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Difference between revisions of "Fiore de'i Liberi/Mounted Fencing"

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! <p><includeonly><span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;{{edit|Fiore de'i Liberi/Mounted Fencing|edit}}&#93;</span> &nbsp; </includeonly>Images</p>
 
! <p><includeonly><span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;{{edit|Fiore de'i Liberi/Mounted Fencing|edit}}&#93;</span> &nbsp; </includeonly>Images</p>
 
! <p>Images</p>
 
! <p>Images</p>
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[Matt Easton]] and [[Eleonora Durban]]</p>
+
! <p>''{{rating|B|PD}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|none|Paris (Open for translation)}}''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>''{{rating|none|Paris (Open for translation)}}''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]]{{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS M.383)}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" |  
 
| rowspan="2" |  
'''[1]''' <em>I carry my lance in the Boar's Tusk:<br/>
+
[1] <em>I carry my lance in the Boar's Tusk:<br/>
 
To deviate yours, I will make mine enter.</em>
 
To deviate yours, I will make mine enter.</em>
  
I carry my lance in ''Posta di Dente di Cinghiale'', because I am well armoured, and therefore I have a shorter lance than my fellow’s, and I  manage to rebat his spear out of the path, hence to the traverse or upwards. In this way I will hit his lance with mine, one arm inside with the branch of my staff, and my lance will slide into his ______. And his lance will go out of the path, away from me, and I will do it in this way.
+
I carry my lance in the guard Boar’s Tooth, because I am well-armoured and have a shorter lance than my opponent. My intention is to beat his lance offline as I raise mine diagonally. And this will result in our lances crossing each other at about an arm’s length from the point. My lance however will then run into his body, while his will pass offline far from me. And that is how this is done.
  
[This saying goes to the King hereby.]
+
(This text applies to the drawing on the right.)
 
| rowspan="2" |  
 
| rowspan="2" |  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
  
I carry my lance in the Stance of the Wild Boar's Tusk because I am well armored and have a shorter lance than my companion. And so I make my strategy to beat his lance out of the way (so that it is off to one side and not high), and thus I will strike with my lance to his and enter with an arm on my haft, and my lance will run into his person. And his lance will go out of the way far from me, and in such fashion will I do it as is written and depicted here.
+
I carry my lance in the Stance of the Wild Boar's Tusk because I am well-armored and have a shorter lance than my companion. And so I make my strategy to beat his lance out of the way (so that it is off to one side and not high), and thus will I strike with my lance to his and enter with an arm on my haft, and my lance will run into his person. And his lance will go out of the way far from me, and in such fashion will I do it as is written and depicted here.
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[2]''' <em>In the Boar's Tusk I carry my lance;<br/>
+
[2] <em>In the Boar's Tusk I carry my lance;<br/>
 
To beat and to strike are always my method.</em>
 
To beat and to strike are always my method.</em>
  
This is the counter of the lance play before, that is, when one runs towards the other with loose stirrups, and one has a shorter lance than the other’s. When the one who has the shorter lance carries his lance low in ''Dente di Cinghiale'', the one with the longer lance has to move it downwards as well, so that the shorter one can not rebat the longer one, as it is drawn here.
+
This is the counter to the previous play when one rides against another with sharp steel, but one has a shorter lance than the other. When he who has the shorter lance carries it low in the Boar’s Tusk, then he with the longer lance should similarly carry his lance low, as drawn here, so that the short lance cannot beat aside the long lance.
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 79: Line 79:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[3]''' <em>Because of the short lance that I hold, I come in the Stance of the Queen:<br/>
+
[3] <em>Because of the short lance that I hold, I come in the Stance of the Queen:<br/>
 
To beat and to strike, I hold myself certain.</em>
 
To beat and to strike, I hold myself certain.</em>
  
This is another way of conducting a lance against another. This Master has a short spear and carries it in ''Posta de Donna la Sinistra'', as you can see, to strike back and hit the opponent.
+
This is another way of conducting a lance against another. This Master has a short spear and carries it in Guard of the Lady on the left, as you can see, to strike back and hit the opponent.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/>
Line 98: Line 98:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 28v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS M.383 3v-b.jpg|300px|center|link=http://ica.princeton.edu/images/morgan/m383.003vb.jpg]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 41v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[4]''' <em>To waste you or your horse, I make this throw:<br/>
+
[4] <em>To waste you or your horse, I make this throw:<br/>
 
And I will come to you to attack with my sword.</em>
 
And I will come to you to attack with my sword.</em>
  
Line 107: Line 107:
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
  
If I throw my lance into the chest of your horse, your beat will fail. And as soon as I've thrown my lance, I will take up the sword for my defense and with your lance you will not do me offense.
+
If I throw my lance into the chest of your horse, your beat will fail. And as soon as I’ve thrown my lance, I will take up the sword for my defense and with your lance you will not do me offense.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
Line 117: Line 117:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
Again this Master carries his spear in ''Posta di Donna la Sinistra'' to strike back the spear the opponent wants to throw at him. And this rebat he wants to perform with a lance could also be done with a stick or a short sword.
+
This Master also carries his lance in Guard of the Lady on the left, in order to knock aside the spear his opponent is about to throw at him. Just as he can beat it aside using his lance, so too he could beat it aside using a staff or a short sword.
  
 
''[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]''
Line 131: Line 131:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29r-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29r-a.jpg|300px|center]]
| [[File:MS M.383 4r-b.jpg|300px|center|link=http://ica.princeton.edu/images/morgan/m383.004rb.jpg]]
+
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 42r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[5]''' <em>Fleeing, I cannot make any other defense<br/>
+
[5] <em>Fleeing, I cannot make any other defense<br/>
 
And so I turn myself to the right and will make you offense.</em>
 
And so I turn myself to the right and will make you offense.</em>
  
This Master who is running away is not armoured, and has a very fast horse, and he always goes thrusting with his lance towards his back to hit the opponent. And if he turned around to the front he could as well enter in ''Dente di Cinghiale'' with his lance, or in ''Posta di Donna la Sinistra'', and strike back and finish up, as it can be done, in the first and third play of spear.
+
This master who is fleeing is not wearing armor and rides a horse built for speed, and as he flees he constantly throws his lance point behind him so as to strike at his opponent. And if were to turn his horse to the right he could quickly enter into the Boar’s Tusk guard with his lance, or he could take the left side Guard of the Lady, to beat aside his opponent’s weapon and finish him in similar fashion to the first and the third plays of the lance.
  
 
''[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
Line 153: Line 153:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS M.383 4r-c.jpg|300px|center|link=http://ica.princeton.edu/images/morgan/m383.004rd.jpg]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 42r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[6]''' <em>I make the counter to your guard,<br/>
+
[6] <em>With my sword, I will beat your lance,<br/>
And your horse I will strike without any trouble.</em>
+
And with either the point or the edge I will strike you.</em>
  
This is the counter to the play before, because this Master lowers his lance to hit the horse in the head or in the chest, and the opponent can not rebat so low with his sword.
+
This method of carrying the sword against the lance is well suited for beating aside your opponent’s lance when you are passing him on his right side. And this guard is effective against all hand held weapons, namely poleaxe, staff, sword, etc.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
  
This is the counter to the play that came before. And this Master with the lance carries it low to strike the horse in the head and in the chest, because his companion cannot reach so low with his sword.
+
This carry of the sword against the lance is very good for beating the lance while riding to the right side of your companion. And this guard is good against all other handheld weapons—that is, against the ax, the staff, the sword, and so forth.
 +
 
 +
''[Morgan text accompanies previous pairing.]''
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
Line 169: Line 171:
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 30a.jpg|30a-c}}
+
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 30b.jpg|30b-b}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 2v.jpg|2v-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 42v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS M.383 4r-d.jpg|300px|center|link=http://ica.princeton.edu/images/morgan/m383.004rc.jpg]]
 
|  
 
|  
Carrying a sword this way is very good against a lance and very good to strike a lance back riding to the right side of the opponent. And this guard is good against every manual weapon, against axe, stick, sword, et cetera.  
+
[7] <em>I make the counter to your guard,<br/>
 +
And your horse I will strike without any trouble.</em>
 +
 
 +
This is the counter to the previous play. This Master attacks with his lance held low in order to strike his opponent’s horse either in the head or the chest, and the opponent will be unable to beat aside such a low attack with his sword.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master on the right is missing his crown. In the Pisani-Dossi, both Masters are missing their crowns.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master on the right is missing his crown. In the Pisani-Dossi, both Masters are missing their crowns.]''
 
|  
 
|  
This carry of the sword against the lance is very good for beating the lance while riding to the right side of your companion. And this guard is good against all other handheld weapons—that is, against the ax, the staff, the sword, and so forth.
+
<br/><br/>
| {{section|Page:MS M.383 4r.jpg|4r-d}}
+
 
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
+
This is the counter to the play that came before. And this Master with the lance carries it low to strike the horse in the head and in the chest, because his companion cannot reach so low with his sword.
 +
|  
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS M.383 4r.jpg|4r-d}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 30a.jpg|30a-c}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|
 
'''[7]''' <em>With my sword, I will beat your lance,<br/>
 
And with either the point or the edge I will strike you.</em>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
  
 
This carry of the sword is very fine, and it is called by a name that was said before: I carry my sword in the left Queen's Stance. And if this one comes to me with the lance in rest (to strike me and not my horse), I will beat his lance and I will strike him with my sword without fail. Note that the sword cannot defend below the neck of a horse.
 
This carry of the sword is very fine, and it is called by a name that was said before: I carry my sword in the left Queen's Stance. And if this one comes to me with the lance in rest (to strike me and not my horse), I will beat his lance and I will strike him with my sword without fail. Note that the sword cannot defend below the neck of a horse.
 +
 +
''[Morgan text accompanies subsequent pairing.]''
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS M.383 4v.jpg|4v-b}}
 
{{section|Page:MS M.383 4v.jpg|4v-b}}
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 30b.jpg|30b-b}}
+
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 2v.jpg|2v-b}}
+
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 206: Line 216:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 29v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[8]''' <em>So that you do not beat my lance out of the way,<br/>
+
[8] <em>So that you do not beat my lance out of the way,<br/>
 
Under my left arm I carry it in rest.</em>
 
Under my left arm I carry it in rest.</em>
  
Line 229: Line 239:
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 43r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 43r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[9]''' <em>At mid-lance thus I come, well enclosed<br/>
+
[9] <em>At mid-lance thus I come, well enclosed<br/>
 
So that you will delay in beating my lance.<br/>
 
So that you will delay in beating my lance.<br/>
 
I trust I will strike your horse without fail;<br/>
 
I trust I will strike your horse without fail;<br/>
Line 252: Line 262:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
This one with the sword waits for this other one with the lance, and he waits for him in ''Dente di Cinghiale''. As soon as the one with the lance comes close to him, the Master with the sword strikes his lance outwards to the right-hand side. And the one with the sword can do the same, he can cover and hit just in one sword turn.
+
Here the man with the sword awaits the man with the lance, and he is waiting in the Boar’s Tusk guard. As the man with the lance approaches him, the Master with the sword beats aside the lance to the right side, covering and striking with one turn of the sword.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]''
Line 268: Line 278:
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 43r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 43r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[10]''' <em>So that you cannot cross your sword with my [weapon],<br/>
+
[10] <em>So that you cannot cross your sword with my [weapon],<br/>
 
I carry it low to waste your horse.</em>
 
I carry it low to waste your horse.</em>
  
This is the counter to the play of lance and sword before: the one with the lance hit his enemy horse in the head, because he can not strike the lance back so low with his sword.
+
This is the counter to the preceding play of lance versus sword. Here the man with the lance strikes his opponent’s (the man with the sword) horse in the head, because he cannot beat aside the lance with his sword since it is too low.
  
 
''[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
Line 293: Line 303:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 30v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 30v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[11]''' <em>Such a carry of the sword gives me four plays to make:<br/>
+
[11] <em>Such a carry of the sword gives me four plays to make:<br/>
 
I could strike with the point and the edge without fail,<br/>
 
I could strike with the point and the edge without fail,<br/>
 
And also throw someone from horseback or take his sword.<br/>
 
And also throw someone from horseback or take his sword.<br/>
 
Seldom are these things failures to me.</em>
 
Seldom are these things failures to me.</em>
  
Carrying the sword this way is called ''Posta di Coda Longa'', and it is very good against lance, and against any manual weapon, riding on the right-hand side of your enemy. And keep well in mind that thrusts and reverse blows have to be stricken back outwards, that is traversing and not upwards. And in the same way the downwards blows have to be stricken back outwards, rising a little your enemy’s sword. And you can perform the plays according to the drawn figures.
+
This way of carrying the sword is named “the Long Tail Guard”. When you are riding to your opponent’s right side, this is a very good guard to use against the lance and all other hand held weapons. Keep firmly in your mind that thrusts and strikes from the left side should be beaten aside to your outside line, beating them diagonally upwards, not vertically. And the downward strikes should similarly be beaten aside to the outside, lifting your opponent’s sword a little as you do so. You can make these plays as these drawings show.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/><br/>
Line 316: Line 326:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 30v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 30v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[12]''' <em>Of these two guards I make no comparison;<br/>
+
[12] <em>Of these two guards I make no comparison;<br/>
 
Whoever knows more, his judgment will overcome.<br/>
 
Whoever knows more, his judgment will overcome.<br/>
 
And whoever will know to watch for deception<br/>
 
And whoever will know to watch for deception<br/>
 
Will be able to make the four aforesaid plays well.</em>
 
Will be able to make the four aforesaid plays well.</em>
  
Also, this same guard of ''Coda Longa'' is good when someone comes towards you with the sword to the reverse hand side, as this enemy of mine is coming. And you shall know that this guard is good against all the blows coming from the right or the left-hand sides, against anybody who is right or left-handed. And here following the plays of ''Coda Longa'' begin, which rebat always in the way told above in the first guard of ''Coda Longa''.
+
This version of the Long Tail Guard is a good guard when your opponent attacks you from his sword on his left shoulder, as this opponent is shown doing here. And be advised that this guard will work against all attacks from both the right and the left sides, and against anyone, whether right handed or left handed. Hereafter begin the plays from the Long Tail that always begin with beating aside the opponent’s weapon, as you saw drawn in the first guard of the Long Tail.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]''
Line 341: Line 351:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[13]''' <em>This is an equal crossing, without advantage;<br/>
+
[13] <em>This is an equal crossing, without advantage;<br/>
 
Whoever has more art and malice begins the action.</em>
 
Whoever has more art and malice begins the action.</em>
 
|  
 
|  
Line 358: Line 368:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[14]''' <em>This point I gladly have set in your throat<br/>
+
[14] <em>This point I gladly have set in your throat<br/>
 
Per the third Master [13] who demonstrates such a guard.</em>
 
Per the third Master [13] who demonstrates such a guard.</em>
  
This is the first play of the guard of ''Coda Longa'' which is before, that is, the Master rebats his enemy’s sword and thrusts him in the chest, or in the face, as it is drawn here.
+
This is the first play that comes from the Long Tail Guard shown above. Here the Master beats aside his opponent’s sword, and then places a thrust into his chest or his face, as you see drawn here.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
Line 381: Line 391:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[15]''' <em>Per the first Master that is in guard with the sword<br/>
+
[15] <em>Per the first Master that is in guard with the sword<br/>
 
I have given this strike to your head.</em>
 
I have given this strike to your head.</em>
  
This is the second play, and to rebat it, I hit this one in the head, as I can see well that his head is not armoured.
+
This is the second play that you can do after beating aside your opponent’s weapon. Here I strike this man over the head, because I see his head is unarmored.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
Line 404: Line 414:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[16]''' <em>By crossing ahead of your sword I have deviated it<br/>
+
[16] <em>By crossing ahead of your sword I have deviated it<br/>
 
And with mine I have given a great blow:<br/>
 
And with mine I have given a great blow:<br/>
 
And also I could have given it to you with my point;<br/>
 
And also I could have given it to you with my point;<br/>
 
And none of the weapons that you have could stop me.</em>
 
And none of the weapons that you have could stop me.</em>
  
This is another play, the third one: once the enemy’s sword has been rebated, he grabs it with his left hand and in this way he hits him in the head, in this way he can hit with a thrust.
+
This is another play, the third, where, after beating aside your opponent’s sword, you grab it with your left hand and strike him in the head. You could also strike him with a thrust.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
Line 427: Line 437:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[17]''' <em>You will lose your sword because of this catch<br/>
+
[17] <em>You will lose your sword because of this catch<br/>
 
Or you will go to the ground without any defense.</em>
 
Or you will go to the ground without any defense.</em>
  
This is the fourth play: the student wants to hit him and take his sword in this way you can see drawn here.
+
This is the fourth play, in which the student strikes his opponent in the head and then takes his sword in the manner shown here.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
Line 450: Line 460:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[18]''' <em>So that my sword would not be taken from me<br/>
+
[18] <em>So that my sword would not be taken from me<br/>
 
Against you I have made this turn:<br/>
 
Against you I have made this turn:<br/>
 
Such that that which you were wanting to do to me<br/>
 
Such that that which you were wanting to do to me<br/>
 
Through this counter I will do to you.</em>
 
Through this counter I will do to you.</em>
  
This is the sixth one, who wants to take the sword off the playfellow. With the hilt of his sword he will raise the other’s hilt high, the sword will certainly fall off his hand.
+
This is the {{dec|s|sixth}} [fifth] play, where you take away your opponent’s sword. You use the hilt of your sword to lift his hilt upwards, which will make his sword fall from his hands.
  
 
''[This Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[This Master is missing his crown.]''
Line 475: Line 485:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[19]''' <em>From horse to ground it will behoove you to go;<br/>
+
[19] <em>From horse to ground it will behoove you to go;<br/>
 
Maybe I will then know what I should do with you.</em>
 
Maybe I will then know what I should do with you.</em>
  
This is the fifth play, a counter with a striking back of sword. I will throw my arm at his neck while quickly turning around, I will surely throw him with his sword on the floor. And my contrary, afterwards, is the second play. Although it is not to be done when one is armoured.
+
This is the {{dec|s|fifth}} [sixth] play that flows from the cover where you beat aside his sword. Here I throw my arm around his neck and turn quickly, and with the base of my sword I drive him to the ground.  
 +
 
 +
My counter is the second play that follows me, but this counter will not work if your opponent is armored.
 +
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 31v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[20]''' <em>If it would behoove me to go to the ground, [sword] and all,<br/>
+
[20] <em>If it would behoove me to go to the ground, [sword] and all,<br/>
 
I could do no defense other than this strike.</em>
 
I could do no defense other than this strike.</em>
  
This is the seventh play, the counter to the fifth one that is the hit that he does to the leg. If the playfellow is armoured, do not trust this play.
+
This is the seventh play, which is the counter to the {{dec|s|fifth}} [sixth] play above. It employs a strike to your opponent’s leg. But if your opponent is armored, you can’t trust this counter to work.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
Line 523: Line 536:
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 44v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 44v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[21]''' <em>I want to make my defense against the point and the edge,<br/>
+
[21] <em>I want to make my defense against the point and the edge,<br/>
 
Such that the sword will not be taken from me nor caught,<br/>
 
Such that the sword will not be taken from me nor caught,<br/>
 
And neither will I be thrown to the ground from my horse:<br/>
 
And neither will I be thrown to the ground from my horse:<br/>
 
I will strike your face with my pommel without fail.</em>
 
I will strike your face with my pommel without fail.</em>
  
This is the eight play, the counter to all the plays before, especially to the mounted with sword plays, and to their Masters who stay in guard of ''Coda Longa''. When the Masters or students stay in this guard, and I perform a thrust or another strike on them, and they strike back immediately, whatever thrust or cut I do, when they strike back, I immediately make my sword turn around, and I hit them in the face with my pommel. And then I step over with my fast cover and with the rounded reverse I hit them behind their heads.
+
This is the eighth play, which is the counter to all of the preceding plays, but especially the plays of the mounted sword when the masters are in the Long Tail guard. When the Masters or their students are in this guard, and when I strike or thrust at them, and when they quickly beat my attack aside, then I quickly turn my sword and strike them in the face with my pommel. Then I move quickly from my position and strike them in the back of the head with a horizontal backhand strike.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[22]''' <em>So that you could not hit me in the face with your pommel,<br/>
+
[22] <em>So that you could not hit me in the face with your pommel,<br/>
 
I have taken your blow with the hilt of my sword.</em>
 
I have taken your blow with the hilt of my sword.</em>
  
I am the ninth and I do against the contrary who is before me. When he makes his sword turn, I immediately put my hilt, as you can see drawn here, because he can not hit me with the pommel to his face. And then I raise my sword high, and I turn the back of the sword around; I can take your sword off you. And if I fail to perform that, I will hit you in the face with the back of my sword, that is I will hit you in the head with the pommel, so fast my twist will be.
+
I am the ninth play, which is the counter to the counter that preceded me. When he turns his sword, I quickly place my hilt as you see drawn here, so that he cannot strike me in the face with his pommel. And if I raise my sword up, and turn it to the left, you could well have your sword taken away. And if I am unable to do that, I could instead strike you with a backhand strike to the face, or with a quick turn of my sword strike you in the head with my pommel.
  
The mounted plays of sword against sword finish here. Who knows more, shall teach me a good lesson.
+
Here ends the plays of sword against sword on horseback. If you know more of this, please share it.
  
 
''[This Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[This Master is missing his crown.]''
Line 570: Line 583:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 5r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 05r-b.png|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 45r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 45r-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[23]''' <em>In such a way have I grabbed you, running up behind,<br/>
+
[23] <em>In such a way have I grabbed you, running up behind,<br/>
 
That I will throw you from the horse—this I believe.</em>
 
That I will throw you from the horse—this I believe.</em>
  
This is a play of wrestling, that is a play of unarmed combat, and it is to be done in this way: when someone runs away on your left side, you follow him and with your right hand you grab him from the cheeks of his basinet, and if he is not armoured by the neck, or his right arm, or by the back of his shoulders, so to make his fall backwards, and you will make him go to the floor.
+
This is a grappling play, that is a play of the arms, and this is how you do it: if your opponent is fleeing from you, you come up behind him to his left side. Now with your right hand grab the cheek piece of his bascinet, or if he is unarmored, grab him by the hair or by the right arm from behind his shoulder. In this way you will make him fall backwards to the ground.
  
 
''[In the Getty and Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty and Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32r-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[24]''' <em>You wanted to throw me from my horse<br/>
+
[24] <em>You wanted to throw me from my horse<br/>
 
But with this counter you will go to the ground instead.</em>
 
But with this counter you will go to the ground instead.</em>
  
This is the counter to the play before. And it is useful this way: this counter with this hold has to be performed immediately when the other grabs him from behind; he has to change the hand keeping the reins, and grab him this way with his left arm.
+
This is the counter to the previous play, and that play will not work when this counter is quickly applied as follows: when he grabs you from behind you quickly switch hands on the reins, and with your left hand you lock him up as shown here.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-a.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[25]''' <em>I want to lift your leg with the stirrup,<br/>
+
[25] <em>I want to lift your leg with the stirrup,<br/>
 
And because of this, to the ground you will go.</em>
 
And because of this, to the ground you will go.</em>
  
This student wants to make this one fall from the horse, he grabs him by the stirrup and rise him high. If he does not go to the floor he will certainly stay in the air. This play can not be failed, except if he is tied to the horse. And if he does not have his foot in the stirrup, he can grab him by the ankle; it works anyway to raise him high. Do what it follows here.
+
This student is about to throw his opponent off his horse, by grabbing the stirrup and pulling it upwards. If his opponent does not fall to the ground, he’ll be helpless in the air, and unless his opponent is tied to his horse, this play will not fail him. If he does not have his foot in the stirrup, the student can grab him by the ankle and raise him up into the air in the same way, as I described above.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[26]''' <em>You wanted to throw me well from my horse;<br/>
+
[26] <em>You wanted to throw me well from my horse;<br/>
 
With this counter, to the ground you will go.</em>
 
With this counter, to the ground you will go.</em>
  
The counter to the play before is shown here; if someone grabs you by the stirrup or by the foot, throw your arm around his neck, and he immediately has to do something. And in this way you will cause him dismounting his horse. If you do this, he will certainly go to the floor.
+
Here is the counter to the previous play: when your opponent grabs your stirrup or your foot, throw your arm quickly around his neck, and in this way you will be able to unhorse him. Follow this advice and he’ll end up on the ground for sure.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/>
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[27]''' <em>I want to throw you and your horse to the ground;<br/>
+
[27] <em>I want to throw you and your horse to the ground;<br/>
 
The breast of mine will go to the haunches of yours:<br/>
 
The breast of mine will go to the haunches of yours:<br/>
 
I will not release the bit of your horse,<br/>
 
I will not release the bit of your horse,<br/>
Line 672: Line 685:
 
Because against armor you cannot make an offense.</em>
 
Because against armor you cannot make an offense.</em>
  
This is a way of throwing someone on the floor with the horse. The remedy of throwing someone on the floor together with his horse has to be done this way: when you are against someone with a horse, ride to his right side. throw your right arm around the horse’s neck, and grab his reins next to the bit which stays in his mouth, and turn it upwards with strength. And make you horse go against the other’s back with his chest. In this way he is forced to go to the floor together with his horse.
+
This is a method of throwing your opponent to the ground by throwing his horse. It’s done like this: when you and your mounted opponent close, ride to his right side. Then throw your right arm over the neck of his horse, and grab the bridle close to where the bit enters its mouth, and forcefully wrench it upwards and over. At the same time make sure your horse’s shoulders drive into his horse’s haunches In this way you will bring down both him and his horse at the same time.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
Line 692: Line 705:
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 45v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 45v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[28]''' This is the counter to the play before, which wants to throw the playfellow to the ground together with his horse. This is an easy thing to learn: when the student throws his arm around the horse’s neck to grab the bridle, immediately the player must throw his arm around the student’s neck, and he must leave the hold. It has to be done according to what you see drawn here.
+
[28] This is the counter to the play before, where you throw your opponent to the ground together with his horse. This is an easy counter: when the student throws his arm over the neck of your horse to grab the bridle, you should quickly throw your arm around the student’s neck, and you will effectively make him let go. Just do as the drawing shows.
 
|  
 
|  
 
…This is the counter of the play that came before in which he wants to throw his companion to the ground along with his horse. This is an easy thing to remember, that when the Scholar throws his arm over the neck of his horse to grab the bridle, the player should quickly throw an arm to the neck of the Scholar, and thus he is forced to release it. Following that which you see depicted here, so should you do.
 
…This is the counter of the play that came before in which he wants to throw his companion to the ground along with his horse. This is an easy thing to remember, that when the Scholar throws his arm over the neck of his horse to grab the bridle, the player should quickly throw an arm to the neck of the Scholar, and thus he is forced to release it. Following that which you see depicted here, so should you do.
Line 703: Line 716:
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 32v-d.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[29]''' <em>I seek to take the bridle from your hands<br/>
+
[29] <em>I seek to take the bridle from your hands<br/>
 
And I want to throw it over the head of your horse:<br/>
 
And I want to throw it over the head of your horse:<br/>
 
And when the bridle will be thrown over its head,<br/>
 
And when the bridle will be thrown over its head,<br/>
 
With my position I will lead you to a different country.</em>
 
With my position I will lead you to a different country.</em>
  
This is a play of taking the horse’s reins off the playfellow’s hands, in the way you see drawn here. When he fights against someone else on a horse, the student has to ride on his right side, and throw his right arm around the horse’s neck and grabs his reins on the left hand side with his reversed hand. And he must pull the reins off the horse’s head. And this play is safer in armour than not in armour.
+
In this play you take the reins of your opponent’s horse out of his hands, as you see drawn here. When you and your mounted opponent close, ride to his right side, and throw your right arm over his horse’s neck and grab the reins near his left hand with your right hand turned down. Now pull the reins over his horse’s head. This play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.
  
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
 
''[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]''
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| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 33v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 33v-b.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[30]''' <em>This Master has lashed a cord to his saddle<br/>
+
[30] <em>This Master has lashed a cord to his saddle<br/>
 
And to the foot of his lance, which is cruel and destructive,<br/>
 
And to the foot of his lance, which is cruel and destructive,<br/>
 
To throw to the neck of his enemy,<br/>
 
To throw to the neck of his enemy,<br/>
 
In order to drag him to the ground; so do I say.</em>
 
In order to drag him to the ground; so do I say.</em>
  
This Master has tied a strong rope to his horse’s saddle that is one end of it. He has tied the other end to the foot of his lance. First he wants to hit him, then with the lance tied this way to the left side of his enemy, he wants to throw it around his shoulder, so to drag him off the horse.
+
This Master has bound one end of a strong rope to his horse’s saddle, and the other end to the butt of his lance. First he strikes his opponent, then he will cast the lance to the left side of his opponent, over his opponent’s left shoulder, and in this way he can drag his opponent from his horse.
 
|  
 
|  
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
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| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 46v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 46v-c.jpg|300px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
'''[31]''' This bold one was running away towards a fortress. I ran so much that I arrived close to the fortress always riding at full gallop. And I hit him with my sword under the armpit, where no one can be well armoured. And for fear of his friends I want to go back.
+
[31] This scoundrel was fleeing from me towards a castle. I rode so hard and fast at full rein that I caught up with him close to his castle. And I struck him with my sword in his armpit, which is a difficult area to protect with armor. Now I withdraw to avoid retaliation from his friends.
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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Those who knew him can well believe his words.</em>
 
Those who knew him can well believe his words.</em>
  
Here finishes the book written by the student Fiore. He has put here what he knows about this art, that is the whole art of fighting is in this book, and Fiore has entitled it Fior di Battaglia. This shall be appreciated by the one who is made for, because nobility and virtue can not be found often. Fiore Friulan, poor old man, commits himself to you.
+
Here ends this book that was written by Fiore the scholar, who has published here everything he knows about this art, that is to say, everything he knows about armed fighting is contained within this book. This same Fiore has named his book “The Flower of Battle”. Let he for whom this book was made be forever praised, for his nobility and virtue have no equal; Fiore the Friulian, a simple elderly man, entrusts this book to you.
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 
 
Here ends the book that was made by the Scholar Fiore, and all that he knows in this art (that is, the fullness of ''armizare'') he has placed here in this book. And the Flower of Battle he has called this blossom by name. He for whom he has made it shall always be praised, because you will not find his equal in Nobility and virtue. Fiore Furlano, a wretched old man, commends himself to you.
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  

Revision as of 00:47, 17 February 2016

Images

Images

PD Complete translation by Michael Chidester
Getty Complete translation by Colin Hatcher

Paris (Open for translation) Not started
Morgan Complete translation by Michael Chidester

Morgan Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Getty Transcription [edit]
Open for editing

Pisani Dossi Transcription [edit]
by Francesco Novati

Paris Transcription [edit]
by Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber

[1] I carry my lance in the Boar's Tusk:
To deviate yours, I will make mine enter.

I carry my lance in the guard Boar’s Tooth, because I am well-armoured and have a shorter lance than my opponent. My intention is to beat his lance offline as I raise mine diagonally. And this will result in our lances crossing each other at about an arm’s length from the point. My lance however will then run into his body, while his will pass offline far from me. And that is how this is done.

(This text applies to the drawing on the right.)



I carry my lance in the Stance of the Wild Boar's Tusk because I am well-armored and have a shorter lance than my companion. And so I make my strategy to beat his lance out of the way (so that it is off to one side and not high), and thus will I strike with my lance to his and enter with an arm on my haft, and my lance will run into his person. And his lance will go out of the way far from me, and in such fashion will I do it as is written and depicted here.







[2] In the Boar's Tusk I carry my lance;
To beat and to strike are always my method.

This is the counter to the previous play when one rides against another with sharp steel, but one has a shorter lance than the other. When he who has the shorter lance carries it low in the Boar’s Tusk, then he with the longer lance should similarly carry his lance low, as drawn here, so that the short lance cannot beat aside the long lance.



So that you won't have advantage over me with your lance,
This carry of yours I will also make with mine.

[In the Getty, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]



This is the counter to the play of the lance which came before, that here one runs against the other with sharp iron and he has a shorter lance than the other. When he that has a short lance carries his low in the Boar's Tusk, he that has the long lance should similarly carry it low in the way which is depicted here, so that the short cannot beat the long.



[3] Because of the short lance that I hold, I come in the Stance of the Queen:
To beat and to strike, I hold myself certain.

This is another way of conducting a lance against another. This Master has a short spear and carries it in Guard of the Lady on the left, as you can see, to strike back and hit the opponent.




This is another way to carry the lance. This Master has a short lance and carries it in the Stance of the Queen on the Left as you can see, to beat and then to strike his companion.







MS Ludwig XV 13 41v-d.jpg

[4] To waste you or your horse, I make this throw:
And I will come to you to attack with my sword.

[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]



If I throw my lance into the chest of your horse, your beat will fail. And as soon as I’ve thrown my lance, I will take up the sword for my defense and with your lance you will not do me offense.



This Master also carries his lance in Guard of the Lady on the left, in order to knock aside the spear his opponent is about to throw at him. Just as he can beat it aside using his lance, so too he could beat it aside using a staff or a short sword.

[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]

Again, this Master carries his lance in the Stance of the Queen on the Left to beat the lance that the companion wants to throw. And that beat which he wants to strike with the lance he could also do with a staff or with a sword—except that if he throws his lance into the chest of my horse, my beat will be turned to failure.

[In the Morgan, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]

MS Ludwig XV 13 42r-b.jpg

[5] Fleeing, I cannot make any other defense
And so I turn myself to the right and will make you offense.

This master who is fleeing is not wearing armor and rides a horse built for speed, and as he flees he constantly throws his lance point behind him so as to strike at his opponent. And if were to turn his horse to the right he could quickly enter into the Boar’s Tusk guard with his lance, or he could take the left side Guard of the Lady, to beat aside his opponent’s weapon and finish him in similar fashion to the first and the third plays of the lance.

[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]



This Master who flees is not armored and is on a running horse, and he is always throwing thrusts with his lance backward to strike his companion. And if he were to turn to the right side he could easily enter into the Boar's Tusk with his lance or into the Stance of the Queen on the Left, and beat and strike as he could do in the first and third plays of the lance [on foot].





[6] With my sword, I will beat your lance,
And with either the point or the edge I will strike you.

This method of carrying the sword against the lance is well suited for beating aside your opponent’s lance when you are passing him on his right side. And this guard is effective against all hand held weapons, namely poleaxe, staff, sword, etc.



This carry of the sword against the lance is very good for beating the lance while riding to the right side of your companion. And this guard is good against all other handheld weapons—that is, against the ax, the staff, the sword, and so forth.

[Morgan text accompanies previous pairing.]





MS Ludwig XV 13 42v-a.jpg

[7] I make the counter to your guard,
And your horse I will strike without any trouble.

This is the counter to the previous play. This Master attacks with his lance held low in order to strike his opponent’s horse either in the head or the chest, and the opponent will be unable to beat aside such a low attack with his sword.

[In the Getty, the Master on the right is missing his crown. In the Pisani-Dossi, both Masters are missing their crowns.]



This is the counter to the play that came before. And this Master with the lance carries it low to strike the horse in the head and in the chest, because his companion cannot reach so low with his sword.







This carry of the sword is very fine, and it is called by a name that was said before: I carry my sword in the left Queen's Stance. And if this one comes to me with the lance in rest (to strike me and not my horse), I will beat his lance and I will strike him with my sword without fail. Note that the sword cannot defend below the neck of a horse.

[Morgan text accompanies subsequent pairing.]



[8] So that you do not beat my lance out of the way,
Under my left arm I carry it in rest.

This is another counter for lance against sword; the one with the lance sets it in rest under his left arm, so that it can not be stricken back. And in this way he will be able to hit the one with the sword with his lance.



Again this is another counter of lance against sword. He of the lance sets his lance in rest under his left arm so that his lance cannot be beaten aside. And in this fashion he can strike him of the sword with his lance.

[In the Morgan, the Master's opponent is wearing a crown.]





MS Ludwig XV 13 43r-b.jpg

[9] At mid-lance thus I come, well enclosed
So that you will delay in beating my lance.
I trust I will strike your horse without fail;
You will see my play carried out hereafter.

[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]





[In the Paris, the Master on the right is missing his crown.]









Here the man with the sword awaits the man with the lance, and he is waiting in the Boar’s Tusk guard. As the man with the lance approaches him, the Master with the sword beats aside the lance to the right side, covering and striking with one turn of the sword.

[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]

This one with the sword awaits him with the lance. He waits in the Boar's Tusk as he with the lance comes, and then the Master with the sword beats his lance away toward the right side. And thus can the Master do with the sword—that is, he can cover in one rotation of the sword.

[In the Morgan, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]

MS Ludwig XV 13 43r-c.jpg
MS Ludwig XV 13 43r-d.jpg

[10] So that you cannot cross your sword with my [weapon],
I carry it low to waste your horse.

This is the counter to the preceding play of lance versus sword. Here the man with the lance strikes his opponent’s (the man with the sword) horse in the head, because he cannot beat aside the lance with his sword since it is too low.

[In the Pisani-Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]



This is the counter of the play of the lance and the sword that came before: that is, that he with the lance strikes to the head of the horse of his enemy (that is, of him with the sword), because he cannot beat a lance or sword which is so low.

[In the Morgan, the Master's opponent wears a crown.]





[11] Such a carry of the sword gives me four plays to make:
I could strike with the point and the edge without fail,
And also throw someone from horseback or take his sword.
Seldom are these things failures to me.

This way of carrying the sword is named “the Long Tail Guard”. When you are riding to your opponent’s right side, this is a very good guard to use against the lance and all other hand held weapons. Keep firmly in your mind that thrusts and strikes from the left side should be beaten aside to your outside line, beating them diagonally upwards, not vertically. And the downward strikes should similarly be beaten aside to the outside, lifting your opponent’s sword a little as you do so. You can make these plays as these drawings show.






This carry of the sword is called the Stance of the Long Tail, and it is very good against lance and sword and against all other handheld weapons, while riding to the right side of the enemy. Bear well in mind that the thrusts and the backhand blows should be beaten out to the side and not upward, and the downward blows should also be beaten to the side (lifting the sword of the enemy slightly); [this guard] can make all the plays corresponding to the figures that are depicted.











[12] Of these two guards I make no comparison;
Whoever knows more, his judgment will overcome.
And whoever will know to watch for deception
Will be able to make the four aforesaid plays well.

This version of the Long Tail Guard is a good guard when your opponent attacks you from his sword on his left shoulder, as this opponent is shown doing here. And be advised that this guard will work against all attacks from both the right and the left sides, and against anyone, whether right handed or left handed. Hereafter begin the plays from the Long Tail that always begin with beating aside the opponent’s weapon, as you saw drawn in the first guard of the Long Tail.

[In the Getty, the Master on the left is missing his crown.]





Again this same Stance of the Long Tail is good when one comes against you with the sword on the left-hand side, as this enemy of mine does, and know that this guard counters all blows from the right side and from the left side, and counters anyone, be they right- or left-handed. And hereafter commence the plays of the Long Tail, which always beats in the fashion that was said earlier in the first Guard of the Long Tail.









[13] This is an equal crossing, without advantage;
Whoever has more art and malice begins the action.



These two Masters are here crossed at the full of the sword. And that which one can do, the other can do also—that is, he can do all the plays of the sword with this crossing. But crossing is of three categories (that is, from the full of the sword to the tip of the sword), and whoever is crossed at the full of the sword can withstand a little, and whoever is crossed at middle of the sword can withstand less, and whoever at the tip of the sword can withstand nothing at all. So the sword, as such, has three matters—that is, a little, less, and nothing.



[14] This point I gladly have set in your throat
Per the third Master [13] who demonstrates such a guard.

This is the first play that comes from the Long Tail Guard shown above. Here the Master beats aside his opponent’s sword, and then places a thrust into his chest or his face, as you see drawn here.



This is the first play which belongs to the Guard of the Long Tail which appeared here before: that is, that the Master beats the sword of his enemy and thrusts the point into his chest, or into his face as depicted here.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]





[15] Per the first Master that is in guard with the sword
I have given this strike to your head.

This is the second play that you can do after beating aside your opponent’s weapon. Here I strike this man over the head, because I see his head is unarmored.



This is the second play which can give a beat. I strike this man over the head, for I see well that he is not armored on his head.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]





[16] By crossing ahead of your sword I have deviated it
And with mine I have given a great blow:
And also I could have given it to you with my point;
And none of the weapons that you have could stop me.

This is another play, the third, where, after beating aside your opponent’s sword, you grab it with your left hand and strike him in the head. You could also strike him with a thrust.





Here is another play, which is the third that beats the sword of his enemy; he grasps with his left hand and strikes the [enemy's] head, and he could also strike thusly with the point.









[17] You will lose your sword because of this catch
Or you will go to the ground without any defense.

This is the fourth play, in which the student strikes his opponent in the head and then takes his sword in the manner shown here.



This is the fourth play that the scholar wants to make—that is, take the sword in this way that you can see depicted here.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]





[18] So that my sword would not be taken from me
Against you I have made this turn:
Such that that which you were wanting to do to me
Through this counter I will do to you.

This is the sixth [fifth] play, where you take away your opponent’s sword. You use the hilt of your sword to lift his hilt upwards, which will make his sword fall from his hands.

[This Master is missing his crown.]





This is the fifth play, in which he wants to take the sword of his companion with the hilt of his sword; the other hilt he will have above, and the sword will fall from [his companion's] hand for certain.









[19] From horse to ground it will behoove you to go;
Maybe I will then know what I should do with you.

This is the fifth [sixth] play that flows from the cover where you beat aside his sword. Here I throw my arm around his neck and turn quickly, and with the base of my sword I drive him to the ground.

My counter is the second play that follows me, but this counter will not work if your opponent is armored.



This is the sixth play that makes a cover with the beating of the sword. I throw my arm to his neck and quickly turn, and I will throw you to the ground, sword and all, without a doubt.

My counter is here after and is the seventh play. Well that he has not achieved being armored.

[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]





[20] If it would behoove me to go to the ground, [sword] and all,
I could do no defense other than this strike.

This is the seventh play, which is the counter to the fifth [sixth] play above. It employs a strike to your opponent’s leg. But if your opponent is armored, you can’t trust this counter to work.



This is the seventh play which is the counter—that is, the strike that he makes to the leg of the other one. If your companion were armored, you could not rely on this.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]





MS Ludwig XV 13 44v-d.jpg

[21] I want to make my defense against the point and the edge,
Such that the sword will not be taken from me nor caught,
And neither will I be thrown to the ground from my horse:
I will strike your face with my pommel without fail.

This is the eighth play, which is the counter to all of the preceding plays, but especially the plays of the mounted sword when the masters are in the Long Tail guard. When the Masters or their students are in this guard, and when I strike or thrust at them, and when they quickly beat my attack aside, then I quickly turn my sword and strike them in the face with my pommel. Then I move quickly from my position and strike them in the back of the head with a horizontal backhand strike.





This is the eighth play and it is the counter to all the plays that came before, and especially of the plays of the sword on horseback and of the Masters that are in the Guard of the Long Tail. And when the Masters or Scholars stand in the aforesaid guard and I strike with a thrust or another blow, and they quickly beat my sword, I immediately give a turn to my sword and with my pommel I strike them in the face. And I can pass with my cover quickly and strike them behind the head with a backhand middle cut.









[22] So that you could not hit me in the face with your pommel,
I have taken your blow with the hilt of my sword.

I am the ninth play, which is the counter to the counter that preceded me. When he turns his sword, I quickly place my hilt as you see drawn here, so that he cannot strike me in the face with his pommel. And if I raise my sword up, and turn it to the left, you could well have your sword taken away. And if I am unable to do that, I could instead strike you with a backhand strike to the face, or with a quick turn of my sword strike you in the head with my pommel.

Here ends the plays of sword against sword on horseback. If you know more of this, please share it.

[This Master is missing his crown.]



The ninth I am, who makes the counter to that which came before me, so that when he gives a turn to his sword I quickly thrust my hilt (as you see depicted) so that he cannot strike me in the face with his pommel. And if I raise my sword high and give a turn to the left, it could very well be that his sword will be taken from him. And if that fails me and I cannot do it, so quickly will I make the turn that I will give to his face with the false edge of my sword (or I will strike him in the head with my pommel).

This finishes the mounted play of sword against sword, and whoever keeps it in mind will give a good deal.





MS Latin 11269 05r-b.png
MS Ludwig XV 13 45r-b.jpg

[23] In such a way have I grabbed you, running up behind,
That I will throw you from the horse—this I believe.

This is a grappling play, that is a play of the arms, and this is how you do it: if your opponent is fleeing from you, you come up behind him to his left side. Now with your right hand grab the cheek piece of his bascinet, or if he is unarmored, grab him by the hair or by the right arm from behind his shoulder. In this way you will make him fall backwards to the ground.

[In the Getty and Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]



This is a play of grappling, and inasmuch as it is a play of grappling it is a play of the arms, and it is done in this way: when one flees from you and you come up behind him from the left side, grab him on the cheek of his helmet with your right hand (or, if he is unhelmed, grab him by the hair or the right arm from behind his shoulder), and in this way you will make him fall backward such that you will make him go to the ground.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]





[24] You wanted to throw me from my horse
But with this counter you will go to the ground instead.

This is the counter to the previous play, and that play will not work when this counter is quickly applied as follows: when he grabs you from behind you quickly switch hands on the reins, and with your left hand you lock him up as shown here.



This is the counter to the play that came before; this counter goes in this way with the catch that was made: that is, that quickly when he grabs him from behind, [the Master] should immediately exchange the hand on the reins, and with his left arm he should grab him in this fashion.





[25] I want to lift your leg with the stirrup,
And because of this, to the ground you will go.

This student is about to throw his opponent off his horse, by grabbing the stirrup and pulling it upwards. If his opponent does not fall to the ground, he’ll be helpless in the air, and unless his opponent is tied to his horse, this play will not fail him. If he does not have his foot in the stirrup, the student can grab him by the ankle and raise him up into the air in the same way, as I described above.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]



This Scholar wants to throw this one from his horse—that is, he grabs him by the stirrup and lifts him up. If he doesn't go to the ground, he would clearly be floating in the air! Assuming he isn't lashed to his horse, this play cannot fail. If he does not have his foot in a stirrup, grab him by the ankle and it will be even easier to lift him up than I said before so do as was written here earlier.

[In the Morgan, the Master is missing his crown.]





[26] You wanted to throw me well from my horse;
With this counter, to the ground you will go.

Here is the counter to the previous play: when your opponent grabs your stirrup or your foot, throw your arm quickly around his neck, and in this way you will be able to unhorse him. Follow this advice and he’ll end up on the ground for sure.



This here is the counter of the play that appeared before it, so if one grabs you by the stirrup or by the foot, throw your arm to his neck. You should do this quickly, for in this fashion you could dismount him from his horse; if you do this, he will hit the ground without fail.





[27] I want to throw you and your horse to the ground;
The breast of mine will go to the haunches of yours:
I will not release the bit of your horse,
And in the end you will not avoid the ground;
And when one is well armored this is a fine hold,
Because against armor you cannot make an offense.

This is a method of throwing your opponent to the ground by throwing his horse. It’s done like this: when you and your mounted opponent close, ride to his right side. Then throw your right arm over the neck of his horse, and grab the bridle close to where the bit enters its mouth, and forcefully wrench it upwards and over. At the same time make sure your horse’s shoulders drive into his horse’s haunches In this way you will bring down both him and his horse at the same time.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]







This is a play of throwing one to the ground, horse and all: that is, the Master rides to the right side of his enemy and throws his right arm over the neck of his [enemy's] horse. And he grabs the bridle of his [enemy's] horse behind the bit, rotates the head of the horse up, and he should spur his horse with his foot striking the rump or flanks. And in this way he will fall, horse and all…













MS Ludwig XV 13 45v-c.jpg

[28] This is the counter to the play before, where you throw your opponent to the ground together with his horse. This is an easy counter: when the student throws his arm over the neck of your horse to grab the bridle, you should quickly throw your arm around the student’s neck, and you will effectively make him let go. Just do as the drawing shows.

…This is the counter of the play that came before in which he wants to throw his companion to the ground along with his horse. This is an easy thing to remember, that when the Scholar throws his arm over the neck of his horse to grab the bridle, the player should quickly throw an arm to the neck of the Scholar, and thus he is forced to release it. Following that which you see depicted here, so should you do.

[29] I seek to take the bridle from your hands
And I want to throw it over the head of your horse:
And when the bridle will be thrown over its head,
With my position I will lead you to a different country.

In this play you take the reins of your opponent’s horse out of his hands, as you see drawn here. When you and your mounted opponent close, ride to his right side, and throw your right arm over his horse’s neck and grab the reins near his left hand with your right hand turned down. Now pull the reins over his horse’s head. This play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.

[In the Getty, the Master is missing his crown.]





This is a play of taking the bridle of a horse from the hand of your companion in the way that you see depicted here. The Scholar, when he goes against another on horseback, should ride to the right side and throw his right arm over the neck of the horse, grabbing its bridle near his hand on the left-hand side, and so take the bridle off the horse's head. And this play is more secure in armor than unarmored.









[30] This Master has lashed a cord to his saddle
And to the foot of his lance, which is cruel and destructive,
To throw to the neck of his enemy,
In order to drag him to the ground; so do I say.

This Master has bound one end of a strong rope to his horse’s saddle, and the other end to the butt of his lance. First he strikes his opponent, then he will cast the lance to the left side of his opponent, over his opponent’s left shoulder, and in this way he can drag his opponent from his horse.





This Master has lashed a strong cord (that is, one end) to the saddle of his horse, and the other end is lashed to the foot of his lance. First he wants to strike, and then to put the tied part of the lance to the left of his enemy, throwing it over his shoulder, and thereby to be able to pull him off his horse and onto the ground.









MS Ludwig XV 13 46v-c.jpg

[31] This scoundrel was fleeing from me towards a castle. I rode so hard and fast at full rein that I caught up with him close to his castle. And I struck him with my sword in his armpit, which is a difficult area to protect with armor. Now I withdraw to avoid retaliation from his friends.

MS Ludwig XV 13 47r-a.jpg
MS Ludwig XV 13 47r-b.jpg

Here ends the Flower of the Art of Combat,
In this way one man can stand against another:
Made by Fiore Furlano, son of Sir Benedetto;
Those who knew him can well believe his words.

Here ends this book that was written by Fiore the scholar, who has published here everything he knows about this art, that is to say, everything he knows about armed fighting is contained within this book. This same Fiore has named his book “The Flower of Battle”. Let he for whom this book was made be forever praised, for his nobility and virtue have no equal; Fiore the Friulian, a simple elderly man, entrusts this book to you.





  1. The abbreviation pa for "persona" isn't attested in Capelli, but he does list pam for "personam", which is close enough. Morgan has psona.
  2. Nunc/mihi in some order?
  3. The second line has been over-written to darken worn-away letters. If there were annotations, they have not survived.
  4. Up to this point, the text is partially effaced.
  5. Corrected from "e" to "o".
  6. Added later: "ego".
  7. Added later: "de la pointe".
  8. Added later: "remoror [!] jaculum".
  9. Added later: "eqqus". Probably meant to be “equus”, but the two q’s are fairly clear.
  10. Corrected from "a" to "e".
  11. This word was obliterated somehow (“et” and “cesura” both show uncorrected damage) but has been written over by a later hand in similarly-colored ink. Further, someone has tried to write something above it, perhaps a French equivalent—the superscript is unreadable, but the second word, above cuspide, appears to end in “te” and could be “pointe”. The superscript above “acute” may have been in the D1 or F hand, but not enough is clear. There may have been a superscript above mucronem that was erased, although the remaining strokes look like they may have suffered the same damage as the rest of the page. None of the superscripts are clear enough to certainly identify the hands.
  12. "ue" is mostly effaced.
  13. There is an erasure above “cervice”, but we were not able to discern any letters.
  14. This paragraph is written with a wedge-shaped gap in the text. This might be a coincidence, or it might indicate that the manuscript being copied had the text flowing around the sword of the player (as is done on the next page), and the scribe assumed that would be the case here as well.
  15. This paragraph is partially effaced and hard to read.
  16. Added later: "te juc g???et".
  17. Added later: "de la poignee".
  18. Added later: “??eeu vit”. Could this be “heeume”, misspelling of “heaume”, old french for “helmet”? There are certainly letters beginning above the g in “galea” and reaching to above the e in “prensum”, but we can’t make out enough to guess further. If the latter word is meant to be “heaume”, this must be hand F.
  19. Literally "ē", which would be read as "en", but in context it seems to make more sense as è, a conjugation of essere.
  20. There is a marginal notation to the right of the verse beginning with +. The marginal note seems likely to be hand F, but the + may be from one of the Latin hands. My best guess: ??a??e tram ? perm
  21. Added later: "pro tui".
  22. Added later: "scilicet".
  23. or 'Si pargere', but Rebecca says there is a scribal practice for separating the first letter of a line in this manner.
  24. Corrected from "i"; probably intended to be a "u", but looks like an "a".
  25. Added later: "eqquus".
  26. Added later: "te madé de\per bride".
  27. Overwritten and difficult to decipher.
  28. Written over a previously-effaced word that can't be deciphered.