 
  | title = Front matter
 
  | width = 28em
 
}}
 
{| class="treatisecontent"
 
|-
 
! <p>Transcription{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
|-
 
| '''[Inside cover]'''
 
Upper left: the number "228" in a frame (sticker)
 
 
 
:V<br/>4<br/>B<br/> (in pencil)
 
 
 
Center: "Ex libris Gualteri Sneyd" surrounding a coat of arms (sticker)
 
 
 
:Sale Lond. 25 June 1836 No.40 (in pencil)
 
 
 
:"John Pierpont Morgan " surrounding a coat of arms (sticker)
 
 
 
:M.383 (in pencil)
 
 
 
Botton right: "SURREZ LAHEY" (stamped in leather edge)
 
|-
 
| [Three blank parchment leaves]
 
|}
 
{{treatise end}}
 
 
 
|-
 
! [[Fiore de'i Liberi|1r - 2r]]
 
 
| Preface by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
 
| Preface by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
  
Line 104: Line 79:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
! [[Fiore de'i Liberi|8r - 8v]]
+
! [[Fiore de'i Liberi|8rv]]
 
| [[Spear]] vs. cavalry by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
 
| [[Spear]] vs. cavalry by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
! [[Fiore de'i Liberi|9r - 9v]]
+
! [[Fiore de'i Liberi|9rv]]
 
| Spear by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
 
| Spear by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
  
Line 120: Line 95:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
! [[Fiore de'i Liberi|17r]], [[Fiore de'i Liberi|18r - 18v]]
+
! [[Fiore de'i Liberi|17r]], [[Fiore de'i Liberi|18rv]]
 
| Sword vs. [[dagger]] by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
 
| Sword vs. [[dagger]] by [[Fiore de'i Liberi]]
  
Line 139: Line 114:
 
| Blank
 
| Blank
  
|-
 
! Cover
 
| {{treatise begin
 
  | title = Rear matter
 
  | width = 28em
 
}}
 
{| class="treatisecontent"
 
|-
 
! <p>Transcription{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
|-
 
| [Three blank parchment leaves]
 
|-
 
| '''[Inside cover]'''
 
Upper left: "De Marinis 1909" (in pencil)
 
 
Center: [modern paste-in] Fiore de' Liberi was the greatest Italian swordsman of the XIVth century. After an active military career, he was summoned to the court of Niccolo III d'Este at Ferrara, to instruct the younger princes in military science. Upon his honorable retirement in 1409, he complied with the request of his prince to compile a book on the art of the duel, in order that his vast experience might be preserved to future generations. The result of his labors was the Flos Duellatorum.
 
 
Of the two contemporary copies of the original, one is preserved in the library of Marchese d'Este, the other is the property of Sig. Alberto Pisano-Dossi.
 
|}
 
{{treatise end}}
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
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== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==
  
* [[Fiore de'i Liberi|dei Liberi, Fiore]]; Leoni, Tommaso. ''Fiore de’ Liberi’s Fior di Battaglia''. 1st ed. [http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/fiore-de-liberis-fior-di-battaglia/5364635 Lulu.com], 2009. 2nd ed. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2012.
+
* Leoni, Tom. ''Fiore de’ Liberi’s Fior di Battaglia''. 1st ed. [http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/fiore-de-liberis-fior-di-battaglia/5364635 Lulu.com], 2009. 2nd ed. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2012.
* [[Fiore de'i Liberi|dei Liberi, Fiore]]; [[Marco Rubboli|Rubboli, Marco]]; [[Luca Cesari|Cesari, Luca]] (in Italian). ''Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del XV secolo''. Rome: [[Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali]], 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1.
+
* Malipiero, Massimo (in Italian). ''Il Fior di battaglia di Fiore dei Liberi da Cividale: Il Codice Ludwing ⅩⅤ 13 del J. Paul Getty Museum''. Udine: Ribis, 2006. ISBN 887-44503-5-4
* Malipiero, Massimo (in Italian). ''Il Fior di battaglia di Fiore dei Liberi da Cividale: Il Codice Ludwing XV 13 del J. Paul Getty Museum''. Udine: Ribis, 2006. ISBN 88-7445-035-4.
+
* Палій, Людмила Іванівна (in Ukrainian). "Витоки художнього стилю ілюстрацій «Квітки Битви» майстра Фіоре Фріулано деі Лібері". ''Науковий вісник Ужгородського університету'' '''2'''(43): 84-102, 2020. {{doi|10.24144/2523-4498.2(43).2020.217366}}
 +
* [[Marco Rubboli|Rubboli, Marco]]; [[Luca Cesari|Cesari, Luca]] (in Italian). ''Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del ⅩⅤ secolo''. Rome: [[Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali]], 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1
 +
* Mellini, Gian Lorenzo. “Disegni di Altic‍iero e della sua scuola, 2.” ''Critica d’Arte'' ⅬⅢ-ⅬⅣ:9-19, 1962.
 +
* [[Luigi Zanutto|Zanutto, Luigi]] (in Italian). ''[http://www.historicalfencing.org/PDF/Zanutto-Fiore%20da%20Premariacco.pdf Fiore di Premariacco ed I Ludi e Le Feste Marziali e Civili in Friuli]''. Udine: D. Del Bianco, 1907.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
Line 243: Line 201:
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = Transcription
 
| work        = Transcription
| authors    = Open for editing
+
| authors    = [[Michael Chidester]]
 
| source link =  
 
| source link =  
 
| source title= [[Index:Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)]]
 
| source title= [[Index:Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)]]

Revision as of 21:12, 4 May 2021

Il Fior di Battaglia
B1.370.A MS M.0383, Morgan Library & Museum
New York City, New York
MS M.383 1r.png
Title page, fol. 1r
WiktenauerLeng
WierschinHils
Type
Date before 1404 (?)
Place of origin Milan, Italy
Language(s) Venetian (Italian)
Scribe(s) Unknown
Author(s) Fiore de'i Liberi
Illustrated by Altichiero da Zevio (or follower)
Material Vellum, in a modern binding
Size 20 folia (195 mm × 277 mm)
Format Double-sided; four illustrations per side,
with text above
External data Library catalog entry
Treatise scans

Fior di Battaglia ("The Flower of Battle", B1.370.A MS M.0383) is an Italian fencing manual authored by Fiore de'i Liberi, probably created some time in or before 1404. The original currently rests in the holdings of the Morgan Library & Museum in New York City, New York. MS M.383 is written on vellum in a neat semigothic script; the illustrations are inked sketches with gold leafing on the crowns and garters and silver leafing on the metallic elements of some weapons (this has oxidized to a very dark grey over the centuries). This manuscript is typically referred to as the Morgan (or sometimes the Pierpont Morgan or PML).

The treatise itself is the briefest known version of Fiore's work, containing only 20 folia (all individual leaves). It has a preface in Italian and one to four illustrated figures per page in the main body; the figures are accompanied by descriptive paragraphs set in poor Italian verse which are nevertheless fairly clear and informative, and generally comparable to that of the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 (excepting differences in spelling), though at times they include additional explanation. The artwork is reminiscent of the work of Altichiero da Zevio, but given the timeline it would more likely be the work of an artist influenced by him (or a manuscript produced fairly early in Fiore's career).

The MS M.383 was almost certainly longer when it was first written; its text makes reference to sections on poleaxe, dagger, and grappling which are not present in the book's current state, as well as a certain play of the sword in one hand which is likewise missing from that section. Furthermore, the manuscript is composed of individual cut leaves rather than quires of bifolia, which means that there is no indicator of the original order of the surviving pages.[1]

Provenance

The known provenance of the MS M.383 is:[2]

  • Probably written between some time in the first decade of the 1400s.
  • before 1474 – owned by Niccolò Marcello di Santa Marina of Venice.
  • ca. 1699 – gifted to Apostolo Zeno (1668-1750), who created a copy of the preface.
  • before 1780 – it occupied ff 241-259 of a larger collective binding titled, Arte di armeggiare a piedi ed acavallo (codex Soranzo MCCLXI) in the Biblioteca Soranzo in Venice (Library of Jacopo Soranzo, Venetian senator, 18th century). The other contents of this codex are unknown.
  • 1780-1835 – the collection of the Venetian former Jesuit Matteo Luigi Canonici (1727-c.1806) (sold London, Sotheby's, June 15, 1836, no. 40).
  • 1835-1903 – owned by Rev. Walter Sneyd of Bagington Rectory, Coventry (sold London, Sotheby's, Dec. 19, 1903, no. 720).
  • 1903-1909 – owned by Tammaro de Marinis (catalog 8, 1908, plate 9).
  • 1909-1913 – owned by John Pierpont Morgan.
  • 1913-1924 – owned by John Pierpont Morgan, Jr. (donated 1924).
  • 1924-present – held by the Morgan Library & Museum. Current binding by J. Clarke.

Contents

1r - 2r Preface by Fiore de'i Liberi
2v - 8r Mounted fencing by Fiore de'i Liberi
8rv Spear vs. cavalry by Fiore de'i Liberi
9rv Spear by Fiore de'i Liberi
10r - 11v Sword in Armor by Fiore de'i Liberi
12r - 16v Sword in two hands by Fiore de'i Liberi
17r, 18rv Sword vs. dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi
17v, 19r Sword in one hand by Fiore de'i Liberi
18r Sword vs. spear by Fiore de'i Liberi
18r Spear and dagger vs. spear by Fiore de'i Liberi
19v - 20v Blank

Gallery

Current manuscript

MS M.383 consists of twenty individual cut leaves rather than quires of bifolia, and the current sequence of leaves is probably not original; for a speculative reconstruction of its original state, see Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)/Reconstruction. While it seems likely that there are at least two missing leaves, there's no evidence upon which to speculate meaningfully about the original quire structure (the Getty manuscript, for example, has a wildly variable structure).

This manuscript was unbound in 2016 for photography and conservation, and it has not yet been rebound.

Folio 1r
MS M.383 1r.png
Folio 1v
MS M.383 1v.png
Folio 2r
MS M.383 2r.png
Folio 2v
MS M.383 2v.png
Folio 3r
MS M.383 3r.png
Folio 3v
MS M.383 3v.png
Folio 4r
MS M.383 4r.png
Folio 4v
MS M.383 4v.png
Folio 5r
MS M.383 5r.png
Folio 5v
MS M.383 5v.png
Folio 6r
MS M.383 6r.png
Folio 6v
MS M.383 6v.png
Folio 7r
MS M.383 7r.png
Folio 7v
MS M.383 7v.png
Folio 8r
MS M.383 8r.png
Folio 8v
MS M.383 8v.png
Folio 9r
MS M.383 9r.png
Folio 9v
MS M.383 9v.png
Folio 10r
MS M.383 10r.png
Folio 10v
MS M.383 10v.png
Folio 11r
MS M.383 11r.png
Folio 11v
MS M.383 11v.png
Folio 12r
MS M.383 12r.png
Folio 12v
MS M.383 12v.png
Folio 13r
MS M.383 13r.png
Folio 13v
MS M.383 13v.png
Folio 14r
MS M.383 14r.png
Folio 14v
MS M.383 14v.png
Folio 15r
MS M.383 15r.png
Folio 15v
MS M.383 15v.png
Folio 16r
MS M.383 16r.png
Folio 16v
MS M.383 16v.png
Folio 17r
MS M.383 17r.png
Folio 17v
MS M.383 17v.png
Folio 18r
MS M.383 18r.png
Folio 18v
MS M.383 18v.png
Folio 19r
MS M.383 19r.png
Folio 19v
MS M.383 19v.png
Folio 20r
MS M.383 20r.png
Folio 20v
MS M.383 20v.png

Previous binding

As indicated above, the original binding of the manuscript was lost by the 18th century. It was most recently rebound in the early 20th century after being acquired by J. P. Morgan, as pictured here, but this cover was subsequently discarded in 2016.

Front Cover
MS M.383 Cover 1.png
Inside Cover
MS M.383 Cover 2.png
Inside Cover
MS M.383 Cover 3.png
Back Cover
MS M.383 Cover 4.png

Additional Resources

  • Leoni, Tom. Fiore de’ Liberi’s Fior di Battaglia. 1st ed. Lulu.com, 2009. 2nd ed. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2012.
  • Malipiero, Massimo (in Italian). Il Fior di battaglia di Fiore dei Liberi da Cividale: Il Codice Ludwing ⅩⅤ 13 del J. Paul Getty Museum. Udine: Ribis, 2006. ISBN 887-44503-5-4
  • Палій, Людмила Іванівна (in Ukrainian). "Витоки художнього стилю ілюстрацій «Квітки Битви» майстра Фіоре Фріулано деі Лібері". Науковий вісник Ужгородського університету 2(43): 84-102, 2020. doi:10.24144/2523-4498.2(43).2020.217366
  • Rubboli, Marco; Cesari, Luca (in Italian). Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del ⅩⅤ secolo. Rome: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1
  • Mellini, Gian Lorenzo. “Disegni di Altic‍iero e della sua scuola, 2.” Critica d’Arte ⅬⅢ-ⅬⅣ:9-19, 1962.
  • Zanutto, Luigi (in Italian). Fiore di Premariacco ed I Ludi e Le Feste Marziali e Civili in Friuli. Udine: D. Del Bianco, 1907.

References

  1. The description in this section is derived from an examination of the manuscript by Michael Chidester; the presumed date is based on the fact that it seems to be related in some fashion to the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13, which is presumed to date to 1404.
  2. Based in part on "Curatorial description". CORSAIR Collection Catalog. Morgan Library & Museum. Retrieved 12 November 2012.

Copyright and License Summary

For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.

Work Author(s) Source License
Images Morgan Library & Museum Morgan Library & Museum
Public Domain.png
Transcription Michael Chidester Index:Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)
CCBYNCSA30.png