Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Joachim Meyer"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 1,355: Line 1,355:
 
| class="noline" | <p>In the pre-fencing come into the right Changer, pay attention that as soon as his sword shows bearing to strike, then before him nimbly strike through above you, and strike with a Traverse from your right at the same time as his, in the strike step on to his left side, if he drives his strike directly at your head, then hit with your Traverse to his left ear, however mark that he doesn’t strike straight to your head by winding his strike with the long edge against your Traverse in the displacement, thus pull the strike with a long Traverse nimbly to his right ear, step just then with your left foot to his right, now you have attacked out of the change with two traverse strikes to each side over against the other. This you take now from the first part to this attack, Forward you will step on to Middle work, then bring yourself to the other part thus, if he slashes from your sword over to the other side, then move after him with a cut against his arm, hit with the strong of your blade, or with your hilt in a jerk away from you, just as he still threatens from the thrust, and still has not yet reached you, then drive to rush out with crossed arms and slash him with the short edge over his right arm to his head; and so that when he reaches you from the thrust, but where he stops you and sweeps away through displacing, then let your sword fly off again, and traverse to his left ear while you step away with your left foot; or where he doesn’t go off or slash around, but stays with the cut or long edge outward, then loop your sword so that your half edge comes at his, ride his sword thus on your right side, but just then let it clip off into the air, so that your hands come together again crosswise high over your head, to then slash him as before, as he reaches from the ride with the short edge over his head, step back following with the left foot, and strike a high traversing middle strike with the long edge from your right to his half, and just as it glides, then pull off to your right with a high strike. Thus you see now how there’s always one part after the other, the application and ordering through must be conceived and executed together, which makes up an entire part of Fencing. Lastly mark here also that the entire engagement can be completed in two or three strikes, where you rush to engage in the first strike, and with the second strike off again and in this strike commit either to the first or last meeting, which needs to be undertaken correctly, or you will lead on there to a third strike. Namely engage with the first, follow after with a second, but when the proper time such must be shown, that you have something worth saying, then mark how one speaks such that you will learn yourself, after which you will learn all other parts in fencing and here on retain your lessons with diligence.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>In the pre-fencing come into the right Changer, pay attention that as soon as his sword shows bearing to strike, then before him nimbly strike through above you, and strike with a Traverse from your right at the same time as his, in the strike step on to his left side, if he drives his strike directly at your head, then hit with your Traverse to his left ear, however mark that he doesn’t strike straight to your head by winding his strike with the long edge against your Traverse in the displacement, thus pull the strike with a long Traverse nimbly to his right ear, step just then with your left foot to his right, now you have attacked out of the change with two traverse strikes to each side over against the other. This you take now from the first part to this attack, Forward you will step on to Middle work, then bring yourself to the other part thus, if he slashes from your sword over to the other side, then move after him with a cut against his arm, hit with the strong of your blade, or with your hilt in a jerk away from you, just as he still threatens from the thrust, and still has not yet reached you, then drive to rush out with crossed arms and slash him with the short edge over his right arm to his head; and so that when he reaches you from the thrust, but where he stops you and sweeps away through displacing, then let your sword fly off again, and traverse to his left ear while you step away with your left foot; or where he doesn’t go off or slash around, but stays with the cut or long edge outward, then loop your sword so that your half edge comes at his, ride his sword thus on your right side, but just then let it clip off into the air, so that your hands come together again crosswise high over your head, to then slash him as before, as he reaches from the ride with the short edge over his head, step back following with the left foot, and strike a high traversing middle strike with the long edge from your right to his half, and just as it glides, then pull off to your right with a high strike. Thus you see now how there’s always one part after the other, the application and ordering through must be conceived and executed together, which makes up an entire part of Fencing. Lastly mark here also that the entire engagement can be completed in two or three strikes, where you rush to engage in the first strike, and with the second strike off again and in this strike commit either to the first or last meeting, which needs to be undertaken correctly, or you will lead on there to a third strike. Namely engage with the first, follow after with a second, but when the proper time such must be shown, that you have something worth saying, then mark how one speaks such that you will learn yourself, after which you will learn all other parts in fencing and here on retain your lessons with diligence.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/72|4|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.4|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf|73|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.4|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/72|4|lbl=Ⅰ.26r.4|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf|73|lbl=Ⅰ.26v.1|p=1}}
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 1,372: Line 1,372:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword A.jpg|center|400px]]
| '''How one shall fence to the four Openings<br/>Chapt. 10'''
+
| <p>'''How one shall fence to the four Openings'''</p>
While up until now, artful reader, my attentive clarification of all servicable elements of sword fighting, such that each would be seriously raised by diligent practice, will be sufficient guide to understand all parts set after here, therefore I will now go forward to show, in one Stance after another, how one will behave therein and also how all fencing from it shall be. While forward you will come to judge all your strikes and actions from or against Man’s four divisions, following on you must similarly be prepared to address the four openings, necessary to go on to the onset of Fencing from the stances. That I properly report on this part, I will now set out and give the following example:
+
 
| '''[XXVIIrv] Wie man nach den vier Blössen fechten sol.<br/>Cap. 10.'''
+
<p>Chapter 10</p>
DIeweil nun bißher günstiger Leser / alle zum Schwerdt Fechten dienstlich stuck meines erachtens dermassen erklert / also das ein jeglicher dem ernst sein wirt / solches neben fleissiger übung zu erwegen / gnugsame anleitung alle nach gesetzte stuck zuverstehn haben wirt / derhalben will ich nun ferner ein Leger nach dem andern / wie man sich darinen verhalten und au deren einem jeden Fechten sol / anzeigen / Zuvor aber dieweil alle deine Häuw und stuck / auff oder gegen die vier theil des Manns gericht werden sollen / hergegen du auch derselbigen von gemelten vier theilen gewertig sein must / ist derhalben nötig zum eingang des Fechtens auß den Legern / das ich von disem stuck eigentlichen bericht / welches ich durch folgende Exempel dargeben und setzen will / und erstlich:
+
 
 +
<p>While up until now, artful reader, my attentive clarification of all servicable elements of sword fighting, such that each would be seriously raised by diligent practice, will be sufficient guide to understand all parts set after here, therefore I will now go forward to show, in one Stance after another, how one will behave therein and also how all fencing from it shall be. While forward you will come to judge all your strikes and actions from or against Man’s four divisions, following on you must similarly be prepared to address the four openings, necessary to go on to the onset of Fencing from the stances. That I properly report on this part, I will now set out and give the following example:</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/75|1|lbl=Ⅰ.27v.1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| In the pre-fencing when you come near to your opponent, then strike out in front of him from your right, through his face one time, twice, thrice, so that in the third strike before him (see that you keep your left foot forward) come into the long point, from there let the forward part of your blade flow off to your left, and just then with your blade level and sinking below you, pull back under it with your grip above you, step and strike first from your right against his left ear, as soon as the strike hits on, then quickly twitch to fly off again, and strike the second from below diagonally against his right arm, however in this strike keep your cross high over your head, and step to him with your left foot a little to his right together with your strike from below, and hit on with this as well, should you nimbly move your sword over you to your right, and thus from your right strike to his lower left opening, as the right is pulled or hit then twitch off again to over your head, and strike the fourth seriously against his right ear, from then traverse over and pull out. The first four Strikes shall be nimble and quick from one opening to another for your steps to be successful.
+
| <p>In the pre-fencing when you come near to your opponent, then strike out in front of him from your right, through his face one time, twice, thrice, so that in the third strike before him (see that you keep your left foot forward) come into the long point, from there let the forward part of your blade flow off to your left, and just then with your blade level and sinking below you, pull back under it with your grip above you, step and strike first from your right against his left ear, as soon as the strike hits on, then quickly twitch to fly off again, and strike the second from below diagonally against his right arm, however in this strike keep your cross high over your head, and step to him with your left foot a little to his right together with your strike from below, and hit on with this as well, should you nimbly move your sword over you to your right, and thus from your right strike to his lower left opening, as the right is pulled or hit then twitch off again to over your head, and strike the fourth seriously against his right ear, from then traverse over and pull out. The first four Strikes shall be nimble and quick from one opening to another for your steps to be successful.</p>
| Im zufechten wann du kloffters nehe zum Man kommest / so streiche von deiner Rechten vor jhm auff / durch sein gesicht ein mal zwey drey / also das du im driten auffstreichen vor jm (doch das du mit deinm Linkcen fuß vor bleibest) in das Lang ort kommest / von dannen laß das vordertheil deiner klingen gegen deiner Lincken ablauffen / unnd in dem dein klingen eben im undersich sincekn ist / so ziehe under des dein hefft übersich / trit und hauwe den ersten von deiner Rechten gegen seinem Lincken ohr / als bald solcher Hauw antroffen / so bald zuck in einem flug wider ab / und hauwe den andern von Unden uberecke gegen seinem Rechten arm / zu solchem hauw aber bleib mit deinem kreutz hoch uber deinem Kopff / und trit mit deinem Lincken fuß zugleich mit solchem Underhauw / ein wenig gegen seiner Rechten zur seiten aus zu jhm / und so dieser auch antroffen / soltu behendt dein Schwerdt wider ubersich rucken gegen deiner Rechten / und also von deiner Rechten zu seiner Lincken undern Blösse hauwen / ehe das recht gerürt oder '''[XXVIIIr]''' getroffen so zuck wider ab umb dein Kopff / und hauwe den vierten schlims gegen seinem Rechten ohr / von dannen zwirch umb unnd zieh ab / Diese erste vier Häuw sollen behend unnd geschwint von einer Blöß zur andern sampt jhren tritten wolbracht werden.
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/75|2|lbl=Ⅰ.27v.2|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/76|1|lbl=Ⅰ.28r.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| However while in the onset there are three ways for your Sword or sword’s blade to hit and touch, firstly with the Long edge as was already taught, then with the Short, and lastly with the flat, therefore observe that you can also slash handily to all four openings with the short edge as well as you did before with the long, then still at the last with the flat, and similarly to what was shown before now with the half edge, fly freely from one opening to another, namely with the inward flat to the right, and slash with the outward (that is with reversed or inverted flat to his left).
+
| <p>However while in the onset there are three ways for your Sword or sword’s blade to hit and touch, firstly with the Long edge as was already taught, then with the Short, and lastly with the flat, therefore observe that you can also slash handily to all four openings with the short edge as well as you did before with the long, then still at the last with the flat, and similarly to what was shown before now with the half edge, fly freely from one opening to another, namely with the inward flat to the right, and slash with the outward (that is with reversed or inverted flat to his left).</p>
| Dieweil aber das Schwerdt oder dein schwerdts klingen / im herführen zum hauwen fürnemlich auff dreyerley weiß antreffen und rühren mag / als erstlich mit Langer davon jetzt gelert / demnach mit kurtzer / und letzlichen mit der flech / derhalben will auch von nöten sein / das du die kurtze schneide eben als wol wie zu voren die Lange / behendiglich zu allen vier Blössenen führen könnest / demnoch auch zum letzsten mit der flech / gleichwol als wie jetz gemelt mit halber schneide / frey fliegendt von einer Blöß zur andern / nemlich mit der inwendigen flech zur Rechten / und mit der auswendigen das ist letzer oder ebichter flech zu seiner lincken) schlagen.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/76|2|lbl=Ⅰ.28r.2}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Segno.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword Segno.jpg|center|400px]]
| However if you would become practiced in this, then you shall always change with the first strike, and when you first strike to his upper left opening, and then the second is to his lower right opening, and then further as taught above (as is shown by the outer digits in the printed figure), then you shall again strike first to his lower left, then a second to his upper right, and then further as the second set of digits in the previous figure show. The next strike is first struck to his upper right then to his lower left, then further as shown by the third set. The last strike is first struck to his right, then further as is shown by the inner digits, and first learn this as instructed with the long then with the half edge, then lastly with the flat as judged into the work. When you can do such, then follow ahead to the next part, namely that you must understand the four openings before the strikes just taught can be retained, or onward your sword’s blade will be held off and you will be repulsed with better countering strikes, these are thus the two Main Elements of Fencing, the Origins from which all other elements flow forth, onward follows the third, a large element which is and is named the Practice. One comes to the Practice thus: when you can lead your strikes from the stances to all of Man’s divisions, which in the First part of fencing must be taken in the Before thus into the work, and yet your opponent is the same, and is also nimble in the Second stage of displacing, working off or stopping you and your strikes, so that you cannot reach your chosen destination for your strikes, then we come thus to the Third part which is the Practice, which is the most cunning, and teach it as you did the strikes where you were aware, that while every point can be futile or pointless, twitch off closely and nimbly from there to strike again onward, or feint over to let it go off and then lead on to another opening. When he also displaces himself, then twitch off yourself as well, and thus let fly from one opening to another so long and much as you are able to reach to a hit. However, so that such lessons will be marked and understood , I will demonstrate with a few good examples so that my objective will be simply and distinctly taught, presented, and set out, with which the goodly Reader will sufficiently judge all secondary and ongoing elements, and thus can take understanding from it in the Middle work thus:  
+
| <p>However if you would become practiced in this, then you shall always change with the first strike, and when you first strike to his upper left opening, and then the second is to his lower right opening, and then further as taught above (as is shown by the outer digits in the printed figure), then you shall again strike first to his lower left, then a second to his upper right, and then further as the second set of digits in the previous figure show. The next strike is first struck to his upper right then to his lower left, then further as shown by the third set. The last strike is first struck to his right, then further as is shown by the inner digits, and first learn this as instructed with the long then with the half edge, then lastly with the flat as judged into the work. When you can do such, then follow ahead to the next part, namely that you must understand the four openings before the strikes just taught can be retained, or onward your sword’s blade will be held off and you will be repulsed with better countering strikes, these are thus the two Main Elements of Fencing, the Origins from which all other elements flow forth, onward follows the third, a large element which is and is named the Practice. One comes to the Practice thus: when you can lead your strikes from the stances to all of Man’s divisions, which in the First part of fencing must be taken in the Before thus into the work, and yet your opponent is the same, and is also nimble in the Second stage of displacing, working off or stopping you and your strikes, so that you cannot reach your chosen destination for your strikes, then we come thus to the Third part which is the Practice, which is the most cunning, and teach it as you did the strikes where you were aware, that while every point can be futile or pointless, twitch off closely and nimbly from there to strike again onward, or feint over to let it go off and then lead on to another opening. When he also displaces himself, then twitch off yourself as well, and thus let fly from one opening to another so long and much as you are able to reach to a hit. However, so that such lessons will be marked and understood , I will demonstrate with a few good examples so that my objective will be simply and distinctly taught, presented, and set out, with which the goodly Reader will sufficiently judge all secondary and ongoing elements, and thus can take understanding from it in the Middle work thus:</p>
| Damit du aber solches dester geübter werdest / so soltu mit dem ersten hauw alwegen umbwechseln / also wann du einmal deinen ersten hauw zur Lincken obern Blöß / unnd den andern zu seiner Rechten undern Blöß / unnd also fürtan wie oben gelehrt (wie solches die ausserste ziffer in disem hiebey getrucktem Figürlein anzeigen) gehauwen hast / so soltu demnoch auch den ersten gegen seiner Lincken undern / den andern gegen seiner Rechten obern / und dann fürter wie die ander zal im gedachten Figürlein lehrt / darnach so hauwe den ersten zu seiner Rechten unden / den andern zu seiner Lincken oben / und also fürter wie dich die drit zal weist / zum letzten hauwe deinen ersten gegen seiner Rechten / und fürter wie solches die inere zal außweisset / unnd das alles lerne erstlich wie gemelt mit langer dan mit halber schneid / und letzlich mit der fleche in das werck richten / wandu nun solches wol kanst / so folget nu ferner das ander stuck / nemlich das du solche vier Blösse wissest vor solchen gelerte häuwen zu bewaren / und eintwederst die mit deiner schwerts klingen auffhaltest oder '''[XXVIIIv]''' welches besser mit gegen häuwen von dir abweisest / dises seind also die zwey Hauptstuck im Fechten / daraus alle ander stuck herfliessen un ist das Original / Ferner folget nun für das drit ein zufellig stuck welches eigentlich zu rede die Practick heißt und ist / welche Practick ist diese / wan du nun deine Häuw aus den Legern wol zu allen theilen des Mans führen kanst / welches das erste stuck im fechten so im Vor ins werck bracht werden muß / und aber dein gegenfechter ist gleich / und behend auch fertig mit dem andern stuck der versatzung / dir deine häuw im Nach abzuschaffen oder auff halten / damit du dein fürgenommen ziel mit solchen Häuwen nicht erreichen kanst / Derwegen kompt nun das dritte stuck das ist die Practick genant / welches ist der list / und lehrt dich wie du dein Häuw wo du gewahr wirst / das solche an einem ort vergeblich oder unfruchtbar seind / bald unnd behendig von dannen ehe dann solcher Hauw antrifft wider abzukest / oder fehl füruber gehen lassest / und den einer andern Blöß zuführest / will er daselbst auch versetzen / so zuck daselbst auch ab / und laß also verfliegen von einer Blös zur andern / so lang unnd vil biß du eine ereilen kanst zu treffen / Damit aber solches vom lernenden desterbas gemerckt und verstanden mag werden / will ich demselbigen zu gut etliche exempel so meines erachtens einfeltig unnd deutlich lehren / dargegen und setzen / aus welchen der gutherzig Leser gnugsamen bericht / allerley beyfellige und verführte stuck / so hievor in mitler arbeit erzelt / dieselbigen zuverstehn nehmen kann / also:
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/76|3|lbl=Ⅰ.28r.3|p=1}} {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/77|1|lbl=Ⅰ.28v.1|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| When you have struck as taught above in the Pre-Fencing, and have closed in the strike, then let the first and second hit on hard as above, then don’t let the third hit on, but twitch nimbly then hit off again in a backward flight, so that the fourth can thus hit on quickly.
+
| <p>When you have struck as taught above in the Pre-Fencing, and have closed in the strike, then let the first and second hit on hard as above, then don’t let the third hit on, but twitch nimbly then hit off again in a backward flight, so that the fourth can thus hit on quickly.</p>
| Wann du im zufechten wie vor gelert auffgestrichen / und dich zum streich erholet hast / so lasse den ersten und den andern hart antreffen wie oben / den dritten aber lasse nicht antreffen / sonder verzuck den behend ehe dann solcher trifft wider ab in eim flug zu ruck / auff das du den vierten dester geschwinder und eher antreffen könnest.
+
| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/77|2|lbl=Ⅰ.28v.2}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Note: hit the first and twitch the second and the third in a quick flight, and let the fourth hit, still likewise launch the first and second bites to the Openings, and indeed twitch them off again and then lead into the next target, in this disengagement you can and also should attack with the first, changing off to things taught before in the numbered lessons, namely that you now twitch and feint from this then to another, and meanwhile still have care and attention where he would engage your own openings, that you then soon be on his sword with a bind, from this twitching now move farther on to Flowing Off and Missing and the like. Thus when you would lead a strike to the man’s now known sections, and yet then take care that he displaces such strikes, then don’t twitch off again, but (in that he is unaware of your observance) then close by the same side miss to let it fully flow off on over and strike nimbly to another opening, being first on the outside right (what you led with). Example:
+
| <p>Note: hit the first and twitch the second and the third in a quick flight, and let the fourth hit, still likewise launch the first and second bites to the Openings, and indeed twitch them off again and then lead into the next target, in this disengagement you can and also should attack with the first, changing off to things taught before in the numbered lessons, namely that you now twitch and feint from this then to another, and meanwhile still have care and attention where he would engage your own openings, that you then soon be on his sword with a bind, from this twitching now move farther on to Flowing Off and Missing and the like. Thus when you would lead a strike to the man’s now known sections, and yet then take care that he displaces such strikes, then don’t twitch off again, but (in that he is unaware of your observance) then close by the same side miss to let it fully flow off on over and strike nimbly to another opening, being first on the outside right (what you led with). Example:</p>
| '''[XXIXr]''' Item triffe den ersten / unnd verzucke den andern und den dritten in einem geschwinden flug / unn lasse den vierten treffen / eben desgleichen trauwe den ersten unnd den andern biß an die Blösse / und verzucke doch solches wider ab / und führe den der andern nechsten Blösse eine zu / in dieser verzuckung kanstu / und solt sie auch mit dem ersten angreiffen / aller ding wie hievor in der ziffer gelehrt abwechseln / nemlich das du jetz an dieser dann an einer andern abzuckest unnd verfehlen lassest / und under des gleichwol fürsorg und auffmerckens habest / wo er dir jrgendt zur Blöß würde einfallen / das du jm bald von solchem verzucken mit dem Bandt an seinem schwerdt seyest / aus disem verzucken fleußt nun weiter das Ablauffen und Fehlen unnd dergleichen / Also wann du ein hauw dieser obgedachten theilen des Mans eine zuführest / und aber in dem du gewahr würst / das er solchen Hauw versetzen / so zuckest du gleichwol nicht wider ab / sonder (auf das er deines vermerckens nicht gewahr werde) so lasse neben der selben seiten vollen fehl füruber ablauffen / unnd Hauwe jhm behende zu einer andern Blöß / ehe dann ers recht (was du führest) innen wirt / Exempel:
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/77|3|lbl=Ⅰ.28v.3|p=1}} '''[XXIXr]''' unn lasse den vierten treffen / eben desgleichen trauwe den ersten unnd den andern biß an die Blösse / und verzucke doch solches wider ab / und führe den der andern nechsten Blösse eine zu / in dieser verzuckung kanstu / und solt sie auch mit dem ersten angreiffen / aller ding wie hievor in der ziffer gelehrt abwechseln / nemlich das du jetz an dieser dann an einer andern abzuckest unnd verfehlen lassest / und under des gleichwol fürsorg und auffmerckens habest / wo er dir jrgendt zur Blöß würde einfallen / das du jm bald von solchem verzucken mit dem Bandt an seinem schwerdt seyest / aus disem verzucken fleußt nun weiter das Ablauffen und Fehlen unnd dergleichen / Also wann du ein hauw dieser obgedachten theilen des Mans eine zuführest / und aber in dem du gewahr würst / das er solchen Hauw versetzen / so zuckest du gleichwol nicht wider ab / sonder (auf das er deines vermerckens nicht gewahr werde) so lasse neben der selben seiten vollen fehl füruber ablauffen / unnd Hauwe jhm behende zu einer andern Blöß / ehe dann ers recht (was du führest) innen wirt / Exempel:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| As you have rebounded through the out stretching to the strikes as was taught above, then step and strike high from your right against his left ear, as soon as he clears this, nimbly let your blade sink below you with the half edge near your left side, and then pull your pommel and grip above you, and nimbly strike to his right ear with the short edge, so that your hands become crossed in this strike.
+
| <p>As you have rebounded through the out stretching to the strikes as was taught above, then step and strike high from your right against his left ear, as soon as he clears this, nimbly let your blade sink below you with the half edge near your left side, and then pull your pommel and grip above you, and nimbly strike to his right ear with the short edge, so that your hands become crossed in this strike.</p>
 
| So du dich durch das auffstreychen zum streich erholet hast / wie oben gelehret / so trit unnd hauwe von deiner Rechten hoch herein gegen seinem Lincken ohr / als bald er dem nach wischt so lasse behend dein klingen mit der halben schneide neben seiner Lincken undersich sincken / unnd ruck damit dein Knopff und Hefft ubersich / und hauwe ihm behend mit kurtzer schneide zu seinem Rechten ohr / also das dein hend in solchem hauw kreutzweiß kommen.
 
| So du dich durch das auffstreychen zum streich erholet hast / wie oben gelehret / so trit unnd hauwe von deiner Rechten hoch herein gegen seinem Lincken ohr / als bald er dem nach wischt so lasse behend dein klingen mit der halben schneide neben seiner Lincken undersich sincken / unnd ruck damit dein Knopff und Hefft ubersich / und hauwe ihm behend mit kurtzer schneide zu seinem Rechten ohr / also das dein hend in solchem hauw kreutzweiß kommen.
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Note: let the first hit hard against his left ear, nimbly let the second flow off missing near his right as instructed before, and hit deep to his left ear, thus onto it nimbly (whereas you hit the first hard unto him) as well, letting it flow off to both sides, and still attack on to the next target as it opens, all these diagonally and with crossed arms as was taught, also against each other single and double, judged in the work against your need and opportunity. Then farther, as was taught, drive the blade in the full work first with the long edge then with the short, and also with the flat, against his sides in full flight to the high and low openings.
+
| <p>Note: let the first hit hard against his left ear, nimbly let the second flow off missing near his right as instructed before, and hit deep to his left ear, thus onto it nimbly (whereas you hit the first hard unto him) as well, letting it flow off to both sides, and still attack on to the next target as it opens, all these diagonally and with crossed arms as was taught, also against each other single and double, judged in the work against your need and opportunity. Then farther, as was taught, drive the blade in the full work first with the long edge then with the short, and also with the flat, against his sides in full flight to the high and low openings.</p>
 
| Item las den ersten gegen seinem Lincken ohr hart antreffen / den andern lasse behend auff vorige weiß neben seinem Rechten fehl furuber lauffen / unnd triffe dieff zu seinem Lincken ohr / also magstu auch ( wo du den ersten mit jm hart eingehauwen hast) behend darauff / auff beiden seiten ablauffen lassen / und demnoch zu der nechsten Blöß so die offen ist einfallen / dises alles so bisher gelehrt kanstu uberecke und kreutzweiß / auch gegeneinander einfach unnd doppel / in das '''[XXIXv]''' werck richten / nach deinem gefallen und gelegenheit / weiter so lehre auch dein klingen in voller arbeit / erstlich mit Langer dann auch mit halber schneid / oder auch mit der flech / gegen seiner seiten zur obern und undern Blösse / in vollem flug behendiglichen zusamen führen / also.
 
| Item las den ersten gegen seinem Lincken ohr hart antreffen / den andern lasse behend auff vorige weiß neben seinem Rechten fehl furuber lauffen / unnd triffe dieff zu seinem Lincken ohr / also magstu auch ( wo du den ersten mit jm hart eingehauwen hast) behend darauff / auff beiden seiten ablauffen lassen / und demnoch zu der nechsten Blöß so die offen ist einfallen / dises alles so bisher gelehrt kanstu uberecke und kreutzweiß / auch gegeneinander einfach unnd doppel / in das '''[XXIXv]''' werck richten / nach deinem gefallen und gelegenheit / weiter so lehre auch dein klingen in voller arbeit / erstlich mit Langer dann auch mit halber schneid / oder auch mit der flech / gegen seiner seiten zur obern und undern Blösse / in vollem flug behendiglichen zusamen führen / also.
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| In the first attack strike a long downstrike to his left ear, just as he glides then twitch both hands above you, so that your pommel will be under your right arm as you thrust through to him above you, and strike handily from below with the long edge to his left, just then step to him with your left foot behind your right and come through this strike to bring your grip high over your head. Onward again first strike an understrike with the long edge to his low opening while advancing your right foot, twitch handily near your right above you again, and strike the second from above also to his left while backstepping with your left behind your right as before, from which you will stand guarded behind your blade.
+
| <p>In the first attack strike a long downstrike to his left ear, just as he glides then twitch both hands above you, so that your pommel will be under your right arm as you thrust through to him above you, and strike handily from below with the long edge to his left, just then step to him with your left foot behind your right and come through this strike to bring your grip high over your head. Onward again first strike an understrike with the long edge to his low opening while advancing your right foot, twitch handily near your right above you again, and strike the second from above also to his left while backstepping with your left behind your right as before, from which you will stand guarded behind your blade.</p>
 
| Im ersten angriff hauw ein Langen Oberhauw zu seinem Lincken ohr / in dem es glützt / so zuck beide hend ubersich / das dein Knopff under deinem Rechten arm im ubersich fahren durch gestossen werdt / unnd hauwe behend mit Langer schneiden von Unden auch zu seiner Lincken / trit in des mit deinem Lincken fus hinder deinen Rechten zu jhm / und komm mit deinem Hefft in solchem hauwen hoch uber deinem Haupt / Herwiderumb so hauwe den ersten einen Underhauw / mit einem zutrit deines rechten Fuß / zu seiner undern Blös mit Langer schneid / zuck behendt neben deiner Rechten wider ubersich / unnd hauwe den andern von Oben auch zu seiner Lincken mit einem abtritt deines lincken Fus / hinder deinem Rechten zu jhm wie vor / auff das du hinder deiner kling verdeckt standest.  
 
| Im ersten angriff hauw ein Langen Oberhauw zu seinem Lincken ohr / in dem es glützt / so zuck beide hend ubersich / das dein Knopff under deinem Rechten arm im ubersich fahren durch gestossen werdt / unnd hauwe behend mit Langer schneiden von Unden auch zu seiner Lincken / trit in des mit deinem Lincken fus hinder deinen Rechten zu jhm / und komm mit deinem Hefft in solchem hauwen hoch uber deinem Haupt / Herwiderumb so hauwe den ersten einen Underhauw / mit einem zutrit deines rechten Fuß / zu seiner undern Blös mit Langer schneid / zuck behendt neben deiner Rechten wider ubersich / unnd hauwe den andern von Oben auch zu seiner Lincken mit einem abtritt deines lincken Fus / hinder deinem Rechten zu jhm wie vor / auff das du hinder deiner kling verdeckt standest.  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword C.jpg|center|400px]]
| Note: twitch with a high strike from the right with the half edge to his left, but in the air cross over your hands and slash with the half edge to his left ear, as is shown by the top two figures in illustration C, twitch your hands again thus crosswise over you, and slash again with a traverse from below to his left ear, then again onward strike the traverse from below to his left with an advance step, twitch nimbly near your left above you, and thrust through in this off-twitch with your pommel under your right arm, and quickly again with crossed arms from your high right into his left, in this way slash with the flat below and above on the one side, that goes to both sides, and mark when you will slash to the lower right opening, which will be with the flat, long or short, then your hands will cross, but when you slash to his hight righ opening, then your hands will not always be crossed, from here mark the following example:  
+
| <p>Note: twitch with a high strike from the right with the half edge to his left, but in the air cross over your hands and slash with the half edge to his left ear, as is shown by the top two figures in illustration C, twitch your hands again thus crosswise over you, and slash again with a traverse from below to his left ear, then again onward strike the traverse from below to his left with an advance step, twitch nimbly near your left above you, and thrust through in this off-twitch with your pommel under your right arm, and quickly again with crossed arms from your high right into his left, in this way slash with the flat below and above on the one side, that goes to both sides, and mark when you will slash to the lower right opening, which will be with the flat, long or short, then your hands will cross, but when you slash to his hight righ opening, then your hands will not always be crossed, from here mark the following example:</p>
 
| Item zuck mit halber schneid von dem Rechten ein hohen streich zu seiner Lincken / aber in der lufft verschrenck dein hend / und schlag mit halber schneide zu seinem lincken ohr / wie du solches an den zweyen obern Bilder zur Lincken in der Figur so mit dem C. verzeichnet sehen kanst / zuck deine hende also kreutzweiß wider ubersich / unnd schlag mit einer zwirch wider von Unden zu seinem lincken Ohr / also auch herwiderumb Hauw die zwirch von Unden zu seiner Lincken mit einem zutrit / zuck behendt neben deiner Rechten ubersich / unnd stoß in solchem auffzucken dein Knopff under dein rechten Arm durch / und schnell also mit geschrenckten henden wider von deiner Rechten Oben hinein zu seiner Lincken / auff diese weise schlag es auch mit der flech Unden und Oben auff einer seiten zusamen / das gehet zu beiden seiten / und merck wann du zur Rechten undern Blöß schlechst / es sey flech / lang oder kurtz / so kommen dein hend kreutzweiß / aber wann du '''[XXXr]''' zu seiner Rechten obern Blösse schlechst / so kommen deine hende nicht alwegen kreutzweiß / hievon merck auff folgend Exempel.
 
| Item zuck mit halber schneid von dem Rechten ein hohen streich zu seiner Lincken / aber in der lufft verschrenck dein hend / und schlag mit halber schneide zu seinem lincken ohr / wie du solches an den zweyen obern Bilder zur Lincken in der Figur so mit dem C. verzeichnet sehen kanst / zuck deine hende also kreutzweiß wider ubersich / unnd schlag mit einer zwirch wider von Unden zu seinem lincken Ohr / also auch herwiderumb Hauw die zwirch von Unden zu seiner Lincken mit einem zutrit / zuck behendt neben deiner Rechten ubersich / unnd stoß in solchem auffzucken dein Knopff under dein rechten Arm durch / und schnell also mit geschrenckten henden wider von deiner Rechten Oben hinein zu seiner Lincken / auff diese weise schlag es auch mit der flech Unden und Oben auff einer seiten zusamen / das gehet zu beiden seiten / und merck wann du zur Rechten undern Blöß schlechst / es sey flech / lang oder kurtz / so kommen dein hend kreutzweiß / aber wann du '''[XXXr]''' zu seiner Rechten obern Blösse schlechst / so kommen deine hende nicht alwegen kreutzweiß / hievon merck auff folgend Exempel.
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| Thus in advancing shoot through before him and slash with the half edge from your left to his right ear, without crossing your hands, but with your pommel staying out toward your left, twitch nimbly overhead to your right, and crossing your hands over in the air, slash with crossed hands to his lower right opening from your left, in all moves keep your pommel full behind your blade, stepping double steps out to your right, thus you can both slash with the flech and with the long edge, from below and above, near your right, as I taught you before, that you shall twitch and turn the strikes from one opening to another, thus you shall twitch and address both high and low openings on one side. Basically, when you drive a strike to his high openings, and notice that he does not strike, but your sword drives on to engage, see that you then not let your strike hit on, but lead your strike to his low opening, but where he does get under the strike, then drive your strike ahead against the strong of his blade. From this work grows winding at the Sword, namely when you have bound onto his sword from your right against his left, then stay stay hard on his blade, thrust your pommel through under your right arm unseen to him, stay thus forward on his sword, and then pull your pommel out again and wind your short edge out to his head. Thus you again find three edges and the flat, namely the outward and inward long edge, also the outward and inward short edge, and similarly the inward and outward flat, all on both sides.
+
| <p>Thus in advancing shoot through before him and slash with the half edge from your left to his right ear, without crossing your hands, but with your pommel staying out toward your left, twitch nimbly overhead to your right, and crossing your hands over in the air, slash with crossed hands to his lower right opening from your left, in all moves keep your pommel full behind your blade, stepping double steps out to your right, thus you can both slash with the flech and with the long edge, from below and above, near your right, as I taught you before, that you shall twitch and turn the strikes from one opening to another, thus you shall twitch and address both high and low openings on one side. Basically, when you drive a strike to his high openings, and notice that he does not strike, but your sword drives on to engage, see that you then not let your strike hit on, but lead your strike to his low opening, but where he does get under the strike, then drive your strike ahead against the strong of his blade. From this work grows winding at the Sword, namely when you have bound onto his sword from your right against his left, then stay stay hard on his blade, thrust your pommel through under your right arm unseen to him, stay thus forward on his sword, and then pull your pommel out again and wind your short edge out to his head. Thus you again find three edges and the flat, namely the outward and inward long edge, also the outward and inward short edge, and similarly the inward and outward flat, all on both sides.</p>
 
| Also im zutritt schieß vor jhm durch / und schlag mit halber schneid / von deiner Lincken zu seinem rechten ohr nicht mit geschrenckten henden / sonder das dein Knopff gegen deiner Lincken aus steht / zuck behend wider ubersich gegen deiner Rechten / und verschrenck dein hende in der lufft / schlag jhm mit gekreutzigten henden zu seiner undern rechten Blöß / von deiner Lincken / in dem allem schaw das du mit dem Kopff wol hinder deiner kling / mit zwifachen tritten gegen seiner Rechten außtreten bist / also kanstu auch mit flech und Langer schneid / von unden unnd oben / neben seiner Rechten zusamen schlagen / wie ich dich nur vor gelert hab / das du die häw von einer Blöß zur andern verzucken und trauwen solt / also soltu hie auff einer seiten / auch die undern und obern Blöß zusamen trauwen und verzucken / Nemlich wann du jhm also ein haw zur obern Blösse führest / und merckest das er nicht hauwet / sonder deinem Schwerdt entgegen fehrt / das du als dann dein hauw nicht antreffen lassest / sonder dein klingen der undern Blöß zuführest / wo er aber under des hauwen wirt / so fahr mit deinem Hauw fürt doch gegen der sterck seiner klingen / Aus dieser arbeit erwachsen die winden am Schwerdt / nemlich wann du jhm an sein Schwerdt hast angebunden / von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken / so bleib hart an seiner klingen / stoß dein Knopff jme unversehens under dein rechten Arm durch / bleib also ferner an seinem Schwerdt / und ruck als dann dein Knopff wider herfür / und windt jhm die kurtz schneiden außwendig zum Kopff / also findestu auch dreyerley schneid und flech / Nemlich außwendige und inwendige Lange schneide. Item außwendige und inwendige kurtze schneide / deßgleichen inwendig und auswendige flech / und das auff beiden seiten.
 
| Also im zutritt schieß vor jhm durch / und schlag mit halber schneid / von deiner Lincken zu seinem rechten ohr nicht mit geschrenckten henden / sonder das dein Knopff gegen deiner Lincken aus steht / zuck behend wider ubersich gegen deiner Rechten / und verschrenck dein hende in der lufft / schlag jhm mit gekreutzigten henden zu seiner undern rechten Blöß / von deiner Lincken / in dem allem schaw das du mit dem Kopff wol hinder deiner kling / mit zwifachen tritten gegen seiner Rechten außtreten bist / also kanstu auch mit flech und Langer schneid / von unden unnd oben / neben seiner Rechten zusamen schlagen / wie ich dich nur vor gelert hab / das du die häw von einer Blöß zur andern verzucken und trauwen solt / also soltu hie auff einer seiten / auch die undern und obern Blöß zusamen trauwen und verzucken / Nemlich wann du jhm also ein haw zur obern Blösse führest / und merckest das er nicht hauwet / sonder deinem Schwerdt entgegen fehrt / das du als dann dein hauw nicht antreffen lassest / sonder dein klingen der undern Blöß zuführest / wo er aber under des hauwen wirt / so fahr mit deinem Hauw fürt doch gegen der sterck seiner klingen / Aus dieser arbeit erwachsen die winden am Schwerdt / nemlich wann du jhm an sein Schwerdt hast angebunden / von deiner Rechten gegen seiner Lincken / so bleib hart an seiner klingen / stoß dein Knopff jme unversehens under dein rechten Arm durch / bleib also ferner an seinem Schwerdt / und ruck als dann dein Knopff wider herfür / und windt jhm die kurtz schneiden außwendig zum Kopff / also findestu auch dreyerley schneid und flech / Nemlich außwendige und inwendige Lange schneide. Item außwendige und inwendige kurtze schneide / deßgleichen inwendig und auswendige flech / und das auff beiden seiten.
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | Thus you understand that the third part of fencing is nothing other than the right Practice, as was reported above, the first two Lead parts in fencing, which will be taught though Practice, where you change at every opportunity, namely in the first Lead Part with the stances and strikes, flowing off, changing through, flying off, and letting miss. That such strikes can be trapped with displacement and clearing, likewise in the second Lead Part, displacement, teach the Practice of how you displace, follow after him, cut, punch, etc. Therewith you will end the strikes that he sends to you, or at the least prevent them from reaching their intended destination. And that is the sum of all Practice, namely that you firstly engage your opposing fencer through the stances, with manly strikes and without damage to your target, by showing cunning and agile misleading as can be shown, and after you then engage him to break through with the obligatory or similar handwork, from which you either securely withdraw at your pleasure, or where he must retreat from you and you follow ahead after him. Since going forward such Practice will be needed and extended in many arts to be the same both in name and in fencing, as you found fully described before here in the handwork chapter, I will now drive further to describe fencing from the stances.
+
| class="noline" | <p>Thus you understand that the third part of fencing is nothing other than the right Practice, as was reported above, the first two Lead parts in fencing, which will be taught though Practice, where you change at every opportunity, namely in the first Lead Part with the stances and strikes, flowing off, changing through, flying off, and letting miss. That such strikes can be trapped with displacement and clearing, likewise in the second Lead Part, displacement, teach the Practice of how you displace, follow after him, cut, punch, etc. Therewith you will end the strikes that he sends to you, or at the least prevent them from reaching their intended destination. And that is the sum of all Practice, namely that you firstly engage your opposing fencer through the stances, with manly strikes and without damage to your target, by showing cunning and agile misleading as can be shown, and after you then engage him to break through with the obligatory or similar handwork, from which you either securely withdraw at your pleasure, or where he must retreat from you and you follow ahead after him. Since going forward such Practice will be needed and extended in many arts to be the same both in name and in fencing, as you found fully described before here in the handwork chapter, I will now drive further to describe fencing from the stances.</p>
 
| class="noline" | Also verstehstu nun das das dritte stuck im Fechten davon oben gemelt nichts anders ist / dann [XXXv] ein rechte Practick / der zwey ersten Hauptstuck im Fechten / durch welche Practick gelehrt wirt / wie du solche nach zufelliger gelegenheit / nemlich im ersten Hauptstuck die Leger unnd Häuw verwandlen / ablauffen durchwechseln verfliegen unnd fehlen lasset / damit dem versetzer unnd abtrager solche Häuw entführet werden / desgleichen im andern Hauptstuck des versetzens / lert dich die Practick wie du jm deine versatzung entzuckest / jhm nachreisest / schnidest / truckest etc. Damit du jhn auch umb seine häuw das er die vergebens / oder auff das wenigest zu seinem fürgenomen ziel nicht volführe noch ende. Und ist das die summa aller Practick / nemlich das du erstlich deinen gegen gegenfechter durch die Leger / mit dem hauwen manliche unnd ohn schaden / zu seinem nachtheil / mit was listigkeit unnd behender verführung das geschehen kann / angreiffest / unnd nach dem du jhn als dann angriffen / jhne ferner mit obligender oder gleicher handtarbeit jhn also trengest / auff das du demnach zum dritten sicher nach deinem gefallen eintweders abziehest / oder wo er dir weichen müste / du jhm fürsichtig nach folgest / wie ferner aber solche Practick sich erstrecke und auff wie vilerley arth dieselbigen beide in den namen und im Fechten gebraucht werden / findestu hievor im Capitel von der handtarbeit weitleuffiger beschriben / will derwegen nun fürter das Fechten aus den Legern zu beschreiben furt fahren.
 
| class="noline" | Also verstehstu nun das das dritte stuck im Fechten davon oben gemelt nichts anders ist / dann [XXXv] ein rechte Practick / der zwey ersten Hauptstuck im Fechten / durch welche Practick gelehrt wirt / wie du solche nach zufelliger gelegenheit / nemlich im ersten Hauptstuck die Leger unnd Häuw verwandlen / ablauffen durchwechseln verfliegen unnd fehlen lasset / damit dem versetzer unnd abtrager solche Häuw entführet werden / desgleichen im andern Hauptstuck des versetzens / lert dich die Practick wie du jm deine versatzung entzuckest / jhm nachreisest / schnidest / truckest etc. Damit du jhn auch umb seine häuw das er die vergebens / oder auff das wenigest zu seinem fürgenomen ziel nicht volführe noch ende. Und ist das die summa aller Practick / nemlich das du erstlich deinen gegen gegenfechter durch die Leger / mit dem hauwen manliche unnd ohn schaden / zu seinem nachtheil / mit was listigkeit unnd behender verführung das geschehen kann / angreiffest / unnd nach dem du jhn als dann angriffen / jhne ferner mit obligender oder gleicher handtarbeit jhn also trengest / auff das du demnach zum dritten sicher nach deinem gefallen eintweders abziehest / oder wo er dir weichen müste / du jhm fürsichtig nach folgest / wie ferner aber solche Practick sich erstrecke und auff wie vilerley arth dieselbigen beide in den namen und im Fechten gebraucht werden / findestu hievor im Capitel von der handtarbeit weitleuffiger beschriben / will derwegen nun fürter das Fechten aus den Legern zu beschreiben furt fahren.
  

Revision as of 03:46, 11 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 17.13 17.14 17.15 17.16 17.17 17.18 17.19 17.20 17.21 17.22 17.23 17.24 17.25 17.26 17.27 17.28 17.29 17.30 17.31 indes
  18. palm up
  19. Illegible deletion.
  20. oberhauw
  21. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  22. short edge
  23. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  24. short edge
  25. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  26. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  27. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  28. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  29. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  30. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  31. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  32. Word inserted next to the text.
  33. Inserted nest to the text.
  34. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  35. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.