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| {{red|Meanwhile, Before and After,<br/>And guard that your War is not rushed.}}
 
| {{red|Meanwhile, Before and After,<br/>And guard that your War is not rushed.}}
 
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<p>This is a lesson: when he binds on your sword (with a hew or with a stab), then you shall not be too rushed with the War (that is, with the Winding) before you mark very precisely if, when his sword clashes or binds on the other, it is Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you find this, then Wind Meanwhile and work with the War, after the Soft and after the Hard, to the nearest opening. And you have learned previously that which are called the Before and the After, etc.</p>
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<p>This is a lesson: when he binds on your sword (with a hew or with a<ref>"with a" omitted from Rostock.</ref> stab), then you shall not be too rushed with the War (that is, with the Winding) before you mark very precisely if, when his sword clashes or binds on the other, it is Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you find this, then Wind Meanwhile and work with the War, after the Soft and after the Hard, to the nearest opening. And you have learned previously that which are called the Before and the After, etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|Whoever enters the War above,<br/>He becomes ashamed below.}}
 
| {{red|Whoever enters the War above,<br/>He becomes ashamed below.}}
 
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<p>Know that the Winding, and the work therefrom to the Four Openings with the point, that same is called the War; drive it thus: when you hew in with the Wrath-hew, as quickly as he then parries, then drive up with the arms, and Wind in the point on his sword above into the upper openings of his left side. If he then sets the upper stab off, then remain thus standing with the Winding and let the point sink down under you to the lower opening on his left side. If he then follows after your sword with the parrying, then seek the lower opening of his right side with your point. If he then follows further with the parrying, then drive up with the sword on the left side and hang the point above into the upper opening of his right side, and thus he becomes ashamed with the War below and above (if you correctly drive in), etc.</p>
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<p>Know that the Winding, and the work therefrom to the Four Openings with the point, that same is called the War; drive it thus: when you hew in with the Wrath-hew, as quickly as he then parries, then drive up with the arms, and Wind in the point on his sword above into the upper openings of his left side. If he then sets the upper stab off, then remain thus standing with the Winding and let the point sink down under you to the lower opening on his left side.<ref>Mair omits "the lower opening", shortening it to "to the left side".</ref> If he then follows after your sword with the parrying, then seek the lower opening of his right side with your point. If he then follows further with the parrying, then drive up with the sword on the left side and hang the point above into the upper opening of his right side, and thus he becomes ashamed with the War below and above (if you correctly drive in), etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|In all hits<br/>You will trick the masters.}}
 
| {{red|In all hits<br/>You will trick the masters.}}
 
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<p>Know that you shall be entirely ready with all Windings on the sword, since each Winding has three particular techniques: that is, a Hew, a Stab, and a Slice. And when you Wind on the sword, then you shall well proof and mark that you do not drive the incorrect techniques that pertain in the Winding thus: that you do not Hew when you should Stab, and do not Slice when you should Hew, and also not Stab when you should Slice. And you shall so drive that when the man parries your one, you hit with the other,<ref>"And you shall... with the other" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''also soltu das''.</ref> and thus shall you always find the correct technique with which to drive rightly pertaining techniques in all hits and all Windings of the sword, if you will trick and deceive the other masters when they are set against you. And how you will Wind on the sword, and how you shall drive, that you will find in the last technique of the Epitome, which says “Who well Hangs”,<ref>Couplet 104, part of the group 102-109.</ref> etc.</p>
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<p>Know that you shall be entirely ready with all Windings on the sword, since each Winding has three particular techniques: that is, a Hew, a Stab, and a Slice. And when you Wind on the sword, then you shall well proof and mark that you do not drive the incorrect techniques that pertain in the Winding thus: that you do not Hew when you should Stab, and do not Slice when you should Hew, and also not Stab when you should Slice. And you shall so drive that when the man parries your one, you hit with the other,<ref>"And you shall... with the other" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''also soltu das''.</ref> and thus shall you always find the correct technique with which to drive rightly pertaining techniques in all hits and all Windings of the sword, if you will trick and deceive the other masters when they are set against you. And how you will Wind on the sword, and how you shall drive, that you will find in the last technique of the Epitome, which says “Who well Hangs”,<ref>Couplet 104, part of the group 102-109.</ref> etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[26] Item, the Mutating to the right side. When you hew in strongly above from your right shoulder and you bind with the long edge on his sword, then drive up quickly with the arms and remain thus standing at the sword;<ref>"and you bind with… standing on the sword" omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> if he parries and is Soft in the sword, then Wind the short edge on his sword on your left side, and drive up well with the arms and hang the point above over his sword, and drive the arms therewith and stab in to the other opening, etc.</p>
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| <p>[26] Item, the Mutating to the right side. When you hew in strongly above from your right shoulder and you bind with the long edge on his sword, then drive up quickly with the arms and remain thus standing at the sword;<ref>"and you bind with… standing on the sword" omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> if he parries and is Soft in the sword, then Wind the short edge on his sword on your left side, and drive up well with the arms and hang the point above over his sword, and drive the arms<ref>"with the arms… and drive" omitted from the Rostock. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''den armen''.</ref> therewith and stab in to the other opening, etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|Whoever sets well Crooked<br/>With steps injures many hews.}}
 
| {{red|Whoever sets well Crooked<br/>With steps injures many hews.}}
 
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<p>Know that the Crooked-hew is one of the Four Forfendings against the Four Guards.<ref>Here Salzburg segues into [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]]'s gloss of the same verse describing how the Crooked hew is used as a counter-cut: "This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands, and execute the play thus: When he cuts from your right side with the over- or under-cut, spring away from the cut with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him with outstretched arms with the [point] upon his hands."</ref> When therewith one Wars [against] the Ox and also the Over- and the Under-hew, then drive thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him"</ref> with the the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you and holds his sword before the head in the guard of the Ox on his left side, then set your left foot before [you] and hold your sword on your<ref>A. "the"</ref> right shoulder in the guard, and from the guard, spring with the right foot well on the right side, and strike him over his hands with the long edge (with crossed arms), etc.</p>
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<p>Know that the Crooked-hew is one of the Four Forfendings against the Four Guards.<ref>Here Salzburg segues into [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]]'s gloss of the same verse describing how the Crooked hew is used as a counter-cut: "This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands, and execute the play thus: When he cuts from your right side with the over- or under-cut, spring away from the cut with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him with outstretched arms with the [point] upon his hands."</ref> When therewith one Wars [against] the Ox and also the Over- and the Under-hew,<ref>Literally "boar" (''eber'') in Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair, probably due to a scribal error from ''über''. Rostock further changes this to ''alber''.</ref> then drive thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him"</ref> with the the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you and holds his sword before the head in the guard of the Ox on his left side, then set your left foot before [you] and hold your sword on your<ref>A., M. "the"</ref> right shoulder in the guard, and from the guard, spring with the right foot well on the right side, and strike him over his hands with the long edge (with crossed arms), etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[30] Item, position yourself thus with the Barrier-guard to your left side: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set the right foot forward and hold your sword with the point near your left side on the earth with crossed hands, so that the short edge on the sword is above, and give an opening with the right side. If he then hews you to the opening, then step well with the left foot from the hew on your left side, and strike him with the step with the short edge<ref>"with the short edge" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> over his hands, etc.</p>
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| <p>[30] Item, position yourself thus with the Barrier-guard to your left side: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> right foot forward and hold your sword with the point near your left side on the earth with crossed hands, so that the short edge on the sword is above, and give an opening with the right side. If he then hews you to the opening, then step well with the left foot from the hew on your left side, and strike him with the step with the short edge<ref>"with the short edge" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> over his hands, etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>Then stand off, that will I praise.}}
 
| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>Then stand off, that will I praise.}}
 
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<p>Mark, this technique you shall drive against the masters from the bind of the swords,<ref>S. "bind of the sword hews".</ref> and mark it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then lay your sword to your right side in the Barrier-guard, or hold it on your nearest shoulder. If he then hews above to your opening, then hew strongly with the long edge (with crossed arms) against his hew, and as quickly as the swords clash together, then wind Meanwhile with the sword against your left side and drive up with the arms, and stab in to the upper opening. Or, if you will not stab him, then mark as quickly as it clashes, [and] then hew him Meanwhile with the short edge to the head and to the body, etc.</p>
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<p>Mark, this technique you shall drive against the masters from the bind of the swords,<ref>S. "bind of the sword hews".</ref> and mark it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A., R. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then lay your sword to your right side in the Barrier-guard, or hold it on your nearest shoulder. If he then hews above to your opening, then hew strongly with the long edge (with crossed arms) against his hew, and as quickly as the swords clash together, then wind Meanwhile with the sword against your left side and drive up with the arms, and stab in to the upper opening. Or, if you will not stab him, then mark as quickly as it clashes, [and] then hew him Meanwhile with the short edge to the head and to the body, etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|[So] that he does not know truthfully<br/>Where he is without danger.}}
 
| {{red|[So] that he does not know truthfully<br/>Where he is without danger.}}
 
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<p>Mark, when you drive the Crooked-hew then you must always give an opening therewith, and that means thus: when you hew in with the Crooked-hew from your right side (or bind on his sword), you are meanwhile open with the left side. Thus, if he is then clever and will hew you from the sword to the opening, and will make you astray with agility; then remain with your sword on his and follow after his hew thereon, and wind the point in Meanwhile to the face, and work in further with the War to the openings, so he truthfully does not know whatever end he should guard or protect<ref>Augsburg just has "protect".</ref> himself on before your hews or stabs.<ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
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<p>Mark, when you drive the Crooked-hew then you must always give an opening therewith, and that means thus: when you hew in with the Crooked-hew from your right side (or bind on his sword), you are meanwhile open with the left side. Thus, if he is then clever and will hew you from the sword to the opening, and will make you astray with agility; then remain with your sword on his and follow after his hew thereon, and wind the point in Meanwhile to the face, and work in further with the War to the openings, so he truthfully does not know whatever end he should guard or protect<ref>Augsburg and Mair just have "protect".</ref> himself on before your hews or before your<ref>"before your" omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.</ref> stabs.<ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
 
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| {{red|Thwart takes<br/>What comes From the Day.}}
 
| {{red|Thwart takes<br/>What comes From the Day.}}
 
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<p>Mark, the Thwart-hew breaks the guard From the Day (and all hews that come hewn down From the Day above), and drive the Thwart-hew thus: when you go with the pre-fencing to the man, if he then stands against you and holds his sword with arms up-stretched over himself (high over his<ref>A. "your"</ref> head in the guard) and waits on you, then mark when you come near to him. Then set the left foot forward and hold your sword with the flat on your right shoulder. If he then steps to you and threatens to strike you, then come Before [him] and spring with the right foot well on your right side, and in the spring, turn your sword with the hilt before your head (so that your thumb comes below), and strike him with the short edge to the left side of his head, etc.</p>
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<p>Mark, the Thwart-hew breaks the guard From the Day (and all hews that come hewn down From the Day above), and drive the Thwart-hew thus: when you go with the pre-fencing to the man, if he then stands against you and holds his sword with arms up-stretched over himself (high over his<ref>A., M., R. "your"</ref> head in the guard) and waits on you, then mark when you come near to him. Then set your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> left foot forward and hold your sword with the flat on your right shoulder. If he then steps to you and threatens to strike you, then come Before [him] and spring with the right foot well on your right side, and in the spring, turn your sword with the hilt before your head (so that your thumb comes below), and strike him with the short edge to the left side of his head, etc.</p>
 
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Revision as of 22:58, 24 April 2020

Jud Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Jud Lew is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a 15th century German fencing master. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the Cod. I.6.4º.3, an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,[2] a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing that is one branch of the so-called Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss (see below). Though some versions of Martin Huntfeltz's treatise on armored fencing are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.[3] By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Liegniczer and Martin Huntfeltz (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Jud Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs Augsburger page.