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== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
Liechtenauer's teachings are preserved in a brief poem of rhyming couplets called the ''Zettel'' ("Recital"). These "secret and hidden words" were intentionally cryptic, probably to prevent the uninitiated from learning the techniques they represented; they also seem to have offered a system of mnemonic devices to those who understood their significance. The Recital was treated as the core of the Art by his students, and masters such as [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], [[Peter von Danzig zum Ingolstadt]], and [[Jud Lew]] wrote extensive [[gloss]]es that sought to clarify and expand upon these teachings.
+
Liechtenauer's teachings are preserved in a long poem of rhyming couplets called the ''Zettel'' ("Recital"). These "obscure and cryptic words" were designed to prevent the uninitiated from learning the techniques they represented; they also seem to have offered a system of mnemonic devices to those who understood their significance. The Recital was treated as the core of the Art by his students, and masters such as [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], [[Peter von Danzig zum Ingolstadt]], and [[Jud Lew]] wrote extensive [[gloss]]es that sought to clarify and expand upon these teachings.
  
 
Seventeen manuscripts contain a presentation of at least one section of the Recital as a distinct (unglossed) section; there are dozens more presentations of the verse as part of one of the several glosses. The longest version of the Recital by far is found in the gloss from the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|Nuremberg Hausbuch]], which contains almost twice as many verses as any other. However, given that the additional verses tend to either consist of repetitions from elsewhere in the Recital or use a very different style from Liechtenauer's work, they are generally treated as additions by the anonymous author or his instructor rather than being part of the standard Recital. The other surviving versions of the Recital from all periods show a high degree of consistency in both content and organization, excepting only the version attributed to Beringer (which is also included in the writings of [[Hans Folz]]).
 
Seventeen manuscripts contain a presentation of at least one section of the Recital as a distinct (unglossed) section; there are dozens more presentations of the verse as part of one of the several glosses. The longest version of the Recital by far is found in the gloss from the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|Nuremberg Hausbuch]], which contains almost twice as many verses as any other. However, given that the additional verses tend to either consist of repetitions from elsewhere in the Recital or use a very different style from Liechtenauer's work, they are generally treated as additions by the anonymous author or his instructor rather than being part of the standard Recital. The other surviving versions of the Recital from all periods show a high degree of consistency in both content and organization, excepting only the version attributed to Beringer (which is also included in the writings of [[Hans Folz]]).
Line 1,634: Line 1,634:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 7v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 7v.jpg|300px|center]]
| {{red|Direct your spear etc, If it falls etc, Strike in, don't pull, etc.}}
+
| <p>{{red|Direct your spear etc, If it falls etc, Strike in, don't pull, etc.}}<br/><br/></p>
Pull to his left, grasp in his right, so you catch him there without fencing.
+
 
 +
<p>Gloss: Pull to his left, grasp in his right, so you catch him there without fencing.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{red|Dein Sper bericht etc Ob es emphal etc Haw dreyn nichtt Zuckch etcettera}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|14|lbl=07v}}
Glosa lingck zu Im ruck • Greyff in sein rechten • so vechst du In ane vechttenn
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,644: Line 1,644:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| <p>The 1st Figure: {{red|Charge from the breast to his right hand.}}</p>
The 1st Figure: {{red|Charge from the breast to his right hand.}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|1|lbl=22v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|1|lbl=22v}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|1|lbl=-}}
'''[7v]''' Die erst figur
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|1|lbl=74r}}
 
 
{{red|Jag von der prust zu seiner rechten hand}}
 
|  
 
'''[74r]''' {{red|1}}
 
 
 
Jag von deiner prust zw seiner rechten handt
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
'''[165v]'''  
 
'''[165v]'''  
Line 1,660: Line 1,653:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 2nd Figure:}} Turn around with the horse, pull his right hand with your left.
+
| <p>{{red|The 2nd Figure:}} Turn around with the horse, pull his right hand with your left.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die ander figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Vmbkere mitt dem Rozz Zewch sein rechte handt mitt deiner lingken
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{red|2}}
 
Vmb ker mit dem roß / zeuch sein rechte handt mit deiner lincken
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 3rd Figure: {{red|Upon the encounter, take the stirrup-strap or the weapon.}}
+
| <p>The 3rd Figure: {{red|Upon the encounter, take the stirrup-strap or the weapon.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| Die dritt figur
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
{{red|Mitt strayffen Satel ryem • oder wer nymbe}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{red|3}}
 
Mit Straÿffen satel riem / oder wer nymbt
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 4th Figure:}} Plant upon him high, swing, go through or break the sword.
+
| <p>{{red|The 4th Figure:}} Plant upon him high, swing, go through or break the sword.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die vyerdt figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
Setz an hoch swing durch var • oder Swert prich
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| {{red|4}}
 
Setz an hoch / schwing / durchfar / oder schwert prich
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 5th Figure: {{red|The defense precedes all meetings, striking, or thrusting.}}
+
| <p>The 5th Figure: {{red|The defense precedes all meetings, striking, or thrusting.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| Die funfft figur
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
{{red|Daz schuten vorgeñgk allen treffenn hawen vnnd stechen}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| {{red|5}}
 
Das schutten / vor geng allen treffen / hawen stechen
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 6th Figure:}} Take the strong with both hands.
+
| <p>{{red|The 6th Figure:}} Take the strong with both hands.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die sechst figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
Greyff an mitt payden henndten die sterck
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{red|6}}
 
Greyff an mit paiden henden die sterck
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 7th Figure: {{red|Now begin to seek the opponent with the Slapping Stroke.}}
+
| <p>The 7th Figure: {{red|Now begin to seek the opponent with the Slapping Stroke.}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
| Die sybendt figur
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
{{red|Hie heb an den mañ taschen haw zu suechen}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
| {{red|7}}
 
Hie heb an den man taschen haw zw suechen
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 8th Figure:}} Turn his right hand, set the point to his eyes.
+
| <p>{{red|The 8th Figure:}} Turn his right hand, set the point to his eyes.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die Achtt figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
Wenndt Im die recht hanndt • setze den ortt zu den augen sein
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
| {{red|8}}
 
Went im die recht handt setz dein ortt zw seinem gesicht
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 9th Figure: {{red|Who defends against the thrust, grasp his right hand in your left.}}
+
| <p>The 9th Figure: {{red|Who defends against the thrust, grasp his right hand in your left.}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
| Die Newnt figur
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
{{red|Wer den stich wertt dem vach sein rechte handt in dein lincken}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
| {{red|9}}
 
Wer den stich went dem vach sein rechte handt in dem glincke /
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 10th Figure:}} Seek the openings: arms, leather, gauntlets, under the eyes.
+
| <p>{{red|The 10th Figure:}} Seek the openings: arms, leather, gauntlets, under the eyes.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die Zechent figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
Suechee die ploss arm leder hanndtschuech vndtir den augen
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
| {{red|11}}
 
Suech die plos arm~ leder handt schuech vndter den augen
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 11th Figure: {{red|Press hard, push from the reins and seek his messer.}}
+
| <p>The 11th Figure: {{red|Press hard, push from the reins and seek his messer.}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
| Die ayndlifft figur
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
{{red|Druck vast stoss von tzawm • sueche sein Messer}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
| {{red|10}}
 
Drück vast stoß vom zaüm vnd suech sein messer
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 12th Figure:}} With the empty hand learn two strokes against all weapons.
+
| <p>{{red|The 12th Figure:}} With the empty hand learn two strokes against all weapons.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die Zwolfft figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
Mitt lerer hanndt lere zwen strich gegen aller were
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074r.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
| {{red|12}}
 
Mit lerer handt lern straich gegen aller were /
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 13th Figure: {{red|The Sheep Grip defends against all wrestling grips under the eyes.}}
+
| <p>The 13th Figure: {{red|The Sheep Grip defends against all wrestling grips under the eyes.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 022v.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
| Die dreitzechent figur
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 007v.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
{{red|Der schaf grif wertt • alle griff Ringens vndter augenn}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|1|lbl=74v}}
| '''[74v]''' {{red|13}}
 
Der Schaffgriff werdt alle griff ringes vndter auge~
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,781: Line 1,750:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 8r.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="14" | [[File:Cod.44.A.8 8r.jpg|300px|center]]
| {{red|If you want to grasp, you should not fail to ride beside him. Execute the Sun Pointer to the left sleeve if you want to bend.}}
+
| <p>{{red|If you want to grasp, you should not fail to ride beside him. Execute the Sun Pointer to the left sleeve if you want to bend.}}</p>
Who attacks you with that, grasp over against him and he will be shamed. Press the arm to the head. This grip often robs the saddle.
+
 
 +
<p>Who attacks you with that, grasp over against him and he will be shamed. Press the arm to the head. This grip often robs the saddle.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{red|Wild du anfazzen neben reittens nit solt du lasen daz sunnen tzaigen lingk ermel treib wildu naygen}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|14|lbl=08r}}
Wer dir daz rembt vbergreifft den der wierd beschämbt druck arm zu haubt der griff offt sattel berawbett
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,791: Line 1,760:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 14th Figure:}}
+
| <p>{{red|The 14th Figure:}} Turn around again to where the horses hasten.</p>
Turn around again to where the horses hasten.
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}
| '''[8r]''' {{red|Die viertzendt figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|1|lbl=-}}
Anderwayd kere vmb • so die Rozz hynn hurtten
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{red|14}}
 
An der weidt ker vmb / so die roß hyn hurttñ /
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 15th Figure:
+
| <p>The 15th Figure: {{red|Up close, catch the hand, turn over his face to where the nape is.}}</p>
{{red|Up close, catch the hand, turn over his face to where the nape is.}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| Die funfftzend figur
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
{{red|In der nech vach die hanndt • verkere sein anttlitz da der nack ist}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{red|15}}
 
In der nech fach die handt verker sein antlutz do der nacke ist
 
 
| '''[166r]'''
 
| '''[166r]'''
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 16th Figure:}}
+
| <p>{{red|The 16th Figure:}} Catch the weapon from afar while you ride against him.</p>
Catch the weapon from afar while you ride against him.
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die sechtzechend figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Die were vach in der weytt • In dem wider Reytten
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| {{red|16}}
 
Die weer fach in der weitt in dem wider reÿttñ
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 17th Figure:
+
| <p>The 17th Figure: {{red|If you charge to the left, then fall to the sword pommel, jab under the eyes.}}</p>
{{red|If you charge to the left, then fall to the sword pommel, jab under the eyes.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| Daz sybentzechend figur
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
{{red|Jagst du lingk so vall auf Swertes Kloss • stoss vndter augenn}}
 
| {{red|18}}
 
Jagstu linck fall aüfs schwertz knopf stos vndter augen
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 18th Figure:}}
+
| <p>{{red|The 18th Figure:}} Charge to the right side with its skill.</p>
Charge to the right side with its skill.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die achttzechendt figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
Jage Zu der rechtten hanndt mitt Iren Kunsten
 
| {{red|17}}
 
Jag zw der rechtñ handt / mit irñ kunstñ
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 19th Figure:
+
| <p>The 19th Figure: {{red|Plant the point upon him to the face.}}</p>
{{red|Plant the point upon him to the face.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| Die Nëwntzechent figur
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
{{red|Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesichtte}}
 
| {{red|19}}
 
Setz an den ortt gegen dem gesicht
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 20th Figure:}}
+
| <p>{{red|The 20th Figure:}} Shatter against all hits that ever happen.</p>
Shatter against all hits that ever happen.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die tzwaintzigist figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
Schutt gegen allen treffen • Diee ymmer werdenn
 
| {{red|20}}
 
Schutt gegen allen treffen die ym~er werdñ
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 21st Figure:
+
| <p>The 21st Figure: {{red|The strong in the beginning position yourself therein correctly.}}</p>
{{red|The strong in the beginning position yourself therein correctly.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
| Die ain vnd tzwayntzigist figur
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
{{red|Die sterck in dem anheben • Dar Inn dich rechtt schicke}}
 
| {{red|21}}
 
Die stercke in dem an hebñ daryn dich recht schick /
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 22nd Figure:}}
+
| <p>{{red|The 22nd Figure:}} He who rushes the spear to the other is met beneath the eyes.</p>
He who rushes the spear to the other is met beneath the eyes.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die tzwo vnd tzwaintzigst figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
Das ist nun der sper lawff • der dem andern begegendt vndter augen
 
| {{red|22}}
 
Das ist nun der sper lauff der dem anderñ begegnet vndter augen /
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 23rd Figure:
+
| <p>The 23rd Figure: {{red|The Unnamed Grip takes the weapon or fells him.}}</p>
{{red|The Unnamed Grip takes the weapon or fells him.}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|10|lbl=-}}
| Die drey vnd tzwaintzigist figur
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
{{red|Der vngenant griff • wer nymbtt oder velt In}}
 
| {{red|23}}
 
Der vngenant griff weer ny~t oder felt in
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|The 24th Figure:}}
+
| <p>{{red|The 24th Figure:}} If an opponent charges you to both sides, turn around left and thus he rightly comes.</p>
If an opponent charges you to both sides, turn around left and thus he rightly comes.
+
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|11|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die vier vnd tzwaintzigist figur}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 074v.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
ob man dich Jagt zu° bayden seytten kere vmb lingk so er rechtte kumbt
 
| {{red|24}}
 
Ob man dich jagt von paidñ seÿttñ ker vmb linck so er recht kumbt
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The 25th Figure:
+
| <p>The 25th Figure: {{red|Be mindful to take and hold the messer.}}</p>
{{red|Be mindful to take and hold the messer.}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
| Die funff vnd tzwaintzigist figur
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| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|12|lbl=-}}
{{red|Der Mezzer nemenn • vnd behalden gedenck}}
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075r.jpg|1|lbl=75r}}
| '''[75r]''' {{red|25}}
 
Der messer nemen vnd behalden gedenck
 
 
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| {{red|The 26th Figure:}}
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| <p>{{red|The 26th Figure:}} Grasp over an opponent who falls upon you or ride against him.</p>
Grasp over an opponent who falls upon you or ride against him.
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Chart.A.558 023r.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
| {{red|Die sechßvndtzwaintzigist figur}}
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| {{section|Page:Cod.44.A.8 008r.jpg|13|lbl=-}}
vbergreif wer dich anvelet • oder thue Im wider Reyttens
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{red|26}}
 
Vber greÿff wer dich an felt oder thue im wider reÿttens /
 
 
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Revision as of 19:46, 14 July 2017

Die Zettel
The Recital
Johannes Liechtenauer.png
Full Title A Recital on the Chivalric
Art of Fencing
Ascribed to Johannes Liechtenauer
Illustrated by Unknown
Date Fourteenth century (?)
Genre
Language Middle High German
Archetype(s) Hypothetical
Manuscript(s)
First Printed
English Edition
Tobler, 2010
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Johannes Liechtenauer (Hans Lichtenauer, Lichtnawer) was a German fencing master in the 14th or 15th century. No direct record of his life or teachings currently exists, and all that we know of both comes from the writings of other masters and scholars. The only account of his life was written by the anonymous author of the Nuremberg Hausbuch, one of the oldest texts in the tradition, who stated that "Master Liechtenauer learnt and mastered the Art in a thorough and rightful way, but he did not invent and put together this Art (as was just stated). Instead, he traveled and searched many countries with the will of learning and mastering this rightful and true Art." He may have been alive at the time of the creation of the fencing treatise contained in the Nuremberg Hausbuch, as that source is the only one to fail to accompany his name with a blessing for the dead.

Liechtenauer was described by many later masters as the "high master" or "grand master" of the art, and a long poem called the Zettel ("Recital") is generally attributed to him by these masters. Later masters in the tradition often wrote extensive glosses (commentaries) on this poem, using it to structure their own martial teachings. Liechtenauer's influence on the German fencing tradition as we currently understand it is almost impossible to overstate. The masters on Paulus Kal's roll of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer were responsible for most of the most significant fencing manuals of the 15th century, and Liechtenauer and his teachings were also the focus of the German fencing guilds that arose in the 15th and 16th centuries, including the Marxbrüder and the Veiterfechter.

Additional facts have sometimes been presumed about Liechtenauer based on often-problematic premises. The Nuremberg Hausbuch, often erroneously dated to 1389 and presumed to be written by a direct student of Liechtenauer's, has been treated as evidence placing Liechtenauer's career in the mid-1300s.[1] However, given that the Nuremberg Hausbuch may date as late as 1494 and the earliest records of the identifiable members of his tradition appear in the early 1400s, it seems more probable that Liechtenauer's career occurred toward the beginning of the 15th century. Ignoring the Nuremberg Hausbuch as being of indeterminate date, the oldest version of the Recital appears in the MS G.B.f.18.a, dating to ca. 1418-28 and attributed to an H. Beringer, which both conforms to this timeline and suggests the possibility that Liechtenauer was himself an inheritor of the teaching rather than its original composer (presentations of the Recital that are entirely unattributed exist in other 15th and 16th century manuscripts).

Treatise

Liechtenauer's teachings are preserved in a long poem of rhyming couplets called the Zettel ("Recital"). These "obscure and cryptic words" were designed to prevent the uninitiated from learning the techniques they represented; they also seem to have offered a system of mnemonic devices to those who understood their significance. The Recital was treated as the core of the Art by his students, and masters such as Sigmund ain Ringeck, Peter von Danzig zum Ingolstadt, and Jud Lew wrote extensive glosses that sought to clarify and expand upon these teachings.

Seventeen manuscripts contain a presentation of at least one section of the Recital as a distinct (unglossed) section; there are dozens more presentations of the verse as part of one of the several glosses. The longest version of the Recital by far is found in the gloss from the Nuremberg Hausbuch, which contains almost twice as many verses as any other. However, given that the additional verses tend to either consist of repetitions from elsewhere in the Recital or use a very different style from Liechtenauer's work, they are generally treated as additions by the anonymous author or his instructor rather than being part of the standard Recital. The other surviving versions of the Recital from all periods show a high degree of consistency in both content and organization, excepting only the version attributed to Beringer (which is also included in the writings of Hans Folz).

The following concordance tables include only those texts that quote Liechtenauer's Recital in an unglossed form.[2] Most manuscripts present the Recital as prose, and those have had the text separated out into the original verses to offer a consistent view. For ease of use, this page breaks the general Wiktenauer rule that column format remain consistent across all tables on a page; the sheer number of Liechtenauer sources made this convention entirely unworkable, so instead the long sword table uses one layout, the mounted and short sword tables use another, and the figures use a third.

In addition to the verses on mounted fencing, several treatises in the Liechtenauer tradition include a group of twenty-six "figures" (figuren)—single line abbreviations of the longer couplets, generally drawn in circles, which seem to sum up the most important points. The precise reason for the existence of these figures remains unknown, as does the reason why there are no equivalents for the armored fencing or unarmored fencing verses.

One clue to their significance may be a parallel set of teachings first recorded by Andre Paurñfeyndt in 1516, called the "Twelve Teachings for the Beginning Fencer".[32] These teachings are also generally abbreviations of longer passages in the Bloßfechten, and are similarly repeated in many treatises throughout the 16th century. It may be that the figures are a mnemonic that represent the initial stage of mounted fencing instruction, and that the full verse was taught only afterward.

Additional Resources

References

  1. Christian Henry Tobler. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010. p6
  2. A fragment of the short sword is often given as a preamble to the short sword teachings of Martin Huntfeltz, and the figures for the gloss of Jud Lew, but those instances will not be included below and instead treated as part of said treatises.
  3. The text diverges here, omitting Liechtenauer's couplet and inserting this quatrain instead:
    Dagge swert stãge lãse schon
    Messer bockler has vñ rõken
    Taegñ darde vnd schilt
    Miden allen zu ringe~ uff du wilt
  4. First letter almost illegible.
  5. First letter illegible.
  6. Text terminates at this point. The leaves with the rest of the text are gone, probably lost.
  7. kam
  8. deinen
  9. faler
  10. Text adds an additional couplet: "hastu es vernomen zu kain / schlag mag er komen".
  11. Text adds an additional couplet: "hast dus vernomen / zu kaim schlag mag er komen".
  12. Text adds an additional couplet: "hastu es vernomen / zu kainen schlag mag er komen."
  13. Text adds an additional line: "das son ich vernomen".
  14. Text adds an additional line: "ha das han ich vernomen".
  15. There is no space between "Dupliere" and "doniden", the "D" was possibly added later.
  16. Text adds an additional line: "dz haw ich vermunen??".
  17. Corrected from »Im«.
  18. The text doubles the title of this section.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Corrected from »Twir«.
  20. haust
  21. Talhoffer adds an additional couplet: [4r] Page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 004r.jpg
  22. Hier hat der Schreiber offensichtlich ein Häkchen vergessen.
  23. should be "dreffen"
  24. This section is followed by one titled "Von durchlauffen ab seczen", which repeat the verse on Absetzen.
  25. Text adds an additional couplet: "Das schwertt bind / zu der fleche truck in die hend".
  26. Text adds an additional couplet: "Das schwert binden / zu der flech trukh in die hand"
  27. Text adds an additional couplet: "thutt er sich gegen dir greisen / schlagen das er seisse".
  28. Text adds an additional couplet: "thutt er sich gegen dir greifen / schlagen das er Seise".
  29. Text adds an additional couplet: "thuet er sich gegen dir raisen / schlagen dz er seisse."
  30. ";" in a circle
  31. A guide letter “w” is visible under the “U” (apparently ignored by the rubricator), making the intended word “Wer”.
  32. Andre Paurñfeyndt, et al. Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey. Hieronymus Vietor: Vienna, 1516.