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This is when you cut a Crooked cut at one, and he holds off hard so that you cannot cross over, or have other work from above, thus wind under and through with the pommel, and cast the pommel to the other side over his blade or arm from the outside, and wrench downwards and strike in with the long edge deep to his head, or cast the pommel in between both of his hands, how this figure reveals.
 
This is when you cut a Crooked cut at one, and he holds off hard so that you cannot cross over, or have other work from above, thus wind under and through with the pommel, and cast the pommel to the other side over his blade or arm from the outside, and wrench downwards and strike in with the long edge deep to his head, or cast the pommel in between both of his hands, how this figure reveals.
  
The next is a counter to the under-cut, if one cuts an under-cut to you low. Then cut with your long edge so that you have your hands crooked or crosswise, above on his strong. Then when this clashes, thrust the blade right in before you, and in thrusting forth, wind the short edge to flick it around at his face or head. If he drives up and defends against your flick, then drive up also, pull around your head, and strike him to another opening.
 
| rowspan="2" | '''[Lr] Wann du jhm Hauwest Krump zur sterck /<br/>Durchwendt / Uberlauff damit merck.'''
 
  
Wann du einem ein Krumphauw zuhauwest / und er hart widerhalt / also das du jhn mit uberschrencken oder anderer arbeit Oben nichts haben magst / so wend mit dem knopff unden durch / und greiff mit demselben jm auff der andern seiten aussen uber sein klingen oder Arm / unnd reiss undersich / schlag jhn mit Langer schneid im riss auff sein Kopff / oder greiff mit dem knopff zwischen sein beide hend / wie in der Figur hievor getruckt an den zwen bossen gegen der Lincken hand zu sehen. Bruch. Hauwet einer ein Underhauw auff dich / so Hauw mit Langer schneid / das du dein hendt krum oder kreutzweiß habest / oben auff die sterck seiner klingen / in dem es dan gliitzt so schieb die kling gerichts für dir hin / unnd im fürtscheiben so winde die kurtze schneid in einem schnall umb zu seinem gesicht oder auff sein Kopff / fehret er auff und wehrt dir dein schnall / so fahr auch auff / unnd zuck umb dein Kopff / und schlag jhm zu seiner undern Blöß.
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| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword O.jpg|center|400px]]
 
| [[File:Meyer 1570 Longsword O.jpg|center|400px]]
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<p>The next is a counter to the under-cut, if one cuts an under-cut to you low. Then cut with your long edge so that you have your hands crooked or crosswise, above on his strong. Then when this clashes, thrust the blade right in before you, and in thrusting forth, wind the short edge to flick it around at his face or head. If he drives up and defends against your flick, then drive up also, pull around your head, and strike him to another opening.</p>
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|2|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.2}}
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This is when you cut in with a Crooked Cut to his strong, if he opposes or displaces high, then wind through below with the pommel, and act as if you would grab over with the pommel, as I have already taught; and before he realizes it, then quickly flick the short edge back in at him, again on the same line, to whichever side you first did the Crooked Cut.
 
This is when you cut in with a Crooked Cut to his strong, if he opposes or displaces high, then wind through below with the pommel, and act as if you would grab over with the pommel, as I have already taught; and before he realizes it, then quickly flick the short edge back in at him, again on the same line, to whichever side you first did the Crooked Cut.
| '''Des Knopffs verführens solt gedencken /<br/>Mit Zeckrur / Schnellen würst jhn krenken.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|3|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.3}}
 
 
Ist sovil / wenn du in einem Krumphauw einhauwest zu seiner Rechte / und er widerhelt oder versetzt hoch / so windt mit dem knopff unden durch / und stelle dich mit geberden als wolstu wie vor gelehrt / mit dem knopff ubergreiffen / ehe und denn er sich solches versicht / so Schnell jhm die kurtze schneide daselbst wider hinein / zu welcher seiten du erst den Krumphauw gethan hast.
 
 
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| '''Item''' In the Zufechten, lay on against your opponent with a powerful horizontal Middle Cut strongly at his left ear. Quickly pull your pommel around your head, and threaten him with it as if you would thrust at his other side with the pommel, and if he wishes to slip after and displace the thrust then flick back at his left ear with the short edge, and in flicking, step with your left foot back behind your right.
 
| '''Item''' In the Zufechten, lay on against your opponent with a powerful horizontal Middle Cut strongly at his left ear. Quickly pull your pommel around your head, and threaten him with it as if you would thrust at his other side with the pommel, and if he wishes to slip after and displace the thrust then flick back at his left ear with the short edge, and in flicking, step with your left foot back behind your right.
| Item greiff im zufechten dein gegenmann mit einem gewaltigen uberzwerch Mittelhauw / starck zum Lincken ohr an / zuck behend dein knopff umb dein Kopff / und trauw jhm damit / als ob du jhm mit dem Knopff zur andern seiten stossen wolst / und in dem er dir hie entgegen wischt den stoß zuversetzen / so schnell jhn mit der kurtzen schneid wider zu seinem Lincken ohr / und im schnall trit mit deinem Lincken fuß zu ruck hinder dein Rechten / und Hauwe dich von jhm.
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/120|4|lbl=Ⅰ.50r.4}}
 
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This is a proper master's technique, when you are in the Zufechten, then send yourself into the right Wrath; as soon as he brings his sword in the air, then strike a free High Cut at him, and in the air, cross your hands so that the right hand comes crosswise over the left, and cut then through crooked with the short edge against his cut, in this, step with a double step well out to his right, and cut with the long edge at his right ear, or use changing through to come onto his shield against his right; then work with winding, slicing, and whatever other work arises for you.
 
This is a proper master's technique, when you are in the Zufechten, then send yourself into the right Wrath; as soon as he brings his sword in the air, then strike a free High Cut at him, and in the air, cross your hands so that the right hand comes crosswise over the left, and cut then through crooked with the short edge against his cut, in this, step with a double step well out to his right, and cut with the long edge at his right ear, or use changing through to come onto his shield against his right; then work with winding, slicing, and whatever other work arises for you.
| '''[Lv] Auch so du recht durchschiessen wilt /<br/>Krumb / Kurtz / Durchwechsel an sein Schilt.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|1|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.1}}
 
 
Diß ist ein recht artig Meister stücklein / wenn du im zufechten bist so schick dich in rechten Zorn / als bald er sein Schwerdt in die lufft bringt / so Hauw ein freyen Oberhauw zu jhm / volführe den aber nit / sonder verschrenck in der lufft deine hend / das die Rechte hand uber die Lincke kom / und Hauw also mit kurtzer schneid Krump gegen seinem Hauw listiglich durch / in dessen trit wol mit einem zwifachen trit auff sein Rechte aus / unnd Hauw mit Langer schneid zu seinem Rechten ohr / oder kom mit dem durchwechseln an sein Schilt gegen seiner Rechten / alda arbeit mit Winden / Schneiden und was dir für arbeit werden mag.
 
 
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Take heed in the Zufechten of he who pulls up his sword to strike, thus cut through quickly and freely before him how it is taught above, so that you come to his right on to his shield. And as soon as it connects, then wind again with the short edge in at his head, and in this winding, jerk your pommel well upward, so that your blade again snaps around, so that in your cut, your right hand comes back over your left, hit then with crossed hands, and thus in snapping around, wind in below to his right ear, and step at the same time, quickly with your left foot well out to his right. Then at once Thwart to his left ear with a step out, deeply wind your short edge inwards and again outwards to his left ear, and then cut away from him.
 
Take heed in the Zufechten of he who pulls up his sword to strike, thus cut through quickly and freely before him how it is taught above, so that you come to his right on to his shield. And as soon as it connects, then wind again with the short edge in at his head, and in this winding, jerk your pommel well upward, so that your blade again snaps around, so that in your cut, your right hand comes back over your left, hit then with crossed hands, and thus in snapping around, wind in below to his right ear, and step at the same time, quickly with your left foot well out to his right. Then at once Thwart to his left ear with a step out, deeply wind your short edge inwards and again outwards to his left ear, and then cut away from him.
| '''Ein stuck aus dem durchschiessen.'''
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HAb im zufechten acht / so bald dein gegenfechter sein Schwerdt zum streich auffziehet / so Hauw dieweil behend und listig vor jhm Krump durch (wie oben gemelt) damit du zu seiner Rechten aussen an seinen Schilt komest / und als geschwindt es nur rührt so winde jhm die kurtze schneid einwerts zum Kopff / unnd ruck in solchem winden dein knopff wol ubersich / das die kurtze schneid dest dieffer kom / fehrt er dann auff zu versetzen / so laß dein kling wider umbschnappen das dein Rechte hand wider uber die Lincke kome / und schnell jhm also im umbschnappen wider unden zu seinem Rechten ohr hinein / in solchem aber trit mit dem Lincken fuß wol auß auff sein Rechte / Zwirch dann bald wider mit einem abtrit zu seinem Lincken ohr dieff / unnd wind an seinem Schwerdt dein kurtze schneid wider unden heraus / zu seinem Lincken ohr / demnach Hauwe dich von jm / und solches alles soll durch das winden behendiglich volbracht werden.
 
 
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'''Item''' If he remains, then you wind. For winding, slicing, wrenching out, and reversing is called the War, through which one to the other always counters the opponent's devices. And one counter follows one from another, for if he wards off one, then with this he gives you occasion or helps you to another technique that conveniently follows after it, thus you both make War. Also this same you should note, when an opponent lays on against you with a Crooked Cut, that you shall not fly around from one opening to another, for as soon as you go away from the Crooked Cut, then you are totally open to him, where he will correctly step.
 
'''Item''' If he remains, then you wind. For winding, slicing, wrenching out, and reversing is called the War, through which one to the other always counters the opponent's devices. And one counter follows one from another, for if he wards off one, then with this he gives you occasion or helps you to another technique that conveniently follows after it, thus you both make War. Also this same you should note, when an opponent lays on against you with a Crooked Cut, that you shall not fly around from one opening to another, for as soon as you go away from the Crooked Cut, then you are totally open to him, where he will correctly step.
| '''Merck so er dich mit Krumpwolt irren /<br/>Am Schwerdt recht bleib / den krieg thu führen /<br/>Mit Winden / Schnieden und was mehr /<br/>Mit verfliegen laß dich nit zu ferr.'''
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| {{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/121|3|lbl=Ⅰ.50v.3}}
  
'''[LIr]''' Auß disen versen lernestu wie sich zuverhalten sey / gegen dem der dir krump an dein Schwerdt bindt / es werden aber hie zu zwey stuck dienstlich vermeldet / nemlich das Bleiben und der Krieg / welches sich also halt / Wenn dir einer krump an dein Schwerdt bindet / so zuck nit bald ab / sonder bleib an seinem Schwerdt / zu fülen was dir für arbeit hie nötig sein werde / als wenn er abgieng das du Nachreisest / oder so er bleibt du windest / dann Winden Schneiden / Verkeren / Außreissen heist hie der krieg / dardurch jmmer einer dem andern sein stuck bricht / unnd ein Bruch aus dem andern volget / dann wehret er dir eines so verursacht er dich oder hilfft dir zum andern / und kriegen also beide umb das Vor / auch soltu mercken wenn dir einer mit Krumphäuwen zuficht / das du gar nit verfliegen lassest von einer Blöß zur andern / dann als bald du vom Krumphauw abgehest / so bistu jhm gantz bloß / wo er sich ein wenig weiß darein zuschicken.
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Hieraus merck nun ein gut stuck / Hauwet einer von seiner Rechten ein Krumphauw auff dich so setz jhm den Hauw mit Langer schneid ubersich ab von dir / in dem es gliitzt / so bleib mit dem Bandt an seiner klingen / winde in des dein knopff ubersich gegen deiner Lincken / unnd die kling undersich gegen seiner Lincken / die kurtze Schneid an sein Linck ohr / Diß aber alles soll zugleich in einem trit zugehn / so triffestu gewiß / ob er aber so gescheid wer und auch den Krumphauw in das Langort verwenden würde / so winde in einem schnall die kurtze schneid einwerts zu seinem Kopff / winde demnach behend mit dem knopff wider unden durch auff dein Lincke seiten / greiff also mit dem knopff uber sein kling oder arm unnd reiss aus / oder so dir das gewendt / so nim andere stuck so du hie am tüglichen ersihest für die hand.
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Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.
 
Note in the Zufechten, come into the right Change; from there, slash up through his face, so that your sword runs around your head above in a loop. Step with your left foot well to his right and strike with the outside flat from your left against his right athwart to his ear, with this, take your head well out of the way how it is previously stated here and when it clashes, then thrust your pommel through under your right arm and wind with the inside flat, in a flick, up from below again to his right ear. In this winding around remain hard on his shield and press hard from you. If he resists then let your sword go away and pull around your head, strike with the outside flat a strong Clashing Cut over your hand Wind through with the pommel back under your arm and flick from inside behind his blade at his head. Remain hard on his shield and wind rapidly back out, thus you stand back in the Clashing Cut as before. Work further as you will to the four openings, such as the need be and is previously taught here.
| '''Bald schnell die schwech zur Rechten dar /<br/>Zwifach schnellen / mit Schilt dich bewar.'''
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Merck kom im zufechten in rechten Wechsel / von dannen streich auff durch sein gesicht / das dein Schwerdt uber dein Haupt umblauff in einder Rinde / trit mit deinem Lincken wol auff sein Rechte / und schlag mit der außwendigen flech von deiner Lincken gegen seiner Rechten / uberzwerch zum ohr / nim den Kopff wol mit / wie hievor gemelt / aber in dem es gliitzt / so stoß behend dein knopff under dein Rechten arm durch / und schnell jhm also mit '''[LIv]''' inwendiger flech in einem schnall / von unden auff wider zu seinem rechten Ohr / in solchem winden bleib hart an seim Schilt mit deinem Schwerdt / und truck zugleich hart von dir / helt er wider / so laß dein Schwerdt leiß auß / und zuck umb den Kopff / schlag also mit außwendiger flech zu seinem Lincken / ein starcken Gliitzhauw uber dein hand / das dein knopff wol ubersich gang / so gehet der Hauw dester dieffer / windt mit dem knopffwider under deinem Arm durch / und schnell von inwendig hinder seiner klingen zum Kopff / bleib alwegen hart an seinem schilt unnd windt in eyl wider herauß / so stehestu wider im Gliitzhauw wie vor / arbeit weiter waß du wilt / nach den vier Blössen.
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{{section|Page:Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (Joachim Meÿer) 1570.pdf/122|3|lbl=Ⅰ.51r.3|p=1}} '''[LIv]''' inwendiger flech in einem schnall / von unden auff wider zu seinem rechten Ohr / in solchem winden bleib hart an seim Schilt mit deinem Schwerdt / und truck zugleich hart von dir / helt er wider / so laß dein Schwerdt leiß auß / und zuck umb den Kopff / schlag also mit außwendiger flech zu seinem Lincken / ein starcken Gliitzhauw uber dein hand / das dein knopff wol ubersich gang / so gehet der Hauw dester dieffer / windt mit dem knopffwider under deinem Arm durch / und schnell von inwendig hinder seiner klingen zum Kopff / bleib alwegen hart an seinem schilt unnd windt in eyl wider herauß / so stehestu wider im Gliitzhauw wie vor / arbeit weiter waß du wilt / nach den vier Blössen.
 
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Revision as of 21:35, 22 April 2021

Joachim Meyer
Born ca. 1537
Basel, Germany
Died 24 February 1571 (aged 34)
Schwerin, Germany
Spouse(s) Appolonia Ruhlman
Occupation
Citizenship Strasbourg
Patron
  • Johann Albrecht (?)
  • Johann Casimir
Movement Freifechter
Influences
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Gründtliche Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens
(1570)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Forgeng, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Joachim Meyer sig.jpg

Joachim Meyer (ca. 1537 - 1571)[1] was a 16th century German Freifechter and fencing master. He was the last major figure in the tradition of the German grand master Johannes Liechtenauer, and in the last years of his life he devised at least three distinct and quite extensive fencing manuals. Meyer's writings incorporate both the traditional Germanic technical syllabus and contemporary systems that he encountered in his travels, including Italian rapier fencing.[2] In addition to his fencing practice, Meyer was a Burgher and a master cutler.[3]

Meyer was born in Basel,[4] where he presumably apprenticed as a cutler. He writes in his books that he traveled widely in his youth, most likely a reference to the traditional Walz that journeyman craftsmen were required to take before being eligible for mastery and membership in a guild. Journeymen were often sent to stand watch and participate in town and city militias (a responsibility that would have been amplified for the warlike cutlers' guild), and Meyer learned a great deal about foreign fencing systems during his travels. It's been speculated by some fencing historians that he trained specifically in the Bolognese school of fencing, but this doesn't stand up to closer analysis.[5]

Records show that by 4 June 1560 he had settled in Strasbourg, where he married Appolonia Ruhlman (Ruelman)[1] and was granted the rank of master cutler. His interests had already moved beyond smithing, however, and in 1561, Meyer petitioned the City Council of Strasbourg for the right to hold a Fechtschule (fencing competition). He would repeat this in 1563, 1566, 1567 and 1568;[6] the 1568 petition is the first extant record in which he identifies himself as a fencing master.

Meyer probably wrote his first manuscript (MS A.4º.2) in either 1560 or 1568 for Otto Count von Sulms, Minzenberg, and Sonnenwaldt.[7] Its contents seem to be a series of lessons on training with long sword, dussack, and rapier. His second manuscript (MS Var.82), written between 1563 and 1570 for Heinrich Graf von Eberst, is of a decidedly different nature. Like many fencing manuscripts from the previous century, it is an anthology of treatises by a number of prominent German masters including Sigmund ain Ringeck, pseudo-Peter von Danzig, and Martin Syber, and also includes a brief outline by Meyer himself on a system of rapier fencing based on German Messer teachings. Finally, on 24 February 1570 Meyer completed (and soon thereafter published) an enormous multi-weapon treatise entitled Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens ("A Thorough Description of the Art of Combat"); it was dedicated to Johann Casimir, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and illustrated at the workshop of Tobias Stimmer.[8]

Unfortunately, Meyer's writing and publication efforts incurred significant debts (about 1300 crowns), which Meyer pledged to repay by Christmas of 1571.[1] Late in 1570, Meyer accepted the position of Fechtmeister to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg at his court in Schwerin. There Meyer hoped to sell his book for a better price than was offered locally (30 florins). Meyer sent his books ahead to Schwerin, and left from Strasbourg on 4 January 1571 after receiving his pay. He traveled the 800 miles to Schwerin in the middle of a harsh winter, arriving at the court on 10 February 1571. Two weeks later, on 24 February, Joachim Meyer died. The cause of his death is unknown, possibly disease or pneumonia.[6]

Antoni Rulman, Appolonia’s brother, became her legal guardian after Joachim’s death. On 15 May 1571, he had a letter written by the secretary of the Strasbourg city chamber and sent to the Duke of Mecklenburg stating that Antoni was now the widow Meyer’s guardian; it politely reminded the Duke who Joachim Meyer was, Meyer’s publishing efforts and considerable debt, requested that the Duke send Meyer’s personal affects and his books to Appolonia, and attempted to sell some (if not all) of the books to the Duke.[1]

Appolonia remarried in April 1572 to another cutler named Hans Kuele, bestowing upon him the status of Burgher and Meyer's substantial debts. Joachim Meyer and Hans Kuele are both mentioned in the minutes of Cutlers' Guild archives; Kuele may have made an impression if we can judge that fact by the number of times he is mentioned. It is believed that Appolonia and either her husband or her brother were involved with the second printing of his book in 1600. According to other sources, it was reprinted yet again in 1610 and in 1660.[9][10]

Treatises

Joachim Meyer's writings are preserved in two manuscripts prepared in the 1560s, the MS A.4º.2 (Lund) and the MS Var 82 (Rostock); a third manuscript from 1561 has been lost since at least the mid-20th century, and its contents are unknown.[11] Dwarfing these works is the massive book he published in 1570 entitled "A Thorough Description of the Free, Chivalric, and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings". Meyer's writings purport to teach the entire art of fencing, something that he claimed had never been done before, and encompass a wide variety of teachings from disparate sources and traditions. To achieve this goal, Meyer seems to have constructed his treatises as a series of progressive lessons, describing a process for learning to fence rather than merely outlining the underlying theory or listing the techniques. In keeping with this, he illustrates his techniques with depictions of fencers in courtyards using training weapons such as two-handed foils, wooden dussacks, and rapiers with ball tips.

The first part of Meyer's treatise is devoted to the long sword (the sword in two hands), which he presents as the foundational weapon of his system, and this section devotes the most space to fundamentals like stance and footwork. His long sword system draws upon the teachings of Freifechter Andre Paurñfeyndt (via Christian Egenolff's reprint) and Liechtenauer glossators Sigmund ain Ringeck and Lew, as well as using terminology otherwise unique to the brief Recital of Martin Syber. Not content merely to compile these teachings as his contemporary Paulus Hector Mair was doing, Meyer sought to update—even reinvent—them in various ways to fit the martial climate of the late sixteenth century, including adapting many techniques to accommodate the increased momentum of a greatsword and modifying others to use beats with the flat and winding slices in place of thrusts to comply with street-fighting laws in German cities (and the rules of the Fechtschule).

The second part of Meyer's treatises is designed to address new weapons gaining traction in German lands, the dussack and the rapier, and thereby find places for them in the German tradition. His early Lund manuscript presents a more summarized syllabus of techniques for these weapons, while his printed book goes into greater depth and is structured more in the fashion of lesson plans.[12] Meyer's dussack system, designed for the broad proto-sabers that spread into German lands from Eastern Europe in the 16th century,[13] combines the old Messer teachings of Johannes Lecküchner and the dussack teachings of Andre Paurñfeyndt with other unknown systems (some have speculated that they might include early Polish or Hungarian saber systems). His rapier system, designed for the lighter single-hand swords spreading north from Iberian and Italian lands, seems again to be a hybrid creation, integrating both the core teachings of the 15th century Liechtenauer tradition as well as components that are characteristic of the various regional Mediterranean fencing systems (including, perhaps, teachings derived from the treatise of Achille Marozzo). Interestingly, Meyer's rapier teachings in the Rostock seem to represent an attempt to unify these two weapon system, outlining a method for rapier fencing that includes key elements of his dussack teachings; it is unclear why this method did not appear in his book, but given the dates it may be that they represent his last musings on the weapon, written in the time between the completion of his book in 1570 and his death a year later.

The third part of Meyer's treatise only appears in his published book and covers dagger, wrestling, and various pole weapons. His dagger teachings, designed primarily for urban self-defense, seem to be based in part on the writings of Bolognese master Achille Marozzo[14] and the anonymous teachings in Egenolff, but also include much unique content of unknown origin (perhaps the anonymous dagger teachings in his Rostock manuscript). His staff material makes up the bulk of this section, beginning with the short staff, which, like Paurñfeyndt, he uses as a training tool for various pole weapons (and possibly also the greatsword), and then moving on to the halberd before ending with the long staff (representing the pike). As with the dagger, the sources Meyer based his staff teachings on are largely unknown.

Additional Resources

  • Kiermayer, Alex. Joachim Meyers Kunst Des Fechtens. Gründtliche Beschreibung des Fechtens, 1570. Arts of Mars Books, 2012. ISBN 978-3981162738
  • Meyer, Joachim. Joachim Meyer 1600: Transkription des Fechtbuchs 'Gründtliche Beschreibung der freyen Ritterlichen und Adelichen kunst des Fechtens’. TAT. Wolfgang Landwehr, 2011. ISBN 978-3932077371
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Combat: A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng.
    • 1st edition. London: Greenhill Books, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85367-643-7
    • 1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-7092-0
    • 2nd edition. London: Frontline Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84832-778-8
  • Meyer, Joachim. The Art of Sword Combat: A 1568 German Treatise on Swordmanship. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2016. ISBN 9781473876750

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Dupuis, Olivier. Joachim Meyer, escrimeur libre, bourgeois de Strasbourg (1537 ? - 1571). In Maîtres et techniques de combat. Dijon: AEDEH, 2006.
  2. Castle, Egerton. Schools and Masters of Fencing: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century. London: George Bell and Sons, 1885. pp 74 - 76.
  3. Naumann, Robert. Serapeum. Vol. 5. T.O. Weigel, 1844. pp 53-59.
  4. According to his wedding certificate.
  5. His dagger teachings do, however, show some evidence of influence by Achilles Marozzo's printed treatise.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Van Slambrouck, Christopher. "The Life and Work of Joachim Meyer". Meyer Frei Fechter Guild, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  7. Norling, Roger. "The history of Joachim Meyer’s fencing treatise to Otto von Solms". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. Whose members included Christoph Maurer and Hans Christoffel Stimmer.
  9. Schaer, Alfred. Die altdeutschen fechter und spielleute: Ein beitrag zur deutschen culturgeschichte. K.J. Trübner, 1901. p 76.
  10. Pollock, W. H., Grove, F. C., and Prévost, C. Fencing. London and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and co, 1897. pp 267-268.
  11. Jens P. Kleinau. "1561 Joachim Meyer dedicated a fencing book to the Pfalzgrafen of Pfalz-Veldenz". Hans Talhoffer ~ as seen by Jens P. Kleinau. 04 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  12. Roberts, James. "System vs Syllabus: Meyer’s 1560 and 1570 sidesword texts". Hroarr.com, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  13. Roger Norling. "The Dussack - a weapon of war". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. Norling, Roger. "Meyer and Marozzo dagger comparison". Hroarr.com, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. "st" ligature inverted.
  16. Typo: wolt, könne.
  17. "t" is upside down.
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 18.27 18.28 18.29 18.30 18.31 indes
  19. palm up
  20. Illegible deletion.
  21. oberhauw
  22. ‘right’ is originally written, ‘left’ is written above it
  23. short edge
  24. “Degen”, lit. dagger, could either refer to a sword or dagger.
  25. short edge
  26. Unleserliche Streichung. Illegible deletion.
  27. Unleserliche gestrichen Einfügung oberhalb der Zeile. Crossed out illegible insertion above the line.
  28. Die Schlaufe des »h« trägt ein Diärese. The loop of the “h” carries a diaeresis.
  29. Korrigiert aus »mitelhauw«. Corrected from “mitelhauw”.
  30. Leicht unleserlich. Slightly illegible.
  31. Überschriebens »vom«. Overwritten “vom”.
  32. Inserted by means of a special mark.
  33. Word inserted next to the text.
  34. Inserted nest to the text.
  35. Zwei Worte am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Two words inserted at the margin.
  36. Wort am Seitenrand nachgetragen. Word inserted at the margin.