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! <p>Images<br/>from the [[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Codex 44.A.8]]</p>
 
! <p>Images<br/>from the [[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Codex 44.A.8]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|A|Translation (from the Rome)}}<br/>by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|A|Translation (from the Rome)}}<br/>by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)|Gotha Version]] (1443)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)|Gotha Version]] (1443){{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Chart.A.558)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome Version]] (1452)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome Version]] (1452){{edit index|Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Version]] (1508)<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Version]] (1508){{edit index|Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow Version]] (1510-20)<br/></p>
+
! <p>[[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow Version]] (1510-20){{edit index|Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)}}<br/>by [[Per Magnus Haaland]]</p>
! <p>[[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg Version II]] (1553)<br/></p>
+
! <p>[[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg Version II]] (1553){{edit index|Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)}}<br/></p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 7v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 7v.jpg|300px|center]]
 +
| {{red|Direct your spear etc, If it falls etc, Strike in, don't pull, etc.}}
 +
Pull to his left, grasp in his right, so you catch him there without fencing.
 +
|
 +
| {{red|Dein Sper bericht etc Ob es emphal etc Haw dreyn nichtt Zuckch etcettera}}
 +
Glosa lingck zu Im ruck • Greyff in sein rechten • so vechst du In ane vechttenn
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
The 1st Figure:
 
  
{{red|Charge from the breast to his right hand.}}
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
'''[22v]''' [1]
+
The 1st Figure: {{red|Charge from the breast to his right hand.}}
 
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|1|lbl=22v}}
Jag võ der prust zu seiner rechtñ hant
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
'''[7v]''' Die erst figur
 
'''[7v]''' Die erst figur
Line 1,657: Line 1,662:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 2nd Figure:}}
+
| {{red|The 2nd Figure:}} Turn around with the horse, pull his right hand with your left.
Turn around with the horse, pull his right hand with your left.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| [2]
 
vmbker mit roß sein rechte hant mit deyner lincken
 
 
| {{red|Die ander figur}}
 
| {{red|Die ander figur}}
 
Vmbkere mitt dem Rozz Zewch sein rechte handt mitt deiner lingken
 
Vmbkere mitt dem Rozz Zewch sein rechte handt mitt deiner lingken
Line 1,669: Line 1,672:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 3rd Figure:
+
| The 3rd Figure: {{red|Upon the encounter, take the stirrup-strap or the weapon.}}
{{red|Upon the encounter, take the stirrup-strap or the weapon.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| [3]
 
mit stechñ satel In oder ver plent
 
 
| Die dritt figur  
 
| Die dritt figur  
 
{{red|Mitt strayffen Satel ryem • oder wer nymbe}}
 
{{red|Mitt strayffen Satel ryem • oder wer nymbe}}
Line 1,681: Line 1,682:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 4th Figure:}}
+
| {{red|The 4th Figure:}} Plant upon him high, swing, go through or break the sword.
Plant upon him high, swing, go through or break the sword.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| [4]
 
Secz an hoch swenck durch var oder swert pricht
 
 
| {{red|Die vyerdt figur}}
 
| {{red|Die vyerdt figur}}
 
Setz an hoch swing durch var • oder Swert prich
 
Setz an hoch swing durch var • oder Swert prich
Line 1,693: Line 1,692:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 5th Figure:
+
| The 5th Figure: {{red|The defense precedes all meetings, striking, or thrusting.}}
{{red|The defense precedes all meetings, striking, or thrusting.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| [5]
 
des schute~ vorgeng allen treffenn hawe~ stechen
 
 
| Die funfft figur  
 
| Die funfft figur  
 
{{red|Daz schuten vorgeñgk allen treffenn hawen vnnd stechen}}
 
{{red|Daz schuten vorgeñgk allen treffenn hawen vnnd stechen}}
Line 1,705: Line 1,702:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 6th Figure:}}
+
| {{red|The 6th Figure:}} Take the strong with both hands.
Take the strong with both hands.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| [6]
 
Greiff mit peyde~ henden an dye strick
 
 
| {{red|Die sechst figur}}
 
| {{red|Die sechst figur}}
 
Greyff an mitt payden henndten die sterck
 
Greyff an mitt payden henndten die sterck
Line 1,717: Line 1,712:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 7th Figure:
+
| The 7th Figure: {{red|Now begin to seek the opponent with the Slapping Stroke.}}
{{red|Now begin to seek the opponent with the Slapping Stroke.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
| [9]
 
Hye hebt mã den tasche~ hawe czu such
 
 
| Die sybendt figur  
 
| Die sybendt figur  
 
{{red|Hie heb an den mañ taschen haw zu suechen}}
 
{{red|Hie heb an den mañ taschen haw zu suechen}}
Line 1,729: Line 1,722:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 8th Figure:}}
+
| {{red|The 8th Figure:}} Turn his right hand, set the point to his eyes.
Turn his right hand, set the point to his eyes.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
| [7]
 
Went Im dy recht hant secz dein ort czu seine~ gesicht
 
 
| {{red|Die Achtt figur}}
 
| {{red|Die Achtt figur}}
 
Wenndt Im die recht hanndt • setze den ortt zu den augen sein
 
Wenndt Im die recht hanndt • setze den ortt zu den augen sein
Line 1,741: Line 1,732:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 9th Figure:
+
| The 9th Figure: {{red|Who defends against the thrust, grasp his right hand in your left.}}
{{red|Who defends against the thrust, grasp his right hand in your left.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
| [8]
 
weyl der stich wert den vahe sey~ rechte hant dey~ lincke
 
 
| Die Newnt figur  
 
| Die Newnt figur  
 
{{red|Wer den stich wertt dem vach sein rechte handt in dein lincken}}
 
{{red|Wer den stich wertt dem vach sein rechte handt in dein lincken}}
Line 1,753: Line 1,742:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 10th Figure:}}
+
| {{red|The 10th Figure:}} Seek the openings: arms, leather, gauntlets, under the eyes.
Seek the openings: arms, leather, gauntlets, under the eyes.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
| [11]
 
such dy ploß arm dÿ hant scheuch vnter dÿ auge~
 
 
| {{red|Die Zechent figur}}
 
| {{red|Die Zechent figur}}
 
Suechee die ploss arm leder hanndtschuech vndtir den augen
 
Suechee die ploss arm leder hanndtschuech vndtir den augen
Line 1,765: Line 1,752:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 11th Figure:
+
| The 11th Figure: {{red|Press hard, push from the reins and seek his messer.}}
{{red|Press hard, push from the reins and seek his messer.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
| [10]
 
truck vast stoß von czam vnd such sey~ meßer
 
 
| Die ayndlifft figur  
 
| Die ayndlifft figur  
 
{{red|Druck vast stoss von tzawm • sueche sein Messer}}
 
{{red|Druck vast stoss von tzawm • sueche sein Messer}}
Line 1,777: Line 1,762:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 12th Figure:}}
+
| {{red|The 12th Figure:}} With the empty hand learn two strokes against all weapons.
With the empty hand learn two strokes against all weapons.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
| [12]
 
mit lerer hant lere czwen stich gege~ aller wer
 
 
| {{red|Die Zwolfft figur}}
 
| {{red|Die Zwolfft figur}}
 
Mitt lerer hanndt lere zwen strich gegen aller were
 
Mitt lerer hanndt lere zwen strich gegen aller were
Line 1,789: Line 1,772:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 13th Figure:
+
| The 13th Figure: {{red|The Sheep Grip defends against all wrestling grips under the eyes.}}
{{red|The Sheep Grip defends against all wrestling grips under the eyes.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
| [13]
 
Der schaff griff weret alle griff rings vnt° augñ
 
 
| Die dreitzechent figur  
 
| Die dreitzechent figur  
 
{{red|Der schaf grif wertt • alle griff Ringens vndter augenn}}
 
{{red|Der schaf grif wertt • alle griff Ringens vndter augenn}}
Line 1,801: Line 1,782:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|Direct your spear etc, If it falls etc, Strike in, don't pull, etc.}}
+
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 8r.jpg|300px|center]]
Pull to his left, grasp in his right, so you catch him there without fencing.
+
| {{red|If you want to grasp, you should not fail to ride beside him. Execute the Sun Pointer to the left sleeve if you want to bend.}}
 +
Who attacks you with that, grasp over against him and he will be shamed. Press the arm to the head. This grip often robs the saddle.
 
|  
 
|  
| {{red|Dein Sper bericht etc Ob es emphal etc Haw dreyn nichtt Zuckch etcettera}}
+
| {{red|Wild du anfazzen neben reittens nit solt du lasen daz sunnen tzaigen lingk ermel treib wildu naygen}}
Glosa lingck zu Im ruck • Greyff in sein rechten • so vechst du In ane vechttenn
+
Wer dir daz rembt vbergreifft den der wierd beschämbt druck arm zu haubt der griff offt sattel berawbett
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,811: Line 1,793:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 8r.jpg|300px|center]]
 
 
| {{red|The 14th Figure:}}
 
| {{red|The 14th Figure:}}
 
Turn around again to where the horses hasten.
 
Turn around again to where the horses hasten.
| '''[23r]''' [14]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}
Anderweyt kere vmb so dy roß hin hurtñ
 
 
| '''[8r]''' {{red|Die viertzendt figur}}
 
| '''[8r]''' {{red|Die viertzendt figur}}
 
Anderwayd kere vmb • so die Rozz hynn hurtten
 
Anderwayd kere vmb • so die Rozz hynn hurtten
Line 1,826: Line 1,806:
 
| The 15th Figure:
 
| The 15th Figure:
 
{{red|Up close, catch the hand, turn over his face to where the nape is.}}
 
{{red|Up close, catch the hand, turn over his face to where the nape is.}}
| [15]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
In der auch so vach dy hant v°ber sein antlicz do der nack ist
 
 
| Die funfftzend figur  
 
| Die funfftzend figur  
 
{{red|In der nech vach die hanndt • verkere sein anttlitz da der nack ist}}
 
{{red|In der nech vach die hanndt • verkere sein anttlitz da der nack ist}}
Line 1,838: Line 1,817:
 
| {{red|The 16th Figure:}}
 
| {{red|The 16th Figure:}}
 
Catch the weapon from afar while you ride against him.
 
Catch the weapon from afar while you ride against him.
| [16]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
dye wer fach in der weyt in dem wider treibñ
 
 
| {{red|Die sechtzechend figur}}
 
| {{red|Die sechtzechend figur}}
 
Die were vach in der weytt • In dem wider Reytten
 
Die were vach in der weytt • In dem wider Reytten
Line 1,850: Line 1,828:
 
| The 17th Figure:
 
| The 17th Figure:
 
{{red|If you charge to the left, then fall to the sword pommel, jab under the eyes.}}
 
{{red|If you charge to the left, then fall to the sword pommel, jab under the eyes.}}
| [20]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
Jagstu linck so greiff auff des swertes ploß stoß In vntter augenn
 
 
| Daz sybentzechend figur
 
| Daz sybentzechend figur
 
{{red|Jagst du lingk so vall auf Swertes Kloss • stoss vndter augenn}}
 
{{red|Jagst du lingk so vall auf Swertes Kloss • stoss vndter augenn}}
Line 1,862: Line 1,839:
 
| {{red|The 18th Figure:}}
 
| {{red|The 18th Figure:}}
 
Charge to the right side with its skill.
 
Charge to the right side with its skill.
| [19]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
Jag czu seiner rechte~ hant mit Irenn chunstenn
 
 
| {{red|Die achttzechendt figur}}
 
| {{red|Die achttzechendt figur}}
 
Jage Zu der rechtten hanndt mitt Iren Kunsten
 
Jage Zu der rechtten hanndt mitt Iren Kunsten
Line 1,874: Line 1,850:
 
| The 19th Figure:
 
| The 19th Figure:
 
{{red|Plant the point upon him to the face.}}
 
{{red|Plant the point upon him to the face.}}
| [17]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
Secz Im dein ort gege~ dem gesicht
 
 
| Die Nëwntzechent figur
 
| Die Nëwntzechent figur
 
{{red|Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesichtte}}
 
{{red|Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesichtte}}
Line 1,886: Line 1,861:
 
| {{red|The 20th Figure:}}
 
| {{red|The 20th Figure:}}
 
Shatter against all hits that ever happen.
 
Shatter against all hits that ever happen.
| [18]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
Schut gege~ allenn treffenn dye ÿmer werdenn
 
 
| {{red|Die tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
| {{red|Die tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen • Diee ymmer werdenn
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen • Diee ymmer werdenn
Line 1,898: Line 1,872:
 
| The 21st Figure:
 
| The 21st Figure:
 
{{red|The strong in the beginning position yourself therein correctly.}}
 
{{red|The strong in the beginning position yourself therein correctly.}}
| [23]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
dÿ strich zum anhebñ dar Inn schick dich recht
 
 
| Die ain vnd tzwayntzigist figur
 
| Die ain vnd tzwayntzigist figur
 
{{red|Die sterck in dem anheben • Dar Inn dich rechtt schicke}}
 
{{red|Die sterck in dem anheben • Dar Inn dich rechtt schicke}}
Line 1,910: Line 1,883:
 
| {{red|The 22nd Figure:}}
 
| {{red|The 22nd Figure:}}
 
He who rushes the spear to the other is met beneath the eyes.
 
He who rushes the spear to the other is met beneath the eyes.
| [24]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
das ist nwe der sper lauff der de~ andñ begege~t vnt° augñ
 
 
| {{red|Die tzwo vnd tzwaintzigst figur}}
 
| {{red|Die tzwo vnd tzwaintzigst figur}}
 
Das ist nun der sper lawff • der dem andern begegendt vndter augen
 
Das ist nun der sper lawff • der dem andern begegendt vndter augen
Line 1,922: Line 1,894:
 
| The 23rd Figure:
 
| The 23rd Figure:
 
{{red|The Unnamed Grip takes the weapon or fells him.}}
 
{{red|The Unnamed Grip takes the weapon or fells him.}}
| [21]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
dye vngnnten griff wer nym oder fell In
 
 
| Die drey vnd tzwaintzigist figur  
 
| Die drey vnd tzwaintzigist figur  
 
{{red|Der vngenant griff • wer nymbtt oder velt In}}
 
{{red|Der vngenant griff • wer nymbtt oder velt In}}
Line 1,934: Line 1,905:
 
| {{red|The 24th Figure:}}
 
| {{red|The 24th Figure:}}
 
If an opponent charges you to both sides, turn around left and thus he rightly comes.
 
If an opponent charges you to both sides, turn around left and thus he rightly comes.
| [22]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
ob mã dich jagt võ peyde~ seÿte~ ker linck vmb so er rech ku~pt
 
 
| {{red|Die vier vnd tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
| {{red|Die vier vnd tzwaintzigist figur}}
 
ob man dich Jagt zu° bayden seytten kere vmb lingk so er rechtte kumbt
 
ob man dich Jagt zu° bayden seytten kere vmb lingk so er rechtte kumbt
Line 1,946: Line 1,916:
 
| The 25th Figure:
 
| The 25th Figure:
 
{{red|Be mindful to take and hold the messer.}}
 
{{red|Be mindful to take and hold the messer.}}
| [25]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
Der meßer neme~ vnd behaltñ gedenck
 
 
| Die funff vnd tzwaintzigist figur
 
| Die funff vnd tzwaintzigist figur
 
{{red|Der Mezzer nemenn • vnd behalden gedenck}}
 
{{red|Der Mezzer nemenn • vnd behalden gedenck}}
Line 1,958: Line 1,927:
 
| {{red|The 26th Figure:}}
 
| {{red|The 26th Figure:}}
 
Grasp over an opponent who falls upon you or ride against him.
 
Grasp over an opponent who falls upon you or ride against him.
| [26]
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
vber greiff wer dich an velt thue In wider treyben
 
 
| {{red|Die sechßvndtzwaintzigist figur}}
 
| {{red|Die sechßvndtzwaintzigist figur}}
 
vbergreif wer dich anvelet • oder thue Im wider Reyttens
 
vbergreif wer dich anvelet • oder thue Im wider Reyttens
 
| {{red|26}}
 
| {{red|26}}
 
Vber greÿff wer dich an felt oder thue im wider reÿttens /
 
Vber greÿff wer dich an felt oder thue im wider reÿttens /
|
 
|
 
 
|-
 
| {{red|If you want to grasp, you should not fail to ride beside him. Execute the Sun Pointer to the left sleeve if you want to bend.}}
 
Who attacks you with that, grasp over against him and he will be shamed. Press the arm to the head. This grip often robs the saddle.
 
|
 
| {{red|Wild du anfazzen neben reittens nit solt du lasen daz sunnen tzaigen lingk ermel treib wildu naygen}}
 
Wer dir daz rembt vbergreifft den der wierd beschämbt druck arm zu haubt der griff offt sattel berawbett
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  

Revision as of 00:42, 4 July 2017

Die Zettel
The Recital
Johannes Liechtenauer.png
Full Title A Recital on the Chivalric
Art of Fencing
Ascribed to Johannes Liechtenauer
Illustrated by Unknown
Date Fourteenth century (?)
Genre
Language Middle High German
Archetype(s) Hypothetical
Manuscript(s)
First Printed
English Edition
Tobler, 2010
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Johannes Liechtenauer (Hans Lichtenauer, Lichtnawer) was a German fencing master in the 14th or 15th century. No direct record of his life or teachings currently exists, and all that we know of both comes from the writings of other masters and scholars. The only account of his life was written by the anonymous author of the Nuremberg Hausbuch, one of the oldest texts in the tradition, who stated that "Master Liechtenauer learnt and mastered the Art in a thorough and rightful way, but he did not invent and put together this Art (as was just stated). Instead, he traveled and searched many countries with the will of learning and mastering this rightful and true Art." He may have been alive at the time of the creation of the fencing treatise contained in the Nuremberg Hausbuch, as that source is the only one to fail to accompany his name with a blessing for the dead.

Liechtenauer was described by many later masters as the "high master" or "grand master" of the art, and a long poem called the Zettel ("Recital") is generally attributed to him by these masters. Later masters in the tradition often wrote extensive glosses (commentaries) on this poem, using it to structure their own martial teachings. Liechtenauer's influence on the German fencing tradition as we currently understand it is almost impossible to overstate. The masters on Paulus Kal's roll of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer were responsible for most of the most significant fencing manuals of the 15th century, and Liechtenauer and his teachings were also the focus of the German fencing guilds that arose in the 15th and 16th centuries, including the Marxbrüder and the Veiterfechter.

Additional facts have sometimes been presumed about Liechtenauer based on often-problematic premises. The Nuremberg Hausbuch, often erroneously dated to 1389 and presumed to be written by a direct student of Liechtenauer's, has been treated as evidence placing Liechtenauer's career in the mid-1300s.[1] However, given that the Nuremberg Hausbuch may date as late as 1494 and the earliest records of the identifiable members of his tradition appear in the early 1400s, it seems more probable that Liechtenauer's career occurred toward the beginning of the 15th century. Ignoring the Nuremberg Hausbuch as being of indeterminate date, the oldest version of the Recital appears in the MS G.B.f.18.a, dating to ca. 1418-28 and attributed to an H. Beringer, which both conforms to this timeline and suggests the possibility that Liechtenauer was himself an inheritor of the teaching rather than its original composer (presentations of the Recital that are entirely unattributed exist in other 15th and 16th century manuscripts).

Treatise

Liechtenauer's teachings are preserved in a brief poem of rhyming couplets called the Zettel ("Recital"). These "secret and hidden words" were intentionally cryptic, probably to prevent the uninitiated from learning the techniques they represented; they also seem to have offered a system of mnemonic devices to those who understood their significance. The Recital was treated as the core of the Art by his students, and masters such as Sigmund ain Ringeck, Peter von Danzig zum Ingolstadt, and Jud Lew wrote extensive glosses that sought to clarify and expand upon these teachings.

Seventenn manuscripts contain a presentation of at least one section of the Recital as a distinct (unglossed) section; there are dozens more presentations of the verse as part of one of the several glosses. The longest version of the Recital by far is found in the gloss from the Nuremberg Hausbuch, which contains almost twice as many verses as any other. However, given that the additional verses tend to either consist of repetitions from elsewhere in the Recital or use a very different style from Liechtenauer's work, they are generally treated as additions by the anonymous author or his instructor rather than being part of the standard Recital. The other surviving versions of the Recital from all periods show a high degree of consistency in both content and organization, excepting only the version attributed to Beringer (which is also included in the writings of Hans Folz).

The following concordance tables include only those texts that quote Liechtenauer's Recital in an unglossed form.[2] Most manuscripts present the Recital as prose, and those have had the text separated out into the original verses to offer a consistent view. For ease of use, this page breaks the general Wiktenauer rule that column format remain consistent across all tables on a page; the sheer number of Liechtenauer sources made this convention entirely unworkable, so instead the long sword table uses one layout, the mounted and short sword tables use another, and the figures use a third.

temp division

In addition to the verses on mounted fencing, several treatises in the Liechtenauer tradition include a group of twenty-six "figures" (figuren)—single line abbreviations of the longer couplets, generally drawn in circles, which seem to sum up the most important points. The precise reason for the existence of these figures remains unknown, as does the reason why there are no equivalents for the armored fencing or unarmored fencing verses.

One clue to their significance may be a parallel set of teachings first recorded by Andre Paurñfeyndt in 1516, called the "Twelve Teachings for the Beginning Fencer".[32] These teachings are also generally abbreviations of longer passages in the Bloßfechten, and are similarly repeated in many treatises throughout the 16th century. It may be that the figures are a mnemonic that represent the initial stage of mounted fencing instruction, and that the full verse was taught only afterward.

Additional Resources

References

  1. Christian Henry Tobler. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010. p6
  2. A fragment of the short sword is often given as a preamble to the short sword teachings of Martin Huntfeltz, and the figures for the gloss of Jud Lew, but those instances will not be included below and instead treated as part of said treatises.
  3. The text diverges here, omitting Liechtenauer's couplet and inserting this quatrain instead:
    Dagge swert stãge lãse schon
    Messer bockler has vñ rõken
    Taegñ darde vnd schilt
    Miden allen zu ringe~ uff du wilt
  4. First letter almost illegible.
  5. First letter illegible.
  6. Text terminates at this point. The leaves with the rest of the text are gone, probably lost.
  7. kam
  8. deinen
  9. faler
  10. Text adds an additional couplet: "hastu es vernomen zu kain / schlag mag er komen".
  11. Text adds an additional couplet: "hast dus vernomen / zu kaim schlag mag er komen".
  12. Text adds an additional couplet: "hastu es vernomen / zu kainen schlag mag er komen."
  13. Text adds an additional line: "das son ich vernomen".
  14. Text adds an additional line: "ha das han ich vernomen".
  15. There is no space between "Dupliere" and "doniden", the "D" was possibly added later.
  16. Text adds an additional line: "dz haw ich vermunen??".
  17. Corrected from »Im«.
  18. The text doubles the title of this section.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Corrected from »Twir«.
  20. haust
  21. Talhoffer adds an additional couplet: [4r] Page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 004r.jpg
  22. Hier hat der Schreiber offensichtlich ein Häkchen vergessen.
  23. should be "dreffen"
  24. This section is followed by one titled "Von durchlauffen ab seczen", which repeat the verse on Absetzen.
  25. Text adds an additional couplet: "Das schwertt bind / zu der fleche truck in die hend".
  26. Text adds an additional couplet: "Das schwert binden / zu der flech trukh in die hand"
  27. Text adds an additional couplet: "thutt er sich gegen dir greisen / schlagen das er seisse".
  28. Text adds an additional couplet: "thutt er sich gegen dir greifen / schlagen das er Seise".
  29. Text adds an additional couplet: "thuet er sich gegen dir raisen / schlagen dz er seisse."
  30. ";" in a circle
  31. A guide letter “w” is visible under the “U” (apparently ignored by the rubricator), making the intended word “Wer”.
  32. Andre Paurñfeyndt, et al. Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey. Hieronymus Vietor: Vienna, 1516.