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! <p><includeonly><span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;{{edit|Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)/18r - 40r|edit}}&#93;</span> &nbsp; </includeonly>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Thomas Stoeppler]]</p>
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! <p><includeonly><span style="font-weight:normal; font-size:85%;">&#91;{{edit|Pol Hausbuch (MS 3227a)/18r - 40r|edit}}&#93;</span> &nbsp; </includeonly>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Christian Trosclair]]</p>
! <p>Transcription<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p><section end="credits"/>
+
! <p>Transcription{{edit index|Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p><section end="credits"/>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is a general introduction for the unarmoured fencing on foot, so remember this correctly.}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is the general preface of the bare-fencing on foot. Mark this well.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[1]</small>
+
| <small>1</small>
 
+
| Young knight learn<br/>&emsp;to love god. Always honor women,
<small>[2]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>2</small>
<small>[3]</small>
+
| Thus cultivate your honor.<br/>&emsp;Practice knight-craft and learn
 
+
|-
<small>[4]</small>
+
| <small>3</small>
 
+
| Art that decorates you<br/>&emsp;and in wars serves well.
<small>[5]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>4</small>
<small>[6]</small>
+
| Wrestling's good grips,<br/>&emsp;Glaive, spear, sword and messer,
 
+
|-
<small>[7]</small>
+
| <small>5</small>
 
+
| Manfully brandish<br/>&emsp;and in other hands ruin.
<small>[8]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>6</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[i]</small>
+
| Hew therein and charge there,<br/>&emsp;rushing on, joining or driving out.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[ii]</small>
+
| <small>7</small>
 
+
| Those maturing in this wisdom,<br/>&emsp;this one sees praising.
<small style="color:#696969;">[iii]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>8</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[iv]</small>
+
| Thereupon you hold,<br/>&emsp;all things have length and measure.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[v]</small>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">i</small>
 
+
| And whatever you wish to conduct,<br/>&emsp;shall stay in the realm of good reason.
<small style="color:#696969;">[vi]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">ii</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[vii]</small>
+
| In earnest or in play,<br/>&emsp;have a joyous spirit with moderation
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[viii]</small>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">iii</small>
 
+
| So that you may pay attention<br/>&emsp;and consider with a good spirit
<small style="color:#696969;">[ix]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">iv</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[x]</small></poem>
+
| Whatever you shall command<br/>&emsp;and whip up against him.
| <poem>Young knight learn,
+
|-
:to love god and women,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">v</small>
so your honour may grow.
+
| Because a good spirit with authority<br/>&emsp;someone's rebuke timid.
:Practice chivalry and learn
+
|-
arts that adorn you
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">vi</small>
:as well as serving you in conflict.
+
| Thereafter, orient yourself.<br/>&emsp;Give no advantage with anything.
Wrestle well,
+
|-
:bear glaive, spear, sword and knife
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">vii</small>
manfully and learn
+
| Avoid imprudence.<br/>&emsp;Do not step in front of four or six
:to defeat these when in the hands of others.
+
|-
Strike quick and hurry at him,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">viii</small>
:rush in, not caring for hit or miss.
+
| With your overconfidence.<br/>&emsp;Be modest, that is good for you.
So that you dishonour him
+
|-
:before the judges.
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">ix</small>
Be prepared for that:
+
| It is a brave man<br/>&emsp;that dares to confront his equal.
:All art has length and measure.
+
|-
And whatever you want to do,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">x</small>
:keep up a good common sense
+
| It is not shameful<br/>&emsp;to flee four or six at hand.
Be it in earnest or in play,
 
:have a light heart but don’t get overconfident.
 
So you may see
 
:and observe with a high spirit
 
What you can use
 
:and plan your next move against him.
 
Confronted with bravery and power,
 
:every opponent will hesitate.
 
Never give him
 
:any advantage on you.
 
Also avoid silly risks,
 
:against four or six opponents don´t advance
 
Don´t be overconfident,
 
:maintain balance, this will serve you well.
 
It is a brave man
 
:who can stand against someone of his own kind.
 
And it is not a shame,
 
:against four or six opponents run from the fight.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[18r] {{red|Das ist eyne gemeyne vorrede / des blozfechtens czu fuße / Das merke wol}}'''
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 18r.jpg|1|lbl=18r}}
<poem>{{red|J}}Vng Ritter lere /
 
got lip haben / frawen io ere /
 
So wechst dein ere /
 
Vebe ritterschaft vnd lere /
 
Kunst dy dich czyret
 
vnd in krigen sere hofiret /
 
Ringe~s gut fesser /
 
glefney sper swert vnde messer /
 
Menlich bederben /
 
vnde in andñ henden vorterben /
 
Haw dreyn vnd hort dar /
 
rawsche hin trif ader la varn /
 
Das in dy weisen hassen
 
dy man siet preisen /
 
Dor auf dich zoße /
 
alle ding haben <del>limpf</del><sup>lenge</sup> vnde moße /
 
Vnd was du trei wilt treiben /
 
by guter vornu~ft saltu bleiben /
 
Czu ernst ader czu schimpf /
 
habe frölichen mut / mit limpf /
 
So magstu achten
 
vnd mit gutem mute betrachten /
 
Was du salt füren
 
vnd keyn im dich rüren /
 
Wen guter mut mit kraft /
 
macht eyns wedersache czagehaft /
 
Dornoch dich richte /
 
gib keynem forteil mit ichte /
 
Tumkunheit meide /
 
vier ader sechs nicht vortreibe /
 
Mit deynem öbermut /
 
bis sitik das ist dir gut /
 
Der ist eyn küner man
 
der synen gleichen tar bestan /
 
Is ist nicht schande
 
vier ader sechze flien von hande /</poem>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is a general teaching for the sword.}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is the general lore of the sword}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[9]</small>
+
| <small>9</small>
 
+
| If you wish to examine<ref> alt: behold, peer-into, witness, probe, observe, perceive, inspect, investigate, realize, comprehend. alt: show, present, embody, illuminate</ref> the art.<br/>&emsp;Go left and right with hewing.
<small>[10]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>10</small>
<small>[11]</small>
+
| And left with right<br/>&emsp;is what you strongly desire to fence.
 
+
|-
<small>[12]</small>
+
| <small>11</small>
 
+
| Whoever chases-after hews,<br/>&emsp;they allow themselves to hardly enjoy the art.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xi]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>12</small>
<small>[13]</small>
+
| Hew nearby whatever you wish,<br/>&emsp;No change comes on your shield.
 
+
|-
<small>[14]</small>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xi</small>
 
+
| Do not hew to the sword.<br/>&emsp;Rather, Constantly watch the openings.
<small>[15]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>13</small>
<small>[16]</small>
+
| To the head, to the body,<br/>&emsp;Do not omit the flesh-wounds.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xii]</small>
+
| <small>14</small>
 
+
| With the entire body fence<br/>&emsp;whatever you desire to conduct strongly.
<small>[17]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>15</small>
<small>[18]</small>
+
| Hear what is bad for that:<br/>&emsp;Do not fence from above left if you are right.
 
+
|-
<small>[19]</small>
+
| <small>16</small>
 
+
| And if you are left,<br/>&emsp;in the right, you are severely hindered.
<small>[20]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xii</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xii]</small>
+
| So always prefer to fence<br/>&emsp;from above left downwards.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xiv]</small>
+
| <small>17</small>
 
+
| Before, after, the two things<br/>&emsp;are the one origin of all art.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xv]</small></poem>
+
|-
| <poem>If you want to show art,
+
| <small>18</small>
:move left and strike with right,
+
| Weak and strong,<br/>&emsp;Within, with that mark the word.
And strike left with right,
+
|-
:if you intend to fence strongly.
+
| <small>19</small>
He who moves after strikes
+
| So you may learn<br/>&emsp;to defend yourself with art and work.
:may not enjoy any art
+
|-
Strike at him as you like,
+
| <small>20</small>
:no ''Wechsler'' will harm you.
+
| If you terrify easily,<br/>&emsp;never learn any fencing.
Never strike to the sword,
+
|-
:always wait for the openings.
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xii</small>
to the head or to the body,
+
| Audacity and swiftness,<br/>&emsp;prudence, astuteness and ingenuity,
:do not shun the ''Zeckrühr''.
+
|-
Fence with your whole body
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xiv</small>
:if you want to fence strongly.
+
| Acumen, concealment,<br/>&emsp;measure, obscuration, scouting
Hear this is bad,
+
|-
:fence not from your upper left when you are right,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xv</small>
And if you are left,
+
| And skill will fencing have<br/>&emsp;and carry a joyous spirit.
:you will lack severely at your right.
 
So better fence
 
:down from your upper left.
 
Vor, Nach, these two things
 
:are the source of all art.
 
Schwäche und Stärke,
 
:Indes you must remember.
 
So you will learn
 
:to defend yourself with art and work.
 
If you are frightened easily,
 
:you will never understand fencing,
 
Bravery and quickness,
 
:carefulness wits and Intelligence
 
Sense, stealth,
 
:measure, precognition [grace] skill
 
Fencing needs all this
 
:and a free and easy mind.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[18v] {{red|Das ist eyne gemeyne lere des swertes}}'''
+
<p>{{red|b=1|General gloss hereafter.<ref>latin</ref>}} First of all, note and know that the point of the sword is the center, the middle and the core of the sword from which all applications leave and come back into it. So are the hangings and the windings are the attachments and the revolutions of the center and of the core. From them, quite a few good plays of fencing also come. And are invented and conceived so that a fencer, who begins to hew or thrust directly to the point, of course may not hit every single time; yet they can hit someone with those same plays hewing, stabbing or cutting; with treading out and in; and with stepping-around or springing. And if one mislaid or mis-extended the point of his sword with shooting or with lunging<ref>lit: tread-full. completing a step or completing the course of a thing.</ref> then he may realign and retract and shorten it again with winding or treading-out,<ref>alt: giving-way, stepping-off. to give something up. to let something go.</ref> in such a way that he again comes into the certain<ref>alt: safe, sure</ref> plays and principles of fencing. From them, he may bring hews, stabs, or cuts. For according to Liechtenauer's art, the hews, stabs and cuts come from all applications and principles of the art of the sword, as one will hear hereafter how one play and principle comes from the other. And as it goes from one to the other, if the one will be warded, then the other hits and has gone-forward.<ref>alt: has success</ref></p>
<poem>{{red|W}}Iltu kunst schawen
+
|
sich link gen vnd recht mete hawen /
+
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 18v.jpg|1|lbl=18v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 19r.jpg|1|lbl=19r|p=1}}
Vnd link mit rechten
 
is das du stark gerest fechten /
 
Wer noch get hewen
 
der darf sich kunst kleyne frewen /
 
haw nu was du wilt
 
keyn wechsler kawm an dich schild /
 
<small>Haw nicht czu~ swerte /
 
zonder / stets der bloße warte /</small>  
 
Czu koppe czu leibe
 
dy czecken do nicht vormeide /
 
Mit ganczem leiben
 
ficht was du stark gerest treiben /
 
Höer was do slecht ist /
 
ficht nicht oben link zo du recht pist /
 
Vnd ob du link pist
 
ym rechten <sup>auch</sup> sere hinkest /
 
So vicht io liber
 
von oben <del>recht</del><sup>linkischen</sup> nider /
 
Vor noch dy czwey dink
 
syn allen kunsten eyn orsprink /
 
Swach vnde sterke
 
Indes das wort mete merke /
 
So machstu lere~
 
mit / <del>vnd erb</del> / kunst vnd erbeit dich weren /
 
Irschrikstu gerne /
 
key~ fechte~ nym~er lerne /
 
Kunheit vnd rischeit /
 
vorsichtikeit list vnd klugheit
 
Vornu~ft verborge~heit /
 
moße <del>be</del>vorbetrachtu~ge / <del>hobsheit /</del> <sup>fetikeit /</sup>  
 
Wil fechten haben
 
vnd frölichs gemüte tragen</poem>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is being followed by general comment}}
+
| <p>On second count, note and know that no part on the sword was invented and conceived without reason.<ref>ume züst => umsonst</ref> In particular, a fencer shall utilize the point, both edges, the hilt, the pommel as it is on the sword accordingly as each has its particular principle in the art of fencing according to these as the practices embody and uncover, as you will hereafter hear and see each in particular.</p>
At first learn and know that the Ort of the sword is the centre and the means and the core of the sword. All techniques start and end with the Ort, thus the Hängen and Winden are the begin and the turnings around the centre and many good fencing techniques stem from this.
+
|  
 
+
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 19r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 19v.jpg|1|lbl=19v|p=1}}
These have been invented so that a fencer, who immediately strikes at the Ort and yet does not hit instantly, may employ the before mentioned Techniques in combination with strikes thrusts and cuts, with stepping off or in, and with stepping around or jumping, in order to hit his adversary. And if someone has shot his Ort out too far, by thrusting or lunging, he can recover or shorten it by employing the Winden or stepping off, so that he again may use those appropriate techniques and principles of fencing. From there he again may strike thrust or cut, because according to Liechtenauers art, strikes thrusts and cuts stem from all fencing techniques and principles. And later you will hear, how one technique and principle stems from the other and how they can be used in succession, so that if one method is being defended, the other hits and succeeds.
 
| {{red|b=1|/ Glosa gn°alis hui<sup>9</sup> seq°<sup>r</sup> /}}
 
Von allererste~ merke vnd wisse / das der ort des swertes ist das czentru~ <del>vnd</del> das mittel vnd der kern des swertes aus deme alle gefechte gen / vnd weder / yn in komen / So sint dy hengen / vnd dy winden / synt dy anhenge vnd dy vmlewfe des czentru~s vnd des kerns '''[19r]''' aus den auch / gar vil guter stöcke des fechtens komen / vnd sint dorvm fvnden vnd irdocht / das eyn fechter / der da gleich czum orte czu hewt ader sticht / nicht wol allemal treffen mak / das der mit den selben stöcken / hawende stechende ader sneydende / mit abe / vnd czutreten / vnd mit vm~eschreiten ader springen eynen treffen mag / vnd ab eyner syn ort des swertes / mit schißen ader mit voltreten / vorlewst ader vorlengt / zo mag her in mit wi~den ader abetreten / weder / <del>irlengen vnd</del> / ynbrengen vnd körczen / alzo das her weder yn gewisse stöcke vnd gesetze kü~pt des fechtens / aus den her hewe stiche ader snete brengen mag / wen noch lychtnaw°s ku~st / zo komen aus allen gefechte~ vnd gesetze <del>des f</del> der ku~st des swertes / hewe stiche vnd snete / als mã wirt hernoch hören / wy eyn stöcke vnd gesetze aus dem andñ ku~pt / vnd wy sich eyns aus de~ andern macht / ab eyns wirt geweret / das daz ander treffe vnd vorgank habe
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Secondly, you should learn that there is nothing about the sword that has been invented for without reason and that a fencer should make use of the Ort, of both edges, the hilt and the pommel. Each of these has its own special methods in the art of fencing. And how to practice this, you will see and hear later.
+
| <p>Also note and know with this as he speaks, {{red|If you wish to examine the art}}, etc. He means that a skilled fencer, they shall: set-forward the left foot and with that, hew from the right side directly to the opponent with threatening hews as long as he sees where he may certainly have the opponent and reach certainly with his stepping. And he means: {{red|when someone wishes to fence strongly}}, so shall he fence from the left side on with the entire body and complete authority to the head and to the body wherever he may solely hit and never to the sword, in particular he shall do it as if the opponent has no sword and as if he cannot see and he shall not omit any flesh-wounds or blows, rather always be in work and in contact so that the opponent cannot come to strikes.</p>
| Czu dem andñ mal merke vnd wisse / daz keyn dink an dem sw°te / vm~e züst fu~den vnd irdocht ist / zvnder eyn fechter / den ort / beide sneiden gehilcze klos / vnd als das am swerte ist / nuetczen sal / noch dem '''[19v]''' als itzlieichs syn sönderleichs gesetze hat yn der ku~st des fechtens / noch dem als dy Vebunge hat vnd findert / als du itzlichs besvnder hernoch wirst sehen vnd hören /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 19v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Also know and learn, by the verse beginning with "If you want to show art etc" it is meant that an artful fencer should place his left foot in front and strike from the right side directly to the man, and with threatening strikes just as long as he sees where he may hit him and reach him with his stepping. And when he says "if you intend to fence strongly" so he says that you should fence upwards from the left side with the whole body and with all strength, to the head or to the body wherever he may hit. And never strike to the sword but just work like would not have a weapon or if you don´t see it, and should not avoid Zeckrühr or taps, and permanently be in motion, work and contact, so the opponent may not come to strikes.
+
| <p>He also means that one shall not identically follow and track the hew, rather, somewhat aside and curved around so that he comes to the side of the opponent. For there he may have him better with everything than frontally on. Whatever he from then on hews or stabs upon the opponent, that may ward or lead off well any and all changings-through or other applications of the opponent, only if the hews or stabs go forth directly into the opponent against the openings to the head or to the body with stepping-around and treading.</p>
| Auch merke vnd wisse / mit deme als her spricht wiltu ku~st schawe~ etc / meynt her / das eyn ku~stlicher fechter / der sal den linke~ fuz vorsetzen / vnd võ der rechte~ seite~ mete hawen / gleich czu~ mañe / mit drewe hewen / zo lang / bis das her siet wo her iene~ wol gehaben mag / vnd wol dirreiche~ mit seine~ schreten / Vnd meynt / we~ eyn° stark wil fechte~ zo sal her võ der linke~ seiten of fechte~ / mit gancze~ leibe vnd mit ganczer kraft / czu köppe vnd czu leibe wo her nur treffen mag / vnd nu~mer czu key~ swerte / zvnder her sal tuen / zam iener keyn sw°t habe / aber zam hers nicht sehe / vnd sal keyne czecke~ ader ruren nicht vormeiden / zonder vm~ermer in erbeit vnd in berüru~ge sey~ das iener nicht czu slage mag komen
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 19v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Also he means that one should not follow or step right after the strikes but always a little sideways and in a slope around, so that he gets to his flank. There he will get him much easier with any method compared to confronting him directly. Whatever he strikes to thrusts at his opponent, it will not be defended by any Durchwechsel or other techniques, if the strikes or thrusts are directed at the man and at the openings, to the head or to the body, with stepping around or other footwork.
+
| <p>Also note and know about this when he speaks, {{red|before, after the two things}}, etc. There he means the five words: before, after, weak, strong, within-this. On these words lay the entire art of Master Liechtenauer's and the fixed foundation and the core of all fencing on foot or on horse, uncovered or in harness.</p>
| Auch meynt her das / eyner den hewe~ nicht gleich sal noch gehen vnd treten zonder etwas beseites / vnd krum~es vm~e / das her ieme an dy seite kome / do her in bas / mit allerleye gehabñ mag / deñe vorne czu / was her deñe nür of ienen hewt ader sticht das mag im iener mit keynerleye durchwechsel ader andñ gefechten / <del>gel</del> / wol weren ader abeleiten / nür das dy hewe ader stiche gleich czu~ mañe czu gehe~ key~ den blöße~ / czu koppe ad° czu leibe / mit vm~eschrite~ / vnd treten /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 20r.jpg|1|lbl=20r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Also know and learn when he speaks: "Vor Nach those two.. etc" there he means the five words, Vor Nach Schwach Stark Indes and within these words lies all art of Master Liechtenauer and these are the basic foundation and the core of all fencing on foot or mounted, with armour and without.
+
| <p>With the word "before", he means that a particularly good fencer shall have and have won the fore-strike every time he hits or misses. As Liechtenauer says, {{red|Hew therein and charge there, rush onwards, hit or let drive}}. When he goes or runs at someone, Just as soon as he sees he may reach him with a step or with a spring, wherever he then sees him somehow open, there he shall drive onwards with ease to the head or to the body, bravely without any fear wherever he may have him with surety. For as such, he always wins the fore-strike, whether it does well or poorly for them. And with that, shall also be certain in his steps and shall have measured them correctly so that he does not step too short nor too long.</p>
  
By the word "Vor" he means that every good fencer should always gain the Vorschlag, may he hit or miss. And when Liechtenauer says "Strike and hurry to the man, rush in may it hit or miss". This means, as soon he approaches his adversary by stepping or running, he should instantly attack as soon as he is sure he could reach him with either a step or a jump. Then he must attack to his head or to his body, without any fear to the opening which he can hit best. So he should gain the Vorschlag, and it is not important, if it directly hurts the adversary or not. He must also be sure with the correct measure of his steps, so that he may not step too short or too long.
+
<p>Now, when he executes the fore-strike, if he hits, then he quickly pursues the hit. But if he wards the fore-strike of the opponent in such a way, that with his sword, he leads off or commands their fore-strike, be it a hew or stab, So long as he is then still on the sword of the opponent. With it like this, he will lead off from the openings which he had targeted, Then he shall quite precisely feel and note whether the opponent in his leading-off and defense of the hews or stabs is soft or hard, weak or strong on the sword.</p>
  
If he now hits with the Vorschlag, so instantly follow through with the hit. However, if he defends the Vorschlag so that he turns aside or leads off the attack, be it a strike or a thrust, away from the intended opening with his sword, you should now, with the swords are still being in contact, feel or be aware whether he is soft or hard, weak or strong at the sword.
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<p>That is when he now fully feels how the opponent is in his technique. If within-this, the opponent is strong and hard, now that he completely notes and feels, then he shall within-this or during-this be soft and weak if the opponent defends himself like this. And in that, before the opponent comes to strikes, so shall he then execute the after-strike. That is, he begins to hew while the opponent defends himself and wards himself of the fore-strike, be it hew or stab, so shall he seek out other applications and plays. With those, he shall again hurry and rush into his openings. Also in this, he is continually in motion and in contact so that he also confounds the opponent and soundly robs the opponent amid his defending and warding. Thus has too much work so that he, the defender, cannot come to his strikes. Because someone who shall defend themselves and fixate on the strikes, they are always in greater danger than they that strike at them, so that they must then continually ward the strikes or must allow themselves to be hit, so that they must come to strikes burdensomely by their own accord. About that Liechtenauer speaks: {{red|I say to you truthfully, no one defends themselves without danger. If you have understood this, he cannot come to strikes.}}</p>
  
If he now feels how the adversary acts in his fencing, if he is strong or hard, in the very moment he realizes this he should, while the adversary is still protecting himself, become soft and weak and in the case of the adversary being weak, vice versa. To make sure that one cannot come to strikes, he should instantly execute the Nachschlag, that means that he attacks again while the other is still protecting himself from the Vorschlag, be it with a strike or a thrust. So he can employ different techniques for hurrying or rushing towards his openings and thus he is permanently in motion and very close to him and this should make him so irritated and confused that he is only busy protecting himself and cannot come to his own strikes. If one has to defend himself or has to be aware of the strikes which are directed against him, he is in much greater danger than the one who strikes at him, because he either can defend or be hit. And this makes it very difficult for him to gain the opportunity for his own strikes. So Liechtenauer says: I tell you truthfully, no one defends without danger, if you understood this, he will not come to strikes.
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<p>If you execute otherwise according to the five words, this dictum goes entirely against that and all of [that] fencing often results in a peasant slaying a master, because he is brave and won the fore-strike according to this precept.</p>
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{{section|Page:MS 3227a 20r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 20v.jpg|1|lbl=20v|p=1}}
  
If these five words, which this teaching and all other fencing is based upon, are not adhered, then this is the reason why a brave peasant often defeats a master by winning the Vorschlag.
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{{section|Page:MS 3227a 20r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| '''[20r]''' Auch merke vnd wisse / mit deme als her spricht / vor noch dy zwey dink etc / do / nent her <sup>dy</sup> fünff wörter / vor noch swach stark Indes / an den selben wörtñ / leit alle kunst / Meister lichtnaw°s / vnd sint dy gruntfeste vnd der / <sup>kern</sup> alles fechtens czu fusse ader czu rosse / blos ader in harnüsche / Mit deme worte Vor / meynt her das eyn itzlicher gut° fechter / sal alle mal den vorslag haben vnd gewiñen / <sup>her treffe ader vele / als lichnawer / spricht / Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar / rawsche hin trif ader la var</sup> weñe her czu / eyme gehet ader lewft / als balde als <sup>her</sup> nur siet / das her in mit eynem schrete / ader mit eynem sprunge dirreichen mag / wo her deñe indert in blos siet / do sal her hin varn / mit frewden / czu koppe ader czu leibe / künlich an alle vorchte wo her in am gewisten gehabñ mag / alzo das her ia den vorslag gewiñe / is tu ieme wol ader we / vnd sal auch mit dem / in syne~ schreten gewisse sein / vnd sal dy haben recht zam gemessen / das her nicht czu korcz ader czu lank schreite / wen her nü den vorslag / tuet / trift her zo volge her dem treffen vaste / noch / weret her aber <sup>iener</sup> den vorslag alzo das her im den vorslag / is sy haw ader stich mit syme swerte / abeweiset vnd leitet / Dy weile her deñe ieme noch / an syme swerte ist / mit deme als her wirt abe geweist / von der blößen / der her geremet / hat / zo sal her gar eben fülen vnd merken '''[20v]''' ab iener in syme abeleiten vnd schützen der hewe ader stiche / an syme swerte / weich ader herte / swach ader stark / sey / Ist deñe das her nü wol fület / wy iener in syme geferte ist / Is das iener stark vnd herte ist / Indes / das hers nü genczlich merkt vnd fület / zo sal her <del>ader</del> Indes ader vnderdez das sich iener zo schützt / weich vnd swach dirweder syn / vnd in dem selben / e den / das iener czu keyme slage kome / zo sal her deñe den nochslag tuen / das ist / das her czu hant / dy weile sich iener schützt vnd sich des vorslags weret / is sy haw ader stich zo sal her ander gefechte vnd stöcke hervörsüchen / mit den her aber czu synen blößen hurt vnd rawschet / alzo dis her vm~ermer in bewegunge vnd in berürunge sy / das her ienen als irre / vnd berawbet mache / das iener mit syme schützen vnd weren / alzo vil czu schaffen habe / das her / der schützer / czu syner slege / keyne kome~ mag / wen eyner der sich sal schützen / vnd der slege warnemen / der ist alle mal in grösser var / deñe der / der da slet of in / deñe her mus ia dy slege were~ / ader mus sich laen treffen / daz her selber mülich / czu slage mag kome~ / Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° / Ich sage vorware sich schutzt key~ mã ane vare / Hastu vornome~ czu slage mag her kleyne kome~ / Tustu and°s noch de~ fünff wörtern / of dy dese rede gar get / vnd alles fechten Dorvm slet oft/ey~ bawer ey~ meist° wen her küne ist vnd de~ vorslag / gewiñet / noch deser lere /
 
  
 
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| Now it has been said before that that Liechtenauer expresses he should bravely and without fear rush in with a good Vorschlag or the first strike to the head or body may he hit or miss, so that he strikes him just as stunning and frightening him so he does not know what he can do against him. Also it has been said that he should strike the Nachschlag before he recovers or might come to his own strikes. this also means this you should work in a manner that he is permanently busy with protecting and defending.
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| <p>Because with the word 'before', as was spoken earlier, he means that someone with a good fore-strike or with the first strike, they shall bravely charge there without any fear and rush against the openings to the head or to the body. He hits or misses such that he also at once stuns, overwhelms and terrifies them so that they do not know what he should do against this and also before the opponent recovers themselves again or comes at him with the same. Then he immediately executes the after-strike and continually compels him to ward and the defend himself so much that he cannot come to strikes.</p>
  
And if he defends against the Vorschlag, he instantly comes to the Nachschlag while the adversary is still defending for example, by rushing in with the pommel or transitioning into the Zwerchhau, which are generally good. He can generally transition into the Zwerch position, so he may use other technique which he may begin before the adversary can execute his own attack. And you will hear how you generate one technique from the other, if you follow this advice. That is he should execute with one thought and just as with one strike if possible the Vorschlag and the Nachschlag, quickly in succession.
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<p>Then when the fencer executes the first strike or the fore-strike and the opponent then wards him, in the same warding and defending, the fencer then always comes earlier into the after-strike than the opponent into the first. Then he may: initiate a hew, initiate a drive with the pommel or may come in the thwart-hews, they are good to count on, or may otherwise throw the sword forwards [by means of] the thwart-hew. With that he comes into other applications or else alternately, he may begin well. Before the opponent comes to strikes as you will hear how it makes one from the other so that the opponent may not come from him unstruck if he does differently according to this lesson. Because he shall execute with one mind and with one effort alike,<ref>schlage, not schlag</ref> if it is possible to accomplish, the fore-strike and the after-strike, swiftly and promptly after each other.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 21r.jpg|1|lbl=21r}}
  
It may happen that one has to defend the adversary´s Vorschlag. So he would defend it by getting at his sword and if he is a little slow or indecisive so he would want to stay at the sword and use the winden and feel if the adversary wants to pull back from the bind or not.
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| <p>Also, it would fully come to this if the opponent wards the fore-strike. For he must ward it with the sword and in this way, he must always come to the fencer on his sword. And when the opponent subsequently wards somewhat late and unready, the fencer would then remain on the sword and shall then wind at once and shall quite precisely note and feel whether or not the opponent will withdraw themselves from the sword.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 21r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>If the opponent withdraws themselves, when they are engaged with one another on the sword and have extended their points toward one another into the openings, before the opponent can recover themselves again against hew or stab of the fencer with his withdrawal, the fencer immediately pursues with a good stab into the chest with his point or else forwards into wherever he may hit him surest and closest in such a way that the opponent may come from the sword without harm with nothing, because immediately with his following-after, the fencer is always closer to the opponent; as he has arranged his point forward on the sword against the opponent according to the nearest and shortest of all with that.</p>
  
If one moves off, now that they were just bound at the sword, and the points are facing against each other to the openings, the skilled fencer has followed directly with the point, before the adversary can recover from his pulling-off, thereby executing a good thrust to the chest or anywhere where he could hit him best. And this is the method that the opponent cannot leave the bind unharmed, because with this following he gets nearer by thrusting the point forward at the sword, following the principle of the nearest and shortest target.
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<p>When the opponent shall deliver hew or stab wide around at someone with his withdrawal, the fencer can always come before into the after-strike or -stab, before the opponent into the first like this. And Liechtenauer means this with the word: 'after': when someone has done the fore-strike, so shall he immediately without pause upon the same drive execute the after-strike and shall always be in motion and in contact and always conduct one after the other. If the first fails him, then the second, the third or the fourth hits and continually does not allow the opponent come to any blows. Because no one may have greater advantage of fencing than they who execute these five words according to the lesson.</p>
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{{section|Page:MS 3227a 21r.jpg|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 21v.jpg|1|lbl=21v|p=1}}
  
And if the opponent tries to attack newly with long strikes or thrusts after pulling off, he may always gain the Nachschlag or a thrust rather than with the first strike. Liechtenauer means this by the word "nach"; if one has struck the Vorschlag so he should move in and without break strike the Nachschlag (in the same movement) and thus he should be permanently in movement and in contact, constantly using one technique after the other. So, if the first one fails, the second, the third or the fourth my hit not letting the opponent come to strikes because no one will ever have any significant advantage in fencing, except him who works according to this teaching and these five words.
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| <p>But if the opponent remains on the sword; with that, as it is coming onto his sword with his warding and defending [himself from] the fencer and it has  drawn itself out like this such that the fencer is remaining with him on the sword and has not yet executed the after-strike, so shall the fencer wind up<ref>aufwinden: 1) to entangle, wind into a ball 2) to turn or twist upwards.</ref> and stay with him like this on the sword and shall quite precisely note and feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 21v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
Now if it happens that the opponent does stay at the sword after he displaced, and now it comes that he also stays at the sword – not having done the Nachschlag yet – so he shall wind and stand at the sword, and he should note and feel if the adversary is weak or strong at the sword. And if he now feels that the opponent is strong, hard and rigid at the sword and only plans to press into him with his sword, so he should become weak and soft and completely give up his strength against the opponent. And thus he should let go of the opponent´s sword, so it may whip and move off with the pressure. And now he can slide and pull off his sword quickly and then go for the opponents openings quickly and nimbly, to the head or to the body, with strikes, thrusts and cuts, wherever he may hit surest and most direct.
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| <p>If then, the fencer notes and feels that the opponent is strong, hard and firm on the sword and the fencer only means to force out<ref>hindringen: to break or force through. overcome</ref> his sword; so shall the fencer be weak and soft against that and shall stand weakening and relinquishing his strength and shall allow his sword to swept out and driven away with his forcing that the opponent executes and the fencer shall then allow his sword to immediately and swiftly lead off and withdraw and shall quickly shall drive that against his openings, to the head or to the body, wherever; with hewing, stabbing and cutting, only where he can approach the closest and surest.</p>
  
Because the harder the opponent presses with the sword, the more far his sword is flung aside when he suddenly becomes soft and lets the sword slide off. So the opponent will be left open so that he can touch or hit as he wishes before the opponent may recover and come to his own strike or thrust.
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<p>Because the harder and the surer the opponent forces and presses with his sword and the fencer is then weak and soft against that and allows his sword to lead off and in this way weakens him, the farther and the wider his sword then repels the opponent such that he then becomes quite open and thus the fencer then may hit and wound him according to desire before the opponent can recover himself against the hew or the stab of the fencer.</p>
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{{section|Page:MS 3227a 21v.jpg|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 22r.jpg|1|lbl=22r|p=1}}
  
If the opponent now is weak and soft at the sword and he feels and notices this, so he should be strong and hard at the sword and should rush in quickly forcefully at the sword, directly and frontal to the next best accessible opening. Just like as a string would be attached to the point which would pull and turn his point to the nearest opening, as to achieve the thrust.
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| <p>But if the opponent is weak and soft on the sword, in the same way, if the fencer now notes and feels it, so shall the fencer then be strong and hard against that on the sword and shall then strongly drive out and rush forward equally on the sword with his point against the opponent's openings, wherever he may be closest, just as if a cord or thread were bound forwards on his point earlier, that leads his point to the nearest of the opponent's openings. And with that same stabbing the fencer executes, he becomes fully aware whether the opponent is so weak that they let his sword force them out and lets themselves be struck.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 22r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
Now if the opponent is strong and defends the thrust and displaces it by becoming strong at the sword, so that the opponent presses into the sword again, so again he should become weak and soft and let his sword slide off. And in this evading he should seek the openings quickly with strikes thrusts or cuts, as he wishes. And this is what Liechtenauer means with the words "weich und hart" "soft and hard".
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| <p>But if he is strong and wards and leads off the stab, such that he again becomes strong on the sword and carries off his sword and wards the stab also that the opponent forces-out the fencer's sword, so shall the fencer again become weak and soft against that and shall allow his sword to lead off and weaken him and swiftly seek his openings with hewing, stabbing and with cutting as it may solely be. And this is what Liechtenauer means with these words: {{red|soft and hard}}.</p>
  
And this concept is from the auctoritas when Aristoteles says in the book ''Peyarmenias'': "Oppositions shine more clearly if placed next to each other then directly opposing them (conflicting) Weak against strong, hard against weak and vice versa." If it should be only strong against strong, the stronger will always win. That is the reason why Liechtenauers fencing ist real and correct art, so that a weak man can win with his art and wits in the same manner a strong man can do with his strength and it would be no art otherwise.
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<p>And this goes to the Authorities. As Aristotle spoke in the book ''Peri Hermanias'': "Opposites positioned near themselves shine greater, or rather, opposites which adjoin augment. Weak against strong, hard against soft, and contrary." For should it be strong against strong, then the stronger would win every time. Therefore Liechtenauer undertakes fencing according to the more appropriate and truer art, so that one weaker and cunning with his art as surely wins as with one stronger with his strength (for which would be of a different art).</p>
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{{section|Page:MS 3227a 22r.jpg|3|lbl=-|p=1}}{{section|Page:MS 3227a 22v.jpg|1|lbl=22v|p=1}}
  
Because of this fencing teaches the feeling well as Liechtenauer says: "Learn the feeling, Indes is a word that cuts" because if you are at the sword with someone, and you are now skilled at feeling whether your opponent is weak or strong at the sword, Indes or while you are in the bind, you may very well observe and plan what you should do against him. And according to this teaching and art, he may not pull off from the sword without being hurt, because Liechtenauer says: Strike that he is confused when he pulls off.
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| <p>Therefore fencer, learn to feel well as Liechtenauer spoke: {{red|Learn the feeling. Within, that words cuts sharply}}. Because when you are on the sword of the opponent and now feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword well, within-this or during, so you must then consider and know well whatever you shall execute against him according to this aforementioned lore and art. For truly, he cannot withdraw himself from the sword without harm with anything. Because Liechtenauer spoke: {{red|Strike that it snaps whoever withdraws before you}}.</p>
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| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 22v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
Now, according to this teaching you understand well that you should try to gain the Vorschlag and as soon as you execute it, so do in one rush instantly and without break the Nachschlag, and that can also be the second, third or fourth strike or thrust. So your opponent may not come to strikes. If you now bind with him so be skilled at the feeling and do as it has been written before, because this is the foundation of fencing so that you are permanently in motion and never pause or hesitate. And if it now comes to the feeling, so also do what is written before.<ref>Alternative interpretation: keep your blade on top of his.</ref>
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| <p>If you act according to this lesson, fastening well so that you always have and won the fore-strike and as soon as you execute that, you then hasten the after-strike into the opponent thereafter, immediately without refrain (that is the second, the third or the fourth strike, be it hew or stab) then the opponent can never come to strikes. If you then come onto the sword with him, be surer at the feeling and execute as is written before.</p>
  
And what you begin to do, always have measure and control. When you have won the Vorschlag so don´t do it too fast or too committed as you will be unable to recover yourself to do the Nachschlag. That is why Liechtenauer says: "Be ready for this, all things needs measure and control". And this also remember when doing steps and also before all other techniques and principles of fencing.
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<p>Because this is the foundation of fencing that a person is always in motion and not pause and it then comes to the feeling, so do above as able. And whatever you conduct and begin, always have measure and moderation. Like, if you have won the fore-strike, then don't do it so impetuously and so powerfully that you then cannot recover yourself for the after-strike. About this, Liechtenauer spoke: {{red|Thereupon you hold, all things have moderation and measure}}. And also understand this about the stepping and about all other plays and principles of fencing, etc.</p>
| '''[21r]''' Weñe mit dem worte vor als e gesprochen ist / meynt her / das eyn° mit eyme guten vorslage ader mit dem ersten slage / sal eyn° ku~lich an alle vorchte dar hurte~ vnd rawsche~ / key~ den blössen czu koppe ader czu leibe / her treffe ader vele / das her iene~ czu hant als betewbet / mache vnd in irschrecke / das her nicht weis was her key~ desem solle weder tue~ / vnd auch e deñe sich ien° weder key~s irhole / ader wed° czu im selber kome / das her deñe czu hant den nochslag tue / vnd im io zo vil schaffe / czu were~ vnd czu schütze~ / das her nicht möge czu slage kome~ / deñe wen deser de~ erste~ slag / ader de~ vorslag tuet / vnd in ien° deñe weret / in dem selbe~ were~ vnd schutze~ / zo ku~pt deser deñe alle mal e czu dem nochslage den ien° czu de~ erste~ / den her mag / czu haut czu varn mit dem klosse / ader mag / in dy twerhewe kome~ / dy czu male gut syn / ader mag sost das sw°t dy twer vor werfen / do mite her in ander gefechte ku~pt / ader sost mancherleye mag her wol begiñen / e deñe ien° czu slage ku~pt / als du wirst hore~ wy sich eyns aus de~ and°n macht / das ien° nicht mag von im kome~ vngeslage~ / tut her and°s noch deser lere <sup>Weñe her sal mit eyme gedanke~ / vnd zam mit eyme slage / ab is möglich were / den vorslag vnd nochslag tue~ / risch vnd snelle noch ey~nãd</sup> Auch möchte is wol dar czu kome~ / ab ien° de~ vorslag weret / zo müste her in were~ mit dem sw°te / vnd alzo müste her dese~ io an sy~ sw°t kome~ / vnd we~ deñe ien° eczwas trege vnd las were / zo möchte deser deñe an dem sw°te bleybe~ / vnd sal deñe czu hãt wi~den / vnd sal gar ebñ merke~ vnd fulen / ab sich ien° wil abeczihe~ võ dem sw°te / ader nicht / Czewt sich ien° ab / als sy im vor mit ey~nander an dy sw°t sint kome~ / vnd dy orter key~ ey~nand° recken / czu de~ blossen / E deñe sich / deñe iener key~s haws ader stichs / of ey~ news weder '''[21v]''' irhole~ mag mit syme abeczihe~ / zo hat im deser czu hant / mit syme orte noch gevolget / mit eyne~ gute~ stiche czu der brost / ader söst vorne czu wo her in am schireste~ vnd neheste~ getreffe~ mag / alzo das im ien° mit nichte / ane schade~ von dem sw°te mag kome~ / we~ deser hat io / czu hãt mit syme nochvolge~ / neher czu ieme / mit dem als her syne~ ort / vor / an dem sw°te gestalt hat key~ ieme / noch de~ aller neheste~ vnd körczste~ / we~ das ien° mit syme abeczihe~ / of / ey~ news solde hewe ader stiche / weit vm~e / dar bre~ge~ / alzo mag io deser alle mal • e czu dem nochslage ader stiche kome~ / e deñe ien° czu dem ersten / Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° mit dem worte / noch / we~ eyn° im de~ vorslag hat getan / zo sal her czu hant an vnderloz / of der selben vart den nochslag / tue~ / vnd sal vm~erm° in bewegu~ge / vnd in rüru~ge syn / vnd vm°mer ey~s noch dem and°n treibñ / ab ym das erste vele / dacz daz ander das dritte ader daz vierde treffe / vnd io iene~ nicht lasse czu ky~me slage kome~ / Wen keyn / mag grosser vorteil of fechte~ habñ / den der nach der lere / deser fünff / wörter tuet / Ist aber das ien° an de~ sw°te bleybt / mit dem als her mit syme were~ vnd schutze~ desem an syn sw°t ist kome~ / vnd is sich alzo vorczage~ hat das deser mit im an de~ sw°te ist blebe~ / vnd noch nicht den nochslag hat getan / zo sal deser winden / of vnd mit im alzo an dem sw°te stehe~ / vnd sal gar ebñ merke~ vnd füle~ / ab / ien swach ader stark ist an dem sw°te / Ist deñe das deser merkt vnd fület / das iener stark herte vnd veste an dem sw°te ist / vnd dese~ / nü mey~t syn sw°t hin dringe~ / zo sal deser deñe swach vnd weich dirweder syn / vnd sal syñ sterke weiche~ vnd stat gebñ / vnd sal im syn sw°t / hin lasse~ preln vnd wer varn / mit sy~ dringe~ daz her tuet / vnd deser sal deñe syn sw°t snelle '''[22r]''' lassen abegleiten / vnd abeczihñ / balde vnd risch / vnd sal snelle dar varn key~ synen blosse~ / czu koppe ader czu leibe / wo / mit hewe~ stiche~ vnd snete~ / wo her nür / am neheste~ vnd schireste~ mag czu kome~ / wen e herter vnd e sürer ien° dringt vnd druckt mit syme sw°te / vnd deser deñe swach vnd weich dirwed° ist / vnd syn sw°t lest abegleite~ / vnd im alzo weicht / e verrer vnd e weit° deñe ieme sy~n sw°t wek prelt / das her deñe gar blos wirt / vnd das in deñe deser noch wonsche mag treffen vnd rüren / e deñe her sich selber / key~s haws ader stichs irholen mag / Ist aber ien° an dem sw°te swach vnd weich alzo das is deser nü wol merkt vnd fület / zo sal deser deñe stark vnd herte dirweder syn / an dem sw°te / vnd sal deñe mit syme orte sterkliche~ an dem sw°te hin varn vnd rawsche~ key~ iens blosse~ gleich vorne czu / wo her am neheste~ mag / Recht zam im e snure ader vadem / vorne an syne~ ort were gebu~den / der im syne~ ort of das neheste / weizet czu ienes blossen / vnd mit dem selbe~ steche~ das deser tuet / wirt her wol gewar / ab ien° zo swach ist / daz her im sy~ sw°t lest alzo hin dringe~ vnd sich lest treffe~ Ist aber ab her stark ist vnd den stich weret vnd abeleitet / Is das her stark wirt weder an dem sw°te / vnd desem syn sw°t abeweiset vnd den stich weret / also das her dese~ sy~ sw°t vaste hin dringt / zo sal deser aber swach vnd weich dirweder w°den / vnd sal sy~ sw°t lasse~ abegleite~ / vnd im weichen / vnd syne blosse~ rischlichen süche~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader mit snete~ wy her nür mag / Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° / mit dese~ wörter / weich vnd herte / vnd das get of dy aucto’i'''[22v]'''tas / als aristotyles spricht in lib° pyarmenias Oppo~ita iuxta se po~ita m~g~ elucescu~t / vel / oppo~ita opposit~ cui aut° / Swach weder stark / herte weder weich / et eqt° / Deñe solde stark weder stark syn / zo gesigt allemal der sterker / dorvm get lichtnawer fechte~ noch recht° vnd worhaftiger ku~st dar / das ey~ swacher mit syn° ku~st vnd list / als schire gesigt / <del>mit</del> / als ey~ starker mit syn° sterke / worvm were and°s ku~st / Dorvem fecht° lere wol füle~ / als lichtnawer spricht / <u>das fülen lere / Indes daz wort / sneidet sere</u> / den wen du eyme am swte bist vnd fülest nü wol ab ien° swach ader stark am sw°te ist / Indes ader dy weile / zo magstu deñe wol trachte~ vnd wisse~ was du salt key~ im tue~ / noch deser vorgesproche~ lere / vnd ku~st / wen her mag sich io mit nichte abe czihe~ vom sw°te ane schade~ / Den lichtnawer spricht / <u>slach das her snabe / wer sich vör dir czewt abe</u> / Tu noch deser lere / zo vestestu wol alzo das du io den vorslag habest vnd gewinest / vnd als balde / als du den tuest / zo tu deñe dornoch in eyme rawsche / inmediate an vnderloz den nochslag / das ist den and°n / den dritte~ / ader den vierden slag / haw aber stich / das io iener nicht czu slage kome / kömstu de~ mit im an daz sw°t / zo bis sicher an dem fulen / vnd tu als vor geschrebñ ist / wen dis ist d° gru~t des fechte~s das ey~ man vm~erm° in motu ist / vnd nicht veyert vnd kömpt is deñe an das fulen / zo tu / <u>ut sup~ ptuit</u> / Vnd was du treibest vnd begiñest / zo habe io moße vnd li~pf / als ab du im den vorslag / gewiñest / zo tu in nicht zo gehelich vnd zo swinde / das du nicht <del>nich</del><sup>dich</sup> deñe mogst irholen des nochslags / Dorv<sup>e</sup>m spricht lichtnaw° / <u>Dorof dich zoße / alle dink habñ limpf vnd moße</u> / vnd daz selbe vornym och võ den schreten / vnd von allen and°n stöcke vnd gesetze des fechtens etc<!--
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 22v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}<!--
 
           --><section begin="Hauptstücke"/>
 
           --><section begin="Hauptstücke"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is the text where he explains the five strikes and other techniques of fencing}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is the text, in this he names the five hews and other plays of fencing.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[21]</small>
+
| <small>21</small>
 
+
| Five hews learn.<br/>&emsp;From the right hand, endure the weapons.
<small>[23]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>23</small>
<small>[24]</small>
+
| Wrath-hew, crook, thwart,<br/>&emsp;have squinter with parters,
 
+
|-
<small>[25]</small>
+
| <small>24</small>
 
+
| Fool displaces,<br/>&emsp;race-behind, run-across hew disrupt,
<small>[26]</small></poem>
+
|-
| <poem>{{red|L}}earn five strikes
+
| <small>25</small>
:from the right hand against the weapons
+
| Change-through, disengage,<br/>&emsp;run-through, cut-off, press hands
Wrath strike, Bent strike, transversal
+
|-
:strike, Squinting strike with vertex strike
+
| <small>26</small>
Fool defends,
+
| Hang, wind amid the openings<br/>&emsp;Strike catch, scrape, stab with colliding.
:adheres, overeaching defeats strikes
 
Changing through, pulling,  
 
:running through, cutting off, pressing the hands
 
Hang, wind to the openings,
 
:strike, catch, swipe, thrust repeatedly</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[23r] {{red|Das ist der / text / in deme her neñet / dy fünff / hewe vnd andere stöcke des fecht°}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|F}}Vnf hewe lere
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 23r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}<!--
von der rechten hant were dy were /
 
<u>Cornhaw • krump • twere •
 
hat schiler mit scheitelere /
 
Alber vorsatzt •
 
nochreist • öberlawft hewe letzt /
 
Durchwechselt • czukt •
 
durchlawft / abesneit • hende drukt /
 
Henge • wind mit blößen /
 
slag vach • strich • stich mit stößen /:~</u></poem><!--
 
 
           --><section end="Hauptstücke"/><section begin="Zornhaw"/>
 
           --><section end="Hauptstücke"/><section begin="Zornhaw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the Zornhau (wrath strike)}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the Wrath-hew, etc.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[27]</small>
+
| <small>27</small>
 
+
| Whoever over-hews you,<br/>&emsp;The Wrath-hew point threatens them.
<small>[28]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>28</small>
<small>[29]</small>
+
| If he becomes aware of it,<br/>&emsp;Take it off above without fear
 
+
|-
<small>[30]</small>
+
| <small>29</small>
 
+
| Be stronger, wind against,<br/>&emsp;Thrust. If he sees it, take it below.
<small>[31]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>30</small>
<small>[32]</small>
+
| Precisely note this:<br/>&emsp;Hews, stabs, position soft or hard
 
+
|-
<small>[33]</small>
+
| <small>31</small>
 
+
| Within and before, after<br/>&emsp;Without charging to the wars. Do not be rash.
<small>[34]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>32</small>
<small>[35]</small>
+
| Whoever's war targets<br/>&emsp;Above, he will be shamed below.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xvi]</small>
+
| <small>33</small>
 
+
| In all winds,<br/>&emsp;Learn to find: hews, stabs, cuts.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xvii]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>34</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xviii]</small>
+
| You shall also, with that<br/>&emsp;Test hew, stab or cut
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xix]</small>
+
| <small>35</small>
 
+
| In all hits<br/>&emsp;Of the masters, if you wish to dupe them.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xx]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xvi</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxi]</small>
+
| Do not hew to the sword,<br/>&emsp;Rather, stand watch for the openings
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxii]</small>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xvii</small>
 
+
| In the head, in the body<br/>&emsp;If you wish to remain without harm
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxiii]</small></poem>
+
|-
| <poem>{{red|W}}hoever strikes at you from above,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xviii</small>
:the point of the Zornhau endangers him.
+
| You hit or miss<br/>&emsp;Aspiring like this so that you target the openings
If he sees it,
+
|-
:take it up and off without danger
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xix</small>
hold against him,
+
| In every lesson,<br/>&emsp;Turn the point against the openings.
:wind, and thrust. If he sees it, strike him low.
+
|-
Remember this,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xx</small>
:Strikes, thrusts and guards, weak or strong.
+
| Whoever hews around widely,<br/>&emsp;They will often be shamed severely.
Indes, Vor und Nach,
+
|-
:take your time and analyze the Krieg.<ref>Thrust exchange from the bind.</ref>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxi</small>
Whoever takes the Krieg too high,
+
| At the closest of all,<br/>&emsp;Deliver sudden hews, stabs [wisely].<ref>"Wisely" inferred from the summary</ref>
:he will be hit below.
+
|-
In all windings
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxii</small>
:learn how to find Strikes thrusts and cuts.
+
| And one shall also always step<br/>&emsp;To the right side
Also you should feel spontaneously
 
:if it has to be a strike, a cut or a thrust.
 
In all binds learn to pull and jerk
 
:against the masters if you wish to fool them.
 
Never attack his sword,
 
:always strike the openings
 
To the head, to the body,
 
:never forget the tick.<ref>Striking the wrist and arms.</ref>
 
&nbsp;
 
:&nbsp;
 
Learn
 
:to turn the Ort (point) to the openings.
 
The one who swings strikes around and wide,
 
:will usually be defeated
 
With Strikes and thrusts
 
:aim for the nearest and closest.
 
Also you should step
 
:to his right side.
 
&nbsp;
 
:&nbsp;</poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|Comment}} Here learn and know that Liechtenauer strikes an Oberhau (Strike from above) from his shoulder which is called the Zornhau. For someone who is angered and wrathful, no other strike comes as ready as the Zornhau, because this Oberhau strikes from the shoulder to the opponent, and this is why Liechtenauer says: If someone strikes an Oberhau against you, you should strike the Zornhau against him so that your point thrusts forward quickly. If he now defends against your point, pull the sword up and off from his blade and move to the other side of his sword. If he also defends against this, be strong against the sword and wind the point in for the thrust. If he defends this thrust, so take the sword away and strike low to his legs.
 
 
 
So constantly do one after the other thus he may not come to strikes. And always have the already mentioned words, Vor and Nach Indes Schwach Stark and strikes thrusts and cuts, in your mind and never forget these in fencing.
 
 
 
Furthermore, you should not hurry too much in the Krieg because if you aim above and miss so you will hit below. And how you execute one after the other, according to real art with special strikes thrusts and cuts you will hear later.
 
 
 
And you should not strike at someone's sword but directly to him, to the head or to the body wherever you wish.
 
| {{red|b=1|Das ist von deme Czornhawe etc}}
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|D}}Er dir oberhawet /
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxiii</small>
czornhaw ort deme drewet /
+
| So you may begin<br/>&emsp;Fencing or wrestling with advantage.
Wirt her is gewar /
 
nym is oben ab / ane vaer /
 
Pis sterker / weder
 
wint / stich / siet her is / nym is neder /
 
Das eben merke •
 
hewe • stiche • leger weich ader herte /
 
<u>Indes</u> vnd • <u>vor</u> • <u>noch</u> /
 
ane hurt deme krige sey nicht goch /
 
wes der krig remet /
 
oben / neden wirt her beschemet /
 
In allen winden •
 
hewe • stiche • snete • lere finden /
 
Auch saltu mete
 
prüfen hewe stiche ader snete /
 
In allen treffen /
 
den meistern wiltu sie effen /
 
Haw nicht czum swerte /
 
zonder stets der blößen warte /
 
Czu koppe czu leibe /
 
wiltu an schaden bleyben /
 
du trefts <del>ader</del> ader velest •
 
zo trachte das du der blossen remest
 
In aller lere /
 
den ort / keyn den blößen kere /
 
Wer weite vm~e hewet /
 
d° w°t oft sere bescheme[t]
 
Off das aller neste /
 
bre~ge hewe stiche dar gew[?]
 
Vnd salt auch io schreite~ /
 
eyme czu der rechte~ seiten /
 
[?] ader iagens
 
[?] begyñen</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Here note and know that Liechtenauer calls an over-hew struck<ref>alt: straight</ref> from the shoulder the wrath-hew. When one is in his fury and wrath of someone, there is no hew as ready as this same over-hew struck from the shoulder to the man. About that, Liechtenauer means when someone begins to hew at you with an over-hew, so shall you counter-hew the wrath-hew against him, and also that you firmly shoot the point against him. If he wards your point from you, then immediately draw off above and drive suddenly<ref>darfahren: unversehens dazu kommen</ref> to the other side of his sword. But if he wards that, then be hard and strong in the sword and wind and stab immediately and bravely. If he wards your stab, separate and immediately initiate a hew below, where you hit to the legs in such a way that you continuously conduct one after the other, so that they cannot come to strikes. And the afore-spoken words: {{red|before, after, within-this, weak, strong and hews, stabs and cuts}}; you shall have them brought to mind at the same time and forget with nothing in the applications.</p>
{{red|/ Glosa /}} Hie merke vnd wisse das lichtnaw° / ey~ öberhaw slecht von der achsel / heisset den czornhaw / <del>Den eyn</del> wen eym itzlichem in syme gry~me vnd czorne '''[23v]''' zo ist im keyn haw als bereit / als der selbe aberhaw slecht von der achsel / czum mañe / Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / We~ dir eyner czu hewt / mit eym obirhaw / zo salt du key~ im weder hawe~ de~ czornhaw / alzo das du mit dyme ort vaste key~ im schisset / wert her dir dyn ort / zo czewch balde oben ab / vnd var czu der and°n syte~ dar / syns sw°ts / wert her dir daz aber / zo bis harte vnd stark im sw°te / vnd wind / vnd stich balde vnd ku~lich / w°t her dir de~ / stich / zo smeis vnd haw balde vnde~ czu / wo du trifft / czu~ beyne~ / alzo das du vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibest / das ien° nicht czu slage kome / Vnd dy vorgesproche~ wörter / <del>vor / noch / Indes / swach / stark</del> / vnd hewe / stiche vnd snete / der saltu czu male wol gedenken / vnd mit nichte vorgessen in deme gefechte / Auch saltu nicht sere eylen mit deme krige / den ab dir ey~s velet obñ / des du remest / zo triffestu vnden als du wirst höre~ wy sich eyns aus dem and°n macht / noch rechtvertiger kunst / besu~der hewe stiche snete / Vnd salt nicht czu eyns sw°te hawe~ / zonder czu im selber / czu koppe vnd czu leibe / wo eyn° mag etc
+
|
 +
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 23r.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 23v.jpg|1|lbl=23v|p=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Alternatively, you may understand the first verse as if you strike a wrath strike from above, the adversary is being endangered by the point of the wrath strike.
+
| <p>You shall also not seriously rush with the war, because if one of which you target fails above, then you you hit below as you will hear how one makes itself out of the other according to the legitimate art, particularly: hews, stabs, cuts.</p>
| Auch mag mã vorneme~ / das der erste v°se mochte alzo stehen / wem du öberhewest czornhaw / deme drewt der ort / des czornhaws etc
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 23v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Now follow this teaching and stay permanently in motion, if you hit or miss, so that one cannot comes to strikes, and always step sideways off with your strikes.
+
| <p>And [one] shall not hew to the opponent's sword, rather into the opponent, to the head and to the body, wherever one may, etc. One may also consider that the first verse may also state: Whomever you over-hew the wrath-hew, the point of the wrath-hew threatens them, etc. Just act according to this lore and be continuously in motion. Either you hit or do not so that the opponent cannot come to strikes. And with the hewing, always step-out well to the side. Also know that there are only two hews, all other hews come from them however they are preferred to be named locally. That is the over-hew and the under-hew from both sides. They are the chief hews and foundation of all other hews. However, those hews causally and accordingly come from the point of the sword. Which is the core and the center of all other plays here like what was written well before. And from those same hews come the four displacements from both sides. With them one disrupts and breaks all hews, stabs or positions. And from them one also comes into the four hangings. From them one may conduct art well as one shall hear hereafter. And however one may particularly fence someone, so shall the point ever and always be turned against their face or breast so that each and every time the opponent must discourage themselves so that he cannot come before by sake of<ref>wegen preposition</ref> it, for it has immediately shifted<ref>wegen verb</ref> somewhere<ref>ienen</ref> closer to him.</p>
 
+
|
Also know that there are only two strikes all others are based upon. And these are the Oberhau (strike from above) and the Unterhau (strike from below) from both sides, which are the main strikes and the foundation if all other strikes. And these again are based on the point of the sword which is the core and the centre of all other techniques as it has been written before,
+
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 23v.jpg|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 24r.jpg|1|lbl=24r|p=1}}
 
 
And from the same strikes come the four displacements from both sides, with these you break and defeat all strikes thrusts or guards and these also lead to the hangings which can be very well be used for artful techniques as you will hear later.
 
 
 
And however you fence, always turn the point against the face or the chest of the adversary, so he has always to watch out that you do not move prior to him. (the next sentence is unfinished)
 
| Nür tu noch deser lere / vnd bis vm~erm° i~ / motu / du treffest ad° nicht / daz ien° nicht czu slage kome vnd schret io wol besytz aus / mit den hewen / Auch wisse das nur czwene hewe seyn aus den alle ander hewe <del>wy dy</del> komen wy dy vm~er genãt möge~ werdn / <del>das</del> '''[24r]''' das ist der öberhaw / vnd der vnderhaw / von beiden seiten / dy sint dy hawpt hewe vnd gru~t aller ander hewe / wy wol dy selbñ vrsachlich vnd gru~tlich / auch kome~ aus dem orte des sw°tes / der do ist der kern vnd das czentru~ aller and° stocke / als das wol vor ist geschrebn <sup>vnd aus den selbe~ hewe~ kome~ dy vier vorsetcze~ von beiden seite~ / mt den mã alle hewe vnd stiche ader leger / letzt vnd bricht / vnd aus den man auch yn dy vier he~ge~ ku~pt / aus den mã wol ku~st treibñ mag / als mã hernoch wirt horen /</sup> Vnd wy ey~ mã nur ficht / zo sal io allemal den ort key~ eyns gesichte / ader brust keren / zo mus sich iener alleczeit besorgen das her icht e kome we~ her / wen her io neher czu im hat we~ ien° /
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| And if it happened, that the adversary got the Vorschlag (first strike) so he should be well practiced and quick with the Abwenden (turning-off) and as soon as he has turned off the (attacks of) the adversary, he should move quickly as soon as possible, and his point should always aim for the chest as you will hear now. And the point should, as soon as he comes at the adversaries sword, be always within a half ''Elle'' (roughly 30 cm) of either chest or face. Also he should be well aware if he can move in boldly for the next opening.
+
| <p>And if it happens like this that they won the fore-strike, so shall the fencer be secure and sure and be quick with the winding and as soon as he has wound, so shall he begin to drive to the side agilely and courageously. And his point shall shall seek the opponent's breast, turning and positioning themselves against it. As you will hear better hereafter. And the point, as soon as he comes upon the sword of someone, it shall always come to be around a half an ell away from another's breast or face and take quite good care  that it intends to arrive inside that and certainly to the closest and not wide around, so that the opponent cannot come first by sake of this. Provided the fencer will not allow themselves to become lax and hesitant and ward too lazily nor be willing to arrive too wide and too far around.</p>
 
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 24r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}<!--
And he should never move too far around so that the adversary cannot come forward before him, which will surely happen if the adversary comes forwards and is not hesitating, slow or moves too far.<ref>''vorreben''?</ref>
 
| Vnd ab is alzo queme / das ien° den vorslag gewuñe / zo sal deser sicher vnd gewis / vnd snelle seyn mit dem wende~ / vnd als bald als her im gewendet hat / zo sal her czu hant czuvaren rich risch vnd balde / vnd syn ort sal allemal iens brust begeren vnd sich keyn der kere~ vnd stellen / als du hernoch wirst bas hore~ / Vnd der ort / als bald her eyme an das sw°t ku~pt / <del>m<sup>t</sup> dem sw°te</del> / der sal allemal kawme v<sup>e</sup>m eyne halbe ele / verre / von iens brust ader gesichte seyn / vnd des gar wol war nemen ab h° yndert dar kome~ möchte / vnd io of das neste / vnd nicht weit v<sup>e</sup>m / das ien° icht e queme wen deser / ab sich deser icht lasse~ vnd züme~ würde / vnd czu trege wer / ad° czu weit wolde dar kome~ vnd czu v°re vem /<!--
 
 
           --><section end="Zornhaw"/><section begin="Blossen"/>
 
           --><section end="Zornhaw"/><section begin="Blossen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the four openings}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the four openings, etc, etc.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[36]</small>
+
| <small>36</small>
 
+
| Know to target the four openings<br/>&emsp;so you strike certainly
<small>[37]</small></poem>
+
|-
| <poem>{{red|K}}now the four openings,
+
| <small>37</small>
:target these and you will hit for sure.
+
| Without any danger<br/>&emsp;without doubt however he behaves.
Go for them,
 
:do not bother about hitting or missing.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
{{red|Comment}} Here learn that Liechtenauer would part a man in four parts, just as he would draw a line down from the vertex on his body to the groin.
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Note here that Liechtenauer, who tiles a person in four parts, just as if he made a line in front of them from the top of the head downwards on his body just to down-here between his legs. And the second line by the girdle that crosses over the body thus becoming four quarters: a right and a left above the girdle and also in the same way under the girdle. Those are the four openings, which each have their particular applications. He targets them and never against the sword, rather the openings.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 25r.jpg|1|lbl=25r}}
  
And an other line horizontally along the girdle on the body, and so there are four quarters, one right and left above the girdle, and also below the girdle and these are the four openings of which each has its own technique which never go for the sword, but always to the openings.
 
| '''[25r] {{red|Das ist von den vier blössen etc etc}}'''
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|V}}Ier blößen wisse /  
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|About the four openings, how one breaks them.}}</p>
remen zo slestu gewisse /  
+
{| class="zettel"
An alle var /  
+
|-
an zweifel wy her gebar</poem>
+
| <small>38</small>
|}
+
| If you wish to reckon yourself,<br/>&emsp;breaking the four openings artfully,
 
+
|-
{{red|/ Glosa /}} Hie merke / daz lichtnaw° / der teilt eyn menschen yn vier teil / recht zam das her eym von der scheitel / eyn strich vorne gleich neder machte an sym leybe / bis her neder czwische~ syne beyne / Vnd de~ and°n strich by der görtel dy czwere öber de~ / leib / zo werde~ vier vierteil ey~ rechtes vnd ey~ links öber der görtel / vnd alzo auch vnd° der gortel / das sint dy vier bloße~ / der hat itzlichs syñ sonder gefechte / der reme vnd nu~mer keyns swertes / zonder der bloßen
+
| <small>39</small>
 
+
| Double above,<br/>&emsp;Mutate there-below directly.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>40</small>
 +
| I say truthfully,<br/>&emsp;no one defends themselves without danger.
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|About the four openings, how to break them}}
+
| <small>41</small>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
| If you have understood,<br/>&emsp;he may scarcely come to blows.
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
 
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[38]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[39]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[40]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[41]</small></poem>
 
| <poem>If you want to defeat him
 
:and hit the openings with art,
 
Duplieren against the upper opening
 
:and Mutieren against the lower one.
 
I tell you truthfully,
 
:no man can defend safely.
 
If you have understood it,  
 
:he may not come to strikes.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| {{red|b=1|Von den vier blössen / wy man dy bricht}}
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|W}}Iltu dich rechen /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 25r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}<!--
vier blössen ku~stlichen brechen /
 
Oben duplire
 
do neden rechte~ mutire /
 
Ich sage vorware /
 
sich schötzt keyn man ane vare /
 
Hastu vornomen /
 
czu slage mag her kleyne komen ~</poem><!--
 
 
           --><section end="Blossen"/><section begin="Krumphaw"/>
 
           --><section end="Blossen"/><section begin="Krumphaw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the Krumphau}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the crook-hew, etc.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[42]</small>
+
| <small>42</small>
 
+
| Crook up swiftly,<br/>&emsp;throw your point onto the hands.
<small>[43]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>43</small>
<small>[44]</small>
+
| Whoever waits well crooked,<br/>&emsp;disrupts many hews with stepping.
 
+
|-
<small>[45]</small>
+
| <small>44</small>
 
+
| Hew crooked to the flats<br/>&emsp;of the masters if you wish to weaken them.
<small>[46]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>45</small>
<small>[47]</small>
+
| When it sparks above,<br/>&emsp;Then dismount, that I will praise.
 
+
|-
<small>[48]</small></poem>
+
| <small>46</small>
| <poem>Krump quickly
+
| Crook not, hew short.<br/>&emsp;Change through and with that expose him.
:and throw the Ort on his hands.
+
|-
The Krumphau with correct steps
+
| <small>47</small>
:defends against many strikes
+
| Crook whoever misleads you.<br/>&emsp;The noble war baffles them
Strike the Krump to the flat
 
:of the skilled fencer, this will weaken him.
 
As soon as the swords hit high above,
 
:strike to the man, this will be honored.
 
Never strike the Krump too short
 
:otherwise your Opponent can change through.
 
Against a man who feints a lot,
 
:use the Krump and confuse him in the Krieg
 
So he may not know
 
:where he can be without danger.</poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|Comment}} Here learn and know that the Krumphau is an Oberhau which is done in a bent manner with a good step to one side.
 
 
 
This is why Liechtenauer says whoever wants to execute this strike, should step well to the right side while striking and shall throw or thrust the point over the hilt of the adversary onto his hands. And he should strike with the flat if he hits the blade and should stay strong against the sword and press forcefully. From there he may see what he can do best, in the most direct and surest manner, be it with strikes, thrusts or cuts. And he should not strike too short and should not forget the changing-through if it is appropriate.
 
| {{red|b=1|Das ist von deme krumphawe / etc}}
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|K}}Rump auf / behende /  
+
| <small>48</small>
wirf deynen ort auf dy hende /
+
| That he truthfully truthfully<br/>&emsp;Does not know where is without danger.
krump wer wol setczet •
 
mit schreten vil hewe letczet /
 
Haw kru~p czu~ flechen •
 
den meistern wiltu sie swechen /
 
Wen is klitzt oben /
 
stant abe das wil ich loben /
 
Krump nicht kurcz hawe •
 
durchwechsel do mete schawe /
 
Kru~p wer dich irret •
 
der edele krig den vor virret /
 
Das her nicht vorwar •
 
weis wo her sye ane var </poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Here note and know that the crook-hew is an over-hew which travels crooked along with a good step outwards, likewise to one side. What Liechtenauer means about this is whoever wishes to command this hew properly, they shall step-out to the right side fully flanking, then he delivers the hew and shall crook-hew fully and swiftly and shall throw or shoot his point over his hilt upon the hands of the opponent or shall hew to the opponent's flat. If he then hits the flat, then he shall remain strong thereupon and press firmly and shall see whatever he may then deliver the most decisive and straightest with hews, stabs or cuts and shall hew too short with nothing and shall not forget of the changing-through if it bears itself.</p>
{{red|/ Glosa /}} Hie merke vnd wisse das der kru~phaw / ist eyn oberhaw der do mit eyme guten ausschrete / krum~es dar / get / zam noch eyner seiten / Dorv<sup>e</sup>m meynt lichtnawer / der den selben haw wol wil fure~ / der sal wol beseicz aus schreite~ czu der rechte~ hant / dañe her den haw bre~gt / vnd sal synen ort / werfen / ader schißen / ieme ober syn gehilcze of / dy hende / vnd sal <del>czu ienes</del><sup>mit syner</sup> flechen hawen / wen her deñe trift / <del>dy fleche~</del><sup>[i]enes [sw]ert</sup> / zo sal her stark dor of bleiben / vnd vaste drucken / vnd sal sehen / was her deñe am endlichste~ vnd geradste~ / dar bre~ge~ mag / mit hewen stichen ader sneten / vnd sal mit nichte czu korcz hawe~ / vnd sal des durchwechsels nicht vorgessen / ab sichs gepürt /<!--
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 25v.jpg|1|lbl=25v}}<!--
 
           --><section end="Krumphaw"/><section begin="Fehler"/>
 
           --><section end="Krumphaw"/><section begin="Fehler"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| One strike is called the Fehler (feint) and comes from the Krumphau and yet it is written after the Zwerchhau (where the mark is set) and it should be placed before the Zwerchhau. And this is done from below in a bent curve over the hilt, in the same manner as the Krumphau which comes down from above.
+
| <p>A hew called the failer, and comes from the crook-hew and it stands written after the thwart-hew (where the hand is drawn), and it should stand before the thwart-hew, and it besets<ref>dargehen: the approach something in a hostile manner. Literally: to go-there.</ref> crookedly and obliquely from below, in over the hilt of the opponent, with point shooting right the same as the crook-hew from above downwards.</p>
| '''[26v]''' Eyn / haw / heist der veller / vnd ku~pt aus dem kru~phaw / vnd der stet geschrebe~ noch deme twerhawe / do dy hant ist geschrebñ / vnd der sal vör deme therhawe sten / vnd der get von vnden dar krum~es vnd schiks / eyme ober deme gehilcze yn / mit ort schissen/ Recht zam der kru~phaw von obñ neder /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 26v.jpg|1|lbl=26v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[53]</small>
+
| <small>53</small>
 
+
| The failer misleads<br/>&emsp;It wounds according to desire from below.
<small>[54]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>54</small>
<small>[55]</small>
+
| The inverter dominates.<br/>&emsp;The runner through also wrestles with it.
 
+
|-
<small>[56]</small>
+
| <small>55</small>
 
+
| Take the elbow wisely<br/>&emsp;Spring into his stance.
<small>[57]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>56</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxiv]</small>
+
| The failer doubles.<br/>&emsp;One connects the slice with might.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxv]</small></poem>
+
| <small>57</small>
| <poem>The Zwerch Fehler (feint) misleads
+
| Double it further<br/>&emsp;Step to the left and do not be lazy.
:and hits below
+
|-
The Verkehrer (inverse strike) forces
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxiv</small>
:the running through so you can wrestle.
+
| Because all fencing<br/>&emsp;Will by all rights, have speed
Take the elbow,
+
|-
:leap into his balance to throw him down.
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxv</small>
Double the Fehler (feint),  
+
| Also in it: audacity,<br/>&emsp;Prudence, astuteness and ingenuity.
:if he binds execute the old cut.<ref>Cut to the hands and then cut the throat.</ref>
 
Double instantly,  
 
:step to the left do not be slow.
 
Because all fencing
 
:requires speed
 
and also bravery
 
:caution and wits.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| <poem>'''[27r]''' <u>Veller</u> wer füret •
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
von vnden noch <del>wonch</del> wonsche her ri rüret /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 27r.jpg|2|lbl=27r}}<!--
<u>Vorkerer</u> twinget /
 
durchlawfer auch mete ringet /
 
den ellenbogen /
 
gewis nym / sprink yn den wogen /
 
<u>Veller</u> czwefache •
 
trift man den snet mete mache /
 
Czwefaches vorpas •
 
schreit yn link vnd weze nicht las /
 
wen alles vechte~
 
wil rischeit habñ von rechte /
 
Dorczu auch kunheit •
 
vorsichtikeit list vnde klugheit</poem><!--
 
 
           --><section end="Fehler"/><section begin="Twerhaw"/>
 
           --><section end="Fehler"/><section begin="Twerhaw"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the Zwerchhau (transversal strike)}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the thwart-hew, etc.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[49]</small>
+
| <small>49</small>
 
+
| The thwart seizes<br/>&emsp;Whatever comes from the roof.
<small>[50]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>50</small>
<small>[51]</small>
+
| Thwart with the strong<br/>&emsp;Remember your work with it.
 
+
|-
<small>[52]</small></poem>
+
| <small>51</small>
| <poem>The Zwerch defends
+
| Thwart to the plow<br/>&emsp;Yoke it hard to the ox
:what comes from Tag<ref>from above; the high guard</ref>
+
|-
Use the Zwerch with strength
+
| <small>52</small>
:and remember its work.
+
| Whoever thwarts themselves well<br/>&emsp;Threatens the head<ref>The page is clipped. only 'hew' remains. This manuscript spells 'haupte' as 'hewpte'</ref> with springing
Zwerch strike to the Ochs<ref>upper opening</ref>
 
:then to the Pflug<ref>lower opening</ref> works well.
 
If you want to Zwerch correctly,
 
:jump to hit the head.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Here note and know that of the entire sword, no hew is as efficient, so fierce, so complete and so good as is the thwart-hew. And it besets like a crossbar<ref>twer: noun: something that gets in the way, something that cuts across something else, something that crosses. verb: to twist, to twirl, to turn obliquely in relation to something</ref> to both sides: with both edges, the back and the front; to all openings, below and above. And everything that arrives from above, those are the over-hews or whatever otherwise goes from above downward, one breaks and wards those with the thwart-hews.</p>
  
{{red|Comment}} Here learn and know that of all fencing techniques with the sword, there is no strike that is as fair, forceful, perfected and good as the Zwerchhau. And this strike is done just horizontal to both sides with both edges, the back and front edge, to all openings above and below. It also defends against any strikes from "vom Tag" which are all strikes from high above or anything that comes down from above, and this all is defended with the Zwerchhau.
+
<p>They that can deliver or fling the sword forwards well, they twirl before the head to whichever side he wishes. Just like would would come in the upper hangings or windings, only that for someone in the thwart-hew, the flats of the sword turn: one above or upward, the other below or downward; and the edges to the sides. They twirl, one to the right and one to the left side. And it is quite good to come upon the sword of the opponent with these thwart-hews.</p>
  
If one wishes to execute these well, the sword should be thrown horizontally before the head to whichever side he wishes, just as he would intend to get into the hanging or winding positions, save the edge being oriented horizontally and the flat vertically.
+
<p>And then, when one comes upon the sword of the opponent, just as it arrives, so that the opponent must come away from it burdensomely, he will be struck from this with the thwart-hews to both sides. For just as he delivers a thwart-hew, to whichever side it is: below or above, the sword then always goes up with the hilt before the head via the hand flung forwards, so that he is absolutely warded and covered. And one shall deliver the thwart-hews with some strength.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 27r.jpg|1|lbl=-}}
  
And with these Zwerchhau (crossing strikes) it is easy to get at the sword of the adversary. And as soon this has happened, it is difficult for the adversary get away and will be struck at both sides by the Zwerchhau.  
+
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 27v.jpg|1|lbl=27v}}
  
And wherever one wants to aim for with the Zwerchhau, to whichever side above or below, always the sword is held with the inverted hand and with the hilt high in front of the head so that he is well secured and covered. And he should bring the Zwerchau with some strength.
 
| {{red|b=1|Das ist von deme Twerehawe / etc}}
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|T}}were benym~et •
+
| <p>And when one shall fence for their neck, so shall they proceed with the afore-written lore so that they win the fore-strike with a good thwart-hew. When he closes with someone, as soon as he realizes that he is able to engage the opponent with a step or a spring, he then bursts in there from the right side with a thwart-hew above at the head of the opponent with the back edge of the sword likewise<ref>alt: directly, immediately</ref> above and shall let the point shoot and shall quite fully twirl so that the point careens and winds or girds itself around the opponent's head, like a belt. Because when one thwarts well with a good stepping out or spring, then the opponent must burdensomely defend or escape this. And when he then wins the fore-strike with the thwart-hew like this to the one side, whether he hits or misses, the he shall then immediately win the after-strike in a rush directly without pause with the thwart-hew to the other side with the forward-edge before any strike or little thing somehow redeems them according to the afore-written lore. And shall then thwart to both sides into the oxen and into the plows. That is, into the high openings and into the low from one side to the other, below and above, ceaselessly without pause in this way, so that he is always in motion and does not allow the opponent to come to strikes. And each time he does a thwart-hew above or below, so shall he thwart completely and throw the sword above that they twirl well before his head so that he is well covered.</p>
was von dem tage dar küm~et /  
+
|
Twere mit der sterke /  
+
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 27v.jpg|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 28r.jpg|1|lbl=28r|p=1}}<!--
deyn arbeit do mete merke /  
+
          --><section end="Twerhaw"/><section begin="Schilhaw"/>
Twere czu dem pfluge •
+
|-
czu den ochsen herte gefuge /  
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the squint-hew, etc.}}</p>
Was sich wol tweret
+
{| class="zettel"
mit sprü~gen dem <sup>hew</sup> geferet</poem>
+
|-
 +
| <small>58</small>
 +
| The squinter breaks<br/>&emsp;inside Whatever the buffalo cuts or thrusts.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>59</small>
 +
| Whoever threatens to change,<br/>&emsp;the squinter robs him of it.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>60</small>
 +
| Squint. If he short changes you,<br/>&emsp;The changing through defeats him.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>61</small>
 +
| Squint into the point<br/>&emsp;And take the neck without fear.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>62</small>
 +
| Squint to the top of the head<br/>&emsp;If you wish to ruin the hand.
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxvi</small>
 +
| Squint against the right,<br/>&emsp;if you desire to fence well.
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxvii</small>
 +
| The squint-hew I prize,<br/>&emsp;if it does not arrive too lazily.
 
|}
 
|}
 
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}} Here note and know that a squint-hew is an over-hew from the right side with the back edge of the sword that the left side is approached and goes there just as slanted or skewed, stepping out to one side to the right with a twisted sword and hand flung forwards and this same hew breaks as the buffalo, that is a peasant, might strike from above downward as they incline to do. This also breaks just like the thwart-hew as was written before. And whoever threatens with changing-through, they become shamed with the squint-hew. And one shall squint-hew fully and long enough and shoot the point firmly. Otherwise, he will become impeded with changing-through and one shall squint fully with the point into the throat bravely without fear and...<ref>The comment ends here and remains unfinished.</ref></p>
'''[27v]''' {{red|/ Glosa /}} Hie merke vnd wisse / das of dem ganczen / sw°te / keyn haw / als redlich / zo heftik zo vertik vnd zo gut ist als der twerhaw / Vnd der get dar / zam dy twer / czu beyden seiten mit beiden sneiden / der hindern vnd der vörd°n / czu allen blossen / vnden vnde oben / Vnd alles das von dem tage dar ku~pt / das sint dy öb°n hewe / ader was söst von obe~ neder gehet / das bricht vnd / weret eyner / mit den twer hewen / der dy wol kan dar bre~gen / ader das sw°t wol vörwirft / dy twer vor / das hawpt / czu weler seiten her wil / recht zam her in dy ob°n henge~ ader winden wolle kome~ / Nür das eyner in den twerhewe~ / dy flechen des sw°tes / eyne oben ader of / dy ander vnden ader neder kert / vnd dy sneiden / czu den syten / dy twer / eyne / czu der rechte~ / vnd eyne czu der linken / seiten / Vnd mit den selbe~ twerhewe~ / ist gar gut eyme an das sw°t czu kome~ / vnd wen den eyner eyme an das sw°t ku~pt / wy das nür dar kome~ ist / zo mag ien° mülich von im kome~ / her wirt von desem geslage~ czu beiden seiten mit den twerhewe~ / den wy her eynen twerhaw nür dar bre~gt / czu weler seite~ is ist / vnden ader oben / zo get im io das sw°t obñ / mit dem gehilcze / mit vorworfner / hant / vor deme hewpte / das her io wol bewart vnd bedekt ist / Vnd eyner sal dy twerhewe / eczwas mit / sterke dar bre~ge~ /  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 28v.jpg|1|lbl=28v}}<!--
 
+
          --><section end="Schilhaw"/><section begin="Scheitelhaw"/>
 +
|-
 +
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the part-hew, etc.}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
| And if someone has to fight for his life he should see to it that he gains the Vorschlag (first strike) with a good Zwerchhau, as in the teaching written above . When approaching the adversary, as soon as he sees he could reach him with a step or a leap, he should strike with the Zwerchhau from his upper right side, with the back edge directly to the head. And he should let the point shoot and should well lean so that that the point is directed, and turn or sling around the adversaries sword just like a leather strap, because if one can do the Zwerch in combination with a good step outwards or a leap, an adversary will find it very difficult to defend or turn aside.
+
| <small>63</small>
 
+
| The parter<br/>&emsp;Is dangerous to the face;
And if he gained the Vorschlag with the Zwerchhau and hits or misses to one side, he should immediately, in one motion and without pause do the Nachschlag with the Zwerchhau to the other side with the front edge, before the adversary recovers from the strike, as it has already been taught.
 
 
 
And one should Zwerch to both sides and to Ochs and Pflug, which is to the upper and lower openings, going from one side to the other, high and low, permanently without hesitation, so that he is always in motion and does not let the adversary come to strikes. And again, if he does a Zwerchhau, he should lean and hold the sword inverted in front of his head, so that he remains well-covered.
 
| Vnd wen eyner v<sup>e</sup>m syne~ hals sölde fechten So solde her schaffen / mit <del>her</del> der vorgeschrebñ '''[28r]''' lere / das her mit eyme gute~ twerhawe den vorslag / gewuñe / wen her mit eyme czu gi~ge als balde als her irkente / das her ienen dir reichen mochte/ mit eyne~ schrete ader spronge das her deñe dar placzte / mit eyme twerhaw obñ von der rechte~ seiten / mit der hindern sneidñ ieme gleich obñ czu hawpte czu / vnd sal den ort lassen schiessen / vnd sal gar wol tweren das sich der ort wol lenke / vnd winde / ader gorte vm iens hawpt / zam eyn rime / <del>we</del> deñe wen eyner wol tweret / mit eyme gute~ ausschrete ader spronge / zo mag sichs ien° mülich schutze~ / ader abewe~de~ / Vnd we~ her deñe den vorslag alzo gewi~t mt de~ twerhaw <del>her treffe</del> / czu der eyne~ seyte~ / her treffe ader vele / zo sal her deñe als balde in eyme rawsche im~ediate an vnd°loz / den nochslag gewiñen / mit dem twerhaw czu der and°n seiten / mit der vörd°n sneiden / e den sich ien° key~s slags ader ichsichcz irhole / noch d° vorgeschrebe~ lere / Vnd sal deñe twern czu beiden seite~ / czu~ ochsen vnd czu~ pfluge / das ist / czu den ob°n blössen vnd czu den vnd°n / von eyner seite~ of dy ander / vnden vnd obñ / vm~erm° / an vnderloz / alzo das her vm°mer in motu sey vnd iene~ nicht losse czu slage kome~ / vnd als oft / als her eyne~ twerhaw tuet obñ ad° vndñ / zo sal her io wol twere~ / vnd das sw°t obñ dy twer / wol vor syn ha<sup>w</sup>pt / werfen / das her wol bedekt sey /<!--
 
          --><section end="Twerhaw"/><section begin="Schilhaw"/>
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is regarding the Squinting strike (squinting strike)}}
+
| <small>64</small>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
| With it's turn<br/>&emsp;The chest is yet endangered.
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
 
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[58]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[59]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[60]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[61]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[62]</small>
 
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxvi]</small>
 
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxvii]</small></poem>
 
| <poem>The squinting strikes defends
 
:against a peasants strikes or thrusts.
 
And whoever threatens with a change through,
 
:the squinting strike will take him out.
 
Look, if he shortens himself,
 
:the changing through defeats him.
 
Squint to the point
 
:and cut the neck without fear.
 
And squint to the head
 
:if you wish to cut his hands.
 
Squint at the right side,
 
:if you wish to fence well.
 
I praise the Squinting strike,
 
:if he does not come too silently.</poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|Comment}} Here learn and know that a Shielhau is a strike from above from the right side with back edge of the sword, which is also called the left side. And this strike moves just as a squint-eyed person to the left side while stepping off to the right, with inverted sword and hand.
 
 
 
And this strike breaks all strikes of a Buffalo – which means peasant – that come downwards from above, as most peasants usually do.
 
 
 
The Zwerchhau breaks the same strikes as it has been written before. And whoever threatens with a change-through will be ashamed by the Schielhau and one should well strike long enough with the strike and shoot in the point quickly, so that the adversary will be stopped in his changing through. And one should squint with the point, to the neck bravely without fear.<ref>The comment ends here and remains unfinished.</ref>
 
| '''[28v] {{red|Das ist von deme schilhawe : ~}}'''
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|S}}Chiler in bricht •
+
| <small>65</small>
was püffel nü slet ader sticht /
+
| Whatever comes from him<br/>&emsp;The crown removes.
wer wechsel drawet •
 
schiler dor aus in berawbet /
 
Schil kürczt her dich an •
 
<del>das</del> durchwechsel das sigt ym an /
 
Schil czu dem orte •
 
vnd nym den hals ane vorchte /
 
Schil in dem öbern •
 
hawpte hende wiltu bedöbern /
 
<small>Schil ken dem rechten /
 
is daz du wol gerest vechte~ /
 
den schilhaw ich preize •
 
ku~pt her dar nicht czu leiz[e]</small></poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|/ Glosa /}} Hie merke vnd wisse das eyn <del>kru~phaw</del><sup>schilhaw</sup> / ist eyn öberhaw von der / rechten seiten / mit der hindern sneiden des sw°tes / dy die linke seite ist genãt / vnd get recht zam schilende ader schiks dar / czu eyner zeite~ aus geschreten / czu der rechten / mit vorwantem sw°te / vnd vorworfner hant / Vnd der selbe haw der bricht als das püffel / das ist ey~ pawer / mag geslaen / von obñ neder als sie phleken <sup>czu</sup> tuen / Recht zam der twerhaw auch das selbe bricht / als vor ist geschreben / Vnd wer mit durchwechsel drewt / der wirt mit dem schilhaw beschemet / Vnd eyn° sal wol schilhawe~ vnd lank genuk / vnd den ort vaste schissen / anders her wirt gehindert / mit / durchwechsel / Vnd / eyner sal / wol schiln mit dem orte / czu dem halse ku~lich ane vorchte / Vnd
 
 
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>Where you see blades
+
| <small>66</small>
:being drawn by both
+
| Slice through the crown<br/>&emsp;So that you break it beautifully and hard;
you should steady yourself
 
:and your steps and remember
 
Before, after the two things,
 
:gauge and with skill leap off
 
Follow all hits
 
:from the strong if you intend to fool them,
 
If he defends, so pull,
 
:thrust, he defends so move to him.
 
learn to artfully execute
 
:the windings and hangings.
 
And sense the attacks
 
:be they soft or hard.
 
&nbsp;
 
:&nbsp;
 
If he attacks with long and far steps,
 
:the thrust defeats him.
 
If he defends with hard strikes
 
:you hit without fear.
 
Strike and hurry forward,
 
:rush in to him whether you hit or miss
 
Never strike to the sword,
 
:always wait for the openings
 
If you hit or miss,
 
:always aim for the openings
 
With both hands learn
 
:to bring the point to his eyes
 
Fence with sense
 
:and try to gain the Vorschlag
 
May he hit or miss,
 
:move in with the Nachschlag
 
to both sides,
 
:step to his right side
 
So you may safely
 
:begin fencing or wrestling.</poem>
 
| <poem>'''[29v]''' Wo man von scheidñ /  
 
sw°t czucken siet von in beiden /
 
Do sal mã sterken /
 
vnd dy schrete ebñ mete merken /
 
<u>Vor</u> / <u>noch</u> / dy czwey dink /
 
prüfe / vnd m<sup>t</sup> lere abe sprink /
 
Volge allen treffen /
 
den starken / wiltu sy effen /
 
Wert her <sup>so</sup> czucke /
 
stich / wert her / io czu ym rücke /
 
Dy winden / vnd hengen /
 
lere kunstlichen dar brengen /
 
Vnd prüfe dy ferte /
 
ab sy sint weich aber herte /
 
Ab her deñe stark vicht
 
zo bistu ku~stlich bericht /
 
Vnd greiffet <sup>her</sup> weite ader lenge an /
 
das schissen gesigt im an /
 
Mit synem slaen / harte
 
schützt her sich • triff ane forchte /
 
Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar /
 
rawsche hin / trif ader la varn /
 
Haw nicht czum sw°te /
 
zonder stetzs der blössen warte /
 
Du treffest ader velest /
 
zo trachte das du der blössen remest /
 
Mit beiden henden /
 
czu~ oge~ ort lere bre~gen /
 
fficht io mt syñen /
 
vnd allemal den vorslag gewyñe /
 
her treffe ader vele /
 
mit dem nochslage czu hant reme /
 
Czu~ beiden seiten /
 
czu der rechten / <del>seite</del><sup>mit</sup> im schreite /
 
So magstu mit gewyñe /
 
fechtens ader ringens begynnen /<ref>Most of the verses on this page are associated with armored fencing in other treatises.</ref></poem><!--
 
          --><section end="Schilhaw"/><section begin="Scheitelhaw"/>
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the Scheitelhau (Vertex strike)}}
+
| <small>67</small>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
| Press the strokes<br/>&emsp;Snatch them away with slicing.
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem><small>[63]</small>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxviii</small>
 
+
| The scalp-hew I prize<br/>&emsp;If it arrives not too lazily.
<small>[64]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[65]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[66]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[67]</small>
 
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxviii]</small></poem>
 
| <poem>The Scheitler
 
:endangers the face
 
And with its turning
 
:the chest.
 
The Kron<ref>crown displacement technique</ref>  
 
:defends against the Scheitler
 
Cut through the Kron
 
:so it is already broken
 
Press the swipes
 
:and move off with cuts
 
I praise the Scheitelhau,
 
:if he does not come too silently.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[30r] {{red|Das ist von deme scheitelhawe etc ~}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|D}}Er scheitelere •
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 30r.jpg|1|lbl=30r}}<!--
deyn antlitz ist ym gefere /
 
Mit seinem karen •
 
der broste vaste gewaren /
 
Was von ym kümet •
 
dy crone das abe nym~et /
 
Sneyt durch dy krone •
 
zo brichstu sie harte schone /
 
Dy striche drücke •
 
mit sneten sie abe rücke /
 
Den scheitelhaw ich preize /
 
kü~pt her dar / nicht czu leize /</poem><!--
 
 
           --><section end="Scheitelhaw"/><section begin="Leger"/>
 
           --><section end="Scheitelhaw"/><section begin="Leger"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <span style="color:grey;">Liechtenauer holds only these four guards that come from the upper and lower hangings, and from these one can fence safely.</span>
+
| <p><span style="color:#696969;">Liechtenauer holds just a little about the four positions. In that they proceed from the over and under hangings, and from there one may surely bring applications.</span></p>
| '''[32r]''' lichtnawer helt nur eczwas võ den vier leger dorv~me das sy aus den ober vnd vnder henge~ gehñ doraus mã schire mag gechte bre~gen etc<ref>This paragraph is above the script level. Unlike other places where there are definitely forgotten passages originally marked with a caret, such is missing here. Thus, it can be conjectured that this is a later addition or comment.</ref>
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 32r.jpg|1|lbl=32r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the four Leger (Guards)}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the four positions, etc.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[68]</small>
+
| <small>68</small>
 
+
| Four positions alone<br/>&emsp;From there hold and flee the common.
<small>[69]</small></poem>
+
|-
| <poem>Four guards alone,
+
| <small>69</small>
:keep these and forget the others.
+
| Ox, plow, fool,<br/>&emsp;From-the-roof are not despised by you.
Ochs Pflug Alber
 
:and vom Tag should not be unknown to you.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss, etc}}. Here he names the four positions or four guards. About them, little is to be held. Instead, in any confrontation, a person shall absolutely not lay too long therein. For Liechtenauer has a particular proverb: {{red|Whoever lays there, they are dead. Whoever rouses themselves, they yet live}}. And that pertains to the positions that a person shall preferably rouse themselves with applications. Because he that idles [in] the guards, he might preclude the moment of truth with that.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 32r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
  
{{red|Comment}} Here he (Liechtenauer) mentions the four guards (Leger or Hut), which he considers useful. But first of all, one should not lie in these for too long, because Liechtenauer has a proverb: "Who lies there, is dead and who moves is still alive." And this relates to the guards – a man should rather move with fencing attacks and techniques than waiting in the guards, which he may use to leave the ''Schanze'' (duelling yard)
+
|-
 +
| <p>The first guard, plow, is this in which one lays the point forward, upon the earth or to the side. After the offsetting, this is otherwise called the barrier-guard or the gate.</p>
  
The first guard is the Pflug (Plough) when someone puts the point in the ground in front of himself or to the sides. If you do this after the Absetzen (parrying) then it is called differently: namely Schrankhut or the gate.
+
<p>The second guard, ox, is the over-hanging<ref>überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline</ref> from the shoulder.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 32r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
The second guard Ochs (Ox) is the upper hanging from the shoulder
+
|-
 
+
|
Alber (fool) breaks, what is being struck or thrust. And with hangings break swipes, the travelling after should follows instantly.  
+
{| class="zettel"
 
+
|-
The third guard fool, is the low hanging with which you can break all strikes and thrusts if you know to do it correctly.
+
| <small>xxix</small>
 +
| The fool always breaks<br/>&emsp;Whatever one hews or stabs
 +
|-
 +
| <small>xxx</small>
 +
| With hanging, strokes [and]<br/>&emsp;Racing-behind, set [into action]<ref>Grimm: setzen C.2)a)</ref> at once.
 +
|}
 +
<p>The third guard, the fool, is the under-hanging.<ref>unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree</ref> With it, one breaks all hews and stabs, whoever commands it correctly.</p>
  
The fourth guard, from Tag (high guard) is also the long point. Who practices it with extended arms cannot be hit with strikes or thrusts.
+
<p>The fourth guard, from-the-roof, is the long-point. Whoever commands it with extended arms, one may not hit them well with hews nor with stabs. Also, it may well be called the hanging over the head.</p>
It may also hit the hanging over the head.
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 32r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
  
Also know, that all guards are broken with strikes, by courageously striking, so he must move up and defend. That is why Liechtenauer does not hold the guards in high regard but prefers to let his students try to gain the Vorschlag.
 
| {{red|b=1|Das ist von den vier leger / etc ~}}
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|V}}Ier leger alleyne •
+
| <p>Also know that one breaks all positions and guards with hewing. For one bravely initiates a hew at the opponent with them so they must urgently drive up and defend themselves. Therefore Liechtenauer does not hold much about the positions or guards, rather he preferably crafts it so that someone discourages themselves before him so that he then wins the fore-strike. (As they are able.)</p>
do von halt vnd flewg dy gemeyne /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 32r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}<!--
Ochse • pflug • alber •
 
vom tage nicht sy dir v<sup>e</sup>mmer</poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|/ Glosa etc /}} Hie nent her vier leger ader vier hute~ / do võ etzwas czu halde~ ist / Doch vor allen sache~ / zo sal ey~ mã io nicht czu / lãge doryñe lege~ / We~ lichtnaw° hat eyn sölch sprichwort / wer do leit der ist tot / wer sich rüret der lebt noch / vnd das get of dy leger das sich ey~n mã sal liber rure~ mit gefechten de~ das her / der hute~ wart / mit dem her vorslosse~ möcht dy schancze / Dy erste hute / pflug is / dy / we~ eyn° de~ ort vor sich of dy erde legt ader czu der seiten / noch dem abesetze~ / das heyssen and° / dy schranckhute / ad° dy pforte / Dy and° hute ochse / ist das oberhenge~ / von der achsel Alber io bricht / was man hewt ader sticht / Mit hengen streiche / nochreizen setze gleiche Dy dritte hute / alber / ist das vnderhenge~ / mit der mã alle hewe~ vnd stiche / bricht / wer dy recht füret / Dy vierde hute / vom tage / ist der lange ort / wer den wol furet mit gestragtem arme~ / den mag mã <sup>nicht</sup> mit hewe~ / noch mit stiche~ wol treffen / Is mag auch wol heissen / das henge~ ober dem hawpte Auch wisse / das man alle leger vnd hute~ bricht mit hewen / mit deme / daz mã eyme ku~lich czu hewt / zo mus io <sup>eyn°</sup> of varn vnd sich schutze~ / Dorvem helt lichtnaw° nicht vil von den legern ader hute~ / zu~der her schaft lib° daz sich eyn° besorge vor im / mit dem das her den vorslag gewi~t <del>ut ptuit</del><ref>latin: ut potuit. "as [they] are able" This is underlined and not stricken.</ref>]<!--
 
 
           --><section end="Leger"/><section begin="Vorsetzen"/>
 
           --><section end="Leger"/><section begin="Vorsetzen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the four displacements}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the four displacements}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[70]</small>
+
| <small>70</small>
 
+
| Four are the displacements<br/>&emsp;Which also severely disrupt the positions.
<small>[71]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>71</small>
<small>[72]</small>
+
| Guard yourself from displacing<br/>&emsp;If that happens, it also severely beleaguers you.
 
+
|-
<small>[73]</small>
+
| <small>72</small>
 
+
| If you are displaced,<br/>&emsp;And as that comes to be,
<small>[74]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>73</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxix]</small>
+
| Hear what I advise:<br/>&emsp;Deftly leave the cut with haste.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxx]</small></poem>
+
| <small>74</small>
| <poem>{{red|T}}here are four displacements
+
| Place at four extremities<br/>&emsp;Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish.
:that also open the guards.
+
|-
Beware the displacements,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxi</small>
:if they happen, you have to work hard.
+
| Whoever displaces well,<br/>&emsp;This technique disrupts many hews.
If you have been displaced
+
|-
:and how it could happen
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxii</small>
Listen to my advice,
+
| Because in the hangings<br/>&emsp;You swiftly come with the displacements.
:swipe off and strike back quickly
 
Set the point onto four openings
 
:and stay on it, learn this if you wish to end.
 
Who displaces well
 
:can defend against many strikes
 
because with the displacements  
 
:you get quickly into the hangings.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Here note that the four displacements are to both sides. To each side, one over and one under. And they disrupt or break all guards or positions and however you, from above or from below, carry off or reject someone's hew, stab or cut with your sword, that may well be called displacing. And if they will displace you, as that arrives, then withdraw swiftly and with that,  quickly initiate a hew in one charge. If you then displace someone or turn away a hew or stab, so shall you immediately tread in and pursue on the sword so that the opponent cannot withdraw from you and shall then do what you may. However lightly you hesitate and delay yourself, so you take harm. You shall also wind well and turn your point against the opponent's chest every time, so that he must discourage himself.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 32v.jpg|1|lbl=32v}}
  
{{red|Comment}} Here learn that there are four displacements to both sides, one high and one low, and these break or open all guards. And how you lead away or defends against strikes thrusts or cuts from above or below this may be called displacing (versetzen). And if you have been displaced however this may have happened, so move off with the sword quickly and strike quickly again while you move in towards him.
 
 
Now if it happens that you displace or turn off a strike or thrust, so you should move in and follow at his sword so that he cannot move away. And then you can do as you wish – the more you hesitate the more you will receive damage.
 
 
Also you should wind well and aim for his chest with the point, so he has to worry.
 
 
Also a good fencer should well learn to bind at his sword and this can be done with the displacements, because these come from the four strikes, Oberhau (strike from above) and Unterhau (strike from below) from both sides and these move into the four hangings.
 
 
If one defends from above or below he should move in and get into the hangings, and should see to it that he turns away or leads off all strikes and thrusts with the front edge as it is done with all displacements.
 
| '''[32v] {{red|Das it von vier vorsetczen}}'''
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|V}}Ier sint vorsetczen •
+
| <p>Also a good fencer shall fully learn coming onto the sword of the opponent and he must do that well with the displacements, because they come from the four hews. From each side, an over-hew and an under-hew and go into the four hangings. For as soon as one displaces from below or above, so shall they immediately come into the hangings. And as he winds-off all hews and stabs with the forward edge, it is as with the displacements.</p>
dy dy leger auch sere letczen /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 32v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}<!--
Vorsetczen hüt dich •
 
geschiet das auch sere müt dich /
 
Ab dir vorsatzt ist •
 
vnd wy das dar komen ist /
 
Höre was ich rate •
 
streich abe • haw snel mete drate /
 
Setzt an vier enden •
 
bleib droffe kere wiltu enden /
 
<small>wer wol vorsetczit /
 
der vechte vil hewe letczit /  
 
wen yn dy hengen /
 
ku~pstu mt vorsetcze~ behe~de /</small></poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|/ Glosa /}} Hie merke / das vier vorsetczen sint / czu beiden / seiten / czu itlich° seiten / eyn obers / vnd eyns v<sup>e</sup>nders / vnd dy letcze~ ader brechñ / alle hute~ ader leger / vnd wy du von obñ / ader von vnde~ / eyme / hewe stiche ader snete / mit deyme sw°te abeleitest / ader abweisest / das mag wol heissen vorsetcze~ / Vnd ab dir vorsatz w°t wy das dar ku~pt / zo czewch rislich abe • vnd haw snelle mete czu / yn eyme hurte / Ist deñe das du eyme vorsetzt / ader abewe~dest eyn haw ader stich / zo saltu / czu hant czu trete~ vnd nochvolge~ am sw°te das dir ien° icht abeczihe / vnd salt deñe tue~ was du magst / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest zo nym~estu schaden / Auch saltu wol we~de~ / vnd allemal dey~ ort <sup>keren</sup> key~s ey~s brust / zo mus h° sich besorgen / Auch sal ey~ guter fechter / wol lerne~ / eyme an das swert kome~ <del>kome~</del> / vnd das mag / her wol tue~ / m<sup>t</sup> den vorsetcze~ / wen dy kome~ aus den vier hewe~ / võ itzlicher seite~ / ey~ öb°haw vnd ey~ v<sup>e</sup>nderhaw / vnd gen yn dy vier henge~ we~ als bald als eyn° vorsetzt võ vnde~ / ader von obñ / zo sal her czu hãt yn dy he~gen komen • Vnd als her mt der vörd°n sneiden / alle hewe vnd stiche / abewe~dt / als ist es m<sup>t</sup> den vorsetczen /<!--
 
 
           --><section end="Vorsetzen"/>
 
           --><section end="Vorsetzen"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is from the Nachreissen (adhering)}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the racing behind, etc, etc}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[75]</small>
+
| <small>75</small>
 
+
| Learn to race behind<br/>&emsp;Twice or cut into the weapon
<small>[76]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>76</small>
<small>[77]</small>
+
| Yoke the two to the outside<br/>&emsp;The work begins thereafter
 
+
|-
<small>[78]</small>
+
| <small>77</small>
 
+
| Testing the attack<br/>&emsp;Whether it is soft or hard
<small>[79]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>78</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxi]</small>
+
| Learn to feel it<br/>&emsp;Within-this, this word cuts sharply
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxii]</small>
+
| <small>79</small>
 
+
| Racing twice<br/>&emsp;With that make the parting cut.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxiii]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxiii</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxiv]</small></poem>
+
| Follow all hits<br/>&emsp;Then strengthen if you wish to dupe the masters
| <poem>Learn the Nachreissen twice
+
|-
:and cut into the weapons
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxiv</small>
Two outside takings
+
| In every lesson,<br/>&emsp;Turn the point against one's face.
:and begin with your work
+
|-
Test the attacks
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxv</small>
:if they are soft or hard
+
| With the entire body<br/>&emsp;Race behind, always keep your point there.
Learn the feeling
+
|-
:Indes, the word, cuts sharply
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxvi</small>
Nachreissen twice
+
| Also learn to swiftly<br/>&emsp;Race, so you may end well.
:and do the old cut
 
Follow all binding
 
:of the strong if you wish to fool them
 
Always learn
 
:to turn the point against the face
 
use the whole body
 
:with the Nachreissen and keep the point on line
 
Also learn to do
 
:the Nachreissen quickly so you may well end.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[33r] {{red|Das ist von nochreisen etc etc}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|N}}Ochreisen lere •
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 33r.jpg|1|lbl=33r}}
czwefach s ader sneit in dy were /
 
Czwey ewsere myñe •
 
der erbeit dornoch begyñe /
 
Vnd prüff dy ferte •
 
ab sye sint <u>weich</u> ader <u>herte</u> /
 
Das fülen lere •
 
<u>Indes</u> • das wort sneidet sere /
 
Reisen czwefache •
 
den alden snet mete mache /
 
Volge allen treffen •
 
den starken wiltu sy effen /
 
In aller lere /
 
den ort key~ ey~s gesichte kere /
 
Mit gãczem leibe /
 
nochreize / deyn ort io da pleibe /
 
lere auch behende /
 
reize~ / zo magstu wol enden </poem>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about the Überlaufen (overreaching), fencer observe this!}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the overrunning. Fencer seek within.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[80]</small>
+
| <small>80</small>
 
+
| Whoever hunts below<br/>&emsp;Overrun, then they will be shamed.
<small>[81]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>81</small>
<small>[82]</small>
+
| When it clashes above,<br/>&emsp;Strengthen, This I wish to praise.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxv]</small>
+
| <small>82</small>
 
+
| Make your work<br/>&emsp;Or press hard twice.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxvi]</small></poem>
+
|-
| <poem>Who aims below
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxvii</small>
:will be hit above with your overreaching
+
| Whoever presses you down,<br/>&emsp;Overrun them, slash sharply again.
If the swords bind high
+
|-
:so be strong and I will praise that
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxviii</small>
Do your work
+
| From both sides<br/>&emsp;Overrun and remember the cuts.
:or double press
 
Those who try to force you down,
 
:overreach them and strike hard again
 
Overreach from both sides
 
:and remember the edges.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[33v] {{red|Das ist von öberlawfen / ffechter sich czu /}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<br/><br/><poem>{{red|W}}Er vnden remet •
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 33v.jpg|1|lbl=33v}}
öberlawf den / der wirt beschemet /
 
Wen is klitzt oben •
 
so sterke das ger ich loben /
 
Deyn erbeit mache •
 
ader herte drücke czwefache /
 
Wer dich drükt neder •
 
öberlawf in • slach sere weder /
 
Von beiden seite~
 
öberlawf vnd merke dy sneiden /</poem>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is from Absetzen (setting aside), this learn well}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about offsetting. Learn this well.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[83]</small>
+
| <small>83</small>
 
+
| Learn to offset<br/>&emsp;Artfully disrupt hews, stabs.
<small>[84]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>84</small>
<small>[85]</small>
+
| Whoever stabs upon you<br/>&emsp;Your point hits and his breaks.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxvii]</small></poem>
+
| <small>85</small>
| <poem>Learn to artfully defeat strikes and thrusts
+
| From both sides<br/>&emsp;Hit every time, if you will step.
:with the Absetzen
+
|-
So that who thrusts you,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xxxix</small>
:his point is broken and yours does hit
+
| In every lesson,<br/>&emsp;Turn the point against one's face.
Hit from both sides
 
:if you step correctly
 
Learn to turn
 
:the point against one's face.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[34r] {{red|Das ist von abesetczen / das lere wol ~}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|L}}Ere abesetczen •
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 34r.jpg|1|lbl=34r}}
hewe stiche kü~stlichen letczen /
 
Wer auf dich sticht •
 
dyn ort trift vnd seynen bricht /
 
Von payden seyten •
 
trif allemal wiltu schreiten /
 
In aller lere /
 
dey~ ort key~ ey~s gesichte kere /</poem>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is from the Durchwechsel (changing through)}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the changing-through, etc, etc.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[86]</small>
+
| <small>86</small>
 
+
| Learn to change-through<br/>&emsp;From both sides, with that stab sharply.
<small>[87]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>87</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxviii]</small>
+
| Whoever binds upon you,<br/>&emsp;Change-through, surely find him.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xxxix]</small></poem>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xl</small>
| <poem>Learn the changing through
+
| When you have changed-through,<br/>&emsp;Do not slash, stab or wind lax.
:from both sides and deliver a good thrust
+
|-
The changing through will find
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xli</small>
:an opening in anyone who binds you.
+
| Do not hew into the sword<br/>&emsp;Change-through, with that watch.
As soon as you have changed through,
 
:strike thrust or wind strongly
 
Do not strike the sword,
 
:if he does it to you, do not let him wait for your changing-through.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Here note that the changing-through goes in completely straight from above downwards and from below upwards to both sides if it is otherwise conducted swiftly. Now if you wish to change-through to the right side from above down, then hew an over-hew straight into him also so that you shoot-in your point to his left side above the hilt also so that you hit the same little hole and little window between the edges and the hilt completely straight. If you hit, then you have won. If he wards it so that he leads off and presses-out your point with his sword, then let your point sink from the same side under his sword around it to the other side, not wide around, rather, below on his sword so you may keep close and from there drive-in quite swiftly above the hilt with a good, complete stab and when you feel that you hit, fully pursue. And as you do from one side, below and above, so you do from the other.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 34v.jpg|1|lbl=34v}}
  
{{red|Comment}} Here learn that the changing-through goes from both sides down and up again and is very direct, if done quickly. If you now wish to change through from your right downwards, so strike an Oberhau directly at him. Aim for the little hole or window above and behind his hilt and shoot the point to his left opening. So that you may hit between the blade and the hilt; if you hit, you have won.
 
 
If he now defends against this by turning aside your point and pushes against your blade, so let your point sink down from the same side and move it around under his sword to the other side. And this should not be done wide around but as close to his sword as possible. And then move your point quickly in above his hilt, with a good and perfect thrust. And if you feel you hit, so follow well through (with your thrust). And you should do the same from the other side, low or high, as you do it on this side. Whoever binds you, so move at his sword against him and he defends, so change through as before, or wind and feel his technique if it is soft or hard. Then seek strikes thrusts and cuts against the openings.
 
| '''[34v] {{red|Das ist vom durchwechsel / etc etc}}'''
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|D}}Vrchwechsel lere •
+
|  
von payden seyten stich mete sere /
+
<p>And whoever binds-on with you, rush<ref>rauschen: like a strong wind rustling quickly through the trees</ref> past on his sword with your point against his opening. If he wards, then change-through as before or wind and feel is technique whether it is soft or hard. Thereafter seek hew, stab, or cut against the openings.</p>
Wer auf dich bindet •
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 34v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}<!--
durchwechsel in schire vindet /
 
<small>Wen du durchwechselt hast /
 
slach stich / ader winde nicht laz /
 
Haw nicht czu~ sw°te /
 
durchwechsel • do mete warte </small></poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
<br/>{{red|/ Glosa / :~}} Hie merke / das durchwechsel gar gerade czugehet / czu beiden seiten / von oben neder / vnd von vnden of / wer is and°s rischlich treibet / Wiltu nu / czu der rechten hant / von oben neder durchwechseln / zo haw eyn öberhaw gleich czu ym / alzo das du dynen ort schüst / ym czu seyner linken seiten öber dem gehilcze yn / alzo das du das selbe löchel vnd fensterleyn / io gerade treffest / czwischen der sneide~ vnd deme gehilcze / triftz du / zo hastu <del>geseget</del> / gesigt / wert her dir das / mit deme das her dyn ort abe / weist vnd <sup>hin</sup> drückt / mit seyme sw°te / So la dyn ort sinken von der selben seiten vnder seyme swerte herv<sup>e</sup>m / czu der and°n seiten / nicht weit vem / zonder vnden an sym sw°te / zo du neste magst / vnd da var ym gar rischlich / öber dem gehilcze yn / mit eyme guten volkomen stiche / vnd wen du fülest das du trifts / zo volge wol noch Vnd alz du võ eyner seite~ tust / vnde~ ad° oben / zo tu võ der and°n / Vnd wer mit dir anbindet / zo rawsche an sym sw°te hin keyn seyner blöße / mit dym orte / <sup>w°t her</sup> zo durchwechsel / also vor / ader wind vnd füle sein geferte / ab is sey weich ader herte / dornoch süch hewe stiche / ad° snete / key~ de~ blößen /<!--
 
 
           --><section begin="Zucken"/>
 
           --><section begin="Zucken"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is from the Zucken (pulling) fencer learn this}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the disengaging. Fencer note.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[88]</small>
+
| <small>88</small>
 
+
| Tread near in the bind<br/>&emsp;The disengaging gives good discoveries.
<small>[89]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>89</small>
<small>[90]</small>
+
| Disengage. If he hits, disengage more.<br/>&emsp;If he works, wind that does him woe.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xl]</small></poem>
+
| <small>90</small>
| <poem>Step close in bindings,
+
| Disengage all hits<br/>&emsp;Of the masters if you will dupe them.
:the Zucken will well find (him open)
+
|-
Pull and should he hit, pull more,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xlii</small>
:create your work and wind, this will hurt him.
+
| Disengage off from the sword<br/>&emsp;And always ponder your drive.
Zuck in all meetings with the masters
 
:if you wish to fool them
 
Pull off from the sword  
 
:and consider your techniques.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[35r] {{red|Das ist vom Czücken / ffecht° merke /}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|T}}Rit nü in bünde •
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 35r.jpg|1|lbl=35r}}<!--
das czücken gibt gute fünde /
 
Czük / trift her / czucke/me •
 
erbeit her / wind / das tut im we /
 
Czük alle treffen •
 
den meist°n wiltu sye effen /
 
Czuk/ab vom swerte /
 
vnd gedenke io deyner ferte / <del>durchlawf</del> /</poem><!--
 
 
           --><section end="Zucken"/>
 
           --><section end="Zucken"/>
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is from the running-through, now see:}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the running-through. Look closely.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[91]</small>
+
| <small>91</small>
 
+
| Allow the hanging, run-through.<br/>&emsp;Grab with the pommel if you wish to wrangle.
<small>[92]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>92</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xli]</small></poem>
+
| Whoever comes against the strong<br/>&emsp;Runner-through, with that, note,
| <poem>Run through and let your pommel hang,
+
|-
:grab if you intend to wrestle
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xliii</small>
Who ever presses with strength against you,
+
| Run-through and shove.<br/>&emsp;Invert if he grabs for the pommel.
:remember the running through
 
Run through and ram him,
 
:invert your hand if he grabs after the pommel.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[35v] {{red|Das ist von durchlawfen / nü sich}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|D}}Vrchlawf loz hangen •
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 35v.jpg|1|lbl=35v}}
mit dem knawf / greif wiltu rangen /
 
Wer kegen der sterke /
 
durchlawfir do mete merke /
 
Durchlawf / vnd stos /
 
vorkere / greift her noch dem klos / </poem>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about Abschneiden (cutting off)}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the severing, etc, etc}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[93]</small>
+
| <small>93</small>
 
+
| Sever the hard-ones<br/>&emsp;From below in both drives.
<small>[94]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small>94</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlii]</small>
+
| Four are the cuts<br/>&emsp;With two below, two above.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xliii]</small>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xliv</small>
 
+
| Cross whoever wish to cut.<br/>&emsp;It easily evades the harm.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xliv]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xlv</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlv]</small></poem>
+
| Do not cut in fright,<br/>&emsp;Always consider racing before this.
| <poem>Cut off the hands
+
|-
:from below from both sides
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xlvi</small>
There are four cuts,
+
| You can cut well<br/>&emsp;Any cross, just omit the racing.
:two low and two high.
+
|-
Against the Zwerch,
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xlvii</small>
:cut well to avoid damage
+
| If you wish to remain without harm,<br/>&emsp;Then do not be too eager with the cutting.
Do not cut too soon,
 
:observe your chances carefully
 
You may well cut all crossings,
 
:just avoid the Nachreissen (adhering)
 
If you wish to remain uninjured,  
 
:do not stand but move with the cutting.</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
| '''[36r] {{red|Das ist von abesneiden etc etc ~}}'''
+
<p>[No gloss]</p>
<poem>{{red|S}}Neit abe dy herten /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 36r.jpg|1|lbl=36r}}
von vnden in beiden ferten /
 
Vier sint der snete /
 
czwene vnden • czwene oben mete /
 
Czwir wer wol sneidet /
 
den schaden her g°ne meidet /
 
Sneit nicht in vreize /
 
betrachte~ io vor dy reize /
 
du magst wol sneiden •
 
alle krewtz / nür reisen vormeiden /
 
wiltu ane schade~ bleibe~ /
 
zo bis nicht gee mt de~ / sneide~</poem>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is about Hände drücken (pressing the hands)}}
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the hand pressing, etc, etc.}}</p>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
{| class="zettel"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|-  
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[95]</small>
+
| <small>95</small>
 
+
| Turn your edge<br/>&emsp;Into the flats. Press the hands.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlvi]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xlviii</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlvii]</small>
+
| Another is turning<br/>&emsp;One's winding. The third, hanging.
 
+
|-
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlviii]</small>
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">xlix</small>
 
+
| If you wish to make the fencers<br/>&emsp;Weary, then press with contention.
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlix]</small>
+
|-
 
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">l</small>
<small style="color:#696969;">[l]</small></poem>
+
| Over the hands,<br/>&emsp;If one hews, cut swiftly.
| <poem>Turn your edge
+
|-
:to flat for pressing the hands
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">li</small>
The second is turning aside,
+
| Also draw the cuts<br/>&emsp;Above, out over the head.
:one is winding and the third is hanging
+
|-
If you wish to despair
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">lii</small>
:the fencers, press with pushing
+
| Whoever presses the hands<br/>&emsp;Without harm, disengages from the fingers.
and quickly cut
 
:over the hands
 
Also take off the cuts
 
:and strike to the head
 
Whoever presses hands  
 
:without damage protects his fingers</poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<p>Also know as soon as you turn away the opponent's hew or stab with the winding, so shall you immediately tread-in and swiftly drive there into the opponent. However lightly you hesitate and delay yourself, so you take harm.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 36v.jpg|1|lbl=36v}}
  
Also know, as soon as you defend a strike or a thrust with the turning-aside, so you should step sideways and move quickly to him; the slower you are the more damage you sustain.
 
| '''[36v] {{red|Das ist von hende drücken/ etc etc}}'''
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|D}}Eyn sneide wende /
+
| <p>Also note and know that one with the forward edge of the sword, from the middle of that side to the hilt, turns away all hews and stabs. And the closer the opponent's hew or stab comes to the hilt upon that edge, with that, as he turns his forward edge with it, the better and the more powerful he can turn away hews or stabs. Because the nearer to the hilt, the stronger and the mightier. And the closer to the point, the weaker and the sicklier. Therefore, whoever wishes to be a good fencer, they shall learn to turn away well before anything. For if he turns that away well with this, he comes immediately into the winds. From them he can conduct the skill and beauty of the technique well.</p>
czum flechen drücke dy hende /
+
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 36v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Eyn anders / ist wenden •
 
eyns winden / das dritten hengen /
 
Wiltu mache~ vordrossen /
 
dy vechter / zo drucke mit stössen /
 
Ober dy hende /
 
<del>hewstu</del> hewet man snete behe~de /
 
Czewch och dy~ snete /
 
obe~ aus öber de~ hewpte /
 
Wer he~de drückit /
 
ane schade~ / vor fi~ger czückit / </poem>
 
|}
 
  
Auch wisse / als bald / als du m<sup>t</sup> dem we~de~ / eyme ey~ haw ader stich / abe we~dest / zo saltu czu hãt czu trete~ / vnd rischlich dar varn czu eyme / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest / zo ny~stu schaden
+
|-
 +
| <p>The forward edge of the sword is called the right edge and all hews or stabs are ruined with the turning.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 36v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| Also know and learn that you turn aside all strikes and thrusts with the front edge of the sword, from its middle to the hilt. And the closer to the hilt a strike or a cut comes on the front edge which you have used to turn aside, the slower and stronger you can defend. This is because the closer you bind at the hilt, the stronger you can defend and the closer to the point the weaker you are. Now whoever wants to be a good fencer should firstly learn to turn-aside well, because by turning aside well he can get into the winding from which he can practice all art and grace of fencing.
+
| <p>{{red|b=1|This is about the hanging. Fencer learn this, etc.}}</p>
| Auch merke vnd wisse / das man mit der vördern sneiden des swertes / vom mittel der selben sneiden / bis czu deme gehilcze / alle hewe ad° stiche abewendet / Vnd e neher eyme / eyn haw ader stich czu syme gehilcze ku~pt / of der selben sneiden / mit deme als <sup>her</sup> im gewendet hat dy selbe vörder sneide / e bas / vnd e kreftiger / her dy selben hewe ader stiche / abewenden mag / Weñe e neher czum gehilcze e sterker vnd e / mechtiger / Vnd e neher/czum orte / <del>e quesw</del> [?] e swecher vnd e krenkher / Dorv<sup>e</sup>m wer eyn guter fechter wil seyn / der sal vör allen dingen lernen wol abewenden / Wen mit dem das her wol abewendet ku~pt her czu hant yn dy winden / aus den her wol ku~st vnd höbscheit mag treibe~ dez gefechtez /
+
{| class="zettel"
 
+
|-  
 +
| <small>96</small>
 +
| Two hangings emerge<br/>&emsp;From each side from the ground
 +
|-
 +
| <small>97</small>
 +
| In all applications<br/>&emsp;Hew, stab, position soft or hard.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>98</small>
 +
| Make the speaking-window<br/>&emsp;Stand freely, seek his trigger.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>99</small>
 +
| Slash that it snaps<br/>&emsp;Whoever withdraws themselves before you.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>100</small>
 +
| I say to you truthfully,<br/>&emsp;No one defends themselves without danger.
 +
|-
 +
| <small>101</small>
 +
| If you have understood,<br/>&emsp;he may scarcely come to blows.
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">liii</small>
 +
| That is, if you remain<br/>&emsp;Upon the sword, also conduct with that
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">liv</small>
 +
| Hews, stabs or cuts.<br/>&emsp;With that, note the feeling
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">lv</small>
 +
| Without any preference.<br/>&emsp;You shall also not flee from the sword
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">lvi</small>
 +
| Because master applications<br/>&emsp;Are on the sword by rights.
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">lvii</small>
 +
| Whoever binds onto you<br/>&emsp;The war wrestles with him sharply.
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">lviii</small>
 +
| The noble winding<br/>&emsp;Can also surely find him
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">lix</small>
 +
| With hewing, with stabbing<br/>&emsp;With cutting you tenaciously find him.
 +
|-
 +
| <small style="color:#696969;">lx</small>
 +
| In all winding<br/>&emsp;You shall find hews, stabs, cuts.
 
|-  
 
|-  
| The front edge at the sword is called the true edge and all strikes or thrusts are ruined by the turning-aside.
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">lxi</small>
| Dy vörder sneyde / am sw°te heist dy rechte sneide / vnd alle hewe ad° stiche sint vorterbe~ mt de~ we~de~
+
| The noble hanging<br/>&emsp;Will not exist without the winding.
 
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| {{red|b=1|This is from the Hängen (hanging), fencer learn this}}
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">lxii</small>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
| Because from the hangings<br/>&emsp;You shall bring the windings.
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
+
|}
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[96]</small>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss, etc}}. Here note and know that to each side are two hangings: one under-hanging<ref>unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree</ref> and one over-hanging.<ref>überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline</ref> With them, you may come upon the sword of the opponent well. Because they come from the over-hews and the under-hews. Just when it happens that you bind on with someone or as you otherwise come to him on the sword, so shall you remain on the sword and shall wind and shall also quite merrily stay on the sword with him with a good spirit and bravely without fear. And shall quite precisely see, note and watch whatever he will do or what his situation, is with which he will go the rounds against you. And this standing like so on the sword, Liechtenauer calls this a speaking-window. And just when you stand with him on the sword, so shall you quite precisely note and feel his application whether it is soft or hard. Thereafter, you shall then orient yourself as is often spoken before. If he then withdraws himself from the sword before any situation, earlier than you begin, then you shall immediately pursue and shall strike hews or stabs whatever you may most surely deliver, before he comes to anything at all. Because you are always closer to him with that. Thus, you remain on the sword and extend your point against him.</p>
  
<small>[97]</small>
+
<p>When the opponent withdraws with his, before he recovers himself of one of his strikes he delivered to you, immediately drive on with the point. But if he remains with you on the sword, then always test and note whether he is soft or hard on the sword.</p>
  
<small>[98]</small>
+
<p>If it is that he is soft and weak, then you shall swiftly and bravely drive full on and charge there with your strong and shall force and press his sword out and shall press and force out his sword and seek his openings to the head, to the body; just wherever you can get to.</p>
  
<small>[99]</small>
+
<p>If the opponent is subsequently hard and strong on the sword and means to force and force you firmly out, so shall you then be soft and weak against his strong and dissipate his forcing with your sword.</p>
  
<small>[100]</small>
+
<p>And in that ebbing as his sword crashes and slides away, also as is written about that as before, in that or the moment as that happens to him, before he can recover himself again, so that he cannot come to any strikes or stabs, so shall you explore his openings with hews, stabs or cuts wherever you may most surely possess him according to the afore-written lore swiftly, bravely and quickly so that he can never come to blows.</p>
  
<small>[101]</small>
+
<p>That's why Liechtenauer says {{red|I say to you truthfully, no one defends themselves without danger. If you have grasped this, he can barely come to blows.}} By this he means that no one may defend themselves without danger or harm if you do this according to the written lore. If you execute and win the fore-strike from him, then they must continually defend or must allow themselves to be struck.</p>
  
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlvi]</small>
+
<p>For when you execute the fore-strike, you hit or miss; so shall you swiftly execute the after-strike in one rush before when the opponent comes to any blows. For when you wish to execute the fore-strike, so shall you just as if in one thought and mind also execute the after-strike just as if you will execute them with one another because it likely defends.</p>
  
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlvii]</small>
+
<p>That's why Liechtenauer says {{red|Before, After, the two things}}, etc. Because if you execute the fore-strike, you hit or miss, then execute the after-strike verily in one rush, swiftly and quickly so that the opponent comes to blows with nothing and you shall work like this so that you always come earlier than the opponent in all confrontations of fencing. And as soon as you come earlier than the opponent and won the fore-strike, then you immediately execute the after-strike.</p>
  
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlviii]</small>
+
<p>When you shall execute no fore-strike, you still have the after-strike along with in sense and in spirit such that you always be in motion and neither dawdle nor hesitate with nothing, especially you always conduct one after the other swiftly and quickly, so that the opponent comes to nothing.</p>
  
<small style="color:#696969;">[xlix]</small>
+
<p>If you truthfully do this, then he must be quite a phenom, whoever comes away from you unstruck. Because with this art or with the advantage that it often happens that a peasant or an unlearned strikes a good master with this for he conducts the fore-strike and bravely hurries there. Because however lightly it is overlooked, it hits within-this and shames him like this and strikes. Because one who takes watch of the blow and will wait for the defence, they are in greater danger than the one who strikes thereupon him and wins the fore-strike. Therefore orchestrate that you are the first in all confrontations of fencing and come to the right side of someone. There you will be surer of everything than the opponent.</p>
 +
|
 +
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 37r.jpg|1|lbl=37r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 37v.jpg|1|lbl=37v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 38r.jpg|1|lbl=38r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 3227a 38v.jpg|1|lbl=38v|p=1}}
  
<small style="color:#696969;">[l]</small>
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[li]</small>
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[lii]</small>
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[liii]</small>
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[liv]</small>
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[lv]</small></poem>
 
| <poem>Two hangings
 
:from one side from the ground
 
in all techniques
 
:strikes thrusts cuts guards soft or hard
 
Do the Sprechfenster (speaking window)
 
:stand happily and observe him
 
Strike that he falters
 
:when he pulls off from you
 
I tell you truthfully
 
:no one defends without danger
 
Have you understood this,
 
:he may not come to strikes
 
Be it that you stay
 
:at the sword so you can do
 
strikes thrusts and cuts,
 
:learn the feeling
 
without all hesitation,
 
:and you should not flee from the sword
 
because a masters fencing
 
:is rightfully at the sword
 
those who bind you
 
:will be forced with the Krieg
 
The noble winding
 
:may also find him open
 
With strikes with thrusts
 
:with cuts you find him defenceless
 
In all windings
 
:you should learn to find strikes thrusts and cuts
 
the noble hanging
 
:cannot be without the hanging
 
because from the hanging
 
:you should practice the winding.</poem>
 
|}
 
 
{{red|Comment:}} here learn and know that there are two hangings each side, one Unterhängen (lower hanging) and one Oberhängen (upper hanging) with which you can get at his sword well, because these come from the Oberhau and Unterhau (high strike and low strike). If it now happens that you bind with your opponent on purpose or without so you should well stay at the sword and use the winding. So you can stand happily with relaxed mind and without fear at the sword and see, notice and wait for what he tries to do next; and what his plan is he intends to execute. And the standing at the sword is called the Sprechfenser (speaking window) by Liechtenauer. If you now stand at the sword with him, you should notice and feel his technique, be it soft or hard. And according to this you should act, as it has been written before. Now if he pulls off from the sword before you could begin your technique, so you should follow with him and beat strike or thrust him whatever you can bring surest, before he can do anything himself before you. You can do this because by staying at the sword and extending yourself your (point) moves nearer to him. If someone pulls off because he has to recover from a strike he just executes, then follow in with the point. If he instead stays at the sword you have to gauge and notice whether he his soft or hard at the sword.
 
 
If he is soft and weak, you should quickly and bravely proceed and hurry at him with the strength of your sword and force his sword aside with pressure, seeking his openings, to the head or the body wherever you may get at.
 
 
If he is hard and strong at the sword and intends to force you aside strongly, you should be soft and weak against his strength, and yield to his strength and forward pressure, thus evading with your sword. And with this evading as his sword swings about, as it has been written before, and now as this happens and while he is recovering from that and thus cannot execute strikes or thrusts, you should attack his openings, with strikes thrusts or cuts, wherever you may hit him best. According to the teaching you should do this quickly bravely and fast so that your adversary cannot come to strikes. As Liechtenauer says: I tell you truthfully, no man defends without danger, if you have understood it, he will not come to strikes. And by this he means that the adversary will not be able to safely defend if you act according to this teaching.
 
As soon as you have done the first strike the adversary has to defend against it or has to take the hit. When you do the first strike, may you hit or muss, so you should quickly in one rush follow with the Nachschlag before he comes to strike. If you want to do the Vorschlag, you should also do the Nachschlag just with same thought or the same intention if possible. This is why he says: Vor and Nach those two things etc... If you do the Vorschlag, no matter if you hit or miss, you should do the Nachschlag in one rush quickly and fast, so that he cannot under any circumstances to his strikes.
 
 
So see to it that in all instances of fencing you act before your opponent and as soon as you move before him and have gained the Vorschlag so do the Nachschlag with moving in. You should never do a Vorschlag if you have not prepared the Nachschlag in your senses and mind as well, so that you are always in constant motion and never you should pause or hesitate. Always do one after the other quickly and fast so that your adversary cannot do any technique. Really, if you do exactly that, then he must be a really good (skilled) man to get away from you without being struck.
 
 
Because with this art or advantage it often happens that a peasant or anyone untrained defeats a skilled master by gaining the Vorschlag and rushing in quickly. Because it is easily missed that Indes hits him and also defeats and humiliates him. Because one that observes the strikes and waits for the defense is in greater danger than the one who strikes him and thus wins the Vorschlag. So always be that you are the first in all instances of fencing that you get to ones right side, there you are safer than your adversary.
 
| '''[37r] {{red|Das ist von hengen / ffecht° daz lere / ~}}'''
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>{{red|C}}zwey hengen werden /
+
| class="noline" |
aus eyner hant von der erden /
+
{| class="zettel"
In allen <sup>ge</sup>ferten /
+
|-
hewe stiche leger weich ader herte /
+
| <small>108</small>
Sprechfenster mache /
+
| From both sides<br/>&emsp;Learn eight winds with stepping.
stant frölich sich syne sache /
+
|-
<del>Sch</del> Slach das her snabe /
+
| <small>106</small>
wer vor dir zich czewt abe /
+
| And always unite them<br/>&emsp;Yoke<ref>menen: treiben, fuhren, leiten</ref> the winds with three plays
Ich sage vor ware /
+
|-
sich schützt keyn man ane vare /
+
| <small>107</small>
Hastu vornome~ /
+
| So are they twenty<br/>&emsp;And four. Simply count them.
czu slage mag her kleyne komen /
+
|-
Is das du bleibest
+
| <small>105</small>
am swerte da mete auch treibest /
+
| Fencer, mind this<br/>&emsp;And consider the winds correctly
Hewe stiche ader snete /
 
das fülen merke mete /
 
An alles vor<del>czh</del>czihen /
 
vom swerte du <sup>auch</sup> nicht salt flien /
 
wen meister gefechte /
 
ist am swerte von rechte /
 
wer an dich bindet /
 
der krik mit im sere ringet /
 
Das edle winden /
 
kan in auch schire vinden /
 
Mit hewen mit stichen
 
mit sneten vindest in werlichen /
 
In allen winden
 
hewe stiche snete saltu vinden /
 
Das edle hengen /
 
wil nicht syn an dy windñ
 
wen aus den henge~ /
 
saltu dy wi~den bre~gen / </poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|/ Glosa /}} etc Hie merke vnd wisse das czu itzlicher seiten sint czwey hengen / Eyn vnderhengen / vnd eyn öbirhengen / mit den du eyme wol an das swert magst komen / <sup>wen dy kome~ aus den öb°hewe~ vnd vnderhewen</sup> / Wen das nu geschiet / das du mit eyme an bindest / ader wy du süst mit im an das swert kömps zo salt du an dem swerte bleybñ <del>vnd salt</del> vnd salt winden • vnd salt alzo mit im gar '''[37v]''' frölichen / mit gutem mute / vnd künlichen an alle vorchte / an dem sw°te stehen / Vnd salt gar ebñ sehen / merken vnd warten was her wolle tuen / ader was syne sache sey / der her key~ dir pflegen wölle / Vnd daz stehen / alzo an deme swerte / das heisset lichtnaw° eyn sprechvanster / Vnd wen du nü mit im alzo an dem sw°te stehst / zo salt du gar ebñ merken vnd fülen syne geferte / ab sie sint weich aber herte / dornoch salt du dich deñe richte~ als vor ofte gesproche~ ist / Ist / das her sich vör allen sachen / e deñe du noch ichsicht begyñest / abe czewt von deme sw°te / zo salt du czu hant noch volgen vnd salt in slaen hawe~ ader steche~ was du am schiresten magst dar bre~gen / e den her czu keyn°leye dinge kome / <sup>weñe du hast io neher czu im mit dem das du am sw°te blibest / vnd dyn ort key~ im reckest / we~ iener mit syme abe czihen / den e her sich ey~s slags erholt dir dar brengt / zo var czu hãt dar mt dy~ orte/ </sup> Bleibt her aber mit dir an dem sw°te / zo prüfe / io vnd merke / ab her sy weich aber herte an dem swerte / Ist das her ist / weich vnd swach / zo saltu rischlichen vnd künlichen volvaren vnd dar hurten / mit dyner sterke / vnd salt / im syn swert hin dringen vnd drücken / vnd süche~ syne bloßen / czu koppe ader czu leibe / wo du nür czu magst komen / Ist iener <del>a°</del> deñe herte vnd stark an deme sw°te / vnd meynt dich vaste hin dringen vnd stossen / zo saltu deñe weich vnd swach seyn / keyn syner sterke / vnd salt syner sterke vnd syme dringen mit dynen sw°te entwychen '''[38r]''' vnd yn dem weiche~ als im syn sw°t im hin prelt vnd wischt / als vor auch von deme geschrebñ ist / In deme ad° dy weile als das im geschit / e deñe her sichs weder irholen mag / dar her czu keyme slage ader stiche kome / Zo saltu selber syner blössen war neme~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader sneten / wo du in am schireste~ gehabñ magst / noch der vorgeschrebñ lere / risch / künlich vnd snelle das io iener mit nichte czu slage kome Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° / ich sag vorwar • sich schutzt key~ man ane var / Hastu vornomen / czu slage mag er kleyne kome~ / Do mitt meynt her / das sich keyn° mag ane var ader ane schaden schutcze~ / Is das du tust noch der geschrebñ lere / Ab du im den vorslag gewyñest vnd tust den mus io iener were~ / ad° mus sich lasse slaen / wen du deñe den vorslag tust / du trefst ader velest / zo saltu rischlich vnd in eyme rawsche den nochslag tue~ / e deñe iener czu keyme slage kome / Deñe wen du den vorslag wilt tue~ / zo saltu recht / zã yn eyme gedanke vnd mute den nochslag auch tue~ / recht zam du sy mit ey~nander wellest tue~ / we~ is möglich were / Dorvm spricht her / <u>vor • noch</u> / dy cwey dink etc ~ den tust du den vorslag / du treffest / ader velest / zo tu io / in eyme rawsche / risch vnd snelle den nochslag / das iener mit nichte '''[38v]''' czu slage kome / vnd alzo saltu schaffen das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens io e komest deñe iener / vnd als balde als du e kum~est deñe ien° / vnd den vorslag gewiñest / zo tu czu hãt den nochslag / Wen du salt key~ vorslag tue~ / du habst io / de~ nochslag auch mete ym synne vnd ym mute / also dastu vm~mer in motu seist / vnd mit nichte feyerst ader last / zonder vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibst / risch vnd snelle das iener czu keyne~ dingen moge kome~ / Vorwar tustu / das / zo mus her gar eyn guter syn der ungeslage~ von dir kum~t / Weñe mt der selben ku~st / ader m<sup>t</sup> dem vorteil <del>das</del> / ku~pt is oft / das ey~ pawer ader eyn ungelarter eyn gute~ meist° / slet / m<sup>t</sup> deme • das her den vorslag tuet / vnd künlich dar hurt / den wy leiche ist das obersehñ / das in/deß trift vnd in alzo beschemet vnd slet / deñe eyn° der der slege war nym~et / vnd des schütcze~s wil warten / der ist io in grosser var / deñe ien° der do of in slet / vnd den vorslag gewyñet / Dorvm~e schaffe / das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens der erste bist / vnd io eyme of dy <del>linke</del><sup>rechte</sup> / seiten komest / do bist du wol aller dinge sicher deñe ien° /
 
 
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">lxiii</small>
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
+
| And learn to command them well<br/>&emsp;So you may wound the four openings
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
 
| style="width:3em;" | <poem><small>[108]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[106]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[107]</small>
 
 
 
<small>[105]</small>
 
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[lvi]</small>
 
 
 
<small style="color:#696969;">[lvii]</small></poem>
 
| <poem>From both sides
 
:learn eight windings with the according steps
 
And each
 
:of those has three techniques
 
So there are twenty
 
:four windings, count them one by one
 
Fencer this observe
 
:and correctly understand the windings
 
And learn to use them well  
 
:so you may hit the four openings
 
Because every opening
 
:has six sure ways to be hit.</poem>
 
|}
 
 
 
{{red|Comment:}} Here learn that the winden are the real art and the base of all fencing with the sword and from these all other techniques and methods come from. And one rarely is a good fencer without the windings. Just as the Leychmeister disdain them and say that fencing from the winding is weak and they call it from the shortened sword because that they are done simple and stupid. And they mean that these are fenced from the long sword which is done with outstretched arms and extended sword and also aggressively with all strength of the body only by pressing themselves forward.
 
 
 
And this is painful to watch! If one stretches just as running after a rabbit this is not the way, neither the windings nor Liechtenauers art, because there is no strength against (the opposing strength)! Whoever does it differently should prefer strength.
 
|
 
{| style="border-collapse:collapse; border:0;"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <poem>'''[39v]''' {{red|V}}On beiden seiten /
+
| <small style="color:#696969;">lxiv</small>
ler acht wi~den mit schreite~ /
+
| Because each opening<br/>&emsp;Objectively has six wounds.
Vnd io ir eyne /
 
der wi~de~ m<sup>t</sup> drey~ stöcke~ meyne /
 
So synt ir czwenczik •
 
vnd vier / czele sy enczik /
 
ffechter das achte /
 
vnd dy winden rechte betrachte /
 
Vnd lere sy wol fure~ /
 
zo magst du dy vier blößen rüre~ /
 
Wen itzliche blösse /
 
hat sechs ruren gewisse / </poem>
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Here note and know that the winds are the right art and fixed foundation of all fencing of the sword. From them, all other applications and plays come. And one might tediously be a good fencer without the winds, although numerous illegitimate masters, they dismiss and say whatever comes from the winds is quite weak and name it "from the shortened sword", for they are simple and approach naively and meaning that they are fought from the long sword whatever arrives with extended arms and with extended sword and whatever arrives quite fiendishly and strong from the entire power of the body will barely flourish to the end and that is terrible to behold when someone extends themselves like this just as if they will run-down a hare. And that is all against the winding and against Liechtenauer's art when there is no strength against. Because if whoever's art differs on this, you should prefer the strong every time.</p>
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS 3227a 39v.jpg|1|lbl=39v}}
  
'''[40r]''' {{red|/ Glosa / :}} Hie merke / das dy winden / sint dy rechte kunst / vnd gru~tfeste alles fechten / des sw°tes / aus den alle ander gefechte vnd stöcke kome~ / vnd is mag mülich eyn guter fechter /syn / ane dy winden / Wy wol etzliche leychmeistere • dy vornichte~ / vnd spreche~ is sy gar swach was aus den winden ku~pt / vnd neñen is / aus dem korcze~ sw°te / dorvm~e das sy slecht vnd ey~veldik dar gen / vnd meyne~ das sy / aus dem lange~ sw°te gefochte~ / was dar get / m<sup>t</sup> gestracke~ arme~ / vnd m<sup>t</sup> gestrakte~ swerte / vnd was gar veyntlich vnd stark von alle~ krefte~ des leybes dar get / nur durch wol stehens wille / vnd das is grawsam an czu sehñ ist / we~ sich eyn° alzo strekt / recht zam her eyne~ hazen wolle irlawfen / vnd daz ist alles nicht / weder dy winden vnd weder lichtnaw°s kunst / wen do ist keyne sterke weder / deñe worvm~e wer anders ku~st / solde allemal dy sterke vörczihen /
+
{{section|Page:MS 3227a 40r.jpg|1|lbl=40r}}
  
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 23:36, 3 June 2020

Draft Translation Draft translation
by Christian Trosclair

Transcription [edit]
by Dierk Hagedorn

This is the general preface of the bare-fencing on foot. Mark this well.

1 Young knight learn
 to love god. Always honor women,
2 Thus cultivate your honor.
 Practice knight-craft and learn
3 Art that decorates you
 and in wars serves well.
4 Wrestling's good grips,
 Glaive, spear, sword and messer,
5 Manfully brandish
 and in other hands ruin.
6 Hew therein and charge there,
 rushing on, joining or driving out.
7 Those maturing in this wisdom,
 this one sees praising.
8 Thereupon you hold,
 all things have length and measure.
i And whatever you wish to conduct,
 shall stay in the realm of good reason.
ii In earnest or in play,
 have a joyous spirit with moderation
iii So that you may pay attention
 and consider with a good spirit
iv Whatever you shall command
 and whip up against him.
v Because a good spirit with authority
 someone's rebuke timid.
vi Thereafter, orient yourself.
 Give no advantage with anything.
vii Avoid imprudence.
 Do not step in front of four or six
viii With your overconfidence.
 Be modest, that is good for you.
ix It is a brave man
 that dares to confront his equal.
x It is not shameful
 to flee four or six at hand.

This is the general lore of the sword

9 If you wish to examine[2] the art.
 Go left and right with hewing.
10 And left with right
 is what you strongly desire to fence.
11 Whoever chases-after hews,
 they allow themselves to hardly enjoy the art.
12 Hew nearby whatever you wish,
 No change comes on your shield.
xi Do not hew to the sword.
 Rather, Constantly watch the openings.
13 To the head, to the body,
 Do not omit the flesh-wounds.
14 With the entire body fence
 whatever you desire to conduct strongly.
15 Hear what is bad for that:
 Do not fence from above left if you are right.
16 And if you are left,
 in the right, you are severely hindered.
xii So always prefer to fence
 from above left downwards.
17 Before, after, the two things
 are the one origin of all art.
18 Weak and strong,
 Within, with that mark the word.
19 So you may learn
 to defend yourself with art and work.
20 If you terrify easily,
 never learn any fencing.
xii Audacity and swiftness,
 prudence, astuteness and ingenuity,
xiv Acumen, concealment,
 measure, obscuration, scouting
xv And skill will fencing have
 and carry a joyous spirit.

General gloss hereafter.[3] First of all, note and know that the point of the sword is the center, the middle and the core of the sword from which all applications leave and come back into it. So are the hangings and the windings are the attachments and the revolutions of the center and of the core. From them, quite a few good plays of fencing also come. And are invented and conceived so that a fencer, who begins to hew or thrust directly to the point, of course may not hit every single time; yet they can hit someone with those same plays hewing, stabbing or cutting; with treading out and in; and with stepping-around or springing. And if one mislaid or mis-extended the point of his sword with shooting or with lunging[4] then he may realign and retract and shorten it again with winding or treading-out,[5] in such a way that he again comes into the certain[6] plays and principles of fencing. From them, he may bring hews, stabs, or cuts. For according to Liechtenauer's art, the hews, stabs and cuts come from all applications and principles of the art of the sword, as one will hear hereafter how one play and principle comes from the other. And as it goes from one to the other, if the one will be warded, then the other hits and has gone-forward.[7]

[18v] Das ist eyne gemeyne lere des swertes

wW|Iltu kunst schawen ·
sich link gen vnd recht mete hawen ·
|Vnd link mit rechten
is das du stark gerest fechten ·
|Wer noch get hewen ·
der darf sich kunst kleyne frewen ·
|haw nu was du wilt ·
keyn wechsler kawm an dich schild/
|Haw nicht czu~ swerte /
zonder / stets der bloße warte /
|Czu koppe czu leibe ·
dy czecken do nicht vormeide /
|Mit ganczem leiben ·
ficht was du stark gerest treiben /
|Höer was do slecht ist ·
ficht nicht oben link zo du recht pist /
|Vnd ob du link pist ·
ym rechten auch sere hinkest /
|So vicht io liber ·
von oben rechtlinkischen nider /
|Vor · |noch · dy czwey dink ·
syn allen kunsten eyn orsprink /
|Swach · vnde · |sterke ·
|Indes · das wort mete merke /
|So machstu lere~ ·
mit / vnd erb / kunst vnd erbeit dich weren /
|Irschrikstu gerne ·
key~ fechte~ nym~er lerne /
|Kunheit vnd rischeit ·
vorsichtikeit list vnd |klugheit/
†† |Vornu~ft verborge~heit /
moße bevorbetrachtu~ge / hobsheit /fetikeit /
|Wil fechten haben ·
vnd frölichs gemüte tragen

Glosa gn°alis hui9 seq°r / | |Von allererste~ merke vnd wisse / das der ort des swertes ist das czentru~ vnd das mittel vnd der kern des swertes |aus deme alle gefechte gen / vnd weder / yn in komen · |So sint dy hengen / vnd dy winden / synt dy anhenge vnd dy vmlewfe des czentru~s vnd des kerns [19r] aus den auch / gar vil guter stöcke des fechtens komen / |vnd sint dorvm fvnden vnd irdocht / das eyn fechter / der da gleich czum orte czu hewt ader sticht / nicht wol allemal treffen mak / das  der mit den selben stöcken / hawende stechende ader sneydende / mit abe / vnd czutreten / vnd mit vm~eschreiten ader springen eynen treffen mag / |vnd ab eyner syn ort des swertes / mit schißen ader mit voltreten / vorlewst ader vorlengt / |zo mag her in mit wi~den ader abetreten / weder / irlengen vnd / ynbrengen vnd körczen / alzo das her weder yn gewisse stöcke vnd gesetze kü~pt des fechtens / aus den her hewe stiche ader snete brengen mag / |wen noch lychtnaw°s ku~st / zo komen aus allen gefechte~ vnd gesetze des f der ku~st des swertes / hewe stiche vnd snete / |als mã wirt hernoch hören / |wy eyn stöcke vnd gesetze aus dem andñ ku~pt / vnd wy sich eyns aus de~ andern macht / ab eyns wirt geweret / das daz ander treffe vnd vorgank habe

On second count, note and know that no part on the sword was invented and conceived without reason.[8] In particular, a fencer shall utilize the point, both edges, the hilt, the pommel as it is on the sword accordingly as each has its particular principle in the art of fencing according to these as the practices embody and uncover, as you will hereafter hear and see each in particular.

| |Czu dem andñ mal merke vnd wisse / daz keyn dink an dem sw°te / vm~e züst fu~den vnd irdocht ist / |zvnder eyn fechter / den ort / beide sneiden gehilcze klos / vnd als das am swerte ist / nuetczen sal / noch dem [19v] als itzlieichs syn sönderleichs gesetze hat yn der ku~st des fechtens / noch dem als dy Vebunge hat vnd finder / als du itzlichs besvnder hernoch wirst sehen vnd hören /

Also note and know with this as he speaks, If you wish to examine the art, etc. He means that a skilled fencer, they shall: set-forward the left foot and with that, hew from the right side directly to the opponent with threatening hews as long as he sees where he may certainly have the opponent and reach certainly with his stepping. And he means: when someone wishes to fence strongly, so shall he fence from the left side on with the entire body and complete authority to the head and to the body wherever he may solely hit and never to the sword, in particular he shall do it as if the opponent has no sword and as if he cannot see and he shall not omit any flesh-wounds or blows, rather always be in work and in contact so that the opponent cannot come to strikes.

He also means that one shall not identically follow and track the hew, rather, somewhat aside and curved around so that he comes to the side of the opponent. For there he may have him better with everything than frontally on. Whatever he from then on hews or stabs upon the opponent, that may ward or lead off well any and all changings-through or other applications of the opponent, only if the hews or stabs go forth directly into the opponent against the openings to the head or to the body with stepping-around and treading.

Also note and know about this when he speaks, before, after the two things, etc. There he means the five words: before, after, weak, strong, within-this. On these words lay the entire art of Master Liechtenauer's and the fixed foundation and the core of all fencing on foot or on horse, uncovered or in harness.

With the word "before", he means that a particularly good fencer shall have and have won the fore-strike every time he hits or misses. As Liechtenauer says, Hew therein and charge there, rush onwards, hit or let drive. When he goes or runs at someone, Just as soon as he sees he may reach him with a step or with a spring, wherever he then sees him somehow open, there he shall drive onwards with ease to the head or to the body, bravely without any fear wherever he may have him with surety. For as such, he always wins the fore-strike, whether it does well or poorly for them. And with that, shall also be certain in his steps and shall have measured them correctly so that he does not step too short nor too long.

Now, when he executes the fore-strike, if he hits, then he quickly pursues the hit. But if he wards the fore-strike of the opponent in such a way, that with his sword, he leads off or commands their fore-strike, be it a hew or stab, So long as he is then still on the sword of the opponent. With it like this, he will lead off from the openings which he had targeted, Then he shall quite precisely feel and note whether the opponent in his leading-off and defense of the hews or stabs is soft or hard, weak or strong on the sword.

That is when he now fully feels how the opponent is in his technique. If within-this, the opponent is strong and hard, now that he completely notes and feels, then he shall within-this or during-this be soft and weak if the opponent defends himself like this. And in that, before the opponent comes to strikes, so shall he then execute the after-strike. That is, he begins to hew while the opponent defends himself and wards himself of the fore-strike, be it hew or stab, so shall he seek out other applications and plays. With those, he shall again hurry and rush into his openings. Also in this, he is continually in motion and in contact so that he also confounds the opponent and soundly robs the opponent amid his defending and warding. Thus has too much work so that he, the defender, cannot come to his strikes. Because someone who shall defend themselves and fixate on the strikes, they are always in greater danger than they that strike at them, so that they must then continually ward the strikes or must allow themselves to be hit, so that they must come to strikes burdensomely by their own accord. About that Liechtenauer speaks: I say to you truthfully, no one defends themselves without danger. If you have understood this, he cannot come to strikes.

If you execute otherwise according to the five words, this dictum goes entirely against that and all of [that] fencing often results in a peasant slaying a master, because he is brave and won the fore-strike according to this precept.

|Mit deme worte · |Vor · meynt her das eyn itzlicher gut° fechter / sal alle mal den vorslag haben vnd gewiñen / [her treffe ader vele / |als lichnawer / spricht / |Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar / rawsche hin trif ader la va] |weñe her czu / eyme gehet ader lewft / als balde als her nur siet / das her in mit eynem schrete / ader mit eynem sprunge dirreichen mag / wo her deñe indert in blos siet / do sal her hin varn / mit frewden / czu koppe ader czu leibe / künlich an alle vorchte wo her in am gewisten gehabñ mag / alzo das her ia den vorslag gewiñe / is tu ieme wol ader we · |vnd sal auch mit dem / in syne~ schreten gewisse sein / vnd sal dy haben recht zam gemessen / das her nicht czu korcz ader czu lank schreite / |wen her nü den vorslag / tuet / trift her zo volge her dem treffen vaste / noch · |weret · her aber |iener den vorslag alzo das her im den vorslag / is sy haw ader stich mit syme swerte / abeweiset vnd leitet / |Dy weile her deñe ieme noch / an syme swerte ist / mit deme als her wirt abe geweist / von der blößen / der her geremet / hat / zo sal her gar eben fülen vnd merken [20v] ab iener in syme abeleiten vnd schützen der hewe ader stiche / an syme swerte / weich ader herte / swach ader stark / sey / |Ist deñe das her nü wol fület / wy iener in syme geferte ist / |Is das iener stark vnd herte ist / |Indes / das hers nü genczlich merkt vnd fület / zo sal her ader |Indes ader vnderdez das sich iener zo schützt / weich vnd swach dirweder syn / |vnd in dem selben / e den / das iener czu keyme slage kome / zo sal her deñe den nochslag tuen / |das ist / das her czu haut / dy weile sich iener schützt vnd sich des vorslags weret / is sy haw ader stich zo sal her ander gefechte vnd stöcke hervörsüchen / mit den her aber czu synen blößen hurt vnd rawschet / alzo dis her vm~ermer in bewegunge vnd in berürunge sy · |das her ienen als irre / vnd berawbet mache / das iener mit syme schützen vnd weren / alzo vil czu schaffen habe / das her / der schützer / czu syner slege / keyne kome~ mag / |wen eyner der sich sal schützen / vnd der slege warnemen / der ist alle mal in grösser var / deñe der /· der da slet of in / |deñe her mus ia dy slege were~ / ader mus sich laen treffen / daz her selber mülich / czu slage mag kome~ / |Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° |Ich sage vorware · sich schutzt key~ mã ane vare / |Hastu vornome~ · czu slage mag her kleyne kome~ / |Tustu and°s noch de~ fünff wörtern / of dy dese rede gar get / vnd alles fechten |Dorvm slet oft/ey~ bawer ey~ meist° wen her küne ist vnd de~ vorslag / gewiñet / noch deser lere /

Because with the word 'before', as was spoken earlier, he means that someone with a good fore-strike or with the first strike, they shall bravely charge there without any fear and rush against the openings to the head or to the body. He hits or misses such that he also at once stuns, overwhelms and terrifies them so that they do not know what he should do against this and also before the opponent recovers themselves again or comes at him with the same. Then he immediately executes the after-strike and continually compels him to ward and the defend himself so much that he cannot come to strikes.

Then when the fencer executes the first strike or the fore-strike and the opponent then wards him, in the same warding and defending, the fencer then always comes earlier into the after-strike than the opponent into the first. Then he may: initiate a hew, initiate a drive with the pommel or may come in the thwart-hews, they are good to count on, or may otherwise throw the sword forwards [by means of] the thwart-hew. With that he comes into other applications or else alternately, he may begin well. Before the opponent comes to strikes as you will hear how it makes one from the other so that the opponent may not come from him unstruck if he does differently according to this lesson. Because he shall execute with one mind and with one effort alike,[10] if it is possible to accomplish, the fore-strike and the after-strike, swiftly and promptly after each other.

Also, it would fully come to this if the opponent wards the fore-strike. For he must ward it with the sword and in this way, he must always come to the fencer on his sword. And when the opponent subsequently wards somewhat late and unready, the fencer would then remain on the sword and shall then wind at once and shall quite precisely note and feel whether or not the opponent will withdraw themselves from the sword.

If the opponent withdraws themselves, when they are engaged with one another on the sword and have extended their points toward one another into the openings, before the opponent can recover themselves again against hew or stab of the fencer with his withdrawal, the fencer immediately pursues with a good stab into the chest with his point or else forwards into wherever he may hit him surest and closest in such a way that the opponent may come from the sword without harm with nothing, because immediately with his following-after, the fencer is always closer to the opponent; as he has arranged his point forward on the sword against the opponent according to the nearest and shortest of all with that.

When the opponent shall deliver hew or stab wide around at someone with his withdrawal, the fencer can always come before into the after-strike or -stab, before the opponent into the first like this. And Liechtenauer means this with the word: 'after': when someone has done the fore-strike, so shall he immediately without pause upon the same drive execute the after-strike and shall always be in motion and in contact and always conduct one after the other. If the first fails him, then the second, the third or the fourth hits and continually does not allow the opponent come to any blows. Because no one may have greater advantage of fencing than they who execute these five words according to the lesson.

|Czewt sich ien° ab / als sy im vor mit ey~nander an dy sw°t sint kome~ / vnd dy orter key~ ey~nand° recken / czu de~ blossen / |E deñe sich / deñe iener key~s haws ader stichs / of ey~ news weder [21v] irhole~ mag mit syme abeczihe~ · |zo hat im deser czu hant / mit syme orte noch gevolget / mit eyne~ gute~ stiche czu der brost / ader söst vorne czu wo her in am schireste~ vnd neheste~ getreffe~ mag / |alzo das im ien° mit nichte / ane schade~ von dem sw°te mag kome~ / |we~ deser hat io / czu hãt mit syme nochvolge~ / neher czu ieme / mit dem als her syne~ ort / vor / an dem sw°te gestalt hat key~ ieme / noch de~ aller neheste~ vnd körczste~ / |we~ das ien° mit syme abeczihe~ / of / ey~ news solde hewe ader stiche / |weit vm~e / dar bre~ge~ / |alzo mag io deser alle mal · e czu dem nochslage ader stiche kome~ / e deñe ien° czu dem ersten / |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° mit dem worte / noch / |we~ eyn° im de~ vorslag hat getan / |zo sal her czu hant an vnderloz / of der selben vart den nochslag / tue~ / |vnd sal vm~erm° in bewegu~ge / |vnd in rüru~ge syn / vnd vm°mer ey~s noch dem and°n treibñ / |ab ym das erste vele / |dacz daz ander das dritte |ader daz vierde treffe / |vnd io iene~ nicht lasse czu ky~me slage kome~ / |Wen keyn / mag grosser vorteil of fechte~ habñ / den der nach der lere / deser fünff / wörter tuet /

But if the opponent remains on the sword; with that, as it is coming onto his sword with his warding and defending [himself from] the fencer and it has drawn itself out like this such that the fencer is remaining with him on the sword and has not yet executed the after-strike, so shall the fencer wind up[12] and stay with him like this on the sword and shall quite precisely note and feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword.

If then, the fencer notes and feels that the opponent is strong, hard and firm on the sword and the fencer only means to force out[13] his sword; so shall the fencer be weak and soft against that and shall stand weakening and relinquishing his strength and shall allow his sword to swept out and driven away with his forcing that the opponent executes and the fencer shall then allow his sword to immediately and swiftly lead off and withdraw and shall quickly shall drive that against his openings, to the head or to the body, wherever; with hewing, stabbing and cutting, only where he can approach the closest and surest.

Because the harder and the surer the opponent forces and presses with his sword and the fencer is then weak and soft against that and allows his sword to lead off and in this way weakens him, the farther and the wider his sword then repels the opponent such that he then becomes quite open and thus the fencer then may hit and wound him according to desire before the opponent can recover himself against the hew or the stab of the fencer.

|Ist deñe das deser merkt vnd fület / das iener stark herte vnd veste an dem sw°te ist / vnd dese~ / nü mey~t syn sw°t hin dringe~ · |zo sal deser deñe swach vnd weich dirweder syn / |vnd sal syñ sterke weiche~ vnd stat gebñ / |vnd sal im syn sw°t / hin lasse~ preln vnd wer varn / mit sy~ dringe~ daz her tuet / |vnd deser sal deñe syn sw°t snelle [22r] lassen abegleiten · |vnd abeczihñ / balde vnd risch · |vnd sal snelle dar varn key~ synen blosse~ / czu koppe ader czu leibe / |wo / mit hewe~ stiche~ vnd snete~ / wo her nür / am neheste~ vnd schireste~ mag czu kome~ / |wen e herter vnd e sürer ien° dringt vnd druckt mit syme sw°te / |vnd deser deñe swach vnd weich dirwed° ist · |vnd syn sw°t lest abegleite~ / vnd im alzo weicht / e verrer vnd e weit° deñe ieme sy~n sw°t wek prelt · |das her deñe gar blos wirt / |vnd das in deñe deser noch wonsche mag treffen vnd rüren / e deñe her sich selber / key~s haws ader stichs irholen mag /

But if the opponent is weak and soft on the sword, in the same way, if the fencer now notes and feels it, so shall the fencer then be strong and hard against that on the sword and shall then strongly drive out and rush forward equally on the sword with his point against the opponent's openings, wherever he may be closest, just as if a cord or thread were bound forwards on his point earlier, that leads his point to the nearest of the opponent's openings. And with that same stabbing the fencer executes, he becomes fully aware whether the opponent is so weak that they let his sword force them out and lets themselves be struck.

But if he is strong and wards and leads off the stab, such that he again becomes strong on the sword and carries off his sword and wards the stab also that the opponent forces-out the fencer's sword, so shall the fencer again become weak and soft against that and shall allow his sword to lead off and weaken him and swiftly seek his openings with hewing, stabbing and with cutting as it may solely be. And this is what Liechtenauer means with these words: soft and hard.

And this goes to the Authorities. As Aristotle spoke in the book Peri Hermanias: "Opposites positioned near themselves shine greater, or rather, opposites which adjoin augment. Weak against strong, hard against soft, and contrary." For should it be strong against strong, then the stronger would win every time. Therefore Liechtenauer undertakes fencing according to the more appropriate and truer art, so that one weaker and cunning with his art as surely wins as with one stronger with his strength (for which would be of a different art).

|Is das her stark wirt weder an dem sw°te / vnd desem syn sw°t abeweiset vnd den stich weret / |also das her dese~ sy~ sw°t vaste hin dringt · |zo sal deser aber swach vnd weich dirweder w°den / |vnd sal sy~ sw°t lasse~ abegleite~ / |vnd im weichen / |vnd syne blosse~ rischlichen süche~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader mit snete~ |wy her nür mag · |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° / mit dese~ wörter / weich vnd herte / |vnd das get of dy aucto’i-[22v] tas / |als aristotyles spricht in lib° pyarmenias |Oppo~ita iuxta se po~ita · m~g~ elucescu~t / |vel / oppo~ita opposit~ cui aut° / |Swach weder stark / herte weder weich / et eqt° / |Deñe solde stark weder stark syn / |zo gesigt allemal der sterker / ·|dorvm get lichtnawer fechte~ noch recht° vnd worhaftiger ku~st dar / |das ey~ swacher mit syn° ku~st vnd list / als schire gesigt / mit /als ey~ starker mit syn° sterke / |worvm were and°s ku~st /

Therefore fencer, learn to feel well as Liechtenauer spoke: Learn the feeling. Within, that words cuts sharply. Because when you are on the sword of the opponent and now feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword well, within-this or during, so you must then consider and know well whatever you shall execute against him according to this aforementioned lore and art. For truly, he cannot withdraw himself from the sword without harm with anything. Because Liechtenauer spoke: Strike that it snaps whoever withdraws before you.

If you act according to this lesson, fastening well so that you always have and won the fore-strike and as soon as you execute that, you then hasten the after-strike into the opponent thereafter, immediately without refrain (that is the second, the third or the fourth strike, be it hew or stab) then the opponent can never come to strikes. If you then come onto the sword with him, be surer at the feeling and execute as is written before.

Because this is the foundation of fencing that a person is always in motion and not pause and it then comes to the feeling, so do above as able. And whatever you conduct and begin, always have measure and moderation. Like, if you have won the fore-strike, then don't do it so impetuously and so powerfully that you then cannot recover yourself for the after-strike. About this, Liechtenauer spoke: Thereupon you hold, all things have moderation and measure. And also understand this about the stepping and about all other plays and principles of fencing, etc.

This is the text, in this he names the five hews and other plays of fencing.

21 Five hews learn.
 From the right hand, endure the weapons.
23 Wrath-hew, crook, thwart,
 have squinter with parters,
24 Fool displaces,
 race-behind, run-across hew disrupt,
25 Change-through, disengage,
 run-through, cut-off, press hands
26 Hang, wind amid the openings
 Strike catch, scrape, stab with colliding.

[No gloss]

This is about the Wrath-hew, etc.

27 Whoever over-hews you,
 The Wrath-hew point threatens them.
28 If he becomes aware of it,
 Take it off above without fear
29 Be stronger, wind against,
 Thrust. If he sees it, take it below.
30 Precisely note this:
 Hews, stabs, position soft or hard
31 Within and before, after
 Without charging to the wars. Do not be rash.
32 Whoever's war targets
 Above, he will be shamed below.
33 In all winds,
 Learn to find: hews, stabs, cuts.
34 You shall also, with that
 Test hew, stab or cut
35 In all hits
 Of the masters, if you wish to dupe them.
xvi Do not hew to the sword,
 Rather, stand watch for the openings
xvii In the head, in the body
 If you wish to remain without harm
xviii You hit or miss
 Aspiring like this so that you target the openings
xix In every lesson,
 Turn the point against the openings.
xx Whoever hews around widely,
 They will often be shamed severely.
xxi At the closest of all,
 Deliver sudden hews, stabs [wisely].[14]
xxii And one shall also always step
 To the right side
xxiii So you may begin
 Fencing or wrestling with advantage.

Gloss. Here note and know that Liechtenauer calls an over-hew struck[15] from the shoulder the wrath-hew. When one is in his fury and wrath of someone, there is no hew as ready as this same over-hew struck from the shoulder to the man. About that, Liechtenauer means when someone begins to hew at you with an over-hew, so shall you counter-hew the wrath-hew against him, and also that you firmly shoot the point against him. If he wards your point from you, then immediately draw off above and drive suddenly[16] to the other side of his sword. But if he wards that, then be hard and strong in the sword and wind and stab immediately and bravely. If he wards your stab, separate and immediately initiate a hew below, where you hit to the legs in such a way that you continuously conduct one after the other, so that they cannot come to strikes. And the afore-spoken words: before, after, within-this, weak, strong and hews, stabs and cuts; you shall have them brought to mind at the same time and forget with nothing in the applications.

Das ist von deme Czornhawe etc ~

D|Er[17] dir oberhawet ·
|czornhaw ort deme drewet /
|Wirt her is gewar ·
nym is oben ab / ane vaer /
|Pis sterker / weder
wint / stich / |siet her is / |nym is neder /
|Das eben merke ·
|hewe · |stiche · |leger · |weich ader |herte /
|Indes vnd · |vor · |noch ·
ane hurt deme krige sey nicht goch /
|wes der krig remet ·
oben / neden wirt her beschemet /
|In allen winden ·
|hewe · |stiche · |snete · lere finden /
|Auch saltu mete ·
prüfen |hewe |stiche ader |snete /
|In allen treffen ·
den meistern wiltu sie effen /
|Haw nicht czum swerte ·
zonder stets der blößen warte /
|Czu koppe czu leibe ·
wiltu an schaden bleyben /
|du trefts ader ader velest ·
zo trachte das du der blossen remest
* |In aller lere /
den ort / keyn den blößen kere /
|Wer weite vm~e hewet /
d° w°t oft sere bescheme[t]
|Off das aller neste /
bre~ge hewe stiche dar gew[isse][18]
|Vnd salt auch io schreite~ /
eyme czu der rechte~ seiten /
[?] ader iagens
[?] begyñen /

Glosa |Hie merke vnd wisse das lichtnaw° / ey~ öberhaw slecht von der achsel / heisset den czornhaw / Den eyn wen eym itzlichem in syme gry~me vnd czorne [23v] |zo ist im keyn haw als bereit / |als der selbe aberhaw slecht von der achsel / czum mañe / |Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / We~ dir eyner czu hewt / mit eym obirhaw / |zo salt du key~ im weder hawe~ de~ czornhaw / |alzo das du mit dyme ort vaste key~ im schisset / |wert her dir dyn ort / |zo czewch balde oben ab / vnd var czu der and°n syte~ dar / syns sw°ts · |wert her dir daz aber / |zo bis harte vnd stark im sw°te / |vnd wind / vnd stich balde vnd ku~lich / |w°t her dir de~ / stich / |zo smeis vnd haw balde vnde~ czu / wo du trifft / czu~ beyne~ / |alzo das du vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibest / das ien° nicht czu slage kome / |Vnd dy vorgesproche~ wörter · vor · noch · Indes · swach · stark / |vnd · hewe · stiche · vnd · snete · |der saltu czu male wol gedenken / |vnd mit nichte vorgessen in deme gefechte

You shall also not seriously rush with the war, because if one of which you target fails above, then you you hit below as you will hear how one makes itself out of the other according to the legitimate art, particularly: hews, stabs, cuts.

And [one] shall not hew to the opponent's sword, rather into the opponent, to the head and to the body, wherever one may, etc. One may also consider that the first verse may also state: Whomever you over-hew the wrath-hew, the point of the wrath-hew threatens them, etc. Just act according to this lore and be continuously in motion. Either you hit or do not so that the opponent cannot come to strikes. And with the hewing, always step-out well to the side. Also know that there are only two hews, all other hews come from them however they are preferred to be named locally. That is the over-hew and the under-hew from both sides. They are the chief hews and foundation of all other hews. However, those hews causally and accordingly come from the point of the sword. Which is the core and the center of all other plays here like what was written well before. And from those same hews come the four displacements from both sides. With them one disrupts and breaks all hews, stabs or positions. And from them one also comes into the four hangings. From them one may conduct art well as one shall hear hereafter. And however one may particularly fence someone, so shall the point ever and always be turned against their face or breast so that each and every time the opponent must discourage themselves so that he cannot come before by sake of[19] it, for it has immediately shifted[20] somewhere[21] closer to him.

|Vnd salt nicht czu eyns sw°te hawe~ / |zonder czu im selber / czu koppe vnd czu leibe / wo eyn° mag |etc |Auch mag mã vorneme~ / das der erste v°se mochte alzo stehen / |wem du öberhewest czornhaw / |deme drewt der ort / des czornhaws |etc |Nür tu noch deser lere / vnd bis vm~erm° i~ / motu / du treffest ad° nicht / daz ien° nicht czu slage Kome |vnd schret io wol besytz aus / mit den hewen / |Auch wise das nur czwene hewe seyn aus den alle ander hewe[22] wy dy komen |wy dy vm~er genãt möge~ werdn / das [24r] |das ist der öberhaw · vnd der vnderhaw / von beiden seiten · |dy sint dy hawpt hewe |vnd gru~t aller ander hewe / |wy wol dy selbñ vrsachlich vnd gru~tlich / |auch kome~ aus dem orte des sw°tes / |der do ist der kern vnd das czentru~ aller and° stocke / |als das wol vor ist geschrebn # [|vnd aus den selbe~ hewe~ kome~ dy vier vorsetcze~ |von beiden seite~ / mt den mã alle hewe vnd stiche ader leger / letzt vnd bricht / |vnd aus den man auch yn dy vier he~ge~ ku~pt / aus den mã[g] wol ku~st treibñ mag / |als mã hernoch wirt horen] |Vnd wy ey~ mã nur ficht / zo sal io allemal den ort key~ eyns gesichte / ader brust keren / |zo mus sich iener alleczeit besorgen · |das her icht e kome we~ her · |wen her io neher czu im hat we~ ien° /

And if it happens like this that they won the fore-strike, so shall the fencer be secure and sure and be quick with the winding and as soon as he has wound, so shall he begin to drive to the side agilely and courageously. And his point shall shall seek the opponent's breast, turning and positioning themselves against it. As you will hear better hereafter. And the point, as soon as he comes upon the sword of someone, it shall always come to be around a half an ell away from another's breast or face and take quite good care that it intends to arrive inside that and certainly to the closest and not wide around, so that the opponent cannot come first by sake of this. Provided the fencer will not allow themselves to become lax and hesitant and ward too lazily nor be willing to arrive too wide and too far around.

This is about the four openings, etc, etc.

36 Know to target the four openings
 so you strike certainly
37 Without any danger
 without doubt however he behaves.

Gloss. Note here that Liechtenauer, who tiles a person in four parts, just as if he made a line in front of them from the top of the head downwards on his body just to down-here between his legs. And the second line by the girdle that crosses over the body thus becoming four quarters: a right and a left above the girdle and also in the same way under the girdle. Those are the four openings, which each have their particular applications. He targets them and never against the sword, rather the openings.

About the four openings, how one breaks them.

38 If you wish to reckon yourself,
 breaking the four openings artfully,
39 Double above,
 Mutate there-below directly.
40 I say truthfully,
 no one defends themselves without danger.
41 If you have understood,
 he may scarcely come to blows.

[No gloss]

This is about the crook-hew, etc.

42 Crook up swiftly,
 throw your point onto the hands.
43 Whoever waits well crooked,
 disrupts many hews with stepping.
44 Hew crooked to the flats
 of the masters if you wish to weaken them.
45 When it sparks above,
 Then dismount, that I will praise.
46 Crook not, hew short.
 Change through and with that expose him.
47 Crook whoever misleads you.
 The noble war baffles them
48 That he truthfully truthfully
 Does not know where is without danger.

Gloss. Here note and know that the crook-hew is an over-hew which travels crooked along with a good step outwards, likewise to one side. What Liechtenauer means about this is whoever wishes to command this hew properly, they shall step-out to the right side fully flanking, then he delivers the hew and shall crook-hew fully and swiftly and shall throw or shoot his point over his hilt upon the hands of the opponent or shall hew to the opponent's flat. If he then hits the flat, then he shall remain strong thereupon and press firmly and shall see whatever he may then deliver the most decisive and straightest with hews, stabs or cuts and shall hew too short with nothing and shall not forget of the changing-through if it bears itself.

A hew called the failer, and comes from the crook-hew and it stands written after the thwart-hew (where the hand is drawn), and it should stand before the thwart-hew, and it besets[24] crookedly and obliquely from below, in over the hilt of the opponent, with point shooting right the same as the crook-hew from above downwards.

53 The failer misleads
 It wounds according to desire from below.
54 The inverter dominates.
 The runner through also wrestles with it.
55 Take the elbow wisely
 Spring into his stance.
56 The failer doubles.
 One connects the slice with might.
57 Double it further
 Step to the left and do not be lazy.
xxiv Because all fencing
 Will by all rights, have speed
xxv Also in it: audacity,
 Prudence, astuteness and ingenuity.

[No gloss]

This is about the thwart-hew, etc.

49 The thwart seizes
 Whatever comes from the roof.
50 Thwart with the strong
 Remember your work with it.
51 Thwart to the plow
 Yoke it hard to the ox
52 Whoever thwarts themselves well
 Threatens the head[25] with springing

Gloss. Here note and know that of the entire sword, no hew is as efficient, so fierce, so complete and so good as is the thwart-hew. And it besets like a crossbar[26] to both sides: with both edges, the back and the front; to all openings, below and above. And everything that arrives from above, those are the over-hews or whatever otherwise goes from above downward, one breaks and wards those with the thwart-hews.

They that can deliver or fling the sword forwards well, they twirl before the head to whichever side he wishes. Just like would would come in the upper hangings or windings, only that for someone in the thwart-hew, the flats of the sword turn: one above or upward, the other below or downward; and the edges to the sides. They twirl, one to the right and one to the left side. And it is quite good to come upon the sword of the opponent with these thwart-hews.

And then, when one comes upon the sword of the opponent, just as it arrives, so that the opponent must come away from it burdensomely, he will be struck from this with the thwart-hews to both sides. For just as he delivers a thwart-hew, to whichever side it is: below or above, the sword then always goes up with the hilt before the head via the hand flung forwards, so that he is absolutely warded and covered. And one shall deliver the thwart-hews with some strength.

And when one shall fence for their neck, so shall they proceed with the afore-written lore so that they win the fore-strike with a good thwart-hew. When he closes with someone, as soon as he realizes that he is able to engage the opponent with a step or a spring, he then bursts in there from the right side with a thwart-hew above at the head of the opponent with the back edge of the sword likewise[28] above and shall let the point shoot and shall quite fully twirl so that the point careens and winds or girds itself around the opponent's head, like a belt. Because when one thwarts well with a good stepping out or spring, then the opponent must burdensomely defend or escape this. And when he then wins the fore-strike with the thwart-hew like this to the one side, whether he hits or misses, the he shall then immediately win the after-strike in a rush directly without pause with the thwart-hew to the other side with the forward-edge before any strike or little thing somehow redeems them according to the afore-written lore. And shall then thwart to both sides into the oxen and into the plows. That is, into the high openings and into the low from one side to the other, below and above, ceaselessly without pause in this way, so that he is always in motion and does not allow the opponent to come to strikes. And each time he does a thwart-hew above or below, so shall he thwart completely and throw the sword above that they twirl well before his head so that he is well covered.

|Vnd wen eyner vem syne~ hals sölde fechten |So solde her schaffen / mit her der vorgeschrebñ [28r] lere / |das her mit eyme gute~ twerhawe den vorslag / gewuñe · |wen her mit eyme czu gi~ge als balde |als her irkente / |das her ienen dir reichen mochte / mit eyne~ schrete ader spronge |das her deñe dar placzte / mit eyme twerhaw obñ von der rechte~ seiten / mit der hindern sneidñ ieme gleich obñ czu hawpte czu / |vnd sal den ort lassen schiessen / |vnd sal gar wol tweren |das sich der ort wol lenke / vnd winde / ader gorte vm iens hawpt / |zam eyn rime / we |deñe wen eyner wol tweret / mit eyme gute~ ausschrete ader spronge / |zo mag sichs ien° mülich schutze~ / ader abewe~de~ / |Vnd we~ her deñe den vorslag alzo gewi~t mt de~ twerhaw her treffe / czu der eyne~ seyte~ / |her treffe ader vele · |zo sal her deñe als balde in eyme rawsche im~ediate an vnd°loz / |den nochslag gewiñen / mit dem twerhaw czu der and°n seiten / mit der vörd°n sneiden / e den sich ien° key~s slags ader ichsichcz irhole / noch d° vorgeschrebe~ lere / |Vnd sal deñe twern czu beiden seite~ / |czu~ ochsen vnd czu~ pfluge / |das ist / czu den ob°n blössen |vnd czu den vnd°n / von eyner seite~ of dy ander / |vnden vnd obñ / |vm~erm° / an vnderloz / |alzo das her vm°mer in motu sey |vnd iene~ nicht losse czu slage kome~ / |vnd als oft / als her eyne~ twerhaw tuet obñ ad° vndñ / |zo sal her io wol twere~ / |vnd das sw°t obñ dy twer / |wol vor syn hawpt / werfen / |das her wol bedekt sey /

This is about the squint-hew, etc.

58 The squinter breaks
 inside Whatever the buffalo cuts or thrusts.
59 Whoever threatens to change,
 the squinter robs him of it.
60 Squint. If he short changes you,
 The changing through defeats him.
61 Squint into the point
 And take the neck without fear.
62 Squint to the top of the head
 If you wish to ruin the hand.
xxvi Squint against the right,
 if you desire to fence well.
xxvii The squint-hew I prize,
 if it does not arrive too lazily.

Gloss Here note and know that a squint-hew is an over-hew from the right side with the back edge of the sword that the left side is approached and goes there just as slanted or skewed, stepping out to one side to the right with a twisted sword and hand flung forwards and this same hew breaks as the buffalo, that is a peasant, might strike from above downward as they incline to do. This also breaks just like the thwart-hew as was written before. And whoever threatens with changing-through, they become shamed with the squint-hew. And one shall squint-hew fully and long enough and shoot the point firmly. Otherwise, he will become impeded with changing-through and one shall squint fully with the point into the throat bravely without fear and...[29]

This is about the part-hew, etc.

63 The parter
 Is dangerous to the face;
64 With it's turn
 The chest is yet endangered.
65 Whatever comes from him
 The crown removes.
66 Slice through the crown
 So that you break it beautifully and hard;
67 Press the strokes
 Snatch them away with slicing.
xxviii The scalp-hew I prize
 If it arrives not too lazily.

[No gloss]

Liechtenauer holds just a little about the four positions. In that they proceed from the over and under hangings, and from there one may surely bring applications.

This is about the four positions, etc.

68 Four positions alone
 From there hold and flee the common.
69 Ox, plow, fool,
 From-the-roof are not despised by you.

Gloss, etc. Here he names the four positions or four guards. About them, little is to be held. Instead, in any confrontation, a person shall absolutely not lay too long therein. For Liechtenauer has a particular proverb: Whoever lays there, they are dead. Whoever rouses themselves, they yet live. And that pertains to the positions that a person shall preferably rouse themselves with applications. Because he that idles [in] the guards, he might preclude the moment of truth with that.

The first guard, plow, is this in which one lays the point forward, upon the earth or to the side. After the offsetting, this is otherwise called the barrier-guard or the gate.

The second guard, ox, is the over-hanging[32] from the shoulder.

xxix The fool always breaks
 Whatever one hews or stabs
xxx With hanging, strokes [and]
 Racing-behind, set [into action][33] at once.

The third guard, the fool, is the under-hanging.[34] With it, one breaks all hews and stabs, whoever commands it correctly.

The fourth guard, from-the-roof, is the long-point. Whoever commands it with extended arms, one may not hit them well with hews nor with stabs. Also, it may well be called the hanging over the head.

Also know that one breaks all positions and guards with hewing. For one bravely initiates a hew at the opponent with them so they must urgently drive up and defend themselves. Therefore Liechtenauer does not hold much about the positions or guards, rather he preferably crafts it so that someone discourages themselves before him so that he then wins the fore-strike. (As they are able.)

This is about the four displacements

70 Four are the displacements
 Which also severely disrupt the positions.
71 Guard yourself from displacing
 If that happens, it also severely beleaguers you.
72 If you are displaced,
 And as that comes to be,
73 Hear what I advise:
 Deftly leave the cut with haste.
74 Place at four extremities
 Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish.
xxxi Whoever displaces well,
 This technique disrupts many hews.
xxxii Because in the hangings
 You swiftly come with the displacements.

Gloss. Here note that the four displacements are to both sides. To each side, one over and one under. And they disrupt or break all guards or positions and however you, from above or from below, carry off or reject someone's hew, stab or cut with your sword, that may well be called displacing. And if they will displace you, as that arrives, then withdraw swiftly and with that, quickly initiate a hew in one charge. If you then displace someone or turn away a hew or stab, so shall you immediately tread in and pursue on the sword so that the opponent cannot withdraw from you and shall then do what you may. However lightly you hesitate and delay yourself, so you take harm. You shall also wind well and turn your point against the opponent's chest every time, so that he must discourage himself.

Also a good fencer shall fully learn coming onto the sword of the opponent and he must do that well with the displacements, because they come from the four hews. From each side, an over-hew and an under-hew and go into the four hangings. For as soon as one displaces from below or above, so shall they immediately come into the hangings. And as he winds-off all hews and stabs with the forward edge, it is as with the displacements.

This is about the racing behind, etc, etc

75 Learn to race behind
 Twice or cut into the weapon
76 Yoke the two to the outside
 The work begins thereafter
77 Testing the attack
 Whether it is soft or hard
78 Learn to feel it
 Within-this, this word cuts sharply
79 Racing twice
 With that make the parting cut.
xxxiii Follow all hits
 Then strengthen if you wish to dupe the masters
xxxiv In every lesson,
 Turn the point against one's face.
xxxv With the entire body
 Race behind, always keep your point there.
xxxvi Also learn to swiftly
 Race, so you may end well.

[No gloss]

This is about the overrunning. Fencer seek within.

80 Whoever hunts below
 Overrun, then they will be shamed.
81 When it clashes above,
 Strengthen, This I wish to praise.
82 Make your work
 Or press hard twice.
xxxvii Whoever presses you down,
 Overrun them, slash sharply again.
xxxviii From both sides
 Overrun and remember the cuts.

[No gloss]

This is about offsetting. Learn this well.

83 Learn to offset
 Artfully disrupt hews, stabs.
84 Whoever stabs upon you
 Your point hits and his breaks.
85 From both sides
 Hit every time, if you will step.
xxxix In every lesson,
 Turn the point against one's face.

[No gloss]

This is about the changing-through, etc, etc.

86 Learn to change-through
 From both sides, with that stab sharply.
87 Whoever binds upon you,
 Change-through, surely find him.
xl When you have changed-through,
 Do not slash, stab or wind lax.
xli Do not hew into the sword
 Change-through, with that watch.

Gloss. Here note that the changing-through goes in completely straight from above downwards and from below upwards to both sides if it is otherwise conducted swiftly. Now if you wish to change-through to the right side from above down, then hew an over-hew straight into him also so that you shoot-in your point to his left side above the hilt also so that you hit the same little hole and little window between the edges and the hilt completely straight. If you hit, then you have won. If he wards it so that he leads off and presses-out your point with his sword, then let your point sink from the same side under his sword around it to the other side, not wide around, rather, below on his sword so you may keep close and from there drive-in quite swiftly above the hilt with a good, complete stab and when you feel that you hit, fully pursue. And as you do from one side, below and above, so you do from the other.

And whoever binds-on with you, rush[40] past on his sword with your point against his opening. If he wards, then change-through as before or wind and feel is technique whether it is soft or hard. Thereafter seek hew, stab, or cut against the openings.

This is about the disengaging. Fencer note.

88 Tread near in the bind
 The disengaging gives good discoveries.
89 Disengage. If he hits, disengage more.
 If he works, wind that does him woe.
90 Disengage all hits
 Of the masters if you will dupe them.
xlii Disengage off from the sword
 And always ponder your drive.

[No gloss]

This is about the running-through. Look closely.

91 Allow the hanging, run-through.
 Grab with the pommel if you wish to wrangle.
92 Whoever comes against the strong
 Runner-through, with that, note,
xliii Run-through and shove.
 Invert if he grabs for the pommel.

[No gloss]

This is about the severing, etc, etc

93 Sever the hard-ones
 From below in both drives.
94 Four are the cuts
 With two below, two above.
xliv Cross whoever wish to cut.
 It easily evades the harm.
xlv Do not cut in fright,
 Always consider racing before this.
xlvi You can cut well
 Any cross, just omit the racing.
xlvii If you wish to remain without harm,
 Then do not be too eager with the cutting.

[No gloss]

This is about the hand pressing, etc, etc.

95 Turn your edge
 Into the flats. Press the hands.
xlviii Another is turning
 One's winding. The third, hanging.
xlix If you wish to make the fencers
 Weary, then press with contention.
l Over the hands,
 If one hews, cut swiftly.
li Also draw the cuts
 Above, out over the head.
lii Whoever presses the hands
 Without harm, disengages from the fingers.

Also know as soon as you turn away the opponent's hew or stab with the winding, so shall you immediately tread-in and swiftly drive there into the opponent. However lightly you hesitate and delay yourself, so you take harm.

Also note and know that one with the forward edge of the sword, from the middle of that side to the hilt, turns away all hews and stabs. And the closer the opponent's hew or stab comes to the hilt upon that edge, with that, as he turns his forward edge with it, the better and the more powerful he can turn away hews or stabs. Because the nearer to the hilt, the stronger and the mightier. And the closer to the point, the weaker and the sicklier. Therefore, whoever wishes to be a good fencer, they shall learn to turn away well before anything. For if he turns that away well with this, he comes immediately into the winds. From them he can conduct the skill and beauty of the technique well.

The forward edge of the sword is called the right edge and all hews or stabs are ruined with the turning.

This is about the hanging. Fencer learn this, etc.

96 Two hangings emerge
 From each side from the ground
97 In all applications
 Hew, stab, position soft or hard.
98 Make the speaking-window
 Stand freely, seek his trigger.
99 Slash that it snaps
 Whoever withdraws themselves before you.
100 I say to you truthfully,
 No one defends themselves without danger.
101 If you have understood,
 he may scarcely come to blows.
liii That is, if you remain
 Upon the sword, also conduct with that
liv Hews, stabs or cuts.
 With that, note the feeling
lv Without any preference.
 You shall also not flee from the sword
lvi Because master applications
 Are on the sword by rights.
lvii Whoever binds onto you
 The war wrestles with him sharply.
lviii The noble winding
 Can also surely find him
lix With hewing, with stabbing
 With cutting you tenaciously find him.
lx In all winding
 You shall find hews, stabs, cuts.
lxi The noble hanging
 Will not exist without the winding.
lxii Because from the hangings
 You shall bring the windings.

Gloss, etc. Here note and know that to each side are two hangings: one under-hanging[42] and one over-hanging.[43] With them, you may come upon the sword of the opponent well. Because they come from the over-hews and the under-hews. Just when it happens that you bind on with someone or as you otherwise come to him on the sword, so shall you remain on the sword and shall wind and shall also quite merrily stay on the sword with him with a good spirit and bravely without fear. And shall quite precisely see, note and watch whatever he will do or what his situation, is with which he will go the rounds against you. And this standing like so on the sword, Liechtenauer calls this a speaking-window. And just when you stand with him on the sword, so shall you quite precisely note and feel his application whether it is soft or hard. Thereafter, you shall then orient yourself as is often spoken before. If he then withdraws himself from the sword before any situation, earlier than you begin, then you shall immediately pursue and shall strike hews or stabs whatever you may most surely deliver, before he comes to anything at all. Because you are always closer to him with that. Thus, you remain on the sword and extend your point against him.

When the opponent withdraws with his, before he recovers himself of one of his strikes he delivered to you, immediately drive on with the point. But if he remains with you on the sword, then always test and note whether he is soft or hard on the sword.

If it is that he is soft and weak, then you shall swiftly and bravely drive full on and charge there with your strong and shall force and press his sword out and shall press and force out his sword and seek his openings to the head, to the body; just wherever you can get to.

If the opponent is subsequently hard and strong on the sword and means to force and force you firmly out, so shall you then be soft and weak against his strong and dissipate his forcing with your sword.

And in that ebbing as his sword crashes and slides away, also as is written about that as before, in that or the moment as that happens to him, before he can recover himself again, so that he cannot come to any strikes or stabs, so shall you explore his openings with hews, stabs or cuts wherever you may most surely possess him according to the afore-written lore swiftly, bravely and quickly so that he can never come to blows.

That's why Liechtenauer says I say to you truthfully, no one defends themselves without danger. If you have grasped this, he can barely come to blows. By this he means that no one may defend themselves without danger or harm if you do this according to the written lore. If you execute and win the fore-strike from him, then they must continually defend or must allow themselves to be struck.

For when you execute the fore-strike, you hit or miss; so shall you swiftly execute the after-strike in one rush before when the opponent comes to any blows. For when you wish to execute the fore-strike, so shall you just as if in one thought and mind also execute the after-strike just as if you will execute them with one another because it likely defends.

That's why Liechtenauer says Before, After, the two things, etc. Because if you execute the fore-strike, you hit or miss, then execute the after-strike verily in one rush, swiftly and quickly so that the opponent comes to blows with nothing and you shall work like this so that you always come earlier than the opponent in all confrontations of fencing. And as soon as you come earlier than the opponent and won the fore-strike, then you immediately execute the after-strike.

When you shall execute no fore-strike, you still have the after-strike along with in sense and in spirit such that you always be in motion and neither dawdle nor hesitate with nothing, especially you always conduct one after the other swiftly and quickly, so that the opponent comes to nothing.

If you truthfully do this, then he must be quite a phenom, whoever comes away from you unstruck. Because with this art or with the advantage that it often happens that a peasant or an unlearned strikes a good master with this for he conducts the fore-strike and bravely hurries there. Because however lightly it is overlooked, it hits within-this and shames him like this and strikes. Because one who takes watch of the blow and will wait for the defence, they are in greater danger than the one who strikes thereupon him and wins the fore-strike. Therefore orchestrate that you are the first in all confrontations of fencing and come to the right side of someone. There you will be surer of everything than the opponent.

[37r] Das ist von hengen / ffecht° daz lere / etc

C|zwey hengen werden ·
aus eyner hant von der erden /
|In allen / geferten /
|hewe · |stiche · |leger · |weich ader |herte /
|Sprechfenster mache ·
stant frölich sich syne sache / Sch /
|Slach · das her snabe ·
wer vor dir zich czewt abe /
|Ich sage vor ware /
sich schützt keyn man ane vare /
|Hastu vornome~ ·
czu slage mag her kleyne komen /
|Is das du bleibest ·
am swerte da mete auch treibest /
|Hewe |stiche ader |snete
· das |fülen merke mete /
|An alles vorczhczihen ·
vom swerte du // auch[44] nicht salt flien /
|wen meister gefechte /
ist am swerte von rechte /
|wer an dich bindet ·
krik mit im sere ringet /
|Das edle winden ·
kan in auch schire vinden /
|Mit |hewen mit |stichen
mit |sneten vindest in werlichen /
|In allen winden
|hewe |stiche |snete saltu vinden /
|Das edle hengen /
wil nicht syn an dy windñ
|wen aus den henge~ ·
saltu dy wi~den bre~gen /

Glosa etc | |Hie merke vnd wise das czu itzlicher seiten sint czwey hengen · |Eyn vnderhengen / vnd eyn öbirhengen / mit den du eyme wol an das swert magst komen + [|wen dy kome~ aus den öb°hewe~ vnd vnderhewen] / |Wen das nu geschiet / das du mit eyme an bindest / ader wy du süst mit im an das swert kömps |zo salt du an dem swerte bleybñ vnd salt |vnd salt winden · |vnd salt alzo mit im gar [37v] frölichen / mit gutem mute / vnd künlichen an alle vorchte · an dem sw°te stehen / |Vnd salt gar ebñ sehen / merken vnd warten was her wolle tuen / |ader was syne sache sey / der her key~ dir pflegen wölle · |Vnd daz stehen / alzo an deme swerte / das heisset lichtnaw° eyn sprechvanster · |Vnd wen du nü mit im alzo an dem sw°te stehst / |zo salt du gar ebñ merken vnd fülen syne geferte / ab sie sint weich aber herte / |dornoch salt du dich deñe richte~ als vor ofte gesproche~ ist · |Ist / das her sich vör allen sachen / e deñe du noch ichsicht begyñest / abe czewt von deme sw°te / |zo salt du czu hant noch volgen vnd salt in slaen hawe~ ader steche~ was du am schiresten magst dar bre~gen / e den her czu keyn°leye dinge kome + [|weñe du hast io neher czu im mit dem das du[45] am sw°te blibest / |vnd dyn ort key~ im reckest / we~ iener mit syme abe czihen / |den e her sich ey~s slags erholt dir dar brengt / |zo var czu hãt dar mt dy~ orte /] / |Bleibt her aber mit dir an dem sw°te / |zo prüfe / io vnd merke / ab her sy weich aber herte an dem swerte / |Ist das her ist / weich vnd swach / |zo saltu rischlichen vnd künlichen volvaren vnd dar hurten / mit dyner sterke / |vnd salt / im syn swert hin dringen vnd drücken / |vnd süche~ syne bloßen / czu koppe ader czu leibe / wo du nür czu magst komen / |Ist iener deñe herte vnd stark an deme sw°te / |vnd meynt dich vaste hin dringen vnd stossen / |zo saltu deñe weich vnd swach seyn / keyn syner sterke / |vnd salt syner sterke vnd syme dringen mit dynen sw°te entwychen / [38r] |vnd yn dem weiche~ als im syn sw°t im hin prelt vnd wischt / |als vor auch von deme geschrebñ ist / |In deme ad° dy weile als das im geschit · e · deñe her sichs weder irholen mag / |dar her czu keyme slage ader stiche kome / |Zo saltu selber syner blössen war neme~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader sneten / |wo du in am schireste~ gehabñ magst / noch der vorgeschrebñ lere / risch / künlich vnd snelle das io iener mit nichte czu slage kome |Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° / ich sag vorwar · sich schutzt key~ man ane var / |Hastu vornomen / czu slage mag er kleyne kome~ / |Do mitt meynt her / |das sich keyn° mag ane var ader ane schaden schutcze~ / |Is das du tust noch der geschrebñ lere / |Ab du im den vorslag gewyñest vnd tust den mus io iener were~ / ad° mus sich lasse slaen / wen du deñe den vorslag tust / du trefst ader velest / |zo saltu rischlich vnd in eyme rawsche den nochslag tue~ · e · deñe iener czu keyme slage kome / |Deñe wen du den vorslag wilt tue~ / |zo saltu recht / zã yn eyme gedanke vnd mute den nochslag auch tue~ / recht zam du sy mit ey~nander wellest tue~ / we~ is möglich were / |Dorvm spricht her · vor · noch · dy cwey dink etc ~ den tust du den vorslag / du treffest / ader velest / zo tu io / in eyme rawsche / risch vnd snelle den nochslag / das iener mit nichte [38v] czu slage kome / |vnd alzo saltu schaffen das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens io · e · komest deñe iener / |vnd als balde als du · e · kum~est deñe ien° / vnd den vorslag gewiñest / |zo tu czu hãt den nochslag / ·|Wen du salt key~ vorslag tue~ / |du habst io / de~ nochslag auch mete ym synne vnd ym mute / also dastu vm~mer in motu seist / vnd mit nichte feyerst ader last / |zonder vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibst · risch · vnd snelle |das iener czu keyne~ dingen moge kome~ / ·|Vorwar tustu / das / zo mus her gar eyn guter syn  der ungeslage~ von dir kum~t / ·|Weñe mt der selben ku~st / ader mt dem vorteil das / ku~pt is oft / das ey~ pawer ader eyn ungelarter eyn gute~ meist° / slet / mt deme · das her den vorslag tuet / vnd künlich dar hurt / |den wy leiche ist das obersehñ / |das in/deß trift vnd in alzo beschemet vnd slet / |deñe eyn° der der slege war nym~et / vnd des schütcze~s wil warten / |der ist io in grosser var / |deñe ien° der do of in slet / vnd den vorslag gewyñet / |Dorvm~e schaffe / das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens der erste bist / vnd io eyme of dy linkerechte / seiten komest / |do bist du wol aller dinge sicher deñe ien° /

108 From both sides
 Learn eight winds with stepping.
106 And always unite them
 Yoke[46] the winds with three plays
107 So are they twenty
 And four. Simply count them.
105 Fencer, mind this
 And consider the winds correctly
lxiii And learn to command them well
 So you may wound the four openings
lxiv Because each opening
 Objectively has six wounds.

Gloss. Here note and know that the winds are the right art and fixed foundation of all fencing of the sword. From them, all other applications and plays come. And one might tediously be a good fencer without the winds, although numerous illegitimate masters, they dismiss and say whatever comes from the winds is quite weak and name it "from the shortened sword", for they are simple and approach naively and meaning that they are fought from the long sword whatever arrives with extended arms and with extended sword and whatever arrives quite fiendishly and strong from the entire power of the body will barely flourish to the end and that is terrible to behold when someone extends themselves like this just as if they will run-down a hare. And that is all against the winding and against Liechtenauer's art when there is no strength against. Because if whoever's art differs on this, you should prefer the strong every time.

  1. Remainder is blacked out.
  2. alt: behold, peer-into, witness, probe, observe, perceive, inspect, investigate, realize, comprehend. alt: show, present, embody, illuminate
  3. latin
  4. lit: tread-full. completing a step or completing the course of a thing.
  5. alt: giving-way, stepping-off. to give something up. to let something go.
  6. alt: safe, sure
  7. alt: has success
  8. ume züst => umsonst
  9. Text gives "deñe her"; correct order based on markings is given here.
  10. schlage, not schlag
  11. Word is almost illegible.
  12. aufwinden: 1) to entangle, wind into a ball 2) to turn or twist upwards.
  13. hindringen: to break or force through. overcome
  14. "Wisely" inferred from the summary
  15. alt: straight
  16. darfahren: unversehens dazu kommen
  17. A guide letter “w” is visible under the “D” (apparently ignored by the rubricator), making the intended word “Wer”.
  18. Continued up the side margin; due to paper clipping, the bottom line is unclear. 65r gives "gewisse".
  19. wegen preposition
  20. wegen verb
  21. ienen
  22. "Ander" is placed after "Hewe" in the manuscript, with markings indicating the correct order.
  23. Inserted in the margin
  24. dargehen: the approach something in a hostile manner. Literally: to go-there.
  25. The page is clipped. only 'hew' remains. This manuscript spells 'haupte' as 'hewpte'
  26. twer: noun: something that gets in the way, something that cuts across something else, something that crosses. verb: to twist, to twirl, to turn obliquely in relation to something
  27. "Hew" is inserted in the margin.
  28. alt: directly, immediately
  29. The comment ends here and remains unfinished.
  30. Inserted in margin.
  31. Unlike other places where there are definitely passages originally forgotten and inserted with a caret, such is missing here. Thus, it can be conjectured that this is a later addition or comment.
  32. überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline
  33. Grimm: setzen C.2)a)
  34. unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree
  35. Inserted in margin.
  36. Inserted in margin.
  37. Latin: "as [they] are able"
  38. Inserted in margin
  39. Inserted in the margin.
  40. rauschen: like a strong wind rustling quickly through the trees
  41. Inserted in the margin.
  42. unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree
  43. überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline
  44. Inserted in the margin.
  45. Inserted in the margin.
  46. menen: treiben, fuhren, leiten