Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Johannes Liechtenauer"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 68: Line 68:
 
Liechtenauer's teachings are preserved in a brief poem of rhyming couplets called the ''Zettel'' ("Recital"). These "secret and hidden words" were intentionally cryptic, probably to prevent the uninitiated from learning the techniques they represented; they also seem to have offered a system of mnemonic devices to those who understood their significance. The Recital was treated as the core of the Art by his students, and masters such as [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], [[Peter von Danzig zum Ingolstadt]], and [[Jud Lew]] wrote extensive [[gloss]]es that sought to clarify and expand upon these teachings.
 
Liechtenauer's teachings are preserved in a brief poem of rhyming couplets called the ''Zettel'' ("Recital"). These "secret and hidden words" were intentionally cryptic, probably to prevent the uninitiated from learning the techniques they represented; they also seem to have offered a system of mnemonic devices to those who understood their significance. The Recital was treated as the core of the Art by his students, and masters such as [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], [[Peter von Danzig zum Ingolstadt]], and [[Jud Lew]] wrote extensive [[gloss]]es that sought to clarify and expand upon these teachings.
  
Twenty-one manuscripts contain a presentation of the Recital as a separate (unglossed) section; there are dozens more presentations of the verse as part of one of the several glosses. The longest version of the Recital by far is found in the gloss from the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|Nuremberg Hausbuch]], which contains almost twice as many verses as any other. However, given that the additional verses tend to either consist of repetitions from elsewhere in the Recital or use a very different style from Liechtenauer's work, they are generally treated as additions by the anonymous author or his instructor rather than being part of the standard Recital. The other surviving versions of the Recital from all periods show a high degree of consistency in both content and organization, excepting only the version attributed to H. Beringer (which is also included in the writings of [[Hans Folz]]).
+
Seventenn manuscripts contain a presentation of at least one section of the Recital as a distinct (unglossed) section; there are dozens more presentations of the verse as part of one of the several glosses. The longest version of the Recital by far is found in the gloss from the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|Nuremberg Hausbuch]], which contains almost twice as many verses as any other. However, given that the additional verses tend to either consist of repetitions from elsewhere in the Recital or use a very different style from Liechtenauer's work, they are generally treated as additions by the anonymous author or his instructor rather than being part of the standard Recital. The other surviving versions of the Recital from all periods show a high degree of consistency in both content and organization, excepting only the version attributed to Beringer (which is also included in the writings of [[Hans Folz]]).
  
The following tables include only those manuscripts that quote Liechtenauer's Recital in an unglossed form. Note that in the case of Beringer and Folz, the verse is presented in an alternative sequence; they have been reordered to match the others in this rendition, but you can find the original layout in their articles.
+
The following concordance tables include only those texts that quote Liechtenauer's Recital in an unglossed form.<ref>A fragment of the short sword is often given as a preamble to the [[short sword]] teachings of [[Martin Huntfeltz]], and the figures for the [[gloss]] of [[Jud Lew]], but those instances will not be included below and instead treated as part of said treatises.</ref> Most manuscripts present the Recital as prose, and those have had the text separated out into the original verses to offer a consistent view. For ease of use, this page breaks the general Wiktenauer rule that column format remain consistent across all tables on a page; the sheer number of Liechtenauer sources made this convention entirely unworkable, so instead the long sword table uses one layout, the mounted and short sword tables use another, and the figures use a third.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
Line 1,110: Line 1,110:
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
  
== temp division ==
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
   | title = Mounted Fencing
 
   | title = Mounted Fencing
 
   | width = 283em
 
   | width = 283em
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="wikitable floated master"
+
{| class="floated master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! style="width:31em;" | <p>{{rating|A}}<br/>Rome Version by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
 
! style="width:31em;" | <p>{{rating|A}}<br/>Rome Version by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
Line 1,457: Line 1,456:
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
  
== temp division ==
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
   | title = Short Sword
 
   | title = Short Sword
Line 1,618: Line 1,616:
  
 
== temp division ==
 
== temp division ==
In addition to the verses on mounted fencing, several treatises in the Liechtenauer tradition include a group of twenty-six ''figuren'' ("figures")—single line abbreviations of the longer couplets, generally drawn in circles, which seem to sum up the most important points. The precise reason for the existence of these figures remains unknown, as does the reason why there are no equivalents for the armored fencing or unarmored fencing verses.
+
In addition to the verses on mounted fencing, several treatises in the Liechtenauer tradition include a group of twenty-six "figures" (''figuren'')—single line abbreviations of the longer couplets, generally drawn in circles, which seem to sum up the most important points. The precise reason for the existence of these figures remains unknown, as does the reason why there are no equivalents for the armored fencing or unarmored fencing verses.
  
 
One clue to their significance may be a parallel set of teachings first recorded by [[Andre Paurñfeyndt]] in 1516, called the "Twelve Teachings for the Beginning Fencer".<ref>[[Andre Paurñfeyndt]], et al. [[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]. [[Hieronymus Vietor]]: Vienna, 1516.</ref> These teachings are also generally abbreviations of longer passages in the Bloßfechten, and are similarly repeated in many treatises throughout the 16th century. It may be that the figures are a mnemonic that represent the initial stage of mounted fencing instruction, and that the full verse was taught only afterward.
 
One clue to their significance may be a parallel set of teachings first recorded by [[Andre Paurñfeyndt]] in 1516, called the "Twelve Teachings for the Beginning Fencer".<ref>[[Andre Paurñfeyndt]], et al. [[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]. [[Hieronymus Vietor]]: Vienna, 1516.</ref> These teachings are also generally abbreviations of longer passages in the Bloßfechten, and are similarly repeated in many treatises throughout the 16th century. It may be that the figures are a mnemonic that represent the initial stage of mounted fencing instruction, and that the full verse was taught only afterward.
 
- Remove lew and czynner
 
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
   | title = Figures
 
   | title = Figures
   | width = 252em
+
   | width = 196em
 
}}
 
}}
 
{| class="wikitable floated master"
 
{| class="wikitable floated master"
Line 1,634: Line 1,630:
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)|Gotha Version]] (1443)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)|Gotha Version]] (1443)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome Version]] (1452)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome Version]] (1452)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Augsburg Version I]] (1450s)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
 
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Version]] (1508)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Version]] (1508)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow Version]] (1510-20)<br/></p>
 
! <p>[[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow Version]] (1510-20)<br/></p>
! <p>[[Über die Fechtkunst und den Ringkampf (MS 963)|Graz Version]] (1538)<br/></p>
 
 
! <p>[[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg Version II]] (1553)<br/></p>
 
! <p>[[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg Version II]] (1553)<br/></p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 7v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 7v.jpg|300px|center]]
| <br/>
+
|  
 
The 1st Figure:
 
The 1st Figure:
  
 
{{red|Charge from the breast to his right hand.}}
 
{{red|Charge from the breast to his right hand.}}
| <br/>
+
|  
 
'''[22v]''' [1]
 
'''[22v]''' [1]
  
 
Jag võ der prust zu seiner rechtñ hant
 
Jag võ der prust zu seiner rechtñ hant
| <br/>
+
|  
 
'''[7v]''' Die erst figur
 
'''[7v]''' Die erst figur
  
 
{{red|Jag von der prust zu seiner rechten hand}}
 
{{red|Jag von der prust zu seiner rechten hand}}
| '''[95r] {{red|Item zu Rosß mit Ritterlicher wëre}}'''
+
|  
[1]
 
 
 
JAgen von der prust zu seiner rechten hant ~
 
| <br/>
 
 
'''[74r]''' {{red|1}}
 
'''[74r]''' {{red|1}}
  
 
Jag von deiner prust zw seiner rechten handt
 
Jag von deiner prust zw seiner rechten handt
| '''[165v]'''
+
|  
| '''[61r]'''  
+
'''[165v]'''  
 
|  
 
|  
  
Line 1,673: Line 1,663:
 
| {{red|Die ander figur}}
 
| {{red|Die ander figur}}
 
Vmbkere mitt dem Rozz Zewch sein rechte handt mitt deiner lingken
 
Vmbkere mitt dem Rozz Zewch sein rechte handt mitt deiner lingken
| [2]
 
Vmb ker mit dem Rosß Czeuch sein rechte hant mit dein’ lincken~
 
 
| {{red|2}}
 
| {{red|2}}
 
Vmb ker mit dem roß / zeuch sein rechte handt mit deiner lincken
 
Vmb ker mit dem roß / zeuch sein rechte handt mit deiner lincken
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,688: Line 1,675:
 
| Die dritt figur  
 
| Die dritt figur  
 
{{red|Mitt strayffen Satel ryem • oder wer nymbe}}
 
{{red|Mitt strayffen Satel ryem • oder wer nymbe}}
| [3]
 
Mit straiffen sattel oder nÿme Im die wer ~
 
 
| {{red|3}}
 
| {{red|3}}
 
Mit Straÿffen satel riem / oder wer nymbt
 
Mit Straÿffen satel riem / oder wer nymbt
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,703: Line 1,687:
 
| {{red|Die vyerdt figur}}
 
| {{red|Die vyerdt figur}}
 
Setz an hoch swing durch var • oder Swert prich
 
Setz an hoch swing durch var • oder Swert prich
| [4]
 
Setz an hoch geswind durch far oder prich ~
 
 
| {{red|4}}
 
| {{red|4}}
 
Setz an hoch / schwing / durchfar / oder schwert prich
 
Setz an hoch / schwing / durchfar / oder schwert prich
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,718: Line 1,699:
 
| Die funfft figur  
 
| Die funfft figur  
 
{{red|Daz schuten vorgeñgk allen treffenn hawen vnnd stechen}}
 
{{red|Daz schuten vorgeñgk allen treffenn hawen vnnd stechen}}
| [5]
 
Das schutten für henck allen treffen hawen oder stechen ~
 
 
| {{red|5}}
 
| {{red|5}}
 
Das schutten / vor geng allen treffen / hawen stechen
 
Das schutten / vor geng allen treffen / hawen stechen
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,733: Line 1,711:
 
| {{red|Die sechst figur}}
 
| {{red|Die sechst figur}}
 
Greyff an mitt payden henndten die sterck
 
Greyff an mitt payden henndten die sterck
| [6]
 
Greiff an mit beden henden die sterck ~
 
 
| {{red|6}}
 
| {{red|6}}
 
Greyff an mit paiden henden die sterck
 
Greyff an mit paiden henden die sterck
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,748: Line 1,723:
 
| Die sybendt figur  
 
| Die sybendt figur  
 
{{red|Hie heb an den mañ taschen haw zu suechen}}
 
{{red|Hie heb an den mañ taschen haw zu suechen}}
| '''[95v]''' [7]
 
Hie heb an den man taschen hawen zu suchen ~
 
 
| {{red|7}}
 
| {{red|7}}
 
Hie heb an den man taschen haw zw suechen
 
Hie heb an den man taschen haw zw suechen
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,763: Line 1,735:
 
| {{red|Die Achtt figur}}
 
| {{red|Die Achtt figur}}
 
Wenndt Im die recht hanndt • setze den ortt zu den augen sein
 
Wenndt Im die recht hanndt • setze den ortt zu den augen sein
| [8]
 
Wind Im die rechten hant setz Im den ort zu dem gesicht ~
 
 
| {{red|8}}
 
| {{red|8}}
 
Went im die recht handt setz dein ortt zw seinem gesicht
 
Went im die recht handt setz dein ortt zw seinem gesicht
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,778: Line 1,747:
 
| Die Newnt figur  
 
| Die Newnt figur  
 
{{red|Wer den stich wertt dem vach sein rechte handt in dein lincken}}
 
{{red|Wer den stich wertt dem vach sein rechte handt in dein lincken}}
| [9]
 
Wer den stich weret dem vah sein rechte hant mit d’ lincken ~
 
 
| {{red|9}}
 
| {{red|9}}
 
Wer den stich went dem vach sein rechte handt in dem glincke /
 
Wer den stich went dem vach sein rechte handt in dem glincke /
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,793: Line 1,759:
 
| {{red|Die Zechent figur}}
 
| {{red|Die Zechent figur}}
 
Suechee die ploss arm leder hanndtschuech vndtir den augen
 
Suechee die ploss arm leder hanndtschuech vndtir den augen
| [10]
 
Such die ploß arm leder handtschuch vntter augen ~
 
 
| {{red|11}}
 
| {{red|11}}
 
Suech die plos arm~ leder handt schuech vndter den augen
 
Suech die plos arm~ leder handt schuech vndter den augen
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,808: Line 1,771:
 
| Die ayndlifft figur  
 
| Die ayndlifft figur  
 
{{red|Druck vast stoss von tzawm • sueche sein Messer}}
 
{{red|Druck vast stoss von tzawm • sueche sein Messer}}
| [11]
 
Truck vast stoß vom zawm vnd such sein messer ~
 
 
| {{red|10}}
 
| {{red|10}}
 
Drück vast stoß vom zaüm vnd suech sein messer
 
Drück vast stoß vom zaüm vnd suech sein messer
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,823: Line 1,783:
 
| {{red|Die Zwolfft figur}}
 
| {{red|Die Zwolfft figur}}
 
Mitt lerer hanndt lere zwen strich gegen aller were
 
Mitt lerer hanndt lere zwen strich gegen aller were
| [12]
 
Mit lerer hant ler zwen strich gegen aller wër ~
 
 
| {{red|12}}
 
| {{red|12}}
 
Mit lerer handt lern straich gegen aller were /
 
Mit lerer handt lern straich gegen aller were /
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,838: Line 1,795:
 
| Die dreitzechent figur  
 
| Die dreitzechent figur  
 
{{red|Der schaf grif wertt • alle griff Ringens vndter augenn}}
 
{{red|Der schaf grif wertt • alle griff Ringens vndter augenn}}
| [13]
 
Der Schaff griff weret alle ringen vntter augen ~
 
 
| '''[74v]''' {{red|13}}
 
| '''[74v]''' {{red|13}}
 
Der Schaffgriff werdt alle griff ringes vndter auge~
 
Der Schaffgriff werdt alle griff ringes vndter auge~
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,852: Line 1,806:
 
| {{red|Dein Sper bericht etc Ob es emphal etc Haw dreyn nichtt Zuckch etcettera}}
 
| {{red|Dein Sper bericht etc Ob es emphal etc Haw dreyn nichtt Zuckch etcettera}}
 
Glosa lingck zu Im ruck • Greyff in sein rechten • so vechst du In ane vechttenn  
 
Glosa lingck zu Im ruck • Greyff in sein rechten • so vechst du In ane vechttenn  
|
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,866: Line 1,818:
 
| '''[8r]''' {{red|Die viertzendt figur}}
 
| '''[8r]''' {{red|Die viertzendt figur}}
 
Anderwayd kere vmb • so die Rozz hynn hurtten
 
Anderwayd kere vmb • so die Rozz hynn hurtten
| [25]
 
Anderwet’ ker vmb so die Roß hin hertten
 
 
| {{red|14}}
 
| {{red|14}}
An der weidt ker vmb / so die roß hyn hurttñ /
+
An der weidt ker vmb / so die roß hyn hurttñ /
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,881: Line 1,830:
 
| Die funfftzend figur  
 
| Die funfftzend figur  
 
{{red|In der nech vach die hanndt • verkere sein anttlitz da der nack ist}}
 
{{red|In der nech vach die hanndt • verkere sein anttlitz da der nack ist}}
| '''[96r]''' [14]
 
In der nehe vah die hant v’ker sein antlutz do der nack ist ~
 
 
| {{red|15}}
 
| {{red|15}}
 
In der nech fach die handt verker sein antlutz do der nacke ist
 
In der nech fach die handt verker sein antlutz do der nacke ist
 
| '''[166r]'''
 
| '''[166r]'''
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
Line 1,896: Line 1,842:
 
| {{red|Die sechtzechend figur}}
 
| {{red|Die sechtzechend figur}}
 
Die were vach in der weytt • In dem wider Reytten
 
Die were vach in der weytt • In dem wider Reytten
| [15]
 
Die wer nach In der weitten In dem widerreitten ~
 
 
| {{red|16}}
 
| {{red|16}}
 
Die weer fach in der weitt in dem wider reÿttñ
 
Die weer fach in der weitt in dem wider reÿttñ
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,911: Line 1,854:
 
| Daz sybentzechend figur
 
| Daz sybentzechend figur
 
{{red|Jagst du lingk so vall auf Swertes Kloss • stoss vndter augenn}}
 
{{red|Jagst du lingk so vall auf Swertes Kloss • stoss vndter augenn}}
| [16]
 
Jagstu dinck so val auf swertes klos stoß vntter augen ~
 
 
| {{red|18}}
 
| {{red|18}}
 
Jagstu linck fall aüfs schwertz knopf stos vndter augen
 
Jagstu linck fall aüfs schwertz knopf stos vndter augen
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,926: Line 1,866:
 
| {{red|Die achttzechendt figur}}
 
| {{red|Die achttzechendt figur}}
 
Jage Zu der rechtten hanndt mitt Iren Kunsten
 
Jage Zu der rechtten hanndt mitt Iren Kunsten
| [17]
 
Jag zu der rechten hant mit yren künsten ~
 
 
| {{red|17}}
 
| {{red|17}}
 
Jag zw der rechtñ handt / mit irñ kunstñ
 
Jag zw der rechtñ handt / mit irñ kunstñ
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,941: Line 1,878:
 
| Die Nëwntzechent figur
 
| Die Nëwntzechent figur
 
{{red|Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesichtte}}
 
{{red|Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesichtte}}
| [18]
 
Setz an den ort gegen dem gesicht ~
 
 
| {{red|19}}
 
| {{red|19}}
Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesicht
+
Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesicht
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,956: Line 1,890:
 
| {{red|Die tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
| {{red|Die tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen • Diee ymmer werdenn
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen • Diee ymmer werdenn
| [19]
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen die ÿm~er werden ~
 
 
| {{red|20}}
 
| {{red|20}}
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen die ym~er werdñ
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen die ym~er werdñ
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,971: Line 1,902:
 
| Die ain vnd tzwayntzigist figur
 
| Die ain vnd tzwayntzigist figur
 
{{red|Die sterck in dem anheben • Dar Inn dich rechtt schicke}}
 
{{red|Die sterck in dem anheben • Dar Inn dich rechtt schicke}}
| [20]
 
Die sterck In dem anheben darInn dich recht schick ~
 
 
| {{red|21}}
 
| {{red|21}}
 
Die stercke in dem an hebñ daryn dich recht schick /
 
Die stercke in dem an hebñ daryn dich recht schick /
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,986: Line 1,914:
 
| {{red|Die tzwo vnd tzwaintzigst figur}}
 
| {{red|Die tzwo vnd tzwaintzigst figur}}
 
Das ist nun der sper lawff • der dem andern begegendt vndter augen
 
Das ist nun der sper lawff • der dem andern begegendt vndter augen
| '''[96v]''' [21]
 
Das ist In dem sper lauff der dem andern ~
 
 
[22]
 
 
Begeget vntter augen ~
 
 
| {{red|22}}
 
| {{red|22}}
 
Das ist nun der sper lauff der dem anderñ begegnet vndter augen /
 
Das ist nun der sper lauff der dem anderñ begegnet vndter augen /
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,005: Line 1,926:
 
| Die drey vnd tzwaintzigist figur  
 
| Die drey vnd tzwaintzigist figur  
 
{{red|Der vngenant griff • wer nymbtt oder velt In}}
 
{{red|Der vngenant griff • wer nymbtt oder velt In}}
| [23]
 
Der vngenant griff wer nymant oder velt In
 
 
| {{red|23}}
 
| {{red|23}}
 
Der vngenant griff weer ny~t oder felt in
 
Der vngenant griff weer ny~t oder felt in
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,020: Line 1,938:
 
| {{red|Die vier vnd tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
| {{red|Die vier vnd tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
ob man dich Jagt zu° bayden seytten kere vmb lingk so er rechtte kumbt
 
ob man dich Jagt zu° bayden seytten kere vmb lingk so er rechtte kumbt
| [24]
 
Ob man dich iaget von beidenseitten ker vmb so er rechtt kompt ~
 
 
| {{red|24}}
 
| {{red|24}}
 
Ob man dich jagt von paidñ seÿttñ ker vmb linck so er recht kumbt
 
Ob man dich jagt von paidñ seÿttñ ker vmb linck so er recht kumbt
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,035: Line 1,950:
 
| Die funff vnd tzwaintzigist figur
 
| Die funff vnd tzwaintzigist figur
 
{{red|Der Mezzer nemenn • vnd behalden gedenck}}
 
{{red|Der Mezzer nemenn • vnd behalden gedenck}}
| [26]
 
Der messer nemen vnd behalt’ gedenck ~
 
 
| '''[75r]''' {{red|25}}
 
| '''[75r]''' {{red|25}}
 
Der messer nemen vnd behalden gedenck
 
Der messer nemen vnd behalden gedenck
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,050: Line 1,962:
 
| {{red|Die sechßvndtzwaintzigist figur}}
 
| {{red|Die sechßvndtzwaintzigist figur}}
 
vbergreif wer dich anvelet • oder thue Im wider Reyttens
 
vbergreif wer dich anvelet • oder thue Im wider Reyttens
| [27]
 
Vbergreiff wer dich an vellet oder thue Im wider reittes ~
 
 
| {{red|26}}
 
| {{red|26}}
 
Vber greÿff wer dich an felt oder thue im wider reÿttens /
 
Vber greÿff wer dich an felt oder thue im wider reÿttens /
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,064: Line 1,973:
 
| {{red|Wild du anfazzen neben reittens nit solt du lasen daz sunnen tzaigen lingk ermel treib wildu naygen}}
 
| {{red|Wild du anfazzen neben reittens nit solt du lasen daz sunnen tzaigen lingk ermel treib wildu naygen}}
 
Wer dir daz rembt vbergreifft den der wierd beschämbt druck arm zu haubt der griff offt sattel berawbett
 
Wer dir daz rembt vbergreifft den der wierd beschämbt druck arm zu haubt der griff offt sattel berawbett
|
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  

Revision as of 22:04, 3 July 2017

Die Zettel
The Recital
Johannes Liechtenauer.png
Full Title A Recital on the Chivalric
Art of Fencing
Ascribed to Johannes Liechtenauer
Illustrated by Unknown
Date Fourteenth century (?)
Genre
Language Middle High German
Archetype(s) Hypothetical
Manuscript(s)
First Printed
English Edition
Tobler, 2010
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Johannes Liechtenauer (Hans Lichtenauer, Lichtnawer) was a German fencing master in the 14th or 15th century. No direct record of his life or teachings currently exists, and all that we know of both comes from the writings of other masters and scholars. The only account of his life was written by the anonymous author of the Nuremberg Hausbuch, one of the oldest texts in the tradition, who stated that "Master Liechtenauer learnt and mastered the Art in a thorough and rightful way, but he did not invent and put together this Art (as was just stated). Instead, he traveled and searched many countries with the will of learning and mastering this rightful and true Art." He may have been alive at the time of the creation of the fencing treatise contained in the Nuremberg Hausbuch, as that source is the only one to fail to accompany his name with a blessing for the dead.

Liechtenauer was described by many later masters as the "high master" or "grand master" of the art, and a long poem called the Zettel ("Recital") is generally attributed to him by these masters. Later masters in the tradition often wrote extensive glosses (commentaries) on this poem, using it to structure their own martial teachings. Liechtenauer's influence on the German fencing tradition as we currently understand it is almost impossible to overstate. The masters on Paulus Kal's roll of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer were responsible for most of the most significant fencing manuals of the 15th century, and Liechtenauer and his teachings were also the focus of the German fencing guilds that arose in the 15th and 16th centuries, including the Marxbrüder and the Veiterfechter.

Additional facts have sometimes been presumed about Liechtenauer based on often-problematic premises. The Nuremberg Hausbuch, often erroneously dated to 1389 and presumed to be written by a direct student of Liechtenauer's, has been treated as evidence placing Liechtenauer's career in the mid-1300s.[1] However, given that the Nuremberg Hausbuch may date as late as 1494 and the earliest records of the identifiable members of his tradition appear in the early 1400s, it seems more probable that Liechtenauer's career occurred toward the beginning of the 15th century. Ignoring the Nuremberg Hausbuch as being of indeterminate date, the oldest version of the Recital appears in the MS G.B.f.18.a, dating to ca. 1418-28 and attributed to an H. Beringer, which both conforms to this timeline and suggests the possibility that Liechtenauer was himself an inheritor of the teaching rather than its original composer (presentations of the Recital that are entirely unattributed exist in other 15th and 16th century manuscripts).

Treatise

Liechtenauer's teachings are preserved in a brief poem of rhyming couplets called the Zettel ("Recital"). These "secret and hidden words" were intentionally cryptic, probably to prevent the uninitiated from learning the techniques they represented; they also seem to have offered a system of mnemonic devices to those who understood their significance. The Recital was treated as the core of the Art by his students, and masters such as Sigmund ain Ringeck, Peter von Danzig zum Ingolstadt, and Jud Lew wrote extensive glosses that sought to clarify and expand upon these teachings.

Seventenn manuscripts contain a presentation of at least one section of the Recital as a distinct (unglossed) section; there are dozens more presentations of the verse as part of one of the several glosses. The longest version of the Recital by far is found in the gloss from the Nuremberg Hausbuch, which contains almost twice as many verses as any other. However, given that the additional verses tend to either consist of repetitions from elsewhere in the Recital or use a very different style from Liechtenauer's work, they are generally treated as additions by the anonymous author or his instructor rather than being part of the standard Recital. The other surviving versions of the Recital from all periods show a high degree of consistency in both content and organization, excepting only the version attributed to Beringer (which is also included in the writings of Hans Folz).

The following concordance tables include only those texts that quote Liechtenauer's Recital in an unglossed form.[2] Most manuscripts present the Recital as prose, and those have had the text separated out into the original verses to offer a consistent view. For ease of use, this page breaks the general Wiktenauer rule that column format remain consistent across all tables on a page; the sheer number of Liechtenauer sources made this convention entirely unworkable, so instead the long sword table uses one layout, the mounted and short sword tables use another, and the figures use a third.

temp division

In addition to the verses on mounted fencing, several treatises in the Liechtenauer tradition include a group of twenty-six "figures" (figuren)—single line abbreviations of the longer couplets, generally drawn in circles, which seem to sum up the most important points. The precise reason for the existence of these figures remains unknown, as does the reason why there are no equivalents for the armored fencing or unarmored fencing verses.

One clue to their significance may be a parallel set of teachings first recorded by Andre Paurñfeyndt in 1516, called the "Twelve Teachings for the Beginning Fencer".[32] These teachings are also generally abbreviations of longer passages in the Bloßfechten, and are similarly repeated in many treatises throughout the 16th century. It may be that the figures are a mnemonic that represent the initial stage of mounted fencing instruction, and that the full verse was taught only afterward.

Additional Resources

References

  1. Christian Henry Tobler. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010. p6
  2. A fragment of the short sword is often given as a preamble to the short sword teachings of Martin Huntfeltz, and the figures for the gloss of Jud Lew, but those instances will not be included below and instead treated as part of said treatises.
  3. The text diverges here, omitting Liechtenauer's couplet and inserting this quatrain instead:
    Dagge swert stãge lãse schon
    Messer bockler has vñ rõken
    Taegñ darde vnd schilt
    Miden allen zu ringe~ uff du wilt
  4. First letter almost illegible.
  5. First letter illegible.
  6. Text terminates at this point. The leaves with the rest of the text are gone, probably lost.
  7. kam
  8. deinen
  9. faler
  10. Text adds an additional couplet: "hastu es vernomen zu kain / schlag mag er komen".
  11. Text adds an additional couplet: "hast dus vernomen / zu kaim schlag mag er komen".
  12. Text adds an additional couplet: "hastu es vernomen / zu kainen schlag mag er komen."
  13. Text adds an additional line: "das son ich vernomen".
  14. Text adds an additional line: "ha das han ich vernomen".
  15. There is no space between "Dupliere" and "doniden", the "D" was possibly added later.
  16. Text adds an additional line: "dz haw ich vermunen??".
  17. Corrected from »Im«.
  18. The text doubles the title of this section.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Corrected from »Twir«.
  20. haust
  21. Talhoffer adds an additional couplet: [4r] Page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 004r.jpg
  22. Hier hat der Schreiber offensichtlich ein Häkchen vergessen.
  23. should be "dreffen"
  24. This section is followed by one titled "Von durchlauffen ab seczen", which repeat the verse on Absetzen.
  25. Text adds an additional couplet: "Das schwertt bind / zu der fleche truck in die hend".
  26. Text adds an additional couplet: "Das schwert binden / zu der flech trukh in die hand"
  27. Text adds an additional couplet: "thutt er sich gegen dir greisen / schlagen das er seisse".
  28. Text adds an additional couplet: "thutt er sich gegen dir greifen / schlagen das er Seise".
  29. Text adds an additional couplet: "thuet er sich gegen dir raisen / schlagen dz er seisse."
  30. ";" in a circle
  31. A guide letter “w” is visible under the “U” (apparently ignored by the rubricator), making the intended word “Wer”.
  32. Andre Paurñfeyndt, et al. Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey. Hieronymus Vietor: Vienna, 1516.