Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 682: Line 682:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
Line 1,273: Line 1,273:
  
 
<p>Up until now the proper Leading parts of all Fencing with the Sword, how many they were, how you named them, and how they shall be made and accomplished were actually clarified in good order, that from them now you can drive from your place as it were, and bring these elements into play.</p>
 
<p>Up until now the proper Leading parts of all Fencing with the Sword, how many they were, how you named them, and how they shall be made and accomplished were actually clarified in good order, that from them now you can drive from your place as it were, and bring these elements into play.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|1|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.1}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|1|lbl=Ⅰ.24v.1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>Meanwhile however your opponent has observed this as well, so be prepared, that you too can oppose all such, that is from noting how you know first with what opportunities you can approach him, then evaluate the opportunity and use it appropriately in the fight, which you practice daily, but at all times know that no element will ever be as good as intended, which is to be useful in the fight, if it is off track and not to proper time.</p>
 
| <p>Meanwhile however your opponent has observed this as well, so be prepared, that you too can oppose all such, that is from noting how you know first with what opportunities you can approach him, then evaluate the opportunity and use it appropriately in the fight, which you practice daily, but at all times know that no element will ever be as good as intended, which is to be useful in the fight, if it is off track and not to proper time.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|2|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.2}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|2|lbl=Ⅰ.24v.2}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>Thus because of this pay attention in all three parts to all things, namely in pre-fencing or the onset, in the middle or handwork, and following thereafter in withdrawing, to the Before, During, After, and Just As, which if not heeded will be of no help in fencing.</p>
 
| <p>Thus because of this pay attention in all three parts to all things, namely in pre-fencing or the onset, in the middle or handwork, and following thereafter in withdrawing, to the Before, During, After, and Just As, which if not heeded will be of no help in fencing.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|3|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.3}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|3|lbl=Ⅰ.24v.3}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The Before is so named as you attack the opponent with your strikes first and then drive forward that he cannot come to his intended target, so you must displace with care, as he wants to shoot before you do.</p>
 
| <p>The Before is so named as you attack the opponent with your strikes first and then drive forward that he cannot come to his intended target, so you must displace with care, as he wants to shoot before you do.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|4|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.4}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|4|lbl=Ⅰ.24v.4}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>The During is when both you and your opponent bring forth your strikes at the same time, which is also a part of the expression “Just As”.</p>
 
| <p>The During is when both you and your opponent bring forth your strikes at the same time, which is also a part of the expression “Just As”.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|5|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.5}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|5|lbl=Ⅰ.24v.5}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,299: Line 1,299:
 
| <p>The After is, however, when you withdraw from your opponent as was outlined above, where you cannot accomplish your objective, in that between Before and After a stand off changes and ends, so that soon your opponent and soon again you, become the same. Whichever is in the After, that is striving so that he always must displace, shall think of the words “Just As”, and thereon not forget, that through them the Before will again be achieved, that he then can withdraw without damage, however he who does not pay attention to this, if he too soon undertakes to strive to you, will indeed never learn to fence well.</p>
 
| <p>The After is, however, when you withdraw from your opponent as was outlined above, where you cannot accomplish your objective, in that between Before and After a stand off changes and ends, so that soon your opponent and soon again you, become the same. Whichever is in the After, that is striving so that he always must displace, shall think of the words “Just As”, and thereon not forget, that through them the Before will again be achieved, that he then can withdraw without damage, however he who does not pay attention to this, if he too soon undertakes to strive to you, will indeed never learn to fence well.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|6|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.6|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/70|1|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.1|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/69|6|lbl=Ⅰ.24v.6|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/70|1|lbl=Ⅰ.25r.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,306: Line 1,306:
  
 
<p>The expression “Just As” has much meaning in that its origin is from the latin word “Intus” and is taken into fencing as such, which is applied in the Winding and similar work, however that this seem not only thus, you must hear what follows.</p>
 
<p>The expression “Just As” has much meaning in that its origin is from the latin word “Intus” and is taken into fencing as such, which is applied in the Winding and similar work, however that this seem not only thus, you must hear what follows.</p>
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/70|2|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.2}}
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/70|2|lbl=Ⅰ.25r.2}}
 
   
 
   
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | <p>The expression “Intus” and what it means I will let remain Latin, however the expression “Indes” (Just As) is a good German expression and has in itself an important meaning to handy application, that one always and quickly take care, as in when you at first slash to the left, to then at the same time observe the opening to the right, then thirdly on to make sure that you attain the observed opening, where or with what actions you want to come unto it, that you don’t then make openings for your opponent and take damage. Thus retain the meaning of “Just As” so that you observe sharply, which can be much observing and undertaking, also seek to learn faking to your opponent sufficiently, since he needs to have senses in his part, and similarly what Openings you will bring, and where you will be open. Then in all these things to which the expression “Just As” has meaning, stands the whole art of fencing (as Liechtenauer said) and where you don’t undertake such to carefully and securely drive all strikes, will you advance lightly to your damage, as then all fencers will observe, which one thus overpowers and (as one said) tops out and nullifies as wanted.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>The expression “Intus” and what it means I will let remain Latin, however the expression “Indes” (Just As) is a good German expression and has in itself an important meaning to handy application, that one always and quickly take care, as in when you at first slash to the left, to then at the same time observe the opening to the right, then thirdly on to make sure that you attain the observed opening, where or with what actions you want to come unto it, that you don’t then make openings for your opponent and take damage. Thus retain the meaning of “Just As” so that you observe sharply, which can be much observing and undertaking, also seek to learn faking to your opponent sufficiently, since he needs to have senses in his part, and similarly what Openings you will bring, and where you will be open. Then in all these things to which the expression “Just As” has meaning, stands the whole art of fencing (as Liechtenauer said) and where you don’t undertake such to carefully and securely drive all strikes, will you advance lightly to your damage, as then all fencers will observe, which one thus overpowers and (as one said) tops out and nullifies as wanted.</p>
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/70|3|lbl=Ⅰ.24r.3}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/70|3|lbl=Ⅰ.25r.3}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 1,324: Line 1,324:
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
+
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| '''A Guide to the Elements, how you can and shall be successful from the elements previously clarified.<br/>Chapt. 9'''
+
| <p>'''A Guide to the Elements, how you can and shall be successful from the elements previously clarified.'''</p>
While up till now all these cited and clarified elements are actually nothing other than a start and elementary part of all Fencing with swords and shall be taken as such, then note how and when I sieze various elements from here before showing with what ease these shall be undertaken. Now you must retain all writings in your thoughts and memory, also know thoroughly what each and every art and distinction is, thus you will come to write a fully correct word, that from here on serviceable and heeded letters will flow orderly one to another from the quill. Thus shall you also retain the previously clarified elements, and that way you realise as often as you come to fence with someone, you will fail with anything other than this, thus success will come from taking note. However, just like every letter cannot be applied to each and every word, thus it is also impossible to undertake all the previously cited elements in every engagement.
+
 
| '''[XXVv] Anleitung auf die stuck / wie sie können und sollen aus den bißher erklehrten stücken gemacht werden.<br/>Cap. 9'''
+
<p>Chapter 9</p>
WEil diese bißher erzelte und erklerte stuck eigentlich nichts anders seind / denn ein anfang und Elemental daraus alle Fechtstuck des Schwerdts können genommen werden / so ist von nöten das ehe und denn ich etliche stuck hierauß ziehe / zuvor anzeig auff was weiß dis sol beschehen / Wie du denn nun alle Buchstaben wol must in dein gedechtnis und Memorj fassen / auch was eines jeden art und eigenschafft ist gründtlich wissen / so du ein recht wort wilt gantz schreiben / damit dir ddiesehierzu dienstlich und gehörige Buchstaben ordenlich nach einander in die feder fliessen. Also soltu auch die bißher erklerte stuck wol fassen / und dir dermassen einbilden / das so offt du mit einem zu Fechten kommest / dir als dann diese fürfallen / so dazumal von nöhten sein werden. Weil aber zu einem oder jeglichen wort nit alle Buchstaben können gebraucht werden / so ist auch unmöglich alle nun erzelte stuck zumal fürnemen wollen in jeglichem stuck.
+
 
 +
<p>While up till now all these cited and clarified elements are actually nothing other than a start and elementary part of all Fencing with swords and shall be taken as such, then note how and when I sieze various elements from here before showing with what ease these shall be undertaken. Now you must retain all writings in your thoughts and memory, also know thoroughly what each and every art and distinction is, thus you will come to write a fully correct word, that from here on serviceable and heeded letters will flow orderly one to another from the quill. Thus shall you also retain the previously clarified elements, and that way you realise as often as you come to fence with someone, you will fail with anything other than this, thus success will come from taking note. However, just like every letter cannot be applied to each and every word, thus it is also impossible to undertake all the previously cited elements in every engagement.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/71|1|lbl=Ⅰ.25v.1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Therefore you shall pay attention, as the situation requires, to how your opponent poses against you, and also observe the person, if they are quick or slow, large or small, and then know how to apply your work to him and how to oppose him. Just as every full fight, as was indicated above, is divided into three parts, namely the Pre-Fencing, the Middle, and the Withdrawal, these three parts are clarified in due order, and what is advised in every undertaking, thus in the beginning your first need is various strikes through the stances, with which you will best engage and overtake your opponent as intended, and in the first phase when you engage and close to him, or maybe come to be under his sword, then forward you must have still more moves with which to bring the part to its conclusion, which you then learn from the second section of this book, namely the Handwork, that you force ahead to all four openings, and he then cannot come to do damaging work to you, or similarly as when you have made it sufficiently ineffective.
+
| <p>Therefore you shall pay attention, as the situation requires, to how your opponent poses against you, and also observe the person, if they are quick or slow, large or small, and then know how to apply your work to him and how to oppose him. Just as every full fight, as was indicated above, is divided into three parts, namely the Pre-Fencing, the Middle, and the Withdrawal, these three parts are clarified in due order, and what is advised in every undertaking, thus in the beginning your first need is various strikes through the stances, with which you will best engage and overtake your opponent as intended, and in the first phase when you engage and close to him, or maybe come to be under his sword, then forward you must have still more moves with which to bring the part to its conclusion, which you then learn from the second section of this book, namely the Handwork, that you force ahead to all four openings, and he then cannot come to do damaging work to you, or similarly as when you have made it sufficiently ineffective.</p>
| Derhalben soltu acht haben wie es die sachen erfordert / wie sich dein widerpart gegen dir stellet / auch warnemen wie die person / ob sie geschwindt oder langsam / groß oder klein sey / unnd hiernach deine arbeit wissen zugebrauchen unnd jhm zubegegnen. Sintemal ein jegliches gantz Fechtstuck wie oben angezeigt / in drey theil abgesondert ist / nemlich in das zufechten Mittel und abziehen / unnd diese drey theil der ordnung nach erklert / was in einem jeden warzunemen angezeigt / so mustu im zugang durch die Leger erstlich etlich häuw brauchen / mit welchen du dein gegenpart am besten vermeinest anzugreiffen und zu ubereilen / un wenn du denn im ersten theil an'''[XXVIr]''griffen und zu jhm / oder villeicht under sein Schwerdt komen bist / so mustu ferner noch mehr stuck haben / damit das gantze stuck vollendt werde / welches du denn aus dem andern theil diß Buchs lernest / nemlich der Handtarbeit / auff das du jhn ferner zu allen vier Blössen tringest / unnd er dir zu keiner schädlichen arbeit kommen möge / oder dergleiche stuck wie du denn der alda überflüssig gnug hast.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/71|2|lbl=Ⅰ.25v.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/72|1|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| And in order to bring the engagement to its end, you must lastly add more letters to this word, and seek onward to the third section of this book, how the engagement shall be ended, and you withdraw without damage, or your opponent allowed one.
+
| <p>And in order to bring the engagement to its end, you must lastly add more letters to this word, and seek onward to the third section of this book, how the engagement shall be ended, and you withdraw without damage, or your opponent allowed one.</p>
| Und das du denn das stuck zu endt bringest / mustu letzlich mehr Buchstaben zu disem wort haben / unnd ferner im dritten theil des Buchs suchen / wie diß stuck möchte vollendt werden / und du ohne schaden könnest abziehen / oder deinem gegenfechter ein letz lassen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/72|2|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.2}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Because of this see that you then force the Middle Work, that you first come to withdraw though defense, as then much will be learned in various engagements, or you incite so that he strikes you away and then at the same time you strike over his sword while stepping out, and justifiably want to take and claim your withdrawal. So that with this you will understand it entirely, I will present an entire engagement in all three parts.
+
| <p>Because of this see that you then force the Middle Work, that you first come to withdraw though defense, as then much will be learned in various engagements, or you incite so that he strikes you away and then at the same time you strike over his sword while stepping out, and justifiably want to take and claim your withdrawal. So that with this you will understand it entirely, I will present an entire engagement in all three parts.</p>
| Derowegen so sihe das du in der Mittelarbeit jhn also trengest / das du ehe ers gewahr werde zum abzug kommest / wie denn in sonderlichen stucken vil davon gelehrt wirdt / oder jhn reitzest das er dir abhauwe / damit du jhm zuglich Oben uber sein Schwerdt mit austretten zuhauwest / unnd füglichen deinen abzug nehmen und holen mögest / solches damit du es gantz eigentlich verstehn mögest / will ich dir ein gantz stuck von allen dreyen dingen fürstellen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/72|3|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.3}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | In the pre-fencing come into the right Changer, pay attention that as soon as his sword shows bearing to strike, then before him nimbly strike through above you, and strike with a Traverse from your right at the same time as his, in the strike step on to his left side, if he drives his strike directly at your head, then hit with your Traverse to his left ear, however mark that he doesn’t strike straight to your head by winding his strike with the long edge against your Traverse in the displacement, thus pull the strike with a long Traverse nimbly to his right ear, step just then with your left foot to his right, now you have attacked out of the change with two traverse strikes to each side over against the other. This you take now from the first part to this attack, Forward you will step on to Middle work, then bring yourself to the other part thus, if he slashes from your sword over to the other side, then move after him with a cut against his arm, hit with the strong of your blade, or with your hilt in a jerk away from you, just as he still threatens from the thrust, and still has not yet reached you, then drive to rush out with crossed arms and slash him with the short edge over his right arm to his head; and so that when he reaches you from the thrust, but where he stops you and sweeps away through displacing, then let your sword fly off again, and traverse to his left ear while you step away with your left foot; or where he doesn’t go off or slash around, but stays with the cut or long edge outward, then loop your sword so that your half edge comes at his, ride his sword thus on your right side, but just then let it clip off into the air, so that your hands come together again crosswise high over your head, to then slash him as before, as he reaches from the ride with the short edge over his head, step back following with the left foot, and strike a high traversing middle strike with the long edge from your right to his half, and just as it glides, then pull off to your right with a high strike. Thus you see now how there’s always one part after the other, the application and ordering through must be conceived and executed together, which makes up an entire part of Fencing. Lastly mark here also that the entire engagement can be completed in two or three strikes, where you rush to engage in the first strike, and with the second strike off again and in this strike commit either to the first or last meeting, which needs to be undertaken correctly, or you will lead on there to a third strike. Namely engage with the first, follow after with a second, but when the proper time such must be shown, that you have something worth saying, then mark how one speaks such that you will learn yourself, after which you will learn all other parts in fencing and here on retain your lessons with diligence.
+
| class="noline" | <p>In the pre-fencing come into the right Changer, pay attention that as soon as his sword shows bearing to strike, then before him nimbly strike through above you, and strike with a Traverse from your right at the same time as his, in the strike step on to his left side, if he drives his strike directly at your head, then hit with your Traverse to his left ear, however mark that he doesn’t strike straight to your head by winding his strike with the long edge against your Traverse in the displacement, thus pull the strike with a long Traverse nimbly to his right ear, step just then with your left foot to his right, now you have attacked out of the change with two traverse strikes to each side over against the other. This you take now from the first part to this attack, Forward you will step on to Middle work, then bring yourself to the other part thus, if he slashes from your sword over to the other side, then move after him with a cut against his arm, hit with the strong of your blade, or with your hilt in a jerk away from you, just as he still threatens from the thrust, and still has not yet reached you, then drive to rush out with crossed arms and slash him with the short edge over his right arm to his head; and so that when he reaches you from the thrust, but where he stops you and sweeps away through displacing, then let your sword fly off again, and traverse to his left ear while you step away with your left foot; or where he doesn’t go off or slash around, but stays with the cut or long edge outward, then loop your sword so that your half edge comes at his, ride his sword thus on your right side, but just then let it clip off into the air, so that your hands come together again crosswise high over your head, to then slash him as before, as he reaches from the ride with the short edge over his head, step back following with the left foot, and strike a high traversing middle strike with the long edge from your right to his half, and just as it glides, then pull off to your right with a high strike. Thus you see now how there’s always one part after the other, the application and ordering through must be conceived and executed together, which makes up an entire part of Fencing. Lastly mark here also that the entire engagement can be completed in two or three strikes, where you rush to engage in the first strike, and with the second strike off again and in this strike commit either to the first or last meeting, which needs to be undertaken correctly, or you will lead on there to a third strike. Namely engage with the first, follow after with a second, but when the proper time such must be shown, that you have something worth saying, then mark how one speaks such that you will learn yourself, after which you will learn all other parts in fencing and here on retain your lessons with diligence.</p>
| class="noline" | Im zufechten komm in rechten Wechsel / hab acht so bald er sein Schwerdt auffzeucht zum streich / so streich behend vor jm ubersich durch / und Hauw mit einer Zwirch von deiner Rechten zugleich mit jhm eyn / im Hauw trit wol auff sein Lincke seiten / fehrt er mit seinem Hauw gerad zu deinem Kopff / so triffestu jhm mit der Zwirch an sein linkc Ohr / merckest du aber das er nit gerad zu deinem Kopff Hauwet / sonder verwendt sein Hauw mit Langer schneidt gegen deiner Zwirch zur versatzung / so Hauwe ehe es rürt mit langer Zwirch / behend zu seinem Rechten ohr / trit Indes mit deinem lincken Fus wol umb zu seiner Rechten / jetz hastu angriffen aus dem Wechsel mit zweyen Zwirchhäuwen / zu beiden seiten gegen einander uber. Diß nimstu nun aus dem ersten theil / zu disem angriff / Ferner wiltu zur Mittelarbeit tretten / so hilfft dir das ander '''[XXVIv]''' theil also / schlecht er von deinem Schwerdt umb zur andern seiten / so reiß jhm nach mit dem Schnit auff sein Arm / truck jhn mit der sterck deiner klingen / oder mit deinem Schilt in einem ruck von dir / in dem er vom stoß noch dammelt / und sich noch nit erholet hat / so fahr in eil also mit gekreuzigten armen auff / und schlag jhn mit kurtzer schneidt uber seim rechten Arm auff sein Kopff / und solches wie bemelt ehe er sich vom stoß erholet / wo er sich aber erhielte unnd zur versatzung auffwischte / so laß dein Schwerdt wider abfliegen / unnd zwirch mit einem abtrit deines lincken Fuß zu seinem Lincken ohr / oder wo er nit abgehet oder umbschlecht / sonder bleibt mit dem Schnit oder Langer Schneid darauff / so verkehr dein Schwerdt das dein halb schneidan sein komme / riß jhm also sein Schwerdt auß auff dein Rechte seiten / in dessen aber laß in der lufft umbschnappen / damit deine hende hohe uber dein haupt wider kreutzweiß zusamen kommen / als dann schlag jhn wie vor / ehe er sich vom riß erholet mit kurtzer schneid auff sein Kopff / volgendt trit mit dem Lincken fuß zu ruck / und Hauw ein uberzwerchen Mittelhauw / mit Langer schneiden von deiner Rechten zu seinem halß / und in dem es glützt / so ziehe zu seiner Rechten mit hohen streichen ab. Also sihestu nun wie jmmer ein stuck nach dem andern / der gelegenheit und notturft nach muß gebraucht und zusamen gesetzt werden / biß das ein gantz Fechtstuck gemacht werde. Hie merck aber letzlichen / das auch gantze stuck nur mit zweyen oder dreyen streichen können vollendt werden / als da du mit dem ersten streich in eil angreiffst / und mit dem andern wider abhauwest / und in disen streichen entweders mit dem ersten oder letzten triffst / mit welchen es am füglichsten mag beschehen / oder da du es mit dreien Häwen volfürest / mit dem ersten nemlich angreiffst / den andern nachfolgest / wenn aber / und zu welcher gelegner zeit solches muß beschehen / ist hie on not davon zu sagen / der Marck wie man spricht / wirt dich solches selbst wol leren / nach dem du alle andere Fechtstuck hierin begriffen mit fleiß erlernest.
+
| class="noline" |  
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/72|4|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.4|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf|73|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.4|p=1}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 1,438: Line 1,442:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>Figures</p>
 
! <p>Figures</p>
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|start|Draft Translation (from the 1570)}}<br/>by [[Mike Rasmusson]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
 
! <p>[[Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meyer)|1570 Transcription]]{{edit index|Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf}}</p>
  

Revision as of 20:55, 9 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 17.13 17.14 17.15 17.16 17.17 17.18 17.19 17.20 17.21 17.22 17.23 17.24 17.25 17.26 17.27 17.28 17.29 17.30 17.31 indes
  18. palm up
  19. Illegible deletion.
  20. oberhauw
  21. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  22. short edge
  23. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  24. short edge
  25. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  26. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  27. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  28. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  29. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  30. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  31. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  32. Word inserted next to the text.
  33. Inserted nest to the text.
  34. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  35. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.