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Difference between revisions of "Jud Ebreesch"

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! id="thin" | <p>Images</p>
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! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey Hull]]</p>
 
! <p>Transcription{{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>Transcription{{edit index|Talhoffer Fechtbuch (MS Thott.290.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
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<p>10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 //</p>
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<p>100 2000 190 3000 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1000000 //</p>
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<p>1111111 //</p>
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<p>1234567 //</p>
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<p>In the year 1459, Michel Rotwyler made me - yes indeed.</p>
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<p>Michel Rotwyler truly made me in the year 1459.</p>
  
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| <p>My willing service unto ''the'' beloved Lord—I let ye wit that indeed. Well and healthy may ''the'' body feel—''yet'' clemency resides in God. Just like lancing, I also gladly keep all oaths, ye beloved lords.</p>
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| <p>[Nonsensical Hebrew characters]<ref name="nonsense">This may in fact be German words written with Hebrew letters from right to left. However, I can’t figure out the code and the text on the page is not German.</ref></p>
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| <p>That what was. Dare ''the'' day: make Man saintly (?). Take counsel: behold well God. I one eat (?) eggs (?) bucket (?) // year law Jacob Jew yearling (?) hunter young-lord</p>
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| <p>[Nonsensical Hebrew characters]<ref name="nonsense"/></p>
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| <p>Thus they ''who'' always naysay ''shall'' then at last answer ''for that''—Chemnitz</p>
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| <p>Item: They always name the very last at the very front.</p>
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| <p>Michel Rotwyler, Clauss Pflieger and Hans Talhoffer:</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Thus I, the Jew Ebreesch, here teach}} ''cosmology and physiology.''</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|The Jew teaches the Hebrew language here.}}</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here is written a lesson about Saturn—he indeed is old and cold, unclean, hateful and jealous: Thus are my children who were born under me.}}</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here it is written about Saturn, which is old and cold, impure, ill-tempered, and greedy. “Thus are my children, who are born under me.}}</p>
  
<p>Saturn is the outermost / first planet and of all he is most miserable, unvirtuous, violent and the largest; and he is cold and oppressing. And thus Saturn is called such, for of all the gods the Romans had likened him with such; and they adored and also gave their offerings unto him, which they brought into his temples, which they deemed built in his honour; and the Romans called the very same their god; and named him Saturn, which is as much as saying “the Highest”, whenever the Romans thus spoke. Thus he sat in the highest throne of the Sky, such that he sat above other gods and he had commanded all and thus they named him, Saturn, as the one utmost god. And when they the Romans, would beseech him for something-or-other, then they did quite great adoration of him and did that an entire year and said that he was exalted over all gods—and thus one should beseech him thus quite a lot of the time, for the utmost god wanted beseeching more of the time and longer than the other gods altogether. And that was his wantonness / arrogance that he had in himself. Thus then he was exalted over other gods. So when the Romans earnestly invoked him, then they were indulged by him, so that he would “savour” his haughtiness—which is why we Germans / we Hebrews shunned the Romans. When they invoked him for various matters, then accordingly they became indulged thereafter in about five years, sometimes in thirty years, or sometimes granted there and then. This same god, who among the idols was the utmost and, as the Romans said, the laziest too. Thus also is the planet named after him, from their likeness. Of the Seven Planets, thus Saturn is the utmost and the highest in the Sky—yet the laziest on his course. Likewise various men have part of their temperament from him. Such men are sanguine and phlegmatic; and they are amusing / amiable, haughty, scrutinising of many matter and inquiring, yet may give no decision to a matter. When Saturn “mixes” with someone, then they exist sanguinely, which you may thus recognise: for such gives the sanguinary a long / an outgoing face and the phlegmatic a sensible / a sober face. It is also to wit, as was aforesaid, that this same folk reach for many matter and yet make no decisions; and are indeed an overbearing and wanton / arrogant folk and be oppressing such that no one else gets to be their equal; and are capable yet useful only to themselves; and are poor at timing things well. The sanguinary are long-bearded or long-faced and do godly service not gladly. But the phlegmatics are godly within themselves and furthermore, gladly do godly service—and thus the masters get nothing from them to disrupt their lessons. Thus Saturn ruled, as they the Romans determined—so then it became miserably achieved, than if instead they had taken to any other god than Saturn.</p>
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<p>{{red|'''S'''a}}turn is the highest planet, and the least virtuous and the largest, and is cold and dry, and is therefore named Saturn as an allegory. When the Romans would have all gods with him, and prayed to them and also gave them their sacrifices, and would bring those into his temple, which was then made in his honor. And the Romans called the same their god and named him Saturn, which means much like “the highest”. And when the Romans said that, so that he sat in the highest throne of the heaven, thus that he would sit above other gods and he would be offered in all things. And, therefore, they called him Saturn as a highest god. And if they wanted to ask for anything from him, then they would offer very great prayers to him and would do this for an entire year. And they said that he would be elevated above all gods, and for this reason one should appropriately pray to him so very much time, because the highest god wanted more time and to be prayed to for longer than all the other gods together. And that was his hubris that he had in himself about this, that he was elevated above other gods, because when the Romans earnestly called upon him, then they were heard by him, and for this reason he wanted to enjoy his pride. When we read about the Romans, when they called upon him because of anything, that it would scarcely be heard in five years, perhaps in thirty years or perhaps never. Because now the same god, who was the highest among the idols, as the Romans said, and the laziest. Therefore, the planet is also named after him as an allegory, because among the seven planets, Saturn is the uppermost and the highest in the heavens, and yet the laziest in its course. and because of this, some people have part of their temperament<ref>Simultaneously “disposition” and “character”.</ref> from him and are Sanguine and Phlegmatic, and they are of high temperament and observe many things and learn. Yet they do not want to express or provide anything, and if Saturn is mixed with those who are Sanguine, you can recognize that by the fact that [Saturn] gives a long face to the Sanguine and a sensible face to the Phlegmatic. It is also known, as previously said, that the same people possess many things, and yet express or provide nothing, and are also proud and arrogant people, and they consider no one to be their equal, and accrue useful things to themselves, yet are poor in temporal goods. And the Sanguine are with a long beard or face, and do not happily attend Mass. However, the Phlegmatics are godly in themselves and happily promote Mass. And therefore, the masters do not begin to build anything during the times when Saturn reigns, because they warn, it will be poorly completed, compared to if it were erected in another time. Saturn and his children are usually robbers and murderers, and when he reigns then it is good to speak with noble people, and the planet is our enemy in all ways of nature and stands towards the east, and is a planet of evil people and the unvirtuous, who are black and gaunt and reckless, and is a planet of men who have no beards and white hair, and who wear their clothes untidily. The children who are born under Saturn have a narrow chest and are depressed, and like to listen to talk about evil things, and wear untidy clothes equally to nice ones, and do not behave well with women, and still have, from nature, all evil things in themselves. Saturn completes his course in thirty years and 440 days and 6 hours, and because of his high course, one can seldom see it. And these are his signs: Capricorn [and] Aquarius, which are cold and dry in their nature and are similar to the Melancholy in his nature.</p>
 
 
<p>His children are generally / are vulgar robbers and murderers; and when one woefully rules, then in all ways his nature is fiendish and “dusts against the lathe” (?). Saturn is a planet and a wicked and unvirtuous lot, who are gloomy and meagre and gaunt. Saturn is a planet of / for men who have not beards and white hair and who wear unclean clothes. The children who are born under Saturn are narrow-breasted and sad; and gladly hearing bad things, they say and convey such unclean serenades as if such were pretty. And they avail themselves not well with women; and such a man by nature indeed has all bad things within him. Saturn fulfills his course / orbit in thirty years and 400 and 5 days and 6 hours; and because of his height, one may thus see him seldomly; and his Zodiac signs are Capricorn and Aquarius, who are cold and oppressing by their nature; and Saturn is like unto the melancholic by his nature.</p>
 
 
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{{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|148v|jpg|p=1}} {{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|148r|jpg|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 147v.jpg|1|lbl=147v|p=1}}
  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here Jupiter tells of his nature and of his children—how these desirable children write and read and do other arts.}}</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here Jupiter speaks about his nature and about his children, how the children like to read and write and other arts.}}</p>
  
<p>Jupiter is the second planet and he is lucky and virtuous, warm and lively, is quite somewhat lazy on his course and hearkens to those who are virtuous and is lord of those men, who have thick beards and thus are not shorn. When he Jupiter thus rules, so it goes well for women who bear boy-children; and it is good for princes who seek the right. The planet is named Jupiter due to its likeness to that god. The masters speak as if he were an idol whom the Romans and other folk held for a god, whom they ardently valued and whom they also ardently invoked for a helper, for both attack and atonement. So when the Romans gave their god no offerings, then he became wrathful at them, so then they beseeched the same god Jupiter with great earnestness and devotion and brought him oxen-offerings, so that he became helpful again, so that they returned to the graces of the god who angered at them for whatever. In the era of the gods any gods became wrathful at whatever. So then they the Romans got to adore no god but Jupiter. And so Jupiter is so often declared in Roman texts as a “Helper”, for when the Romans spoke, he thus helped his sons. So he sat upon the lofty throne in their Sky-Realm and thus the Romans invoked him as a helper. And thus Jupiter has his temperament and his course, along with those who are called sanguinary. So thus it goes well for them, according to their will, thus to be helpful to the erring, ardently indeed and to other folk. And they may also work quite ardently through the will of the folk; and have mercy for another, yet by the same token have wantonness / arrogance—so they may have provided nobody any boon. Yet if someone beseeches them, earnestly and personally (?), then much love that someone gets in return. Jupiter likewise holds his course with those who are, and are called, choleric; who then also are helpful to the folk and to the erring, yet treat them not as equals; and do their thing privately; and they may carry out / support their concerns privately and secretly; and are also fast true friends. The child who is born under the planet Jupiter becomes moderate, honourable and right; it has love; and it is fond of pretty clothes and what is flavourful; and what is clean / pure is its fondness and is what it yields—it indeed becomes kind-hearted and merry. So thus Jupiter has the Zodiac signs of the Sun, Sagittarius and Pisces. Jupiter indeed fulfills his course in five years and five days.</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|J}}upiter is the second planet, and it is happy and virtuous, warm and fresh, and is somewhat lazy in its course, and listens to those who are virtuous, and is lord of the men who have thick beards and do not become bald. And when it thus reigns, women succeed who go with young men,<ref>In this time period, ''Knabe'' means young man, squire, not yet a knight, and not a young boy.</ref> and it is good to seek princely law. The planet is called Jupiter as an allegory, because the masters say how he was an idol, which the Romans and other people held to be a god, who strongly defended them and whom they also strongly called upon as a helper/assistant, and advisor, and a conciliator. Because if the Romans did not offer sacrifices to their god, and [that god] became angry about this, then they would offer them to the same god Jupiter with great seriousness and reverence, and also brought him his sacrifice, so that he would help them again so that they would return to grace with the god who was angry with them, and while the god was angry, then they did not dare to pray to any got except that god Jupiter. And Jupiter is addressed so much according to Roman customs as a helper, because, as the Romans say, he helped his sons. Thus, he occupied the highest throne in their heavenly kingdom and for that reason, the Romans called upon him as a helper, and because of that, Jupiter has his temperament and his course with those who are called Sanguine, and thus it goes well, according to their desire, so that they also strongly help their people and other people, and can also strongly work through the desire of the people and have sympathy for them. However, due to the overconfidence which they have in themselves, they can at no time do otherwise for anyone, if one earnestly asks them, and they offer so much love in return. Jupiter also maintains his course with those who are and are called Choleric, because they also help the people and theirs, and yet do not treat them the same. And they do their things secretly and they like to keep their things quite secret and hidden, and are also quite loyal friends. The child that is born under the planet, that child will have moderate honor and privilege. [The child] loves, and likes pretty clothes, and [the child] likes to have that which tastes good and is pure in their hand. [The child] is also compassionate and joyful, and Jupiter has the signs of the Sun, Sagittarius, and Pisces. Jupiter completes its course in five years and five days.</p>
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here tells Mars of his ilk—those he has in his camp—which is warlike and hateful / ugly; and yet witting not why or against whom it is so.}}</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here Mars speaks about his type, which he has close to him with his bellicose and hateful manners, and yet they do not know why, or even how it is like this.}}</p>
  
<p>Mars is the third planet; and it is hot and dry / wily, unlucky and bad; and nonetheless mild and moderate in his course; and is a planet of / for wrathful folk, who are known for warring and robbery and are clean-shaven and have curly hair; and are few. And he under this planet is good at strife, going for pillaging and burning and wounding folk. And thus Mars is named “Foe / Fiend” by the wise masters, for just such a likeness; and thus Mars was named by the unbelieving, thus the pagans, as a god of war. And when the Romans wanted warfare, then they invoked Mars and brought offerings into his temples and indeed fed (?) him with themselves upon the fields where they wanted battle. And so as the masters told, thus he was called Mars and so then among the Seven Planets, he rules over strife. Thus those same years must be filled with battle and war, whenever Mars “goes into” the Sun. Thus may one have seldom seen him, when he indeed rules, as the masters told, one only sees him away from the Sun. So it forebodes great abdication / usurping among the nobility, thus princes and lords. Also knights and troopers that same year should not war, for then they capitulate—whereas the castles / garrisons have good warring, as then all things go mostly according to their will. Thus the children who are then conceived, when Mars rules, they become ardently quarrelsome folk and have the nature which is called sanguinary, thus they are indeed warlike / valiant and ravaging / persistent, assuredly quite fervent in their militancy. But when one sickens under the Sun, then he has something to his nature which is called melancholic—and so then they are calm silent champions and succeed well at their warring and thus that year he rules.</p>
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<p>'''{{red|M}}ars is''' the third planet, and is hot and dry, unlucky and angry,<ref>Or “evil”.</ref>and yet generous and measured in its course. And [it is] a planet of angry people, and they like to fight and steal, and are bald and have curly hair (and little of that). And among the planets, [it] is good in fights against stellae. [They] rob and burn and injure people, and [it] is therefore named Mars by the wise masters as an allegory, because Mars was named a god of battles by the unbelievers, and whenever the Romans wanted to fight, then they called upon Mars and brought him sacrifices in his temple and also carried him with them in the field where they then wanted to fight. And when the masters speak about it, he is thus called Mars because he reigns thus under the seven planets. Thus, there must be much fighting and war in those same years, and when Mars now moves in the Sun’s course, then one can seldom see him, yet whenever he reigns, then the masters say that one sees him above the Sun. This thus signifies [a] great defeat against the nobility, [and] thus, that princes and lords, and also knights and squires, should not go to war in that same year because they will be laid low. However, the peasants have good fighting because all things go closely according to their desires. And therefore, the children who are then conceived when Mars reigns, they become quite bellicose people, and do not have the nature with those who are called Sanguine, because they are pugnacious and persevere often and mostly to their battles. However, if one views him [Mars] below the Sun, then he has a nature somewhat like those who are called Melancholic: they are quiet, silent fighters and they succeed well in their wars. And in the year when he reigns, then there a star usually reigns which is called Comet, and in whatever land it is seen, there will be, without doubt, great drought and hunger in that land. Because one cannot see it in all countries, because it is low in the heavens and close to the moon, thus the moon’s shadow surrounds it, therefore one can see it well [when] the Sun is in the sign which is called Cancer or Leo, and in whatever year he reigns, then the Sun and the moon of the year are sickly. Whoever is born under the planet, he becomes red with any darkness,<ref>Or “unclarity”.</ref>like those [who] are burned by the Sun, and also becomes unvirtuously bellicose and likes to foment dissatisfaction among people and has, among the 12 signs, Aries and Scorpio and their temperament and nature. And Mars fulfills its course in five hundred and thirty days.</p>
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<p>So a “star” rules commonly in conjunction with Mars, who is called Comet. Whichever land where the Comet is seen, then in the same land there doubtlessly becomes great scarcity and hunger. One may not see him in all the lands when he is low in the Sky and after or by the Moon, such that the Moon’s shadow engulfs / surrounds him. Thus someone somewhere may well have seen Comet then.</p>
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<p>So when the Sun is in one of the Zodiac signs called Cancer or Leo during a year when Mars rules, then the Sun and the Moon that year tend to be “ailing”. Whoever is born under this planet, he becomes ruddy, somewhat darkening as if he were browned by the Sun and he also becomes unvirtuous and warlike and he gladly makes discord among the folk. Mars has these signs from among the Twelve Signs / Zodiac: Aries and Scorpio—as well as their temperament and nature. Mars fulfills his course in five-hundred-and-thirty-days.</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|I, Sun, say to you briefly that my brilliance is above all planets. My rising gives light to the day and my setting draws the stars delicately, and makes the human beings beautiful and light-hearted, which no other planet can do.}}<br/><br/></p>
  
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<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he Sun is the fourth planet, and is hot and dry and is joyful, an inflowing light to all those who ever lived on earth. It is a planet beautiful and joyful, and his face lights up human beings, and also illuminates people with all honorable thoughts, and [it] is then well with honorable people. The Sun is a kingly star and a light and eye of this world, and shines in itself and illuminates the other stars in all ways, And [it] is, among the seven planets, the middle one, and divides the time, and completes its course in exactly one year. It also makes human beings better, strengthening them in their bodies, and he makes the face beautiful and beautifully created, with large eyes and with a large beard and long hair, and makes the human beings to resemble their souls, and makes them wise according to other things and so that one loves them a lot and makes them rich in arts and talents and clever in all things. And the Sanguine are formed like the planet, because the same people are very talented in all things and arts, and are, however, dubious about divine things and items, and are also blindly passionate and often become easily angered, though it also quickly passes away from them. The child that is then born in the year when the Sun reigns, that [child] will have lovely flesh and a white color and with a little red mixed with that, and not a lot of hair, according to the similitude of the Sun. And [they] shine outwardly quite well and are yet loyal people according to their head, yet one opines that they are very wise people who are born under the Sun, and joyful, and become the enemies of evil people. Among the seven planets and among the twelve signs, the Sun has Leo with its temperament and nature, and completes its course in one entire, circumventing year.</p>
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 146r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|145v|jpg|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|I, the Sun, tell ye in good time That over all Planets I do shine. My rising gives the Day its shine, And my setting reveals the Stars so fine; I make Mankind fair and well-pleased—Which no other Planet has achieved.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here Venus speaks about its nature and character and those born under me are envious and ill-tempered and additionally blindly passionate.}}</p>
  
<p>The Sun is the fourth planet and is hot and dry and is merry—a flowing light to all who live upon the Earth. He is a “planet” who is beautiful and lusty, and his face illumines Mankind.</p>
+
<p>The planet {{red|'''V'''enus}} is cold and wet and cheerful, and completes its course in three hundred and forty-three days. Venus is a good, collaborative star and tempers Mars’ spite, and has a nicely appearing color, and shines under the stars very lovingly and is to be considered like the Sun, and her children are yellow and blindly passionate. When Venus reigns, it is good to put on new clothes.</p>
 
+
| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 145r.jpg|1|lbl=145r}}
<p>And also the Sun remembers the folk with all their progeny, so then it goes well for the progeny of the folk. The Sun is a kingly star and a light and eye to this World; and he shines by means of himself and outshines all the other Stars. Among the Seven Planets, he is the mightiest and he keeps the time and he fulfills his course in a whole year. He also makes men well, all throughout the body; and he makes his face handsome and well-shapen, with big eyes and with full beard and long hair. He makes the man’s soul within himself like unto his soul. The Sun makes one wise in other matters, such that one has indeed love; and the Sun makes one artistically rich and crafty at all things. Thus the folk ruled by the Sun are by nature / naturally the sanguinary. So then these same folk are really shrewd in all things and arts—but are really doubtful of godly things and articles and are also unchaste and become really “farm-hatchet-angry”—indeed so it is and then they shortly away. The child who is then born in the year when the Sun rules, this child becomes “flesh-hale” and white-coloured, with a bit of red mixed here and there and has much hair after the Sun’s likeness; and indeed shines outwardly with goodness. Such children are indeed strong-minded folk, which means that folk born under the Sun become very wise; and they merrily become the foes of wicked folk.</p>
 
 
 
<p>The Sun has the sign of Leo, from among the Seven Planets and the Zodiac, in accordance with his temperament and nature; and he fulfills his course in one whole circling year.</p>
 
|  
 
{{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 146r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{paget|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º|145v|jpg|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1| Here tells Venus of his nature and quality: They who are born under me, they are jealous and hasty and likewise unchaste.}}</p>
+
| <p>Item: When Venus precedes the Sun, then it is called Lucifer; and when Venus follows the Sun, then Venus is called Vesper. Venus tidies up human beings to beautiful people, with large eyes as when the summer is shining, and makes humans to be wandering of soul and mistaken in spiritual things. There are those who are called Choleric, they have doubtful minds and yet do not remain with their doubts, and because of that, they are separated from those who are called Sanguine. Whoever is born under [Venus] quickly grows to average height, with large eyes and eyebrows according to the Sun as was written before, and is gentle and well-spoken and quite demure, and also draws to themselves the noble and pure, and also likes to hear string music and likes to dance. The planet has among the twelve signs Taurus and Libra, that is those with their nature.</p>
 
+
| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 145r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
<p>Venus, the planet, is cold and wet and lucky and fulfills her course in three-hundred-forty-three days. Venus is a good combined “star” that tempers the wickedness of Mars; and has a well-shining colour and shines among the Stars, indeed with luminosity and is as gazed-upon as the Sun. Her children are jaunty and unchaste. When Venus rules, then it is good for putting on new clothes. Thus when Venus goes before the Sun, then he Venus is called Lucifer; and when Venus goes after the Sun, then Venus is called Vespera. Venus makes the man a beautiful person, one with big eyes, as shining as the Sun and makes the man with his soul “wide-sweeping” and yet erring at spiritual things. So thus they are called choleric. They have doubtful senses and are unreliable indeed, thus doubt-worthy. So thus are they distinct from those who are called sanguinary. He who is born thereunder, grows not too tall, about middling and with big eyes and eyebrows like unto the Sun, as aforesaid; and becomes gentle and well-spoken and really coy and cultured; and really wealthy (?) and cleanly. Such a man also gladly hears the lyre and also gladly dances. The planet Venus has from among the Zodiac the signs of Taurus and Libra, which befits her nature.</p>
 
| {{paget|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º|145r|jpg}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Mercury—fiery is my nature—thus so my figure manifests. My children are charming and subtle; and whatever they do, they do with great speed.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|Mercury: fiery is my nature, thus characterizes my configuration. My children are pretty and subtle and whatever they do, they do that in greater haste.}}</p>
  
<p>Mercury the planet tempers his nature—thus when he comes to good planets, then he also is good; but when he is by bad planets, then he also is bad. Mercury makes the man a lordly person and makes the man beautiful indeed, with curly (?) hair; and wise of soul and subtle; and moreover has wisdom and conjugal love; and is a fashionable (?) one; and he is good at talking with others, really well-spoken, yet not too much, and it is good counsel; and he wins many friends. Mercury goes after the Sun and has his shine which one quite seldomly sees, for he is quite near the Sun. They who are born under Mercury, they gain big teeth (?); and are witty-speaking to the folk; and pale of colour; and they gladly study; and are themselves quiet folk and subtle; and gladly wait their turn / tend to tarry a lot / gladly vouch for someone; and have not wickedness within themselves. Mercury fulfills his course in three-hundred-thirty-eight days. Those born under Mercury are the melancholy; they do their thing secretly / stealthily. Mercury rules with Virgo and with Gemini among the Zodiac, who stand in the Sky.</p>
+
<p>The planet {{red|b=1|M}}ercury tempers with his nature. Therefore, when he arrives at good planets then he is also good; near evil, however, he is also evil. Mercury makes human beings more splendid to other persons and makes human beings beautiful, yet with little hair, and wise of soul, and subtle, and also loves wisdom very much, and is well-spoken about being well-mannered, and speaking well yet not too much, and about good advice, and gains many friends. Mercury follows the Sun, and has a shine which one sees very seldom because he is close behind the sun. Those who are born under Mercury, they gain large teeth and are speak wisely to the people, and [are] pale in color, and like to study, and are quiet people and subtle, and like to fit in with them, and have nothing of anger in themselves. They are the Melancholics [who] complete their things secretly. Mercury completes its course in three hundred and thirty-eight days, and reigns with Virgo and Gemini among the twelve signs that stand in the heavens.</p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 144v.jpg|1|lbl=144v}}
+
| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 144v.jpg|1|lbl=144v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here tells the Moon of her nature: We are many sided—And my children gladly speak to no man, And are resounding; And my figure takes the natures of all planets; And none is more utterly fickle—Even as I myself feed those.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here speaks the Moon about its natures, which are varied customs, and says “My children do not like to be subservient to anyone, and my configurations take their nature from all planets, and none of the planets is more strongly fickle than I myself at this time.}}</p>
  
<p>The planet called the Moon is the lowest planet in the Sky; and is cold and wet and also virtuous; and is lord / lady of all watery things; and goes with all speed on her course. So thus she courses in one month, while the Sun fares for a whole year. And all they who are badly cold-blooded, these same are her children—thus most of all, the blood of these men becomes tempered like unto / by the Moon. Thus so is her course really useful to us, such that we wit well the Moon’s going and in whichever signs she goes; so then it is quite frightful (?) when someone observes not her course. So then she is the lowest planet and draws a great deal of the other planetary natures into herself. So thus we must and had better wit her course when in conjunction with other planets, since when they rule together, then that is within us. The Moon makes the man “wide-sweeping”, such that he may not stay put in one place and thus makes the man happy while yet sad—thus dual-minded, although for the most part happy. And so the Moon also makes the man aquiline-nosed. Such men are of watery nature and are called phlegmatic; and are lazy and tend to have eyes such that one eye is larger than the other. Luna—the Moon—fulfills her course, all of a month and lights the night; and “borrows” her light from the Sun; and waxes and wanes because of the Sun—thus also written and stated hereafter. So the children whom she “makes”, they become ordinary boys / vulgar knaves and they have much commonality with the men and yet when the Moon rules, then it is not good—nothing starts that shall last long—confusion (?) and such things. Then that is an unsteady time and is unpopular, which becomes harmful (?) to those living at that time; and the Moon makes the man blanch-faced and blemished, and makes him malignant and insane, such that he becomes wicked and wrathful—and that behaviour is because of lunacy and that is because the Moon is in one of any Zodiac signs for two-and-half (?) days and has Cancer under her.</p>
+
<p>The Moon is the lowest planet, and is cold and wet and also virtuous, and is lord of all wet things. And [it] is fastest in its course because it moves in one month as far as the Sun in an entire year. And all those who have evil wetness in themselves, the same are its children, and most of all, human blood is thus tempered according to the Moon, and therefore, it is very useful to us that we know well the movement of the Moon and in which sign it moves, because it is quite frightful if one does not perceive its course, because it is the lowest planet and draws the nature of the other planets to itself to a large extent, and therefore, we must know its course better than that of the other planets, because it rules everything that is in us. The Moon makes wanderers of human beings, so that [the human] cannot remain in one place, and makes human beings intermittently joyful and sorrowful again; thus two different things, yet the larger part joyful. And [it] makes a crooked nose for human beings, and [they] are wet by nature and are called Phlegmatic, and are sluggish, and likewise eyes that are also larger than those of others. And Luna, the Moon, completes its course every month and illuminates the night and borrows its light from the Sun, and waxes and wanes from the Sun, as it is also subsequently written here. And the children whom it makes, they are usually boys and they have much in common with human beings. And whenever the Moon reigns, then it is not good to start anything that should last long, like building and such things, because that is an uncertain time and whatever is erected at that time is transient. And the Moon makes human beings pale of face and with freckles, and makes him angry and senseless, because he becomes angry and wrathful. That is because of its changeability, and that the Moon is in any one sign for three-and-a-half days and has Cancer under it.</p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 144v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 144v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
{{paget|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º|144r|jpg|p=1}} {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 143v.jpg|1|lbl=143v|p=1}}
+
{{paget|page:MS Thott.290.2º|144r|jpg|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143v.jpg|1|lbl=143v|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Of the planetary courses and their nature—how and why they have their motion and all that.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|About the courses of the planets and their nature, how and why they have their movements here.}}</p>
  
<p>It is to wit of the Seven Planets and of their natures that God has thus ordained it—He is above the Stars. Thus whichever planet goes nearest of all to a constellation thus Zodiac sign, from the same constellation said planet gets his nature. So some constellations are colder; some of wetter nature; some dryer; some of hotter nature. These same natures move he, the man, because of the relevant constellation. So some men are colder and dryer of nature. These same men silently seethe and are untrue men. Some men are colder and wetter of nature. They talk a lot and are beyond lazy. Some men are hotter and dryer of nature. They are jaunty and bold; and tend to have many women, yet are unsteady at love. Whoever is hotter and dryer of nature, he had the best nature within him and he tends to be mild and productive; and to have lasting love of a lady; and is steady at love.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|I}}t should be known about the seven planets and about their nature, that God, who is above the stars, has thus ordered it that whichever planet approaches a star most closely receives its nature from the same star, and [some] such stars are cold and some wet by nature, some dry [and] some hot by nature—the same natures which the human being draws from the stars. Some human beings are cold and dry by nature; the same human beings are often silent, and they are disloyal human beings. Some are cold and wet of nature; they talk a lot and are quarrelsome. Some human beings are hot and dry of nature; they are undaunting and bold and like many women and are fickle in love. Whoever is of the hot and dry nature, he has the best nature in him and he is gladly patient, and generous, and ambitious, and has a firm love of women and is constant in love. And therefore, the books say to us that, about the star that we call Mars, that it fosters disaster,<ref>According to Lexer, one of the meanings of ''lücke'' is ''gelücke'', which leads to ''ungelücke'', or disaster. Mars promoting “not lies” does not fit the context and would be a convoluted way of promoting the truth, particularly as hot and cold do not lead to positive outcomes.</ref> because it is of hot and cold nature, and dry natures approach purity. The Moon is the absolute lowest among the seven planets and moves closest to the earth; therefore, the world aligns itself mostly according to them Moon.</p>
  
<p>And thus so the books tell us regarding the “star” that we call Mars, that undeniably comes into play, whenever he is hotter and colder of nature and dry—three (?) natures coming to the light. The Moon is the least among all the Seven Planets and courses the nearest of all by the Earth. Thus so the world acts in harmony most of all with the Moon. So Comet is a “star”—this same star appears out-of-nowhere—thus the Sky-Realm will change. Man shall behold and watch the star Comet, because of the shine that he shines from him, like unto the Moon, and because this star courses not harmoniously among the other stars. The books tell us that it be the brightest that God, by His power, has kindled in the air. Yet indeed, mind you something—that it tends to become costly / famished in whichever land he is seen.</p>
+
<p>Comet is a star. The same star never appears, except if the kingdom wants to transform itself. One should select or consider the star, that it shines from the light that [comes] from it, like the Moon, and the star does not move among other stars. The books say to us that it is a light, which God ignited with his power in the heavens. Some also opine that there will be beggars or vagabonds<ref>''Gerentûr'' leads nowhere. ''Grenter'', on the other hand, leads to “beggers/vagabonds” in Lexer and Grimm. According to Grimm, this is only attested in the western dialects, and points to a French origin of the original text.</ref> in whichever country it is seen.</p>
 
|  
 
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{{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 143v.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 143r.jpg|1|lbl=143r|p=1}}
+
{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143v.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143r.jpg|1|lbl=143r|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Regarding the Sun’s course: How he courses through the Zodiac of the Sky, day and night.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|About the Sun’s course, how it moves through the twelve signs of the heaven day and night.}}</p>
  
<p>He who would rightly wit the “morning-course”, he must firstly wit how the Sun goes through the Zodiac; and that he courses in one year through all signs; and stays in any one sign for 30 days. The Twelve Signs are Aries, Taurus, Gemini and the others, etc. The Moon courses through all the signs in one month and thus courses through all signs in thirty days and remains in any one sign about two-and-half days. And so through the courses of these signs comes the Moon to the given sign wherein is the Sun; and comes to conjunction with him. So then the Moon is called ardent / lustful when she “dies” upon her course, when yet the Moon parts ways from the Sun by 15 degrees of the elliptical arc, that begets (?) the Sky, when she kindles the Sky alight and is seen by Mankind. And thus she takes her light from the Sun, whenever she, like him, is in her greatness / magnitude, when indeed she is ardent / lustful with the Sun. However, one may not have seen her light in presence of the Sun.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|W}}hoever correctly wants to know the morning course, that one must first of all know how the Sun moves through the twelve signs and moves in one year through all signs, and remains in any one sign 30 days because there are twelve signs: Aries, Taurus, Gemini and the others, etc. The Moon moves through all the signs in one month, and thus moves through all signs in thirty days, and remains in any one sign three-and-a half days. And through the movement of these signs, the Moon then arrives at the sign which the Sun is in and is united there with the same [the Sun]. Then the Moon is called fervent, because it ends its movement. However, when the Moon separates from the Sun by 12 degrees (that is, roughly 61 miles in the heavens), then it begins to shine and is seen by human beings, and thus takes its light from the Sun, because they are always the same in size. However, when it is fervent/luminous with the Sun, then one cannot see its light because of the Sun.</p>
 
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{{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 143r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|1|lbl=142v|p=1}}
+
{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 143r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|1|lbl=142v|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here is told in which sign the Sun stays and courses during any one month.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|Here it is said in which sign the Sun stands and moves in any one month.}}</p>
  
<p>In the month of January is the Sun in the sign that is called Aquarius. And in “Horning” / February, the Sun is in Pisces. And in March, thus is he in Aries. In April, thus is he in Taurus. In May, thus is he in Gemini. In “Fallow” / June he is in Cancer. In “Haying” / July, he is thus in Leo. In August, he is thus in Virgo. In “First Harvest” / September, thus is he in Libra. In “Second Harvest” / October, thus is he in Scorpio. In “First Winter” / November, he is thus in Sagittarius. In “Last Winter” / December, he is thus in Capricorn.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|I}}n January, the Sun is in the sign called Aquarius; and in February, the sun is in Pisces; and in March, it is in Aries; in April, it is in Taurus; in May, it is in Gemini;<ref>June and Cancer get skipped.</ref> in July,<ref>Literally “hay month”.</ref> then it is in Leo; in August, then it is in Virgo; in the first autumn month, then it is in Libra; in the second autumn month, then it is in Scorpio; in the first winter month, then it is in Sagittarius; in the last month, then it is in Capricorn.<ref>September, October, November, and December.</ref></p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here starts what a book says is how the Body be systemised inside.}}</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Here begins a book, and that [book] says how the body is internally configured.}}</p>
  
<p>Thus here firstly, about the Brain. The brain works all bodily organs and understanding. Thus the Five Senses of Man reside locked therein.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|I}}tem: Here, firstly, about the brain. The brain gives all limbs understanding because the five senses of the human being are contained therein.</p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|The Heart.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|The heart.}}</p>
  
<p>The heart works the warmth and the blood of all organs; and keeps the Soul; and holds one’s Life.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he heart gives all limbs heat and blood, and nourishes the soul, and maintains life.</p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|1|lbl=142r}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|1|lbl=142r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|The Liver.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|The liver.}}</p>
  
<p>The liver works to drink for the hydration of all organs. Thus it draws any drink out of the stomach.</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he liver gives all limbs wetness to drink, because it draws the drink to itself from the stomach.</p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|The Bollix.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|The kidneys.}}</p>
  
<p>The brain works all organs and understanding and the bollix bring about Birth. Thus the seed of man comes from all organs into the bollix. So the nature a lady has for a man and a man in turn for a lady—that brings them to the state whereby their Fruit arises and enlivens.</p>
+
<p>The brain gives all limbs understanding, and the kidneys give birth to it, because the seeds come into them from all limbs, and nature, which holds a woman to a man and a man against a woman, [it] brings them to the point where the fruit rises up and remains there.</p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Thus two holes work in the Throat: Into the Esophagus goes the food and the drink, into the Stomach; and into the Trachea goes air and breath, into the Lungs.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|Item: Two holes go into the throat, food and drink go into the one [and] into the stomach, and air and breath go into the other [and] to the lungs.}}</p>
 
 
<p>Now goes the breath thusly into the lungs. So they are like unto bellows above the heart—such that they draw in cold air and push out again the breath along with heat. That first hole has a flap (epiglottis), so as one draws in food and drink, so that flap shuts, so thus the nourishment passes, it descends. Then that nourishment hurries into the stomach and not into the lungs. </p>
 
  
<p>When the man needs breath, then that flap opens and then he draws in the cold air and accordingly pushes out the hot air—so that the man smothers not, and thus so is the man not at all poisoned to death when Pestilence rules, or else when bad dank miasma or weather worsens the air. The masters, they reckon also that the air and breath which comes particularly from a man sickens other men, when it is from the man who is not at all in his better health and kills other men just as quickly as bad air, especially compared to good and dry air. Then that inhaled sickness issues forth from the trunk into all organs and infects / pollutes the blood and the heart inside the body.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|N}}ow, the breath goes thus into the lungs, because it is like an inflatable bellows above the heart, that they draw cold air to themselves and heat is drawn back out again with the breath. The hole has a cover: when one draws food and drink into one’s self, then the cover closes so that the food cannot go in there, because it belongs in the stomach and not in the lungs, and when the human being needs to breathe, the cover opens and draws the cold air into itself, and contracts again in order to draw the hot air out, that thus the human being doesn’t suffocate and because of that, nothing is more mortally damaging to the human being—whenever the pestilence reigns, or there is otherwise evil, damp fog or weather—than bad air. The masters, they also include the air and the breath that comes from human beings, especially sick human beings, because there is nothing better for the health of human beings than good and more valuable air. Because nothing kills the human being faster than bad air, because it goes thenceforth into all limbs and impurifies the blood around to the heart in the body.</p>
 
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{{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|1|lbl=141v|p=1}}
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 142r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|1|lbl=141v|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|About the Stomach.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|About the stomach.}}</p>
  
<p>The stomach is like unto a cooking-pot—therein the food simmers and melts; and thus it is a cook and a servant to all the organs; it cooks and prepares the food for all organs. Before and in the mouth / jaws, they the cook and servant have moisture from drinks and heat from the heart and nourishment as well from the liver.</p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|T}}he stomach is like a cook, and resembles a pot within which the food simmers and digests, and is a cook and a servant for all limbs, because it cooks and prepares the food for all limbs and enriches them. It has wetness from the drinks, and heat from the heart, and fire also from the liver.</p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Master Allmonser tells in the book which is called Pantegni—that some organs of the man are hot and dry of nature and some organs are cold and wet of nature.}}</p>
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|In the book that is called ''Pantegni'', Master al-Manṣūr says that some limbs in the human being are hot and dry, and some limbs are cold and wet in their nature.}}<ref>“al-Mansur” = Manṣūr ibn Ilyās, late 14th C. The book (''tašrīḥi'') ''Panthagin'' probably relates to ''liber pantegni'', a compilation of Greek and Islamic medicine by Constantinus Africanus (11 C). al-Monsur is merely invoked as an important Islamic authority, but the contents clearly refer to Classical medicine.</ref></p>
| {{section|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>{{red|b=1|Thus so there are the hot organs—such as the heart and the liver and the spleen and also the flesh.}}</p>
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| <p>{{red|b=1|Item: These are the hot limbs, like the heart and the liver, and the spleen, and also the flesh.}}</p>
  
<p>Thus so there are the cold organs—which are all those which have not blood inside them—such as the bones and the stomach and the bowels and the bladder. And whatever we eat, that goes, regarding all of us, into the stomach and simmers therein as in a pot; and so thereafter the stomach takes the food and the drink, as much then as it contains, and therefrom it feeds; and so thereafter it presses from it the remaining stuff out into the small intestine, which connects with / goes into the stomach; and so then the small intestine takes also its diet therefrom and then presses that remainder into the large intestine; and as the food and the drink comes therein, so then the liver draws the drink into it, by osmosis, just as a magnet draws the iron to it; and as soon as the drink comes into the liver, so it transforms / changes and becomes new blood; the liver draws also the vital blood to itself and feeds therefrom. Thus there goes also a great artery out of the liver and just yonder as it comes past the liver; so it deals itself into two parts (hepatic artery and portal vein?)—thus the one goes up over into the vili; while the other, it goes to all the organs of the man and nourishes such thereby.</p>
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<p>Item: These are the cold limbs, that is, all of those that do not have blood on the inside, like the bones, and the stomach, and the intestines, and the bladder. And whatever we eat, that goes into us all, into the stomach, and simmers therein like in a pot, and afterward, the stomach takes the food and the drink (as much as is granted to it) and nourishes itself from that. And afterward, it presses the remainder out of itself into one intestine, which desires that [food] in the stomach, and then the intestine also takes up its food from that, and then presses it for a second time also into a second intestine. And as the food and drink arrive therein, then the liver draws the drink to itself using blood,<ref name="sweat">Or “sweat”.</ref> just like a magnet that draws iron to itself, and as soon as the drink arrives in the liver, then it is converted and becomes blood. The liver also draws the noblest blood to itself and nourishes itself from that.</p>
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| {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141r.jpg|1|lbl=141r}}
  
<p>When the life is stowed in the blood, thus so likewise does the other and itself go; which also is sent to the heart, one another as the best blood; and thus the heart draws in the “blood-froth” / oxygenated blood from the lungs.</p>
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| <p>Item. A large vein<ref>Although ''ader'' means “artery” and not “vein” in modern German, it seems to have meant “veins” and “nerves” in ENHG. Because the ''ader'' in the text carry blood, “vein” is used for the translation.</ref> also leaves of the liver and as it comes a little distance away, then it divides into two parts, and the one goes up higher into the plurality of the veins that extend across all limbs of the human being, and nourishes it, because life depends on blood, and thus the second vein, which goes lower, also does likewise, and also sends a vein to the heart with the best blood. And afterward, the lungs draw the blood’s foam to themselves, and the gall the hot blood, and the spleen the very best blood, and afterward the blood collects in the veins to the kidneys, and afterward trickles through that and becomes urine. And afterward, it trickles through small veins like blood<ref name="sweat"/> into the bladder.</p>
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{{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 141r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 140v.jpg|1|lbl=140v|p=1}}
  
<p>And so the gall / bile is the hot blood and the milt has the best of all blood; and thereupon the blood sinks into the artery to the kidneys and seeks thereafter and therethrough; and then turns into urine; and so thereafter those strain / siphon blood through little veinlettes, as uric exudation into the bladder. Thus so, the bladder has two sides which it squeezes together—thus when the bladder becomes full, then it squeezes the sides together, for the weight of the urine and so then goes the urine from the man; and so thereafter the bladder closes up again, so that the urine goes not always from the man. So thereafter goes the food from the small intestine into the large intestine, until the pure things remain not any more therein. So thereupon Nature drives the remainder from the man, which then becomes waste.</p>
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| class="noline" |
{{paget|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º|141r|jpg|p=1}} {{paget|page:Ms.Thott.290.2º|140v|jpg|p=1}}
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| class="noline" | <p>Item: The bladder thus has two things which compress it; thus, whenever the bladder becomes full, the things are pressed apart from one another by the weight of the urine, and then the urine leaves the human being and afterward the bladder retracts again, so that the urine does not always leave the human being. And afterward, the food moves from one intestine into the second until nothing pure remains therein any longer. Afterward, nature drives the remainder out of the human being and from there it becomes the stool.</p>
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| class="noline" | {{section|page:MS Thott.290.2º 140v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| work        = Images
 
| work        = Images
 
| authors    = [[Det Kongelige Bibliotek]]
 
| authors    = [[Det Kongelige Bibliotek]]
| source link = http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Ms.Thott.290.2%C2%BA
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| source link = http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:MS Thott.290.2%C2%BA
 
| source title= WikiMedia Commons
 
| source title= WikiMedia Commons
 
| license    = public domain
 
| license    = public domain
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{{sourcebox
 
| work        = Translation
 
| work        = Translation
| authors    = [[Jeffrey Hull]]
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| authors    = [[Rebecca Garber]]
| source link = http://www.hemaalliance.com/documents/Fight%20Earnestly.pdf
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| source link =  
| source title= Historical European Martial Arts Alliance
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| source title= Wiktenauer
| license    = copyrighted
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| license    = default
 
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Latest revision as of 03:26, 25 February 2021

Jud Ebreesch
Died 15th century
Ethnicity Jewish
Influenced Hans Talhoffer
Language Early New High German
Manuscript(s) MS Thott.290.2º (1459)

Jud Ebreesch is the attribution given for a treatise on Hebrew, astronomy, and physiology at the back of a ca. 1459 manuscript owned by Hans Talhoffer (MS Thott. 290. 2º). As Jud means "Jew" and Ebreesch means "Hebrew", the name is likely to be a pseudonym, leaving the author entirely unknown.

Treatise

Additional Resources

References

  1. This is obviously Arabic numerals and connected to an understanding of the decimal system. The table provided money represent values ​​1 gulden, 33 schillings, 360 Heller and 1440 "Öxttlin". A Gulden actually corresponded to 360 Heller, but 30 (depending on the currency even 40 or 24, but not 33) Schilling. A "Örttlin" is apparently a quarter-farthing.
  2. 2.0 2.1 This may in fact be German words written with Hebrew letters from right to left. However, I can’t figure out the code and the text on the page is not German.
  3. Table is written horizontally right to left in manuscript.
  4. Ein hebräisches "Abecedarium" inklusive Auflistung der Buchstabennamen und Angabe der Varianten am Wortende (ץןםך). Der folgende deutsche Text in hebräischen Buchstaben ist fast nicht zu entziffern, man glaubt zu erkennen wann mag ich gesund sin bi den gnaden gotts selb, hailig in alle ziit sowie Nennung eines Jud Jakub und eines Jud Jerg Junker. Auf der folgenden Seite versucht unser "Autorenteam" sich darin, die eigenen Namen zu schreiben, neben Talhoffer und dem bereits genannten Schreiber Michel Wetwyler steht noch Claus Pflieger: Es scheint damit plausibel, dass Pflieger der Illustrator der Handschrift ist, hat er doch den das hebräische Alphabet unterrichtenden Juden gleich noch darunter gezeichnet. Die drei Seiten machen den Eindruck einer spontanen Notiz, nicht einer überlegten "Lehre", und entstanden wohl situativ aus Faszination für dieses Zähl- bzw. Schreibsystem mit "orientalischem Nimbus".
  5. Simultaneously “disposition” and “character”.
  6. In this time period, Knabe means young man, squire, not yet a knight, and not a young boy.
  7. Or “evil”.
  8. Or “unclarity”.
  9. According to Lexer, one of the meanings of lücke is gelücke, which leads to ungelücke, or disaster. Mars promoting “not lies” does not fit the context and would be a convoluted way of promoting the truth, particularly as hot and cold do not lead to positive outcomes.
  10. Gerentûr leads nowhere. Grenter, on the other hand, leads to “beggers/vagabonds” in Lexer and Grimm. According to Grimm, this is only attested in the western dialects, and points to a French origin of the original text.
  11. Aries, Taurus, Gemini heissen unten deutsch wider, stier, zwiling.
  12. June and Cancer get skipped.
  13. Literally “hay month”.
  14. September, October, November, and December.
  15. Höwet (Heumonat): Juli; erster Herbstmonat: September, zweiter Herbstmonat: Oktober, erster Wintermonat: November. Der Juni bzw. Krebs ging offenbar vergessen. Im 15. Jh. (vor der Gregorianischen Kalenderreform) begannen die Zeichen etwa 9 Tage früher als heute, also Wassermann statt wie heute am 20. Januar bereits am 11. Januar.
  16. “al-Mansur” = Manṣūr ibn Ilyās, late 14th C. The book (tašrīḥi) Panthagin probably relates to liber pantegni, a compilation of Greek and Islamic medicine by Constantinus Africanus (11 C). al-Monsur is merely invoked as an important Islamic authority, but the contents clearly refer to Classical medicine.
  17. Allmonser bezieht sich wohl auf Manṣūr ibn Ilyās ("Al-Mansur"), einen Persischen Arzt des späten 14. Jh., Autor einer berühmten Anatomie (tašrīḥi) Panthagin dagegen dürfte sich auf das liber pantegni beziehen, eine Kompilation Hellenistischer und Islamischer Medizin von Constantinus Africanus (11. Jh.). Maister Allmonser ist demnach keineswegs Autor des Buoch Panthagin, sondern wird wohl einfach also grosse orientalische Autorität zum Thema mitgenannt, während die folgenden Inhalte klar in die antike Medizin gehören.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Or “sweat”.
  19. Although ader means “artery” and not “vein” in modern German, it seems to have meant “veins” and “nerves” in ENHG. Because the ader in the text carry blood, “vein” is used for the translation.