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Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)

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Οπλοδιδασκαλια sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri
MS 26-232, Albertina
Vienna, Austria
MS 26-232 1r.png
Date ca. 1512
Place of origin Nuremberg, Germany
Language(s) Early New High German
Author(s) Unknown
Illustrator(s) Albrecht Dürer
Size 127 folia (220 mm × 310 mm)
Format Generally single-sided; two or three
illustrations per side, with text on the right
Exemplar(s) Codex I.6.4º.2 (1470s)
Treatise scans

Οπλοδιδασκαλια sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri ("Weapon Training, or Albrecht Dürer's Meditation on the Handling of Weapons", MS 26-232) is a German fencing manual created in 1512 by Albrecht Dürer,[1] and is thus the earliest known fencing manual illustrated by a master artist. The original currently rests in the Graphische Sammulung of the Albertina in Vienna, Austria. This treatise, like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian I to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.[1]

Dürer was an important figure in the German renaissance, and is noted for his realistic depictions of human anatomy; this is significant as the illustrations in earlier fencing manuals are often considered distorted or otherwise less unreliable. Much of the material seems to be copied from the earlier treatises of the Codex Wallerstein and the Glasgow Fechtbuch, making it part of the Nuremburg tradition. The lost Codex 1246 seems to have been copied in turn from this manuscript (as well as Christian Egenolff's reprint of Andre Paurenfeyndt) in the early 1600s.


The known provenance of the MS 26-232 is:[2]

  • Created by Albrecht Durer in Nuremberg in ca. 1512, probably for Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I.
  • Early 1600s - Copied by an unknown scribe to produce the Codex 1246.
  • 1823 - Discovered in Styria, Austria, by theologian Vincenz Weintridt.
  • 1833 - Presented to Emperor Franz I by Weindridt.
  • Present - Held by the Albertina in Vienna, Austria.


Ir - 3v
4r - 12r Blank
14r - 53r Grappling teachings from the Nuremberg tradition
53r - 59r Blank
60r - 66r Longsword teachings from the Nuremberg tradition
66v - 67v Dagger teachings from the Nuremberg tradition
68r - 72r Blank
73r - 92r Messer teachings from the Nuremberg tradition
93r - 95r Blank
96r - 100v Gloss of the Recital on the Messer by Johannes Lecküchner (fragment)
100v Verse on mounted fencing by Martin Huntsfeld
100v Recital on short sword fencing by Johannes Liechtenauer
100v Grappling by Ott Jud (fragment)
101rv Short sword fencing by Andre Lignitzer (fragment)
105r - 112v Gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on short sword fencing by Sigmund ain Ringeck (jumbled)
112v - 116v
116v - 124r Gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing by Lew
125r - 127r


The manuscript is composed of three sections of different ages. The first part is the youngest; it was composed at the turn of the 17th century as an introduction to the manuscript. The second part was illustrated by Albrecht Dürer in ca. 1510, and was expanded with blank pages between the illustrations around the time that the first part was created. The third part is the oldest, and was written at the turn of the 16th century.

As the Albertina has thus far only released scans low-res scans certain pages, high-res scans of the fragmentary facsimile published by Friedrich Dörnhöffer in 1910 are used where available.

Part A

Front Cover
Inside Cover
Folio Ar
Folio Av
Folio Br
Folio Bv
Folio Ⅰr
Folio Ⅰv
Folio 1r
MS 26-232 1r.png
Folio 1v
Folio 2r
MS 26-232 2r.png
Folio 2v
Folio 3r
MS 26-232 3r.png
Folio 3v
Folio 4r
Folio 4v
Folio 5r
Folio 5v
Folio 6r
Folio 6v
Folio 7r
Folio 7v
Folio 8r
Folio 8v
Folio 9r
Folio 9v
Folio 10r
Folio 10v
Folio 11r
Folio 11v

Part B

Folio 12r
Folio 12v
Folio 13r
MS 26-232 13r.png
Folio 13v
MS 26-232 13v.png
Folio 14r
MS 26-232 14r.png
Folio 14v
MS 26-232 14v.png
Folio 15r
Folio 15v
Folio 16r
MS 26-232 16r.png
Folio 16v
MS 26-232 16v.png
Folio 17r
Folio 17v
Folio 18r
MS 26-232 18r.png
Folio 18v
MS 26-232 18v.png
Folio 19r
Folio 19v
Folio 20r
Folio 20v
Folio 21r
MS 26-232 21r.png
Folio 21v
MS 26-232 21v.png
Folio 22r
Folio 22v
Folio 23r
MS 26-232 23r.png
Folio 23v
MS 26-232 23v.png
Folio 24r
Folio 24v
Folio 25r
MS 26-232 25r.png
Folio 25v
MS 26-232 25v.png
Folio 26r
Folio 26v
Folio 27r
MS 26-232 27r.png
Folio 27v
MS 26-232 27v.png
Folio 28r
Folio 28v
Folio 29r
MS 26-232 29r.png
Folio 29v
MS 26-232 29v.png
Folio 30r
Folio 30v
Folio 31r
MS 26-232 31r.png
Folio 31v
MS 26-232 31v.png
Folio 32r
Folio 32v
Folio 33r
MS 26-232 33r.png
Folio 33v
MS 26-232 33v.png
Folio 34r
Folio 34v
Folio 35r
MS 26-232 35r.png
Folio 35v
MS 26-232 35v.png
Folio 36r
Folio 36v
Folio 37r
Folio 37v
Folio 38r
MS 26-232 38r.png
Folio 38v
MS 26-232 38v.png
Folio 39r
Folio 39v
Folio 40r
MS 26-232 40r.png
Folio 40v
MS 26-232 40v.png
Folio 41r
Folio 41v
Folio 42r
MS 26-232 42r.png
Folio 42v
MS 26-232 42v.png
Folio 43r
Folio 43v
Folio 44r
MS 26-232 44r.png
Folio 44v
MS 26-232 44v.png
Folio 45r
Folio 45v
Folio 46r
MS 26-232 46r.png
Folio 46v
MS 26-232 46v.png
Folio 47r
Folio 47v
Folio 48r
MS 26-232 48r.png
Folio 48v
MS 26-232 48v.png
Folio 49r
Folio 49v
Folio 50r
MS 26-232 50r.png
Folio 50v
MS 26-232 50v.png
Folio 51r
Folio 51v
Folio 52r
MS 26-232 52r.png
Folio 52v
MS 26-232 52v.png
Folio 53r
Folio 53v
Folio 54r
Folio 54v
Folio 55r
Folio 55v
Folio 56r
Folio 56v
Folio 57r
Folio 57v
Folio 58r
Folio 58v
Folio 59r
Folio 59v
Folio 60r
MS 26-232 60r.png
Folio 60v
MS 26-232 60v.png
Folio 61r
Folio 61v
Folio 62r
MS 26-232 62r.png
Folio 62v
MS 26-232 62v.png
Folio 63r
Folio 63v
Folio 64r
MS 26-232 64r.png
Folio 64v
MS 26-232 64v.png
Folio 65r
Folio 65v
Folio 66r
MS 26-232 66r.png
Folio 66v
MS 26-232 66v.png
Folio 67r
MS 26-232 67r.png
Folio 67v
MS 26-232 67v.png
Folio 68r
Folio 68v
Folio 69r
Folio 69v
Folio 70r
Folio 70v
Folio 71r
Folio 71v
Folio 72r
Folio 72v
Folio 73r
Folio 73v
Folio 74r
MS 26-232 74r.png
Folio 74v
MS 26-232 74v.png
Folio 75r
Folio 75v
Folio 76r
MS 26-232 76r.png
Folio 76v
MS 26-232 76v.png
Folio 77r
Folio 77v
Folio 78r
MS 26-232 78r.png
Folio 78v
MS 26-232 78v.png
Folio 79r
Folio 79v
Folio 80r
MS 26-232 80r.png
Folio 80v
MS 26-232 80v.png
Folio 81r
MS 26-232 81r.png
Folio 81v
MS 26-232 81v.png
Folio 82r
Folio 82v
Folio 83r
MS 26-232 83r.png
Folio 83v
MS 26-232 83v.png
Folio 84r
Folio 84v
Folio 85r
MS 26-232 85r.png
Folio 85v
MS 26-232 85v.png
Folio 86r
Folio 86v
Folio 87r
MS 26-232 87r.png
Folio 87v
MS 26-232 87v.png
Folio 88r
Folio 88v
Folio 89r
MS 26-232 89r.png
Folio 89v
MS 26-232 89v.png
Folio 90r
Folio 90v
Folio 91r
MS 26-232 91r.png
Folio 91v
MS 26-232 91v.png
Folio 92r
Folio 92v
Folio 93r
Folio 93v
Folio 94r
Folio 94v
Folio 95r
Folio 95v

Part C

Folio 96r
MS 26-232 96r.png
Folio 96v
MS 26-232 96v.png
Folio 97r
MS 26-232 97r.png
Folio 97v
MS 26-232 97v.png
Folio 98r
MS 26-232 98r.png
Folio 98v
MS 26-232 98v.png
Folio 99r
MS 26-232 99r.png
Folio 99v
MS 26-232 99v.png
Folio 100r
MS 26-232 100r.png
Folio 100v
MS 26-232 100v.png
Folio 101r
MS 26-232 101r.png
Folio 101v
MS 26-232 101v.png
Folio 102r
Folio 102v
Folio 103r
Folio 103v
Folio 104r
Folio 104v
Folio 105r
MS 26-232 105r.png
Folio 105v
MS 26-232 105v.png
Folio 106r
MS 26-232 106r.png
Folio 106v
MS 26-232 106v.png
Folio 107r
MS 26-232 107r.png
Folio 107v
MS 26-232 107v.png
Folio 108r
MS 26-232 108r.png
Folio 108v
MS 26-232 108v.png
Folio 109r
MS 26-232 109r.png
Folio 109v
MS 26-232 109v.png
Folio 110r
MS 26-232 110r.png
Folio 110v
MS 26-232 110v.png
Folio 111r
MS 26-232 111r.png
Folio 111v
MS 26-232 111v.png
Folio 112r
MS 26-232 112r.png
Folio 112v
MS 26-232 112v.png
Folio 113r
MS 26-232 113r.png
Folio 113v
MS 26-232 113v.png
Folio 114r
MS 26-232 114r.png
Folio 114v
MS 26-232 114v.png
Folio 115r
MS 26-232 115r.png
Folio 115v
MS 26-232 115v.png
Folio 116r
MS 26-232 116r.png
Folio 116v
MS 26-232 116v.png
Folio 117r
MS 26-232 117r.png
Folio 117v
MS 26-232 117v.png
Folio 118r
MS 26-232 118r.png
Folio 118v
MS 26-232 118v.png
Folio 119r
MS 26-232 119r.png
Folio 119v
MS 26-232 119v.png
Folio 120r
MS 26-232 120r.png
Folio 120v
MS 26-232 120v.png
Folio 121r
MS 26-232 121r.png
Folio 121v
MS 26-232 121v.png
Folio 122r
MS 26-232 122r.png
Folio 122v
MS 26-232 122v.png
Folio 123r
MS 26-232 123r.png
Folio 123v
MS 26-232 123v.png
Folio 124r
MS 26-232 124r.png
Folio 124v
MS 26-232 124v.png
Folio 125r
MS 26-232 125r.png
Folio 125v
Folio 126r
Folio 126v
Folio 127r
Folio 127v
Folio 128r
Folio 128v
Folio Ⅱr
Folio Ⅱv
Inside Cover
Back Cover

Additional Resources


  1. 1.0 1.1 Friedrich Dörnhöffer. Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch. Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.
  2. Jane Campbell Hutchinson. Albrecht Durer. Princeton University Press, 1992.
  3. wing
  4. inverted
  5. upwards
  6. opponent
  7. opponent
  8. plunge
  9. upwards

Copyright and License Summary

For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.

Work Author(s) Source License
Images Friedrich Dörnhöffer Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch
Public Domain.png
Translation Michael Chidester Wiktenauer
Translation Jake Norwood The Historical Fencer
Transcription Friedrich Dörnhöffer, Dierk Hagedorn Index:Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)