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| deathdate            = 15th century
 
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| ethnicity            = Jewish
 
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| influenced          = [[Hans Talhoffer]]
  
 
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| language            = [[language::Early New High German]]
 
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http://www.hemaalliance.com/documents/Fight%20Earnestly.pdf
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'''Jud Ebreesch''' is the attribution given for a treatise on Hebrew, astronomy, and physiology at the back of a ca. 1459 manuscript owned by [[Hans Talhoffer]] ([[Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)|MS Thott. 290. 2º]]). As ''Jud'' means "Jew" and ''Ebreesch'' means "Hebrew", the name is likely to be a pseudonym, leaving the author entirely unknown.
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
  | title = Astrology
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  | title = Esoterica
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  | width = 90em
 
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{| class="wikitable master floated"
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{| class="master"
 
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! id="thin" | <p>Images</p>
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! <p>Images</p>
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>Open for editing</p>
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! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
! <p>Transcription<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
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! <p>Transcription{{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 150v.jpg|200px|center|link=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ms.Thott.290.2º_150v.jpg]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 150v.jpg|200px|center|link=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ms.Thott.290.2º_150v.jpg]]
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| <p><br/></p>
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<p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
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<p><br/><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
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<p><br/></p>
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<p><br/></p>
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<p>Michel Rotwyler truly made me in the year 1459.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 150v.jpg|1|lbl=150v}}
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| rowspan="8" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|200px|center|link=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MS Thott.290.2º_150r.jpg]]
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|1|lbl=150r}}
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| <p>[Nonsensical Hebrew characters]<ref name="nonsense">This may in fact be German words written with Hebrew letters from right to left. However, I can’t figure out the code and the text on the page is not German.</ref></p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
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|-
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| <p>[Nonsensical Hebrew characters]<ref name="nonsense"/></p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
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|-
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| <p>Item: They always name the very last at the very front.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 149v.jpg|200px|center|link=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MS Thott.290.2º_149v.jpg]]
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 149v.jpg|1|lbl=149v}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|The Jew teaches the Hebrew language here.}}</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 149v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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|-
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here it is written about Saturn, which is old and cold, impure, ill-tempered, and greedy. “Thus are my children, who are born under me.”}}</p>
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<p>{{red|'''S'''a}}turn is the highest planet, and the least virtuous and the largest, and is cold and dry, and is therefore named Saturn as an allegory. When the Romans would have all gods with him, and prayed to them and also gave them their sacrifices, and would bring those into his temple, which was then made in his honor. And the Romans called the same their god and named him Saturn, which means much like “the highest”. And when the Romans said that, so that he sat in the highest throne of the heaven, thus that he would sit above other gods and he would be offered in all things. And, therefore, they called him Saturn as a highest god. And if they wanted to ask for anything from him, then they would offer very great prayers to him and would do this for an entire year. And they said that he would be elevated above all gods, and for this reason one should appropriately pray to him so very much time, because the highest god wanted more time and to be prayed to for longer than all the other gods together. And that was his hubris that he had in himself about this, that he was elevated above other gods, because when the Romans earnestly called upon him, then they were heard by him, and for this reason he wanted to enjoy his pride. When we read about the Romans, when they called upon him because of anything, that it would scarcely be heard in five years, perhaps in thirty years or perhaps never. Because now the same god, who was the highest among the idols, as the Romans said, and the laziest. Therefore, the planet is also named after him as an allegory, because among the seven planets, Saturn is the uppermost and the highest in the heavens, and yet the laziest in its course. and because of this, some people have part of their temperament<ref>Simultaneously “disposition” and “character”.</ref> from him and are Sanguine and Phlegmatic, and they are of high temperament and observe many things and learn. Yet they do not want to express or provide anything, and if Saturn is mixed with those who are Sanguine, you can recognize that by the fact that [Saturn] gives a long face to the Sanguine and a sensible face to the Phlegmatic. It is also known, as previously said, that the same people possess many things, and yet express or provide nothing, and are also proud and arrogant people, and they consider no one to be their equal, and accrue useful things to themselves, yet are poor in temporal goods. And the Sanguine are with a long beard or face, and do not happily attend Mass. However, the Phlegmatics are godly in themselves and happily promote Mass. And therefore, the masters do not begin to build anything during the times when Saturn reigns, because they warn, it will be poorly completed, compared to if it were erected in another time. Saturn and his children are usually robbers and murderers, and when he reigns then it is good to speak with noble people, and the planet is our enemy in all ways of nature and stands towards the east, and is a planet of evil people and the unvirtuous, who are black and gaunt and reckless, and is a planet of men who have no beards and white hair, and who wear their clothes untidily. The children who are born under Saturn have a narrow chest and are depressed, and like to listen to talk about evil things, and wear untidy clothes equally to nice ones, and do not behave well with women, and still have, from nature, all evil things in themselves. Saturn completes his course in thirty years and 440 days and 6 hours, and because of his high course, one can seldom see it. And these are his signs: Capricorn [and] Aquarius, which are cold and dry in their nature and are similar to the Melancholy in his nature.</p>
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{{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|148v|jpg|p=1}} {{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|148r|jpg|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 147v.jpg|1|lbl=147v|p=1}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here Jupiter speaks about his nature and about his children, how the children like to read and write and other arts.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|J}}upiter is the second planet, and it is happy and virtuous, warm and fresh, and is somewhat lazy in its course, and listens to those who are virtuous, and is lord of the men who have thick beards and do not become bald. And when it thus reigns, women succeed who go with young men,<ref>In this time period, ''Knabe'' means young man, squire, not yet a knight, and not a young boy.</ref> and it is good to seek princely law. The planet is called Jupiter as an allegory, because the masters say how he was an idol, which the Romans and other people held to be a god, who strongly defended them and whom they also strongly called upon as a helper/assistant, and advisor, and a conciliator. Because if the Romans did not offer sacrifices to their god, and [that god] became angry about this, then they would offer them to the same god Jupiter with great seriousness and reverence, and also brought him his sacrifice, so that he would help them again so that they would return to grace with the god who was angry with them, and while the god was angry, then they did not dare to pray to any got except that god Jupiter. And Jupiter is addressed so much according to Roman customs as a helper, because, as the Romans say, he helped his sons. Thus, he occupied the highest throne in their heavenly kingdom and for that reason, the Romans called upon him as a helper, and because of that, Jupiter has his temperament and his course with those who are called Sanguine, and thus it goes well, according to their desire, so that they also strongly help their people and other people, and can also strongly work through the desire of the people and have sympathy for them. However, due to the overconfidence which they have in themselves, they can at no time do otherwise for anyone, if one earnestly asks them, and they offer so much love in return. Jupiter also maintains his course with those who are and are called Choleric, because they also help the people and theirs, and yet do not treat them the same. And they do their things secretly and they like to keep their things quite secret and hidden, and are also quite loyal friends. The child that is born under the planet, that child will have moderate honor and privilege. [The child] loves, and likes pretty clothes, and [the child] likes to have that which tastes good and is pure in their hand. [The child] is also compassionate and joyful, and Jupiter has the signs of the Sun, Sagittarius, and Pisces. Jupiter completes its course in five years and five days.</p>
 
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| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 150v.jpg|1|lbl=150v}}
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 147v.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 147r.jpg|1|lbl=147r|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here Mars speaks about his type, which he has close to him with his bellicose and hateful manners, and yet they do not know why, or even how it is like this.}}</p>
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<p>'''{{red|M}}ars is''' the third planet, and is hot and dry, unlucky and angry,<ref>Or “evil”.</ref>and yet generous and measured in its course. And [it is] a planet of angry people, and they like to fight and steal, and are bald and have curly hair (and little of that). And among the planets, [it] is good in fights against stellae. [They] rob and burn and injure people, and [it] is therefore named Mars by the wise masters as an allegory, because Mars was named a god of battles by the unbelievers, and whenever the Romans wanted to fight, then they called upon Mars and brought him sacrifices in his temple and also carried him with them in the field where they then wanted to fight. And when the masters speak about it, he is thus called Mars because he reigns thus under the seven planets. Thus, there must be much fighting and war in those same years, and when Mars now moves in the Sun’s course, then one can seldom see him, yet whenever he reigns, then the masters say that one sees him above the Sun. This thus signifies [a] great defeat against the nobility, [and] thus, that princes and lords, and also knights and squires, should not go to war in that same year because they will be laid low. However, the peasants have good fighting because all things go closely according to their desires. And therefore, the children who are then conceived when Mars reigns, they become quite bellicose people, and do not have the nature with those who are called Sanguine, because they are pugnacious and persevere often and mostly to their battles. However, if one views him [Mars] below the Sun, then he has a nature somewhat like those who are called Melancholic: they are quiet, silent fighters and they succeed well in their wars. And in the year when he reigns, then there a star usually reigns which is called Comet, and in whatever land it is seen, there will be, without doubt, great drought and hunger in that land. Because one cannot see it in all countries, because it is low in the heavens and close to the moon, thus the moon’s shadow surrounds it, therefore one can see it well [when] the Sun is in the sign which is called Cancer or Leo, and in whatever year he reigns, then the Sun and the moon of the year are sickly. Whoever is born under the planet, he becomes red with any darkness,<ref>Or “unclarity”.</ref>like those [who] are burned by the Sun, and also becomes unvirtuously bellicose and likes to foment dissatisfaction among people and has, among the 12 signs, Aries and Scorpio and their temperament and nature. And Mars fulfills its course in five hundred and thirty days.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 147r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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{{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|146v|jpg|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 146r.jpg|1|lbl=146r|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|I, Sun, say to you briefly that my brilliance is above all planets. My rising gives light to the day and my setting draws the stars delicately, and makes the human beings beautiful and light-hearted, which no other planet can do.}}<br/><br/></p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he Sun is the fourth planet, and is hot and dry and is joyful, an inflowing light to all those who ever lived on earth. It is a planet beautiful and joyful, and his face lights up human beings, and also illuminates people with all honorable thoughts, and [it] is then well with honorable people. The Sun is a kingly star and a light and eye of this world, and shines in itself and illuminates the other stars in all ways, And [it] is, among the seven planets, the middle one, and divides the time, and completes its course in exactly one year. It also makes human beings better, strengthening them in their bodies, and he makes the face beautiful and beautifully created, with large eyes and with a large beard and long hair, and makes the human beings to resemble their souls, and makes them wise according to other things and so that one loves them a lot and makes them rich in arts and talents and clever in all things. And the Sanguine are formed like the planet, because the same people are very talented in all things and arts, and are, however, dubious about divine things and items, and are also blindly passionate and often become easily angered, though it also quickly passes away from them. The child that is then born in the year when the Sun reigns, that [child] will have lovely flesh and a white color and with a little red mixed with that, and not a lot of hair, according to the similitude of the Sun. And [they] shine outwardly quite well and are yet loyal people according to their head, yet one opines that they are very wise people who are born under the Sun, and joyful, and become the enemies of evil people. Among the seven planets and among the twelve signs, the Sun has Leo with its temperament and nature, and completes its course in one entire, circumventing year.</p>
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 146r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|145v|jpg|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here Venus speaks about its nature and character and those born under me are envious and ill-tempered and additionally blindly passionate.}}</p>
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<p>The planet {{red|'''V'''enus}} is cold and wet and cheerful, and completes its course in three hundred and forty-three days. Venus is a good, collaborative star and tempers Mars’ spite, and has a nicely appearing color, and shines under the stars very lovingly and is to be considered like the Sun, and her children are yellow and blindly passionate. When Venus reigns, it is good to put on new clothes.</p>
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| <p>Item: When Venus precedes the Sun, then it is called Lucifer; and when Venus follows the Sun, then Venus is called Vesper. Venus tidies up human beings to beautiful people, with large eyes as when the summer is shining, and makes humans to be wandering of soul and mistaken in spiritual things. There are those who are called Choleric, they have doubtful minds and yet do not remain with their doubts, and because of that, they are separated from those who are called Sanguine. Whoever is born under [Venus] quickly grows to average height, with large eyes and eyebrows according to the Sun as was written before, and is gentle and well-spoken and quite demure, and also draws to themselves the noble and pure, and also likes to hear string music and likes to dance. The planet has among the twelve signs Taurus and Libra, that is those with their nature.</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Mercury: fiery is my nature, thus characterizes my configuration. My children are pretty and subtle and whatever they do, they do that in greater haste.}}</p>
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<p>The planet {{red|b=1|M}}ercury tempers with his nature. Therefore, when he arrives at good planets then he is also good; near evil, however, he is also evil. Mercury makes human beings more splendid to other persons and makes human beings beautiful, yet with little hair, and wise of soul, and subtle, and also loves wisdom very much, and is well-spoken about being well-mannered, and speaking well yet not too much, and about good advice, and gains many friends. Mercury follows the Sun, and has a shine which one sees very seldom because he is close behind the sun. Those who are born under Mercury, they gain large teeth and are speak wisely to the people, and [are] pale in color, and like to study, and are quiet people and subtle, and like to fit in with them, and have nothing of anger in themselves. They are the Melancholics [who] complete their things secretly. Mercury completes its course in three hundred and thirty-eight days, and reigns with Virgo and Gemini among the twelve signs that stand in the heavens.</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here speaks the Moon about its natures, which are varied customs, and says “My children do not like to be subservient to anyone, and my configurations take their nature from all planets, and none of the planets is more strongly fickle than I myself at this time.”}}</p>
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<p>The Moon is the lowest planet, and is cold and wet and also virtuous, and is lord of all wet things. And [it] is fastest in its course because it moves in one month as far as the Sun in an entire year. And all those who have evil wetness in themselves, the same are its children, and most of all, human blood is thus tempered according to the Moon, and therefore, it is very useful to us that we know well the movement of the Moon and in which sign it moves, because it is quite frightful if one does not perceive its course, because it is the lowest planet and draws the nature of the other planets to itself to a large extent, and therefore, we must know its course better than that of the other planets, because it rules everything that is in us. The Moon makes wanderers of human beings, so that [the human] cannot remain in one place, and makes human beings intermittently joyful and sorrowful again; thus two different things, yet the larger part joyful. And [it] makes a crooked nose for human beings, and [they] are wet by nature and are called Phlegmatic, and are sluggish, and likewise eyes that are also larger than those of others. And Luna, the Moon, completes its course every month and illuminates the night and borrows its light from the Sun, and waxes and wanes from the Sun, as it is also subsequently written here. And the children whom it makes, they are usually boys and they have much in common with human beings. And whenever the Moon reigns, then it is not good to start anything that should last long, like building and such things, because that is an uncertain time and whatever is erected at that time is transient. And the Moon makes human beings pale of face and with freckles, and makes him angry and senseless, because he becomes angry and wrathful. That is because of its changeability, and that the Moon is in any one sign for three-and-a-half days and has Cancer under it.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 144v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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{{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|144r|jpg|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143v.jpg|1|lbl=143v|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|About the courses of the planets and their nature, how and why they have their movements here.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|I}}t should be known about the seven planets and about their nature, that God, who is above the stars, has thus ordered it that whichever planet approaches a star most closely receives its nature from the same star, and [some] such stars are cold and some wet by nature, some dry [and] some hot by nature—the same natures which the human being draws from the stars. Some human beings are cold and dry by nature; the same human beings are often silent, and they are disloyal human beings. Some are cold and wet of nature; they talk a lot and are quarrelsome. Some human beings are hot and dry of nature; they are undaunting and bold and like many women and are fickle in love. Whoever is of the hot and dry nature, he has the best nature in him and he is gladly patient, and generous, and ambitious, and has a firm love of women and is constant in love. And therefore, the books say to us that, about the star that we call Mars, that it fosters disaster,<ref>According to Lexer, one of the meanings of ''lücke'' is ''gelücke'', which leads to ''ungelücke'', or disaster. Mars promoting “not lies” does not fit the context and would be a convoluted way of promoting the truth, particularly as hot and cold do not lead to positive outcomes.</ref> because it is of hot and cold nature, and dry natures approach purity. The Moon is the absolute lowest among the seven planets and moves closest to the earth; therefore, the world aligns itself mostly according to them Moon.</p>
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<p>Comet is a star. The same star never appears, except if the kingdom wants to transform itself. One should select or consider the star, that it shines from the light that [comes] from it, like the Moon, and the star does not move among other stars. The books say to us that it is a light, which God ignited with his power in the heavens. Some also opine that there will be beggars or vagabonds<ref>''Gerentûr'' leads nowhere. ''Grenter'', on the other hand, leads to “beggers/vagabonds” in Lexer and Grimm. According to Grimm, this is only attested in the western dialects, and points to a French origin of the original text.</ref> in whichever country it is seen.</p>
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143v.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143r.jpg|1|lbl=143r|p=1}}
  
 
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| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|About the Sun’s course, how it moves through the twelve signs of the heaven day and night.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|W}}hoever correctly wants to know the morning course, that one must first of all know how the Sun moves through the twelve signs and moves in one year through all signs, and remains in any one sign 30 days because there are twelve signs: Aries, Taurus, Gemini and the others, etc. The Moon moves through all the signs in one month, and thus moves through all signs in thirty days, and remains in any one sign three-and-a half days. And through the movement of these signs, the Moon then arrives at the sign which the Sun is in and is united there with the same [the Sun]. Then the Moon is called fervent, because it ends its movement. However, when the Moon separates from the Sun by 12 degrees (that is, roughly 61 miles in the heavens), then it begins to shine and is seen by human beings, and thus takes its light from the Sun, because they are always the same in size. However, when it is fervent/luminous with the Sun, then one cannot see its light because of the Sun.</p>
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|1|lbl=142v|p=1}}
  
 
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| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 150r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here it is said in which sign the Sun stands and moves in any one month.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|I}}n January, the Sun is in the sign called Aquarius; and in February, the sun is in Pisces; and in March, it is in Aries; in April, it is in Taurus; in May, it is in Gemini;<ref>June and Cancer get skipped.</ref> in July,<ref>Literally “hay month”.</ref> then it is in Leo; in August, then it is in Virgo; in the first autumn month, then it is in Libra; in the second autumn month, then it is in Scorpio; in the first winter month, then it is in Sagittarius; in the last month, then it is in Capricorn.<ref>September, October, November, and December.</ref></p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Thott.290.2º 149v.jpg|200px|center|link=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ms.Thott.290.2º_149v.jpg]]
 
 
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| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 149v.jpg|1|lbl=149v}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here begins a book, and that [book] says how the body is internally configured.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|I}}tem: Here, firstly, about the brain. The brain gives all limbs understanding because the five senses of the human being are contained therein.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 149v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|The heart.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he heart gives all limbs heat and blood, and nourishes the soul, and maintains life.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|1|lbl=142r}}
  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|The liver.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he liver gives all limbs wetness to drink, because it draws the drink to itself from the stomach.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|The kidneys.}}</p>
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<p>The brain gives all limbs understanding, and the kidneys give birth to it, because the seeds come into them from all limbs, and nature, which holds a woman to a man and a man against a woman, [it] brings them to the point where the fruit rises up and remains there.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Item: Two holes go into the throat, food and drink go into the one [and] into the stomach, and air and breath go into the other [and] to the lungs.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|N}}ow, the breath goes thus into the lungs, because it is like an inflatable bellows above the heart, that they draw cold air to themselves and heat is drawn back out again with the breath. The hole has a cover: when one draws food and drink into one’s self, then the cover closes so that the food cannot go in there, because it belongs in the stomach and not in the lungs, and when the human being needs to breathe, the cover opens and draws the cold air into itself, and contracts again in order to draw the hot air out, that thus the human being doesn’t suffocate and because of that, nothing is more mortally damaging to the human being—whenever the pestilence reigns, or there is otherwise evil, damp fog or weather—than bad air. The masters, they also include the air and the breath that comes from human beings, especially sick human beings, because there is nothing better for the health of human beings than good and more valuable air. Because nothing kills the human being faster than bad air, because it goes thenceforth into all limbs and impurifies the blood around to the heart in the body.</p>
 
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{{paget|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º|148v|jpg|p=1}} {{paget|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º|148r|jpg|p=1}} {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 147v.jpg|1|lbl=147v|p=1}}
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|1|lbl=141v|p=1}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|About the stomach.}}</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he stomach is like a cook, and resembles a pot within which the food simmers and digests, and is a cook and a servant for all limbs, because it cooks and prepares the food for all limbs and enriches them. It has wetness from the drinks, and heat from the heart, and fire also from the liver.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|In the book that is called ''Pantegni'', Master al-Manṣūr says that some limbs in the human being are hot and dry, and some limbs are cold and wet in their nature.}}<ref>“al-Mansur” = Manṣūr ibn Ilyās, late 14th C. The book (''tašrīḥi'') ''Panthagin'' probably relates to ''liber pantegni'', a compilation of Greek and Islamic medicine by Constantinus Africanus (11 C). al-Monsur is merely invoked as an important Islamic authority, but the contents clearly refer to Classical medicine.</ref></p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Item: These are the hot limbs, like the heart and the liver, and the spleen, and also the flesh.}}</p>
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<p>Item: These are the cold limbs, that is, all of those that do not have blood on the inside, like the bones, and the stomach, and the intestines, and the bladder. And whatever we eat, that goes into us all, into the stomach, and simmers therein like in a pot, and afterward, the stomach takes the food and the drink (as much as is granted to it) and nourishes itself from that. And afterward, it presses the remainder out of itself into one intestine, which desires that [food] in the stomach, and then the intestine also takes up its food from that, and then presses it for a second time also into a second intestine. And as the food and drink arrive therein, then the liver draws the drink to itself using blood,<ref name="sweat">Or “sweat”.</ref> just like a magnet that draws iron to itself, and as soon as the drink arrives in the liver, then it is converted and becomes blood. The liver also draws the noblest blood to itself and nourishes itself from that.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141r.jpg|1|lbl=141r}}
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| <p>Item. A large vein<ref>Although ''ader'' means “artery” and not “vein” in modern German, it seems to have meant “veins” and “nerves” in ENHG. Because the ''ader'' in the text carry blood, “vein” is used for the translation.</ref> also leaves of the liver and as it comes a little distance away, then it divides into two parts, and the one goes up higher into the plurality of the veins that extend across all limbs of the human being, and nourishes it, because life depends on blood, and thus the second vein, which goes lower, also does likewise, and also sends a vein to the heart with the best blood. And afterward, the lungs draw the blood’s foam to themselves, and the gall the hot blood, and the spleen the very best blood, and afterward the blood collects in the veins to the kidneys, and afterward trickles through that and becomes urine. And afterward, it trickles through small veins like blood<ref name="sweat"/> into the bladder.</p>
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 140v.jpg|1|lbl=140v|p=1}}
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| class="noline" |
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| class="noline" | <p>Item: The bladder thus has two things which compress it; thus, whenever the bladder becomes full, the things are pressed apart from one another by the weight of the urine, and then the urine leaves the human being and afterward the bladder retracts again, so that the urine does not always leave the human being. And afterward, the food moves from one intestine into the second until nothing pure remains therein any longer. Afterward, nature drives the remainder out of the human being and from there it becomes the stool.</p>
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| work        = Images
 
| work        = Images
 
| authors    = [[Det Kongelige Bibliotek]]
 
| authors    = [[Det Kongelige Bibliotek]]
| source link = http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Ms.Thott.290.2%C2%BA
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| source link = http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:MS Thott.290.2%C2%BA
 
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| work        = Translation
 
| work        = Translation
| authors    = [[Jeffrey Hull]]
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| authors    = [[Rebecca Garber]]
| source link = http://www.hemaalliance.com/documents/Fight%20Earnestly.pdf
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| source link =  
| source title= Historical European Martial Arts Alliance
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== References ==
 
== References ==
  
{{reflist}}
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{{reflist|2}}
 
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Latest revision as of 03:26, 25 February 2021

Jud Ebreesch
Died 15th century
Ethnicity Jewish
Influenced Hans Talhoffer
Language Early New High German
Manuscript(s) MS Thott.290.2º (1459)

Jud Ebreesch is the attribution given for a treatise on Hebrew, astronomy, and physiology at the back of a ca. 1459 manuscript owned by Hans Talhoffer (MS Thott. 290. 2º). As Jud means "Jew" and Ebreesch means "Hebrew", the name is likely to be a pseudonym, leaving the author entirely unknown.

Treatise

Additional Resources

References

  1. This is obviously Arabic numerals and connected to an understanding of the decimal system. The table provided money represent values ​​1 gulden, 33 schillings, 360 Heller and 1440 "Öxttlin". A Gulden actually corresponded to 360 Heller, but 30 (depending on the currency even 40 or 24, but not 33) Schilling. A "Örttlin" is apparently a quarter-farthing.
  2. 2.0 2.1 This may in fact be German words written with Hebrew letters from right to left. However, I can’t figure out the code and the text on the page is not German.
  3. Table is written horizontally right to left in manuscript.
  4. Ein hebräisches "Abecedarium" inklusive Auflistung der Buchstabennamen und Angabe der Varianten am Wortende (ץןםך). Der folgende deutsche Text in hebräischen Buchstaben ist fast nicht zu entziffern, man glaubt zu erkennen wann mag ich gesund sin bi den gnaden gotts selb, hailig in alle ziit sowie Nennung eines Jud Jakub und eines Jud Jerg Junker. Auf der folgenden Seite versucht unser "Autorenteam" sich darin, die eigenen Namen zu schreiben, neben Talhoffer und dem bereits genannten Schreiber Michel Wetwyler steht noch Claus Pflieger: Es scheint damit plausibel, dass Pflieger der Illustrator der Handschrift ist, hat er doch den das hebräische Alphabet unterrichtenden Juden gleich noch darunter gezeichnet. Die drei Seiten machen den Eindruck einer spontanen Notiz, nicht einer überlegten "Lehre", und entstanden wohl situativ aus Faszination für dieses Zähl- bzw. Schreibsystem mit "orientalischem Nimbus".
  5. Simultaneously “disposition” and “character”.
  6. In this time period, Knabe means young man, squire, not yet a knight, and not a young boy.
  7. Or “evil”.
  8. Or “unclarity”.
  9. According to Lexer, one of the meanings of lücke is gelücke, which leads to ungelücke, or disaster. Mars promoting “not lies” does not fit the context and would be a convoluted way of promoting the truth, particularly as hot and cold do not lead to positive outcomes.
  10. Gerentûr leads nowhere. Grenter, on the other hand, leads to “beggers/vagabonds” in Lexer and Grimm. According to Grimm, this is only attested in the western dialects, and points to a French origin of the original text.
  11. Aries, Taurus, Gemini heissen unten deutsch wider, stier, zwiling.
  12. June and Cancer get skipped.
  13. Literally “hay month”.
  14. September, October, November, and December.
  15. Höwet (Heumonat): Juli; erster Herbstmonat: September, zweiter Herbstmonat: Oktober, erster Wintermonat: November. Der Juni bzw. Krebs ging offenbar vergessen. Im 15. Jh. (vor der Gregorianischen Kalenderreform) begannen die Zeichen etwa 9 Tage früher als heute, also Wassermann statt wie heute am 20. Januar bereits am 11. Januar.
  16. “al-Mansur” = Manṣūr ibn Ilyās, late 14th C. The book (tašrīḥi) Panthagin probably relates to liber pantegni, a compilation of Greek and Islamic medicine by Constantinus Africanus (11 C). al-Monsur is merely invoked as an important Islamic authority, but the contents clearly refer to Classical medicine.
  17. Allmonser bezieht sich wohl auf Manṣūr ibn Ilyās ("Al-Mansur"), einen Persischen Arzt des späten 14. Jh., Autor einer berühmten Anatomie (tašrīḥi) Panthagin dagegen dürfte sich auf das liber pantegni beziehen, eine Kompilation Hellenistischer und Islamischer Medizin von Constantinus Africanus (11. Jh.). Maister Allmonser ist demnach keineswegs Autor des Buoch Panthagin, sondern wird wohl einfach also grosse orientalische Autorität zum Thema mitgenannt, während die folgenden Inhalte klar in die antike Medizin gehören.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Or “sweat”.
  19. Although ader means “artery” and not “vein” in modern German, it seems to have meant “veins” and “nerves” in ENHG. Because the ader in the text carry blood, “vein” is used for the translation.