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Difference between revisions of "Lew"

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| {{red|And if you are left,<br/>In the fencing<ref>Liechtenauer's verse has ''in der rechten'', "on the right", here, but it has been changed in all copies except the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> you also sorely limp.}}
 
| {{red|And if you are left,<br/>In the fencing<ref>Liechtenauer's verse has ''in der rechten'', "on the right", here, but it has been changed in all copies except the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> you also sorely limp.}}
 
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<p>This is a good lesson and touches upon a left-hander and a right-hander. And know how you shall hew so that one does not win the Weak of your sword with the first hew, and undertake that thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, if you are then right and will strongly fence, then hew the first hew with purpose (not from the left side). Then he is weak and may not hold against when you bind strongly on him; but<ref>A. "Or"</ref> if you hew from the right side, then you may well strongly hold against him and work on the sword whatever you wish.</p>
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<p>This is a good lesson and touches upon a left-hander and a right-hander. And know how you shall hew so that one does not win the Weak of your sword with the first hew, and undertake that thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, if you are then right and will strongly fence, then hew the first hew with purpose (not from the left side). Then he is weak and may not hold against when you bind strongly on him; but<ref>A. "or"</ref> if you hew from the right side, then you may well strongly hold against him and work on the sword whatever you wish.</p>
 
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| {{red|Then we praise<br/>Your Arts, to teach well.}}
 
| {{red|Then we praise<br/>Your Arts, to teach well.}}
 
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<p>Mark, there are Five hidden Hews. Whoever can break them with correct art, without injury, becomes praised by other masters, and shall become rewarded more inexpensively in his art than another. And how you shall hew the Hews with three techniques, you will find all that described hereafter, etc.</p>
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<p>Mark, there are Five hidden Hews. Whoever can break them with correct art, without injury, becomes praised by<ref>S., R. "before"</ref> other masters, and shall become rewarded more inexpensively in his art than another. And how you shall hew the Hews with three techniques, you will find all that described hereafter, etc.</p>
 
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| <small>23</small>
 
| <small>23</small>
| {{red|Wrath hew, Crooked, Thwart,<br/>Have Squinter with Parter.}}
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| {{red|Wrath hew, Crooked,<ref>S. "crooked hew"</ref> Thwart,<ref>S. "thwart hew"</ref><br/>Have Squinter with Parter.}}
 
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| {{red|If he becomes aware,<br/>Take-off above without danger.}}
 
| {{red|If he becomes aware,<br/>Take-off above without danger.}}
 
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<p>Item, the Wrath-hew breaks all Over-hews with the point, and yet it is nothing more than a simple peasant strike,<ref>S. "peasant hew".</ref> and drive that thus: when he hews above from the right side to the head, then wrathfully hew with him also (without any parrying), likewise from above from your right side,<ref name="word-s">Word omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> above onto his sword, and let the point shoot in straight ahead of you to the face or the breast.<includeonly></p></includeonly><section end="wrath-1"/> <section begin="wrath-2"/><includeonly><p></includeonly>If he then becomes aware of the point and parries with strength, then with your sword on his sword’s blade, tear off from his sword up above over yourself, and hew in to the other side, on his sword’s blade, again in to the head. That is called taking-off above, etc.</p><section end="wrath-2"/>
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<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr">Word omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.</ref> the Wrath-hew breaks all Over-hews with the point, and yet it is nothing more than a simple peasant strike,<ref>S. "peasant hew".</ref> and drive that thus: when he hews above from the right side to the head, then wrathfully hew with him also (without any parrying), likewise from above from your right side,<ref name="word-s">Word omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> above onto his sword, and let the point shoot in straight ahead of you to the face or the breast.<includeonly></p></includeonly><section end="wrath-1"/> <section begin="wrath-2"/><includeonly><p></includeonly>If he then becomes aware of the point and parries with strength, then with your sword on his sword’s blade, tear off from his sword up above over yourself, and hew in to the other side, on his sword’s blade, again in to the head. That is called taking-off above, etc.</p><section end="wrath-2"/>
 
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| {{red|In all hits<br/>You will trick the masters.}}
 
| {{red|In all hits<br/>You will trick the masters.}}
 
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<p>Know that you shall be entirely ready with all Windings on the sword, since each Winding has three particular techniques: that is, a Hew, a Stab, and a Slice. And when you Wind on the sword, then you shall well proof and mark that you do not drive the incorrect techniques that pertain in the Winding thus: that you do not Hew when you should Stab, and do not Slice when you should Hew, and also not Stab when you should Slice. And you shall so drive that when the man parries your one, you hit with the other,<ref>"And you shall... with the other" omitted from the Augsburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''also soltu''.</ref> and thus shall you always find the correct technique with which to drive rightly pertaining techniques in all hits and all Windings of the sword, if you will trick and deceive the other masters when they are set against you. And how you will Wind on the sword, and how you shall drive, that you will find in the last technique of the Epitome, which says “Who well Hangs”,<ref>Couplet 104, part of the group 102-109.</ref> etc.</p>
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<p>Know that you shall be entirely ready with all Windings on the sword, since each Winding has three particular techniques: that is, a Hew, a Stab, and a Slice. And when you Wind on the sword, then you shall well proof and mark that you do not drive the incorrect techniques that pertain in the Winding thus: that you do not Hew when you should Stab, and do not Slice when you should Hew, and also not Stab when you should Slice. And you shall so drive that when the man parries your one, you hit with the other,<ref>"And you shall... with the other" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''also soltu das''.</ref> and thus shall you always find the correct technique with which to drive rightly pertaining techniques in all hits and all Windings of the sword, if you will trick and deceive the other masters when they are set against you. And how you will Wind on the sword, and how you shall drive, that you will find in the last technique of the Epitome, which says “Who well Hangs”,<ref>Couplet 104, part of the group 102-109.</ref> etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|Without any fear,<br/>Without confusion for how he acts.}}
 
| {{red|Without any fear,<br/>Without confusion for how he acts.}}
 
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<p>That is when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, if you will then wisely fence, then you shall namely not hew in to the sword, since you should aim for the Four Openings. These are [one] the right side, the other the left, of the half over the girdle of the man. The other two openings, these are the left and the right side of the half under the girdle.<ref>"of the man… of the girdle" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''der gürttell''.</ref> Take the same openings Before and hew then boldly to [them], and regard not whatever he fences against you. If he then parries, then work in the parrying quickly to the nearest opening. Thus wait out the body and not the sword, etc.<ref name="Ringeck">The subsequent play in Salzburg is taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and is therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
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<p>That is when you come<ref name="word-s"/> to the man with the pre-fencing, if you will then wisely fence, then you shall namely not hew in to the sword, since you should aim for the Four Openings. These are [one] the right side, the other the left, of the half over the girdle of the man. The other two openings, these are the left and the right side of the half under the girdle.<ref>"of the man… of the girdle" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''der gürttell''.</ref> Take the same openings Before and hew then boldly to [them], and regard not whatever he fences against you. If he then parries, then work in the parrying quickly to the nearest opening. Thus wait out the body and not the sword, etc.<ref name="Ringeck">The subsequent play in Salzburg is taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and is therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
 
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| {{red|Whoever sets well Crooked<br/>With steps injures many hews.}}
 
| {{red|Whoever sets well Crooked<br/>With steps injures many hews.}}
 
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<p>Know that the Crooked-hew is one of the Four Forfendings against the Four Guards.<ref>Here Salzburg segues into [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]]'s gloss of the same verse describing how the Crooked hew is used as a counter-cut: "This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands, and execute the play thus: When he cuts from your[sic: his] right side with the over- or under-cut, spring away from the cut with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him with outstretched arms with the [point] upon his hands."</ref> When therewith one Wars [against] the Ox and also the Over- and the Under-hew, then drive thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him"</ref> with the the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you and holds his sword before the head in the guard of the Ox on his left side, then set your left foot before [you] and hold your sword on the right shoulder in the guard, and from the guard, spring with the right foot well on the right side, and strike him over his hands with the long edge (with crossed arms), etc.</p>
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<p>Know that the Crooked-hew is one of the Four Forfendings against the Four Guards.<ref>Here Salzburg segues into [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]]'s gloss of the same verse describing how the Crooked hew is used as a counter-cut: "This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands, and execute the play thus: When he cuts from your right side with the over- or under-cut, spring away from the cut with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him with outstretched arms with the [point] upon his hands."</ref> When therewith one Wars [against] the Ox and also the Over- and the Under-hew, then drive thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him"</ref> with the the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you and holds his sword before the head in the guard of the Ox on his left side, then set your left foot before [you] and hold your sword on your<ref>A. "the"</ref> right shoulder in the guard, and from the guard, spring with the right foot well on the right side, and strike him over his hands with the long edge (with crossed arms), etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[29] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
 
| <p>[29] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
  
<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
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<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A, M: "the</ref> left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew<ref>"the hew" omitted in Mair.</ref> with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
 
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Revision as of 20:43, 24 April 2020

Jud Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Jud Lew is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a 15th century German fencing master. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the Cod. I.6.4º.3, an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,[2] a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing that is one branch of the so-called Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss (see below). Though some versions of Martin Huntfeltz's treatise on armored fencing are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.[3] By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Liegniczer and Martin Huntfeltz (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Jud Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs Augsburger page.