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'''Jud Lew''' is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], though he was not included in [[Paulus Kal]]'s ca. 1470 list of the members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]].<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
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'''Lew''' or '''Lewe''' is the presumed name of a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. The name "Lewe" means lion and might have been a nickname or pseudonym; alternatively, the colophon of the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Cod. I.6.4º.3]] could be interpreted to mean that he was Jewish, in which case it might be the German spelling of a Jewish name like Levi. He seems to have stood in the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], though he was not included in [[Paulus Kal]]'s ca. 1470 list of the members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]].<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
  
Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Cod. I.6.4º.3]], an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,<ref>See [[Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 123r.jpg|folio 123r]].</ref> a [[gloss]] of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]'s [[Recital]] on [[mounted fencing]] that is one branch of the so-called [[Pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] gloss (see below). Though some versions of [[Martin Huntfeltz]]'s treatise on [[armored fencing]] are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.<ref>Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.</ref> By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on [[long sword]] fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.
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Lew is sometimes erroneously credited with authoring the whole of the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Cod. I.6.4º.3]], which is an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises, created in the 1460s. His name is actually associated with just two sections of that book: he is credited as the author of an armored fencing treatise which was really written by [[Martin Huntsfeld]],<ref>Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.</ref> and is mentioned at the end of a [[gloss]] of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]'s [[Recital]] on [[mounted fencing]]<ref>See the colophon on [[Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 123r.jpg|folio 123r]].</ref> (by convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on [[long sword]] fencing that almost always accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew). Though this colophon is generally regarded as indicating that Lew authored the gloss (which is one branch of the larger [[Pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] gloss family), it could alternatively be interpreted to mean that Lew was the scribe or client for the whole manuscript.
  
 
== Stemma ==
 
== Stemma ==
  
Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig [[gloss]] seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]] also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).
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Early on in its history, the prototype of the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]] also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).
  
Branch A, first attested in the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Augsburg version]] (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of [[Andre Liegniczer]] and [[Martin Huntfeltz]] (or, in the case of the 1512 [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna II]], Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the [[Jud Lew]] gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|Salzburg version]] (1491), which was copied independently<ref>Both Augsburg and Salzburg contain significant scribal errors of omission that allow us to identify manuscripts copied from them.</ref> and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by [[Paulus Hector Mair]] (three mss., 1540s), [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Lienhart Sollinger]] (1556), and [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Joachim Meyer]] (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for [[Johannes Lecküchner]]'s gloss on the [[Messer]] in the late 1470s.
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Branch A, first attested in the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Augsburg version]] (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of [[Andre Lignitzer]] and [[Martin Huntsfeld]] (or, in the case of the 1512 [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna II]], Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the [[Lew]] gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|Salzburg version]] (1491), which was copied independently<ref>Both Augsburg and Salzburg contain significant scribal errors of omission that allow us to identify manuscripts copied from them.</ref> and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by [[Paulus Hector Mair]] (three mss., 1540s), [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Lienhart Sollinger]] (1556), and [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Joachim Meyer]] (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for [[Johannes Lecküchner]]'s gloss on the [[Messer]] in the late 1470s.
  
 
Branch B, attested first in the [[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome version]] (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The [[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow version]] (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,<ref>Zabinski, pp 82-83</ref> while [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Augsburg II]] (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow version]] (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.
 
Branch B, attested first in the [[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome version]] (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The [[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow version]] (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,<ref>Zabinski, pp 82-83</ref> while [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Augsburg II]] (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow version]] (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.
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== Treatises ==
 
== Treatises ==
  
While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the [[pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the [[Nicolaüs Augsburger]] page.
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While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the [[pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the [[Nicolaüs]] page.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
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{| class="floated master"
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{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Cory Winslow]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Cory Winslow]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[29] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
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| <p>[29] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
 
<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A, M: "the</ref> left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew<ref>"the hew" omitted in Mair.</ref> with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
 
<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A, M: "the</ref> left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew<ref>"the hew" omitted in Mair.</ref> with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
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| <p>[42] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
 
| <p>[42] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
<p>Item, drive the Failer thus, when you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him"</ref> with the pre-fencing, then hew the Under-hews from both sides. If you then come on him with an Under-hew from your right side, then shoot in<ref name="word-a"/> the point therewith long in to the breast, so he must parry. Then spring quickly with the left foot on his right side, and do as if you will strike him thereto, but pull the hew and strike quickly around again to the left side. Or,<ref name="word-r">Word omitted from the Rostock.</ref> if you come before the left side with the Under-hew on him, then shoot in the point yet long, and drive the driving as it stands before in the nearest description, etc.</p>
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<p>Item, drive the Failer thus, when you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him"</ref> with the pre-fencing, then hew the Under-hews from both sides. If you then come on him with an Under-hew from your right side, then shoot in<ref name="word-a"/> the point therewith long in to the breast, so he must parry. Then spring quickly with the left foot on his right side, and do as if you will strike him thereto, but pull the hew and strike quickly around again to the left side with the Thwart. Or,<ref name="word-r">Word omitted from the Rostock.</ref> if you come before the left side with the Under-hew on him, then shoot in the point yet long, and drive the driving as it stands before in the nearest description, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| {{red|The elbow take knowingly,<br/>Spring in his balance.}}
 
| {{red|The elbow take knowingly,<br/>Spring in his balance.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, you shall covertly bring the Inverter in the pre-fencing, when you force the man therewith so that you may Run-through him and correctly grasp him with wrestling.</p>
+
<p>Mark, you shall covertly bring the Inverter<ref>M. "you shall bring the Inverter with extended arms".</ref> in the pre-fencing, when you force the man therewith so that you may Run-through him and correctly grasp him with wrestling.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[60] Item, position yourself on the left side in the Ox thus: stand with the right foot before and hold your sword on your left side with the hilt in front of the head, so that the long edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against his face. And<ref name="word-sr">Word omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> that is the Ox from both sides.</p>
+
| <p>[60] Item, position yourself on the left side in the Ox thus: stand with the right foot before and hold your sword on your left side with the hilt in front of the head, so that the long edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against his face. And<ref name="word-sr"/> that is the Ox from both sides.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
{{section|Page:MS M.I.29 030v.jpg|2|lbl=-|lbl=30v}}
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{{section|Page:MS M.I.29 030v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[83] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
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| <p>[83] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
 
<p>Item, mark, you shall Travel-after him from all guards and from all hews as quickly as you can, when he forehews in front of you or opens himself with the sword.</p>
 
<p>Item, mark, you shall Travel-after him from all guards and from all hews as quickly as you can, when he forehews in front of you or opens himself with the sword.</p>
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| <p>[107] '''Item, yet another wrestling.'''</p>
 
| <p>[107] '''Item, yet another wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you with the sword, then let your sword fall, and invert your right hand and grip his right<ref>M. "rightful"</ref> outwardly therewith, and with the left hand<ref hand="word-asr"/> grasp him by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and thrust his right hand over your left with the right arm,<ref>"and thrust... the right" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''siner rechte~''.</ref> and lift him upwards therewith. Thus he is locked, and you may thus break the arm or<ref>R. "but"</ref> throw [him] before you over the left leg.</p>
+
<p>When he runs in on you with the sword, then let your sword fall, and invert your right hand and grip his right<ref>M. "rightful"</ref> outwardly therewith, and with the left hand<ref name="word-asr">Word omitted from the Augsburg, the SAlzburg, and the Rostock.</ref> grasp him by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and thrust his right hand over your left with the right arm,<ref>"and thrust... the right" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''siner rechte~''.</ref> and lift him upwards therewith. Thus he is locked, and you may thus break the arm or<ref>R. "but"</ref> throw [him] before you over the left leg.</p>
 
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| <p>[123] Item, here<ref name="word-s"/> mark how you shall drive the Eight Windings from the Four Hangings. The first Over-Hanging has two Windings, drive that thus. When you come to the man<ref>A. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then stand on your right side in the Ox. If he then hews in<ref name="word-a"/> above in to your left side, then Wind against his hew, the short edge on his sword, yet in Ox, and stab him above in to the face. That is the Winding-in. If he sets the stab off to<ref>S. "against".</ref> his left side, then remain on the sword, and Wind again on your right side in the Ox, the long edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. That is one Hanging from your right side with two Windings on his sword.</p>
+
| <p>[123] Item, here<ref name="word-s"/> mark how you shall drive the Eight Windings from the Four Hangings. The first Over-Hanging has two Windings, drive that thus. When you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then stand on your right side in the Ox. If he then hews in<ref name="word-a"/> above in to your left side, then Wind against his hew,<ref>M. "against his hew oppositely"</ref> the short edge on his sword, yet in Ox, and stab him above in to the face. That is the<ref name="word-m"/> Winding-in. If he sets the stab off to<ref>S., R. "against".</ref> his left side, then remain on the sword, and Wind again on your right side in the Ox, the long edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. That is one<ref>S., R. "the one"</ref> Hanging from your right side with two Windings on his sword.</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[124] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
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| <p>[124] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
<p>Item, drive the two Over-Hangings yet with two Windings thus. When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then stand on your left side in the Ox. If he then hews above in to your right side, then Wind the long edge on his sword against his hew and stab him above to the face. That is but one Winding. If he sets the stab off against your<ref>A. "his".</ref> right side, then remain on the sword and Wind again on your left side in the Ox, the short (?) edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. This is the second Over-Hanging from the<ref>S. "your".</ref> left side, yet with two Windings on his sword, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, drive the two Over-Hangings yet with two Windings<ref>M. "hangings"</ref> thus. When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then stand on your left side in the Ox. If he then hews above in to your right side, then Wind the long edge on his sword against his hew and stab him above to the face. That is but one Winding. If he sets the stab off against your<ref>A. "his".</ref> right side, then remain on the sword and Wind again on your left side in the Ox, the short (?) edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. This is the second<ref>M. "another"</ref> Over-Hanging from the<ref>S., R. "your".</ref> left side, yet with two Windings on his sword, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[125] Item, Now you shall know that from the two Under Hangings, that is the Plow from both sides, you shall also drive Four Windings with all your drivings, as from the Overs. These are the Eight Windings. And as often as you Wind, then think in each single Wind particularly on the hew, and<ref name="word-s"/> on the stab, and on the slice. Thus come from the Eight Windings twenty-four, and from whatever Winding, and against whatever technique, and against whatever hew you shall drive the hew, or the stab, or the slice. You find all that described before in the techniques,<ref>"in the techniques" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> etc.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[125] Item, Now you shall know that from the two Under Hangings, that is the Plow from both sides, you shall also drive Four Windings with all your drivings, as from the Overs. These are the Eight Windings. And as often as you Wind, then think in each single Wind particularly on the hew, and<ref name="word-s"/> on the<ref>"on the" omitted from Mair.</ref> stab, and on the slice. Thus twenty-four come from the Eight Windings, and from whatever Winding, and against whatever technique, and against whatever hew you shall drive the hew, or the<ref name="word-m"/> stab, or the slice. You find all that described before in the techniques,<ref>"in the techniques" omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> etc.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 113r.png|1|lbl=113r}}
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 039v.png|2|lbl=-}}
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{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
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{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Mounted Fencing Gloss
 
  | title = Mounted Fencing Gloss
 
  | width = 360em
 
  | width = 360em
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="floated master"
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{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Zettel Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Zettel Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[142]</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>[142]</p>
| <p>'''Some other excellent pieces of advice'''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>'''Some other excellent pieces of advice'''</p>
  
 
<p>Learn how to steer and turn the horse on both sides.</p>
 
<p>Learn how to steer and turn the horse on both sides.</p>
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<p>Then you cut off his reins(and furthermore threaten his left leg).</p>
 
<p>Then you cut off his reins(and furthermore threaten his left leg).</p>
| <p><br/></p>
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| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
{{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 123v.jpg|1|lbl=123v|p=1}}<br/>{{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 124r.jpg|1|lbl=124r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 123v.jpg|1|lbl=123v|p=1}}<br/>{{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 124r.jpg|1|lbl=124r|p=1}}
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 100v.png|3|lbl=100v}}
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS 26-232 100v.png|3|lbl=100v}}
|  
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| class="noline" |  
| <p><br/></p>
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* Bergner, U. and Giessauf, J. ''[http://www.adeva.com/produkt_detail.asp?id=223 Würgegriff und Mordschlag. Die Fecht- und Ringlehre des Hans Czynner (1538)]''. ADEVA Graz, 2006. ISBN 978-3-201-01855-5
 
* Bergner, U. and Giessauf, J. ''[http://www.adeva.com/produkt_detail.asp?id=223 Würgegriff und Mordschlag. Die Fecht- und Ringlehre des Hans Czynner (1538)]''. ADEVA Graz, 2006. ISBN 978-3-201-01855-5
 
* [[Dierk Hagedorn|Hagedorn, Dierk]]. ''Jude Lew: Das Fechtbuch.'' VS-Books, 2017. ISBN 978-3-932077-46-3
 
* [[Dierk Hagedorn|Hagedorn, Dierk]]. ''Jude Lew: Das Fechtbuch.'' VS-Books, 2017. ISBN 978-3-932077-46-3
* Jaquet, Daniel. "The collection of Lew the Jew in the lineage of German Fight Books corpus". ''Acta Periodica Duellatorum'' '''5'''(1):151–191. April 2017. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2017-0004}}.
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* Jaquet, Daniel. "The collection of Lew the Jew in the lineage of German Fight Books corpus". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''5'''(1):151–191. April 2017. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2017-0004}}.
 
* Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.
 
* Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.
  
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Revision as of 19:44, 31 July 2020

Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Lew or Lewe is the presumed name of a 15th century German fencing master. The name "Lewe" means lion and might have been a nickname or pseudonym; alternatively, the colophon of the Cod. I.6.4º.3 could be interpreted to mean that he was Jewish, in which case it might be the German spelling of a Jewish name like Levi. He seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is sometimes erroneously credited with authoring the whole of the Cod. I.6.4º.3, which is an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises, created in the 1460s. His name is actually associated with just two sections of that book: he is credited as the author of an armored fencing treatise which was really written by Martin Huntsfeld,[2] and is mentioned at the end of a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing[3] (by convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that almost always accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew). Though this colophon is generally regarded as indicating that Lew authored the gloss (which is one branch of the larger Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss family), it could alternatively be interpreted to mean that Lew was the scribe or client for the whole manuscript.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the prototype of the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Lignitzer and Martin Huntsfeld (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs page.