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| <p>And [one] shall not hew to the opponent's sword, rather into the opponent, to the head and to the body, wherever one may, etc.</p>
| <p>And [one] shall not hew to the opponent's sword, rather into the opponent, to the head and to the body, wherever one may, etc. One may also consider that the first verse may also state: Whomever you over-hew the wrath-hew, the point of the wrath-hew threatens them, etc. Just act according to this lore and be continuously in motion. Either you hit or do not so that the opponent cannot come to strikes. And with the hewing, always step-out well to the side. Also know that there are only two hews, all other hews come from them however they are preferred to be named locally. That is the over-hew and the under-hew from both sides. They are the chief hews and foundation of all other hews. However, those hews causally and accordingly come from the point of the sword. Which is the core and the center of all other plays here like what was written well before. And from those same hews come the four displacements from both sides. With them one disrupts and breaks all hews, stabs or positions. And from them one also comes into the four hangings. From them one may conduct art well as one shall hear hereafter. And however one may particularly fence someone, so shall the point ever and always be turned against their face or breast so that each and every time the opponent must discourage themselves so that he cannot come before by sake of<ref>wegen preposition</ref> it, for it has immediately shifted<ref>wegen verb</ref> somewhere<ref>ienen</ref> closer to him.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 23v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| <p>One may also consider that the first verse may also state: Whomever you over-hew the wrath-hew, the point of the wrath-hew threatens them, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS 3227a 23v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| <p>Just act according to this lore and be continuously in motion. Either you hit or do not so that the opponent cannot come to strikes. And with the hewing, always step-out well to the side. Also know that there are only two hews, all other hews come from them however they are preferred to be named locally. That is the over-hew and the under-hew from both sides. They are the chief hews and foundation of all other hews. However, those hews causally and accordingly come from the point of the sword. Which is the core and the center of all other plays here like what was written well before. And from those same hews come the four displacements from both sides. With them one disrupts and breaks all hews, stabs or positions. And from them one also comes into the four hangings. From them one may conduct art well as one shall hear hereafter. And however one may particularly fence someone, so shall the point ever and always be turned against their face or breast so that each and every time the opponent must discourage themselves so that he cannot come before by sake of<ref>wegen preposition</ref> it, for it has immediately shifted<ref>wegen verb</ref> somewhere<ref>ienen</ref> closer to him.</p>
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Revision as of 19:38, 18 April 2018

Complete Translation Complete translation
by Thomas Stoeppler

Transcription [edit]
by Dierk Hagedorn

This is the general preface of the bare-fencing on foot. Mark this well.

1 Young knight learn
 to love god. Furthermore honor women,
2 Thus cultivate your honor.
 Practice knight-craft and learn
3 Art that decorates you
 and in wars serves well.
4 Wrestling's good grips,
 Glaive, spear, sword and messer,
5 Manfully brandish
 and in other hands ruin.
6 Hew therein and charge there,
 rushing on, joining or driving out.
7 Those maturing in this wisdom,
 this one sees praising.
8 Thereupon you hold,
 all things have length and measure.
i And whatever you wish to conduct,
 shall stay in the realm of good reason.
ii In earnest or in play,
 have a joyous spirit with moderation
iii So that you may pay attention
 and consider with a good spirit
iv Whatever you shall command
 and whip up against him.
v Because a good spirit with authority
 someone's rebuke timid.
vi Thereafter, orient yourself.
 Give no advantage with anything.
vii Avoid imprudence.
 Do not step in front of four or six
viii With your overconfidence.
 Be modest, that is good for you.
ix It is a brave man
 that dares to confront his equal.
x It is not shameful
 to flee four or six at hand.

This is the general lore of the sword

9 If you wish to examine[2] the art.
 Go left and right with hewing.
10 And left with right
 is what you strongly desire to fence.
11 Whoever chases-after hews,
 they allow themselves to hardly enjoy the art.
12 Hew nearby whatever you wish,
 No change comes on your shield.
xi Do not hew to the sword.
 Rather, Constantly watch the openings.
13 To the head, to the body,
 Do not omit the fleshwounds.
14 With the entire body fence
 whatever you desire to conduct strongly.
15 Hear what is bad for that:
 Do not fence from above left if you are right.
16 And if you are left,
 in the right, you are severely hindered.
xii So always prefer to fence
 from above left downwards.
17 Before, after, the two things
 are the one origin of all art.
18 Weak and strong,
 Within, with that mark the word.
19 So you may learn
 to defend yourself with art and work.
20 If you terrify easily,
 never learn any fencing.
xii Audacity and swiftness,
 prudence, astuteness and ingenuity,
xiv Acumen, concealment,
 measure, obscuration, scouting
xv And skill will fencing have
 and carry a joyous spirit.

General gloss hereafter.[3]

First of all, note and know that the point of the sword is the center, the middle and the core of the sword from which all applications go and come back into it. So are the hangings and the windings are the affixing and the revolving of the center and of the core. From them, quite a few good plays of fencing also come. And are invented and conceived so that a fencer, who begins to hew or thrust directly to the point, may not reasonably hit every time; yet they can hit someone with those same plays hewing, stabbing or cutting; with treading off and towards; and with stepping-around or springing. And if one mislaid or mis-extended the point of his sword with shooting or with carrying-through[4] then he may realign and bring-in and shorten it again with winding or treading-off,[5] in such a way that he again comes into the certain[6] plays and principles of fencing. From them, he may bring hews, stabs, or cuts. For according to Liechtenauer's art, the hews, stabs and cuts come from all applications and principles of the art of the sword, as one will hear hereafter how one play and principle comes from the other. And as it goes from one to the other, if the one will be warded, then the other hits and has gone-forward.[7]

[18v] Das ist eyne gemeyne lere des swertes

wW|Iltu kunst schawen ·
sich link gen vnd recht mete hawen ·
|Vnd link mit rechten
is das du stark gerest fechten ·
|Wer noch get hewen ·
der darf sich kunst kleyne frewen ·
|haw nu was du wilt ·
keyn wechsler kawm an dich schild/
|Haw nicht czu~ swerte /
zonder / stets der bloße warte /
|Czu koppe czu leibe ·
dy czecken do nicht vormeide /
|Mit ganczem leiben ·
ficht was du stark gerest treiben /
|Höer was do slecht ist ·
ficht nicht oben link zo du recht pist /
|Vnd ob du link pist ·
ym rechten auch sere hinkest /
|So vicht io liber ·
von oben rechtlinkischen nider /
|Vor · |noch · dy czwey dink ·
syn allen kunsten eyn orsprink /
|Swach · vnde · |sterke ·
|Indes · das wort mete merke /
|So machstu lere~ ·
mit / vnd erb / kunst vnd erbeit dich weren /
|Irschrikstu gerne ·
key~ fechte~ nym~er lerne /
|Kunheit vnd rischeit ·
vorsichtikeit list vnd |klugheit/
†† |Vornu~ft verborge~heit /
moße bevorbetrachtu~ge / hobsheit /fetikeit /
|Wil fechten haben ·
vnd frölichs gemüte tragen

Glosa gn°alis hui9 seq°r / | |Von allererste~ merke vnd wisse / das der ort des swertes ist das czentru~ vnd das mittel vnd der kern des swertes |aus deme alle gefechte gen / vnd weder / yn in komen · |So sint dy hengen / vnd dy winden / synt dy anhenge vnd dy vmlewfe des czentru~s vnd des kerns [19r] aus den auch / gar vil guter stöcke des fechtens komen / |vnd sint dorvm fvnden vnd irdocht / das eyn fechter / der da gleich czum orte czu hewt ader sticht / nicht wol allemal treffen mak / das  der mit den selben stöcken / hawende stechende ader sneydende / mit abe / vnd czutreten / vnd mit vm~eschreiten ader springen eynen treffen mag / |vnd ab eyner syn ort des swertes / mit schißen ader mit voltreten / vorlewst ader vorlengt / |zo mag her in mit wi~den ader abetreten / weder / irlengen vnd / ynbrengen vnd körczen / alzo das her weder yn gewisse stöcke vnd gesetze kü~pt des fechtens / aus den her hewe stiche ader snete brengen mag / |wen noch lychtnaw°s ku~st / zo komen aus allen gefechte~ vnd gesetze des f der ku~st des swertes / hewe stiche vnd snete / |als mã wirt hernoch hören / |wy eyn stöcke vnd gesetze aus dem andñ ku~pt / vnd wy sich eyns aus de~ andern macht / ab eyns wirt geweret / das daz ander treffe vnd vorgank habe

On second count, note and know that no part on the sword was invented and conceived without reason.[8] In particular, a fencer shall utilize the point, both edges, the hilt, the pommel as it is on the sword accordingly as each has its particular principle in the art of fencing according to these as the practices embody and uncover, as you will hereafter hear and see each in particular.

| |Czu dem andñ mal merke vnd wisse / daz keyn dink an dem sw°te / vm~e züst fu~den vnd irdocht ist / |zvnder eyn fechter / den ort / beide sneiden gehilcze klos / vnd als das am swerte ist / nuetczen sal / noch dem [19v] als itzlieichs syn sönderleichs gesetze hat yn der ku~st des fechtens / noch dem als dy Vebunge hat vnd finder / als du itzlichs besvnder hernoch wirst sehen vnd hören /

Also note and know with this as he speaks, If you wish to examine the art, etc. He means that a skilled fencer, they shall: set-forward the left foot and with that, hew from the right side directly to the opponent with threatening hews as long as he sees where he may certainly have the opponent and reach certainly with his stepping. And he means: when someone wishes to fence strongly, so shall he fence from the left side on with the entire body and complete authority to the head and to the body wherever he may solely hit and never to the sword, in particular he shall do it as if the opponent has no sword and as if he cannot see and he shall not omit any fleshwounds or blows, rather always be in work and in contact so that the opponent cannot come to strikes.

He also means that one shall not identically follow and track the hew, rather, somewhat aside and curved around so that he comes to the side of the opponent. For there he may have him better with everything than frontally on. Whatever he from then on hews or stabs upon the opponent, that may ward or lead off well any and all changings-through or other applications of the opponent, only if the hews or stabs go forth directly into the opponent against the openings to the head or to the body with stepping-around and treading.

Also note and know about this when he speaks, before, after the two things, etc. There he means the five words: before, after, weak, strong, within-this. On these words lay the entire art of Master Liechtenauer's and the fixed foundation and the core of all fencing on foot or on horse, uncovered or in harness.

With the word "before", he means that a particularly good fencer shall have and have won the fore-strike every time he hits or misses. As Liechtenauer says, Hew therein and charge there, rush onwards, hit or let drive. When he goes or runs at someone, Just as soon as he sees he may reach him with a step or with a spring, wherever he then sees him somehow open, there he shall drive onwards with ease to the head or to the body, bravely without any fear wherever he may have him with surety. For as such, he always wins the fore-strike, whether it does well or poorly for the them. And with that, shall also be certain in his steps and shall have measured them correctly so that he does not step too short nor too long.

Now, when he executes the fore-strike, if he hits, then he quickly pursues the hit. But if he wards the fore-strike of the opponent in such a way, that with his sword, he leads off or commands their fore-strike, be it a hew or stab, So long as he is then still on the sword of the opponent. With it like this, he will lead off from the openings which he had targeted, Then he shall quite precisely feel and note whether the opponent in his commanding-off and defence of the hews or stabs is soft or hard, weak or strong on the sword.

That is when he now fully feels how the opponent is in his technique. If within-this, the opponent is strong and hard, now that he completely notes and feels, then he shall within-this or during-this be soft and weak if the opponent defends himself thusly. And in that, before the opponent comes to strikes, so shall he then execute the after-strike. That is, he begins to hew while the opponent defends himself and wards himself of the fore-strike, be it hew or stab, so shall he seek out other applications and plays. With those, he shall again hurry and rush into his openings. Also in this, he is continually in motion and in contact so that he also confounds the opponent and soundly robs the opponent amid his defending and warding. Thus has too much work so that he, the defender, cannot come to his strikes. Because someone who shall defend themselves and fixate on the strikes, they are always in greater danger than they that strike at them, so that they must then continually ward the strikes or must allow themselves to be hit, so that they must come to strikes burdensomely by their own accord. About that Liechtenauer speaks: I say to you truthfully, no one defends themselves without danger. If you have understood this, he cannot come to strikes.

If you execute otherwise according to the five words, this dictum goes entirely against that and all of [that] fencing often results in a peasant slaying a master, because he is brave and won the fore-strike according to this precept.

|Mit deme worte · |Vor · meynt her das eyn itzlicher gut° fechter / sal alle mal den vorslag haben vnd gewiñen / [her treffe ader vele / |als lichnawer / spricht / |Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar / rawsche hin trif ader la va] |weñe her czu / eyme gehet ader lewft / als balde als her nur siet / das her in mit eynem schrete / ader mit eynem sprunge dirreichen mag / wo her deñe indert in blos siet / do sal her hin varn / mit frewden / czu koppe ader czu leibe / künlich an alle vorchte wo her in am gewisten gehabñ mag / alzo das her ia den vorslag gewiñe / is tu ieme wol ader we · |vnd sal auch mit dem / in syne~ schreten gewisse sein / vnd sal dy haben recht zam gemessen / das her nicht czu korcz ader czu lank schreite / |wen her nü den vorslag / tuet / trift her zo volge her dem treffen vaste / noch · |weret · her aber |iener den vorslag alzo das her im den vorslag / is sy haw ader stich mit syme swerte / abeweiset vnd leitet / |Dy weile her deñe ieme noch / an syme swerte ist / mit deme als her wirt abe geweist / von der blößen / der her geremet / hat / zo sal her gar eben fülen vnd merken [20v] ab iener in syme abeleiten vnd schützen der hewe ader stiche / an syme swerte / weich ader herte / swach ader stark / sey / |Ist deñe das her nü wol fület / wy iener in syme geferte ist / |Is das iener stark vnd herte ist / |Indes / das hers nü genczlich merkt vnd fület / zo sal her ader |Indes ader vnderdez das sich iener zo schützt / weich vnd swach dirweder syn / |vnd in dem selben / e den / das iener czu keyme slage kome / zo sal her deñe den nochslag tuen / |das ist / das her czu haut / dy weile sich iener schützt vnd sich des vorslags weret / is sy haw ader stich zo sal her ander gefechte vnd stöcke hervörsüchen / mit den her aber czu synen blößen hurt vnd rawschet / alzo dis her vm~ermer in bewegunge vnd in berürunge sy · |das her ienen als irre / vnd berawbet mache / das iener mit syme schützen vnd weren / alzo vil czu schaffen habe / das her / der schützer / czu syner slege / keyne kome~ mag / |wen eyner der sich sal schützen / vnd der slege warnemen / der ist alle mal in grösser var / deñe der /· der da slet of in / |deñe her mus ia dy slege were~ / ader mus sich laen treffen / daz her selber mülich / czu slage mag kome~ / |Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° |Ich sage vorware · sich schutzt key~ mã ane vare / |Hastu vornome~ · czu slage mag her kleyne kome~ / |Tustu and°s noch de~ fünff wörtern / of dy dese rede gar get / vnd alles fechten |Dorvm slet oft/ey~ bawer ey~ meist° wen her küne ist vnd de~ vorslag / gewiñet / noch deser lere /

Because with the word 'before', as was spoken earlier, he means that someone with a good fore-strike or with the first strike, they shall bravely charge there without any fear and rush against the openings to the head or to the body. He hits or misses such that he also at once stuns, overwhelms and terrifies them so that they do not know what he should do against this and also before the opponent recovers themselves again or comes at him with the same. Then he immediately executes the after-strike and continually compels him to ward and the defend himself so much that he cannot come to strikes.

Then when the fencer executes the first strike or the fore-strike and the opponent then wards him, in the same warding and defending, the fencer then always comes earlier into the after-strike than the opponent into the first. Then he may: initiate a hew, initiate a drive with the pommel or may come in the thwart-hews, they are good to count on, or may otherwise throw the sword forwards [by means of] the thwart-hew. With that he comes into other applications or else alternately, he may begin well. Before the opponent comes to strikes as you will hear how it makes one from the other so that the opponent may not come from him unstruck if he does differently according to this lesson. Because he shall execute with one mind and with one effort alike[10], if it is possible to accomplish, the fore-strike and the after-strike, swifty and promptly after each other.

Also, it would fully come to this if the opponent wards the fore-strike. For he must ward it with the sword and in this way, he must always come to the fencer on his sword. And when the opponent subsequently wards somewhat late and unready, the fencer would then remain on the sword and shall then wind at once and shall quite precisely note and feel whether or not the opponent will withdraw themselves from the sword.

If the opponent withdraws themselves, when they are engaged with one another on the sword and have extended their points toward one another into the openings, before the opponent can recover themselves again against hew or stab of the fencer with his withdrawal, the fencer immediately pursues with a good stab into the chest with his point or else forwards into wherever he may hit him surest and closest in such a way that the opponent may come from the sword without harm with nothing, because immediately with his following-after, the fencer is always closer to the opponent; as he has arranged his point forward on the sword against the opponent according to the nearest and shortest of all with that.

When the opponent shall deliver hew or stab wide around at someone with his withdrawal, the fencer can always come before into the after-strike or -stab, before the opponent into the first like this. And Liechtenauer means this with the word: 'after': when someone has done the fore-strike, so shall he immediately without pause upon the same drive execute the after-strike and shall always be in motion and in contact and always conduct one after the other. If the first fails him, then the second, the third or the fourth hits and continually does not allow the opponent come to any blows. Because no one may have greater advantage of fencing than they who execute these five words according to the lesson.

|Auch möchte is wol dar czu kome~ / ab ien° de~ vorslag weret / |zo müste her in were~ mit dem sw°te / vnd alzo müste her dese~ io an sy~ sw°t kome~ / |vnd we~ deñe ien° eczwas trege vnd las were / |zo möchte deser deñe an dem sw°te bleybe~ / |vnd sal deñe czu hãt wi~den / |vnd sal gar ebñ merke~ vnd fulen / ab sich ien° wil abeczihe~ võ dem sw°te / ader nicht / [21v] irhole~ mag mit syme abeczihe~ · |zo hat im deser czu hant / mit syme orte noch gevolget / mit eyne~ gute~ stiche czu der brost / ader söst vorne czu wo her in am schireste~ vnd neheste~ getreffe~ mag / |alzo das im ien° mit nichte / ane schade~ von dem sw°te mag kome~ / |we~ deser hat io / czu hãt mit syme nochvolge~ / neher czu ieme / mit dem als her syne~ ort / vor / an dem sw°te gestalt hat key~ ieme / noch de~ aller neheste~ vnd körczste~ / |we~ das ien° mit syme abeczihe~ / of / ey~ news solde hewe ader stiche / |weit vm~e / dar bre~ge~ / |alzo mag io deser alle mal · e czu dem nochslage ader stiche kome~ / e deñe ien° czu dem ersten / |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° mit dem worte / noch / |we~ eyn° im de~ vorslag hat getan / |zo sal her czu hant an vnderloz / of der selben vart den nochslag / tue~ / |vnd sal vm~erm° in bewegu~ge / |vnd in rüru~ge syn / vnd vm°mer ey~s noch dem and°n treibñ / |ab ym das erste vele / |dacz daz ander das dritte |ader daz vierde treffe / |vnd io iene~ nicht lasse czu ky~me slage kome~ / |Wen keyn / mag grosser vorteil of fechte~ habñ / den der nach der lere / deser fünff / wörter tuet /

But if the opponent remains on the sword; with that, as it is coming onto his sword with his warding and defending [himself from] the fencer and it has drawn itself out like this such that the fencer is remaining with him on the sword and has not yet executed the after-strike, so shall the fencer wind up[12] and stay with him thusly on the sword and shall quite precisely note and feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword.

If then, the fencer notes and feels that the opponent is strong, hard and firm on the sword and the fencer only means to force out[13] his sword; so shall the fencer be weak and soft against that and shall stand weakening and relinquishing his strength and shall allow his sword to swept out and driven away with his forcing that the opponent executes and the fencer shall then allow his sword to immediately and swiftly lead off and withdraw and shall quickly shall drive that against his openings, to the head or to the body, wherever; with hewing, stabbing and cutting, only where he can approach the closest and surest.

Because the harder and the surer the opponent forces and presses with his sword and the fencer is then weak and soft against that and allows his sword to lead off and in this way weakens him, the farther and the wider his sword then repels the opponent such that he then becomes quite open and thus the fencer then may hit and wound him according to desire before the opponent can recover himself against the hew or the stab of the fencer.

|Ist deñe das deser merkt vnd fület / das iener stark herte vnd veste an dem sw°te ist / vnd dese~ / nü mey~t syn sw°t hin dringe~ · |zo sal deser deñe swach vnd weich dirweder syn / |vnd sal syñ sterke weiche~ vnd stat gebñ / |vnd sal im syn sw°t / hin lasse~ preln vnd wer varn / mit sy~ dringe~ daz her tuet / |vnd deser sal deñe syn sw°t snelle [22r] lassen abegleiten · |vnd abeczihñ / balde vnd risch · |vnd sal snelle dar varn key~ synen blosse~ / czu koppe ader czu leibe / |wo / mit hewe~ stiche~ vnd snete~ / wo her nür / am neheste~ vnd schireste~ mag czu kome~ / |wen e herter vnd e sürer ien° dringt vnd druckt mit syme sw°te / |vnd deser deñe swach vnd weich dirwed° ist · |vnd syn sw°t lest abegleite~ / vnd im alzo weicht / e verrer vnd e weit° deñe ieme sy~n sw°t wek prelt · |das her deñe gar blos wirt / |vnd das in deñe deser noch wonsche mag treffen vnd rüren / e deñe her sich selber / key~s haws ader stichs irholen mag /

But if the opponent is weak and soft on the sword, in the same way, if the fencer now notes and feels it, so shall the fencer then be strong and hard against that on the sword and shall then strongly drive out and rush forward equally on the sword with his point against the opponent's openings, wherever he may be closest, just as if a cord or thread were bound forwards on his point earlier, that leads his point to the nearest of the opponent's openings. And with that same stabbing the fencer executes, he becomes fully aware whether the opponent is so weak that they let his sword force them out and lets themselves be struck.

But if he is strong and wards and leads off the stab, such that he again becomes strong on the sword and carries off his sword and wards the stab also that the opponent forces-out the fencer's sword, so shall the fencer again become weak and soft against that and shall allow his sword to lead off and weaken him and swiftly seek his openings with hewing, stabbing and with cutting as it may solely be. And this is what Liechtenauer means with these words: soft and hard.

And this goes to the Authorities. As Aristotle spoke in the book Peri Hermanias: "Opposites positioned near themselves shine greater, or rather, opposites which adjoin augment. Weak against strong, hard against soft, and contrary." For should it be strong against strong, then the stronger every time. Therefore Liechtenauer undertakes fencing according to the more appropriate and truer art, so that one weaker and cunning with his art as surely wins as with one stronger with his strength (for which would be of a different art).

|Is das her stark wirt weder an dem sw°te / vnd desem syn sw°t abeweiset vnd den stich weret / |also das her dese~ sy~ sw°t vaste hin dringt · |zo sal deser aber swach vnd weich dirweder w°den / |vnd sal sy~ sw°t lasse~ abegleite~ / |vnd im weichen / |vnd syne blosse~ rischlichen süche~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader mit snete~ |wy her nür mag · |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° / mit dese~ wörter / weich vnd herte / |vnd das get of dy aucto’i-[22v] tas / |als aristotyles spricht in lib° pyarmenias |Oppo~ita iuxta se po~ita · m~g~ elucescu~t / |vel / oppo~ita opposit~ cui aut° / |Swach weder stark / herte weder weich / et eqt° / |Deñe solde stark weder stark syn / |zo gesigt allemal der sterker / ·|dorvm get lichtnawer fechte~ noch recht° vnd worhaftiger ku~st dar / |das ey~ swacher mit syn° ku~st vnd list / als schire gesigt / mit /als ey~ starker mit syn° sterke / |worvm were and°s ku~st /

Therefore fencer, learn to feel well as Liechtenauer spoke: Learn the feeling. Within, that words cuts sharply. Because when you are on the sword of the opponent and now feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword well, within-this or during, so you must then consider and know well whatever you shall execute against him according to this aforementioned lore and art. For truly, he cannot withdraw himself from the sword without harm with anything. Because Liechtenauer spoke: Strike that it snaps whoever withdraws before you.

If you act according to this lesson, fastening well so that you always have and won the fore-strike and as soon as you execute that, you then hasten the after-strike into the opponent thereafter, immediately without refrain (that is the second, the third or the fourth strike, be it hew or stab) then the opponent can never come to strikes. If you then come onto the sword with him, be surer at the feeling and execute as is written before.

Because this is the foundation of fencing that a person is always in motion and not pause and it then comes to the feeling, so do above as able. And whatever you conduct and begin, always have measure and moderation. Like, if you have won the fore-strike, then don't do it so impetuously and so powerfully that you then cannot recover yourself for the after-strike. About this, Liechtenauer spoke: Thereupon you hold, all things have moderation and measure. And also understand this about the stepping and about all other plays and principles of fencing, etc.

This is the text, in this he names the five hews and other plays of fencing.

21 Five hews learn.
 From the right hand, endure the weapons.
23 Wrath-hew, crook, thwart,
 have squinter with parters,
24 Fool displaces,
 race-to, run-across hew disrupt,
25 Change-through, disengage,
 run-through, cut-off, press hands
26 Hang, wind amid the openings
 Strike catch, scrape, stab with colliding.

This is about the Wrath-hew, etc.

27 Whoever over-hews you,
 The Wrath-hew point threatens them.
28 If he becomes aware of it,
 Take it off above without fear
29 Be stronger, wind against,
 Thrust. If he sees it, take it below.
30 Precisely note this:
 Hews, stabs, position soft or hard
31 Within and before, after
 Without charging to the wars. Do not be rash.
32 Whoever's war targets
 Above, he will be shamed below.
33 In all winds,
 Learn to find: hews, stabs, cuts.
34 You shall also, with that
 Test hew, stab or cut
35 In all hits
 Of the masters, if you wish to dupe them.
xvi Do not hew to the sword,
 Rather, stand watch for the openings
xvii In the head, in the body
 If you wish to remain without harm
xviii You hit or miss
 Aspriring thusly so that you target the openings
xix In every lesson,
 Turn the point against the openings.
xx Whoever hews around widely,
 They will often be shamed severly.
xxi At the closest of all,
 Deliver sudden hews, stabs.
xxii And one shall also always step
 To the right side
xxiii So you may begin
 Fencing or wrestling with advantage.

Gloss. Here note and know that Liechtenauer calls an over-hew struck[14] from the shoulder the wrath-hew. When one is in his fury and wrath of someone, there is no hew as ready as this same over-hew struck from the shoulder to the man. About that, Liechtenauer means when someone begins to hew at you with an over-hew, so shall you counter-hew the wrath-hew against him, and also that you firmly shoot the point against him. If he wards your point from you, then immediately draw off above and drive suddenly[15] to the other side of his sword. But if he wards that, then be hard and strong in the sword and wind and stab immediately and bravely. If he wards your stab, separate and immediately initiate a hew below, where you hit to the legs in such a way that you continuously conduct one after the other, so that they cannot come to strikes. And the afore-spoken words: before, after, within-this, weak, strong and hews, stabs and cuts; you shall have them brought to mind at the same time and forget with nothing in the applications.

Das ist von deme Czornhawe etc ~

D|Er[16] dir oberhawet ·
|czornhaw ort deme drewet /
|Wirt her is gewar ·
nym is oben ab / ane vaer /
|Pis sterker / weder
wint / stich / |siet her is / |nym is neder /
|Das eben merke ·
|hewe · |stiche · |leger · |weich ader |herte /
|Indes vnd · |vor · |noch ·
ane hurt deme krige sey nicht goch /
|wes der krig remet ·
oben / neden wirt her beschemet /
|In allen winden ·
|hewe · |stiche · |snete · lere finden /
|Auch saltu mete ·
prüfen |hewe |stiche ader |snete /
|In allen treffen ·
den meistern wiltu sie effen /
|Haw nicht czum swerte ·
zonder stets der blößen warte /
|Czu koppe czu leibe ·
wiltu an schaden bleyben /
|du trefts ader ader velest ·
zo trachte das du der blossen remest
* |In aller lere /
den ort / keyn den blößen kere /
|Wer weite vm~e hewet /
d° w°t oft sere bescheme[t]
|Off das aller neste /
bre~ge hewe stiche dar gew[isse][17]
|Vnd salt auch io schreite~ /
eyme czu der rechte~ seiten /
[?] ader iagens
[?] begyñen /

Glosa |Hie merke vnd wisse das lichtnaw° / ey~ öberhaw slecht von der achsel / heisset den czornhaw / Den eyn wen eym itzlichem in syme gry~me vnd czorne [23v] |zo ist im keyn haw als bereit / |als der selbe aberhaw slecht von der achsel / czum mañe / |Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / We~ dir eyner czu hewt / mit eym obirhaw / |zo salt du key~ im weder hawe~ de~ czornhaw / |alzo das du mit dyme ort vaste key~ im schisset / |wert her dir dyn ort / |zo czewch balde oben ab / vnd var czu der and°n syte~ dar / syns sw°ts · |wert her dir daz aber / |zo bis harte vnd stark im sw°te / |vnd wind / vnd stich balde vnd ku~lich / |w°t her dir de~ / stich / |zo smeis vnd haw balde vnde~ czu / wo du trifft / czu~ beyne~ / |alzo das du vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibest / das ien° nicht czu slage kome / |Vnd dy vorgesproche~ wörter · vor · noch · Indes · swach · stark / |vnd · hewe · stiche · vnd · snete · |der saltu czu male wol gedenken / |vnd mit nichte vorgessen in deme gefechte

You shall also not seriously rush with the war, because if one of which you target fails above, then you you hit below as you will hear how one makes itself out of the other according to the legitimate art, particularly: hews, stabs, cuts.

And [one] shall not hew to the opponent's sword, rather into the opponent, to the head and to the body, wherever one may, etc. One may also consider that the first verse may also state: Whomever you over-hew the wrath-hew, the point of the wrath-hew threatens them, etc. Just act according to this lore and be continuously in motion. Either you hit or do not so that the opponent cannot come to strikes. And with the hewing, always step-out well to the side. Also know that there are only two hews, all other hews come from them however they are preferred to be named locally. That is the over-hew and the under-hew from both sides. They are the chief hews and foundation of all other hews. However, those hews causally and accordingly come from the point of the sword. Which is the core and the center of all other plays here like what was written well before. And from those same hews come the four displacements from both sides. With them one disrupts and breaks all hews, stabs or positions. And from them one also comes into the four hangings. From them one may conduct art well as one shall hear hereafter. And however one may particularly fence someone, so shall the point ever and always be turned against their face or breast so that each and every time the opponent must discourage themselves so that he cannot come before by sake of[18] it, for it has immediately shifted[19] somewhere[20] closer to him.

|Vnd salt nicht czu eyns sw°te hawe~ / |zonder czu im selber / czu koppe vnd czu leibe / wo eyn° mag |etc |Auch mag mã vorneme~ / das der erste v°se mochte alzo stehen / |wem du öberhewest czornhaw / |deme drewt der ort / des czornhaws |etc |Nür tu noch deser lere / vnd bis vm~erm° i~ / motu / du treffest ad° nicht / daz ien° nicht czu slage Kome |vnd schret io wol besytz aus / mit den hewen / |Auch wise das nur czwene hewe seyn aus den alle ander hewe[21] wy dy komen |wy dy vm~er genãt möge~ werdn / das [24r] |das ist der öberhaw · vnd der vnderhaw / von beiden seiten · |dy sint dy hawpt hewe |vnd gru~t aller ander hewe / |wy wol dy selbñ vrsachlich vnd gru~tlich / |auch kome~ aus dem orte des sw°tes / |der do ist der kern vnd das czentru~ aller and° stocke / |als das wol vor ist geschrebn # [|vnd aus den selbe~ hewe~ kome~ dy vier vorsetcze~ |von beiden seite~ / mt den mã alle hewe vnd stiche ader leger / letzt vnd bricht / |vnd aus den man auch yn dy vier he~ge~ ku~pt / aus den mã[g] wol ku~st treibñ mag / |als mã hernoch wirt horen] |Vnd wy ey~ mã nur ficht / zo sal io allemal den ort key~ eyns gesichte / ader brust keren / |zo mus sich iener alleczeit besorgen · |das her icht e kome we~ her · |wen her io neher czu im hat we~ ien° /

And if it happens like this that they won the fore-strike, so shall the fencer be secure and sure and be quick with the winding and as soon as he has wound, so shall he begin to drive to the side agilely and courageously. And his point shall shall seek the opponent's breast, turning and positioning themselves against it. As you will hear better hereafter. And the point, as soon as he comes upon the sword of someone, it shall always come to be around a half an ell away from another's breast or face and take quite good care that it intends to arrive inside that and certainly to the closest and not wide around, so that the opponent cannot come first by sake of this. Provided the fencer will not allow themselves to become lax and hesitant and ward too lazily nor be willing to arrive too wide and too far around.

This is about the four openings, etc, etc.

36 Know to target the four openings
 so you strike certainly
37 Without any danger
 without doubt however he behaves.

Gloss. Note here that Liechtenauer, who tiles a person in four parts, just as if he made a line in front of them from the top of the head downwards on his body just to down-here between his legs. And the second line by the girdle that crosses over the body thus becoming four quarters: a right and a left above the girdle and also in the same way under the girdle. Those are the four openings, which each have their particular applications. He targets them and never against the sword, rather the openings.

About the four openings, how one breaks them.

38 If you wish to reckon yourself,
 breaking the four openings artfully,
39 Double above,
 Mutate there-below directly.
40 I say truthfully,
 no one defends themselves without danger.
41 If you have understood,
 he may scarcely come to blows.
This is about the Krumphau








Krump quickly
and throw the Ort on his hands.
The Krumphau with correct steps
defends against many strikes
Strike the Krump to the flat
of the skilled fencer, this will weaken him.
As soon as the swords hit high above,
strike to the man, this will be honored.
Never strike the Krump too short
otherwise your Opponent can change through.
Against a man who feints a lot,
use the Krump and confuse him in the Krieg
So he may not know
where he can be without danger.

Comment Here learn and know that the Krumphau is an Oberhau which is done in a bent manner with a good step to one side.

This is why Liechtenauer says whoever wants to execute this strike, should step well to the right side while striking and shall throw or thrust the point over the hilt of the adversary onto his hands. And he should strike with the flat if he hits the blade and should stay strong against the sword and press forcefully. From there he may see what he can do best, in the most direct and surest manner, be it with strikes, thrusts or cuts. And he should not strike too short and should not forget the changing-through if it is appropriate.

Das ist von deme krumphawe / etc

KRump auf / behende /
wirf deynen ort auf dy hende /
krump wer wol setczet •
mit schreten vil hewe letczet /
Haw kru~p czu~ flechen •
den meistern wiltu sie swechen /
Wen is klitzt oben /
stant abe das wil ich loben /
Krump nicht kurcz hawe •
durchwechsel do mete schawe /
Kru~p wer dich irret •
der edele krig den vor virret /
Das her nicht vorwar •
weis wo her sye ane var

/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das der kru~phaw / ist eyn oberhaw der do mit eyme guten ausschrete / krum~es dar / get / zam noch eyner seiten / Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / der den selben haw wol wil fure~ / der sal wol beseicz aus schreite~ czu der rechte~ hant / dañe her den haw bre~gt / vnd sal synen ort / werfen / ader schißen / ieme ober syn gehilcze of / dy hende / vnd sal czu ienesmit syner flechen hawen / wen her deñe trift / dy fleche~[i]enes [sw]ert / zo sal her stark dor of bleiben / vnd vaste drucken / vnd sal sehen / was her deñe am endlichste~ vnd geradste~ / dar bre~ge~ mag / mit hewen stichen ader sneten / vnd sal mit nichte czu korcz hawe~ / vnd sal des durchwechsels nicht vorgessen / ab sichs gepürt /

One strike is called the Fehler (feint) and comes from the Krumphau and yet it is written after the Zwerchhau (where the mark is set) and it should be placed before the Zwerchhau. And this is done from below in a bent curve over the hilt, in the same manner as the Krumphau which comes down from above. [26v] Eyn / haw / heist der veller / vnd ku~pt aus dem kru~phaw / vnd der stet geschrebe~ noch deme twerhawe / do dy hant ist geschrebñ / vnd der sal vör deme therhawe sten / vnd der get von vnden dar krum~es vnd schiks / eyme ober deme gehilcze yn / mit ort schissen/ Recht zam der kru~phaw von obñ neder /








The Zwerch Fehler (feint) misleads
and hits below
The Verkehrer (inverse strike) forces
the running through so you can wrestle.
Take the elbow,
leap into his balance to throw him down.
Double the Fehler (feint),
if he binds execute the old cut.[22]
Double instantly,
step to the left do not be slow.
Because all fencing
requires speed
and also bravery
caution and wits.

[27r] Veller wer füret •
von vnden noch wonch wonsche her ri rüret /
Vorkerer twinget /
durchlawfer auch mete ringet /
den ellenbogen /
gewis nym / sprink yn den wogen /
Veller czwefache •
trift man den snet mete mache /
Czwefaches vorpas •
schreit yn link vnd weze nicht las /
wen alles vechte~
wil rischeit habñ von rechte /
Dorczu auch kunheit •
vorsichtikeit list vnde klugheit

This is about the Zwerchhau (transversal strike)





The Zwerch defends
what comes from Tag[23]
Use the Zwerch with strength
and remember its work.
Zwerch strike to the Ochs[24]
then to the Pflug[25] works well.
If you want to Zwerch correctly,
jump to hit the head.

Comment Here learn and know that of all fencing techniques with the sword, there is no strike that is as fair, forceful, perfected and good as the Zwerchhau. And this strike is done just horizontal to both sides with both edges, the back and front edge, to all openings above and below. It also defends against any strikes from "vom Tag" which are all strikes from high above or anything that comes down from above, and this all is defended with the Zwerchhau.

If one wishes to execute these well, the sword should be thrown horizontally before the head to whichever side he wishes, just as he would intend to get into the hanging or winding positions, save the edge being oriented horizontally and the flat vertically.

And with these Zwerchhau (crossing strikes) it is easy to get at the sword of the adversary. And as soon this has happened, it is difficult for the adversary get away and will be struck at both sides by the Zwerchhau.

And wherever one wants to aim for with the Zwerchhau, to whichever side above or below, always the sword is held with the inverted hand and with the hilt high in front of the head so that he is well secured and covered. And he should bring the Zwerchau with some strength.

Das ist von deme Twerehawe / etc

Twere benym~et •
was von dem tage dar küm~et /
Twere mit der sterke /
deyn arbeit do mete merke /
Twere czu dem pfluge •
czu den ochsen herte gefuge /
Was sich wol tweret
mit sprü~gen dem hew geferet

[27v] / Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse / das of dem ganczen / sw°te / keyn haw / als redlich / zo heftik zo vertik vnd zo gut ist als der twerhaw / Vnd der get dar / zam dy twer / czu beyden seiten mit beiden sneiden / der hindern vnd der vörd°n / czu allen blossen / vnden vnde oben / Vnd alles das von dem tage dar ku~pt / das sint dy öb°n hewe / ader was söst von obe~ neder gehet / das bricht vnd / weret eyner / mit den twer hewen / der dy wol kan dar bre~gen / ader das sw°t wol vörwirft / dy twer vor / das hawpt / czu weler seiten her wil / recht zam her in dy ob°n henge~ ader winden wolle kome~ / Nür das eyner in den twerhewe~ / dy flechen des sw°tes / eyne oben ader of / dy ander vnden ader neder kert / vnd dy sneiden / czu den syten / dy twer / eyne / czu der rechte~ / vnd eyne czu der linken / seiten / Vnd mit den selbe~ twerhewe~ / ist gar gut eyme an das sw°t czu kome~ / vnd wen den eyner eyme an das sw°t ku~pt / wy das nür dar kome~ ist / zo mag ien° mülich von im kome~ / her wirt von desem geslage~ czu beiden seiten mit den twerhewe~ / den wy her eynen twerhaw nür dar bre~gt / czu weler seite~ is ist / vnden ader oben / zo get im io das sw°t obñ / mit dem gehilcze / mit vorworfner / hant / vor deme hewpte / das her io wol bewart vnd bedekt ist / Vnd eyner sal dy twerhewe / eczwas mit / sterke dar bre~ge~ /

And if someone has to fight for his life he should see to it that he gains the Vorschlag (first strike) with a good Zwerchhau, as in the teaching written above . When approaching the adversary, as soon as he sees he could reach him with a step or a leap, he should strike with the Zwerchhau from his upper right side, with the back edge directly to the head. And he should let the point shoot and should well lean so that that the point is directed, and turn or sling around the adversaries sword just like a leather strap, because if one can do the Zwerch in combination with a good step outwards or a leap, an adversary will find it very difficult to defend or turn aside.

And if he gained the Vorschlag with the Zwerchhau and hits or misses to one side, he should immediately, in one motion and without pause do the Nachschlag with the Zwerchhau to the other side with the front edge, before the adversary recovers from the strike, as it has already been taught.

And one should Zwerch to both sides and to Ochs and Pflug, which is to the upper and lower openings, going from one side to the other, high and low, permanently without hesitation, so that he is always in motion and does not let the adversary come to strikes. And again, if he does a Zwerchhau, he should lean and hold the sword inverted in front of his head, so that he remains well-covered.

Vnd wen eyner vem syne~ hals sölde fechten So solde her schaffen / mit her der vorgeschrebñ [28r] lere / das her mit eyme gute~ twerhawe den vorslag / gewuñe / wen her mit eyme czu gi~ge als balde als her irkente / das her ienen dir reichen mochte/ mit eyne~ schrete ader spronge das her deñe dar placzte / mit eyme twerhaw obñ von der rechte~ seiten / mit der hindern sneidñ ieme gleich obñ czu hawpte czu / vnd sal den ort lassen schiessen / vnd sal gar wol tweren das sich der ort wol lenke / vnd winde / ader gorte vm iens hawpt / zam eyn rime / we deñe wen eyner wol tweret / mit eyme gute~ ausschrete ader spronge / zo mag sichs ien° mülich schutze~ / ader abewe~de~ / Vnd we~ her deñe den vorslag alzo gewi~t mt de~ twerhaw her treffe / czu der eyne~ seyte~ / her treffe ader vele / zo sal her deñe als balde in eyme rawsche im~ediate an vnd°loz / den nochslag gewiñen / mit dem twerhaw czu der and°n seiten / mit der vörd°n sneiden / e den sich ien° key~s slags ader ichsichcz irhole / noch d° vorgeschrebe~ lere / Vnd sal deñe twern czu beiden seite~ / czu~ ochsen vnd czu~ pfluge / das ist / czu den ob°n blössen vnd czu den vnd°n / von eyner seite~ of dy ander / vnden vnd obñ / vm~erm° / an vnderloz / alzo das her vm°mer in motu sey vnd iene~ nicht losse czu slage kome~ / vnd als oft / als her eyne~ twerhaw tuet obñ ad° vndñ / zo sal her io wol twere~ / vnd das sw°t obñ dy twer / wol vor syn hawpt / werfen / das her wol bedekt sey /
This is regarding the Squinting strike (squinting strike)








The squinting strikes defends
against a peasants strikes or thrusts.
And whoever threatens with a change through,
the squinting strike will take him out.
Look, if he shortens himself,
the changing through defeats him.
Squint to the point
and cut the neck without fear.
And squint to the head
if you wish to cut his hands.
Squint at the right side,
if you wish to fence well.
I praise the Squinting strike,
if he does not come too silently.

Comment Here learn and know that a Shielhau is a strike from above from the right side with back edge of the sword, which is also called the left side. And this strike moves just as a squint-eyed person to the left side while stepping off to the right, with inverted sword and hand.

And this strike breaks all strikes of a Buffalo – which means peasant – that come downwards from above, as most peasants usually do.

The Zwerchhau breaks the same strikes as it has been written before. And whoever threatens with a change-through will be ashamed by the Schielhau and one should well strike long enough with the strike and shoot in the point quickly, so that the adversary will be stopped in his changing through. And one should squint with the point, to the neck bravely without fear.[26]

[28v] Das ist von deme schilhawe : ~

SChiler in bricht •
was püffel nü slet ader sticht /
wer wechsel drawet •
schiler dor aus in berawbet /
Schil kürczt her dich an •
das durchwechsel das sigt ym an /
Schil czu dem orte •
vnd nym den hals ane vorchte /
Schil in dem öbern •
hawpte hende wiltu bedöbern /
Schil ken dem rechten /
is daz du wol gerest vechte~ /
den schilhaw ich preize •
ku~pt her dar nicht czu leiz[e]

/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das eyn kru~phawschilhaw / ist eyn öberhaw von der / rechten seiten / mit der hindern sneiden des sw°tes / dy die linke seite ist genãt / vnd get recht zam schilende ader schiks dar / czu eyner zeite~ aus geschreten / czu der rechten / mit vorwantem sw°te / vnd vorworfner hant / Vnd der selbe haw der bricht als das püffel / das ist ey~ pawer / mag geslaen / von obñ neder als sie phleken czu tuen / Recht zam der twerhaw auch das selbe bricht / als vor ist geschreben / Vnd wer mit durchwechsel drewt / der wirt mit dem schilhaw beschemet / Vnd eyn° sal wol schilhawe~ vnd lank genuk / vnd den ort vaste schissen / anders her wirt gehindert / mit / durchwechsel / Vnd / eyner sal / wol schiln mit dem orte / czu dem halse ku~lich ane vorchte / Vnd

Where you see blades
being drawn by both
you should steady yourself
and your steps and remember
Before, after the two things,
gauge and with skill leap off
Follow all hits
from the strong if you intend to fool them,
If he defends, so pull,
thrust, he defends so move to him.
learn to artfully execute
the windings and hangings.
And sense the attacks
be they soft or hard.
If he attacks with long and far steps,
the thrust defeats him.
If he defends with hard strikes
you hit without fear.
Strike and hurry forward,
rush in to him whether you hit or miss
Never strike to the sword,
always wait for the openings
If you hit or miss,
always aim for the openings
With both hands learn
to bring the point to his eyes
Fence with sense
and try to gain the Vorschlag
May he hit or miss,
move in with the Nachschlag
to both sides,
step to his right side
So you may safely
begin fencing or wrestling.

[29v] Wo man von scheidñ /
sw°t czucken siet von in beiden /
Do sal mã sterken /
vnd dy schrete ebñ mete merken /
Vor / noch / dy czwey dink /
prüfe / vnd mt lere abe sprink /
Volge allen treffen /
den starken / wiltu sy effen /
Wert her so czucke /
stich / wert her / io czu ym rücke /
Dy winden / vnd hengen /
lere kunstlichen dar brengen /
Vnd prüfe dy ferte /
ab sy sint weich aber herte /
Ab her deñe stark vicht
zo bistu ku~stlich bericht /
Vnd greiffet her weite ader lenge an /
das schissen gesigt im an /
Mit synem slaen / harte
schützt her sich • triff ane forchte /
Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar /
rawsche hin / trif ader la varn /
Haw nicht czum sw°te /
zonder stetzs der blössen warte /
Du treffest ader velest /
zo trachte das du der blössen remest /
Mit beiden henden /
czu~ oge~ ort lere bre~gen /
fficht io mt syñen /
vnd allemal den vorslag gewyñe /
her treffe ader vele /
mit dem nochslage czu hant reme /
Czu~ beiden seiten /
czu der rechten / seitemit im schreite /
So magstu mit gewyñe /
fechtens ader ringens begynnen /[27]

This is about the Scheitelhau (Vertex strike)







The Scheitler
endangers the face
And with its turning
the chest.
The Kron[28]
defends against the Scheitler
Cut through the Kron
so it is already broken
Press the swipes
and move off with cuts
I praise the Scheitelhau,
if he does not come too silently.

[30r] Das ist von deme scheitelhawe etc ~

DEr scheitelere •
deyn antlitz ist ym gefere /
Mit seinem karen •
der broste vaste gewaren /
Was von ym kümet •
dy crone das abe nym~et /
Sneyt durch dy krone •
zo brichstu sie harte schone /
Dy striche drücke •
mit sneten sie abe rücke /
Den scheitelhaw ich preize /
kü~pt her dar / nicht czu leize /

Liechtenauer holds only these four guards that come from the upper and lower hangings, and from these one can fence safely. [32r] lichtnawer helt nur eczwas võ den vier leger dorv~me das sy aus den ober vnd vnder henge~ gehñ doraus mã schire mag gechte bre~gen etc[29]
This is about the four Leger (Guards)



Four guards alone,
keep these and forget the others.
Ochs Pflug Alber
and vom Tag should not be unknown to you.

Comment Here he (Liechtenauer) mentions the four guards (Leger or Hut), which he considers useful. But first of all, one should not lie in these for too long, because Liechtenauer has a proverb: "Who lies there, is dead and who moves is still alive." And this relates to the guards – a man should rather move with fencing attacks and techniques than waiting in the guards, which he may use to leave the Schanze (duelling yard)

The first guard is the Pflug (Plough) when someone puts the point in the ground in front of himself or to the sides. If you do this after the Absetzen (parrying) then it is called differently: namely Schrankhut or the gate.

The second guard Ochs (Ox) is the upper hanging from the shoulder

Alber (fool) breaks, what is being struck or thrust. And with hangings break swipes, the travelling after should follows instantly.

The third guard fool, is the low hanging with which you can break all strikes and thrusts if you know to do it correctly.

The fourth guard, from Tag (high guard) is also the long point. Who practices it with extended arms cannot be hit with strikes or thrusts. It may also hit the hanging over the head.

Also know, that all guards are broken with strikes, by courageously striking, so he must move up and defend. That is why Liechtenauer does not hold the guards in high regard but prefers to let his students try to gain the Vorschlag.

Das ist von den vier leger / etc ~

VIer leger alleyne •
do von halt vnd flewg dy gemeyne /
Ochse • pflug • alber •
vom tage nicht sy dir vemmer

/ Glosa etc / Hie nent her vier leger ader vier hute~ / do võ etzwas czu halde~ ist / Doch vor allen sache~ / zo sal ey~ mã io nicht czu / lãge doryñe lege~ / We~ lichtnaw° hat eyn sölch sprichwort / wer do leit der ist tot / wer sich rüret der lebt noch / vnd das get of dy leger das sich ey~n mã sal liber rure~ mit gefechten de~ das her / der hute~ wart / mit dem her vorslosse~ möcht dy schancze / Dy erste hute / pflug is / dy / we~ eyn° de~ ort vor sich of dy erde legt ader czu der seiten / noch dem abesetze~ / das heyssen and° / dy schranckhute / ad° dy pforte / Dy and° hute ochse / ist das oberhenge~ / von der achsel Alber io bricht / was man hewt ader sticht / Mit hengen streiche / nochreizen setze gleiche Dy dritte hute / alber / ist das vnderhenge~ / mit der mã alle hewe~ vnd stiche / bricht / wer dy recht füret / Dy vierde hute / vom tage / ist der lange ort / wer den wol furet mit gestragtem arme~ / den mag mã nicht mit hewe~ / noch mit stiche~ wol treffen / Is mag auch wol heissen / das henge~ ober dem hawpte Auch wisse / das man alle leger vnd hute~ bricht mit hewen / mit deme / daz mã eyme ku~lich czu hewt / zo mus io eyn° of varn vnd sich schutze~ / Dorvem helt lichtnaw° nicht vil von den legern ader hute~ / zu~der her schaft lib° daz sich eyn° besorge vor im / mit dem das her den vorslag gewi~t ut ptuit[30]]

This is about the four displacements








There are four displacements
that also open the guards.
Beware the displacements,
if they happen, you have to work hard.
If you have been displaced
and how it could happen
Listen to my advice,
swipe off and strike back quickly
Set the point onto four openings
and stay on it, learn this if you wish to end.
Who displaces well
can defend against many strikes
because with the displacements
you get quickly into the hangings.

Comment Here learn that there are four displacements to both sides, one high and one low, and these break or open all guards. And how you lead away or defends against strikes thrusts or cuts from above or below this may be called displacing (versetzen). And if you have been displaced however this may have happened, so move off with the sword quickly and strike quickly again while you move in towards him.

Now if it happens that you displace or turn off a strike or thrust, so you should move in and follow at his sword so that he cannot move away. And then you can do as you wish – the more you hesitate the more you will receive damage.

Also you should wind well and aim for his chest with the point, so he has to worry.

Also a good fencer should well learn to bind at his sword and this can be done with the displacements, because these come from the four strikes, Oberhau (strike from above) and Unterhau (strike from below) from both sides and these move into the four hangings.

If one defends from above or below he should move in and get into the hangings, and should see to it that he turns away or leads off all strikes and thrusts with the front edge as it is done with all displacements.

[32v] Das it von vier vorsetczen

VIer sint vorsetczen •
dy dy leger auch sere letczen /
Vorsetczen hüt dich •
geschiet das auch sere müt dich /
Ab dir vorsatzt ist •
vnd wy das dar komen ist /
Höre was ich rate •
streich abe • haw snel mete drate /
Setzt an vier enden •
bleib droffe kere wiltu enden /
wer wol vorsetczit /
der vechte vil hewe letczit /
wen yn dy hengen /
ku~pstu mt vorsetcze~ behe~de /

/ Glosa / Hie merke / das vier vorsetczen sint / czu beiden / seiten / czu itlich° seiten / eyn obers / vnd eyns venders / vnd dy letcze~ ader brechñ / alle hute~ ader leger / vnd wy du von obñ / ader von vnde~ / eyme / hewe stiche ader snete / mit deyme sw°te abeleitest / ader abweisest / das mag wol heissen vorsetcze~ / Vnd ab dir vorsatz w°t wy das dar ku~pt / zo czewch rislich abe • vnd haw snelle mete czu / yn eyme hurte / Ist deñe das du eyme vorsetzt / ader abewe~dest eyn haw ader stich / zo saltu / czu hant czu trete~ vnd nochvolge~ am sw°te das dir ien° icht abeczihe / vnd salt deñe tue~ was du magst / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest zo nym~estu schaden / Auch saltu wol we~de~ / vnd allemal dey~ ort keren key~s ey~s brust / zo mus h° sich besorgen / Auch sal ey~ guter fechter / wol lerne~ / eyme an das swert kome~ kome~ / vnd das mag / her wol tue~ / mt den vorsetcze~ / wen dy kome~ aus den vier hewe~ / võ itzlicher seite~ / ey~ öb°haw vnd ey~ venderhaw / vnd gen yn dy vier henge~ we~ als bald als eyn° vorsetzt võ vnde~ / ader von obñ / zo sal her czu hãt yn dy he~gen komen • Vnd als her mt der vörd°n sneiden / alle hewe vnd stiche / abewe~dt / als ist es mt den vorsetczen /

This is from the Nachreissen (adhering)










Learn the Nachreissen twice
and cut into the weapons
Two outside takings
and begin with your work
Test the attacks
if they are soft or hard
Learn the feeling
Indes, the word, cuts sharply
Nachreissen twice
and do the old cut
Follow all binding
of the strong if you wish to fool them
Always learn
to turn the point against the face
use the whole body
with the Nachreissen and keep the point on line
Also learn to do
the Nachreissen quickly so you may well end.

[33r] Das ist von nochreisen etc etc

NOchreisen lere •
czwefach s ader sneit in dy were /
Czwey ewsere myñe •
der erbeit dornoch begyñe /
Vnd prüff dy ferte •
ab sye sint weich ader herte /
Das fülen lere •
Indes • das wort sneidet sere /
Reisen czwefache •
den alden snet mete mache /
Volge allen treffen •
den starken wiltu sy effen /
In aller lere /
den ort key~ ey~s gesichte kere /
Mit gãczem leibe /
nochreize / deyn ort io da pleibe /
lere auch behende /
reize~ / zo magstu wol enden

This is about the Überlaufen (overreaching), fencer observe this!






Who aims below
will be hit above with your overreaching
If the swords bind high
so be strong and I will praise that
Do your work
or double press
Those who try to force you down,
overreach them and strike hard again
Overreach from both sides
and remember the edges.

[33v] Das ist von öberlawfen / ffechter sich czu /

WEr vnden remet •
öberlawf den / der wirt beschemet /
Wen is klitzt oben •
so sterke das ger ich loben /
Deyn erbeit mache •
ader herte drücke czwefache /
Wer dich drükt neder •
öberlawf in • slach sere weder /
Von beiden seite~
öberlawf vnd merke dy sneiden /

This is from Absetzen (setting aside), this learn well





Learn to artfully defeat strikes and thrusts
with the Absetzen
So that who thrusts you,
his point is broken and yours does hit
Hit from both sides
if you step correctly
Learn to turn
the point against one's face.

[34r] Das ist von abesetczen / das lere wol ~

LEre abesetczen •
hewe stiche kü~stlichen letczen /
Wer auf dich sticht •
dyn ort trift vnd seynen bricht /
Von payden seyten •
trif allemal wiltu schreiten /
In aller lere /
dey~ ort key~ ey~s gesichte kere /

This is from the Durchwechsel (changing through)





Learn the changing through
from both sides and deliver a good thrust
The changing through will find
an opening in anyone who binds you.
As soon as you have changed through,
strike thrust or wind strongly
Do not strike the sword,
if he does it to you, do not let him wait for your changing-through.

Comment Here learn that the changing-through goes from both sides down and up again and is very direct, if done quickly. If you now wish to change through from your right downwards, so strike an Oberhau directly at him. Aim for the little hole or window above and behind his hilt and shoot the point to his left opening. So that you may hit between the blade and the hilt; if you hit, you have won.

If he now defends against this by turning aside your point and pushes against your blade, so let your point sink down from the same side and move it around under his sword to the other side. And this should not be done wide around but as close to his sword as possible. And then move your point quickly in above his hilt, with a good and perfect thrust. And if you feel you hit, so follow well through (with your thrust). And you should do the same from the other side, low or high, as you do it on this side. Whoever binds you, so move at his sword against him and he defends, so change through as before, or wind and feel his technique if it is soft or hard. Then seek strikes thrusts and cuts against the openings.

[34v] Das ist vom durchwechsel / etc etc

DVrchwechsel lere •
von payden seyten stich mete sere /
Wer auf dich bindet •
durchwechsel in schire vindet /
Wen du durchwechselt hast /
slach stich / ader winde nicht laz /
Haw nicht czu~ sw°te /
durchwechsel • do mete warte

/ Glosa / :~ Hie merke / das durchwechsel gar gerade czugehet / czu beiden seiten / von oben neder / vnd von vnden of / wer is and°s rischlich treibet / Wiltu nu / czu der rechten hant / von oben neder durchwechseln / zo haw eyn öberhaw gleich czu ym / alzo das du dynen ort schüst / ym czu seyner linken seiten öber dem gehilcze yn / alzo das du das selbe löchel vnd fensterleyn / io gerade treffest / czwischen der sneide~ vnd deme gehilcze / triftz du / zo hastu geseget / gesigt / wert her dir das / mit deme das her dyn ort abe / weist vnd hin drückt / mit seyme sw°te / So la dyn ort sinken von der selben seiten vnder seyme swerte hervem / czu der and°n seiten / nicht weit vem / zonder vnden an sym sw°te / zo du neste magst / vnd da var ym gar rischlich / öber dem gehilcze yn / mit eyme guten volkomen stiche / vnd wen du fülest das du trifts / zo volge wol noch Vnd alz du võ eyner seite~ tust / vnde~ ad° oben / zo tu võ der and°n / Vnd wer mit dir anbindet / zo rawsche an sym sw°te hin keyn seyner blöße / mit dym orte / w°t her zo durchwechsel / also vor / ader wind vnd füle sein geferte / ab is sey weich ader herte / dornoch süch hewe stiche / ad° snete / key~ de~ blößen /

This is from the Zucken (pulling) fencer learn this





Step close in bindings,
the Zucken will well find (him open)
Pull and should he hit, pull more,
create your work and wind, this will hurt him.
Zuck in all meetings with the masters
if you wish to fool them
Pull off from the sword
and consider your techniques.

[35r] Das ist vom Czücken / ffecht° merke /

TRit nü in bünde •
das czücken gibt gute fünde /
Czük / trift her / czucke/me •
erbeit her / wind / das tut im we /
Czük alle treffen •
den meist°n wiltu sye effen /
Czuk/ab vom swerte /
vnd gedenke io deyner ferte / durchlawf /

This is from the running-through, now see:




Run through and let your pommel hang,
grab if you intend to wrestle
Who ever presses with strength against you,
remember the running through
Run through and ram him,
invert your hand if he grabs after the pommel.

[35v] Das ist von durchlawfen / nü sich

DVrchlawf loz hangen •
mit dem knawf / greif wiltu rangen /
Wer kegen der sterke /
durchlawfir do mete merke /
Durchlawf / vnd stos /
vorkere / greift her noch dem klos /

This is about Abschneiden (cutting off)







Cut off the hands
from below from both sides
There are four cuts,
two low and two high.
Against the Zwerch,
cut well to avoid damage
Do not cut too soon,
observe your chances carefully
You may well cut all crossings,
just avoid the Nachreissen (adhering)
If you wish to remain uninjured,
do not stand but move with the cutting.

[36r] Das ist von abesneiden etc etc ~

SNeit abe dy herten /
von vnden in beiden ferten /
Vier sint der snete /
czwene vnden • czwene oben mete /
Czwir wer wol sneidet /
den schaden her g°ne meidet /
Sneit nicht in vreize /
betrachte~ io vor dy reize /
du magst wol sneiden •
alle krewtz / nür reisen vormeiden /
wiltu ane schade~ bleibe~ /
zo bis nicht gee mt de~ / sneide~

This is about Hände drücken (pressing the hands)







Turn your edge
to flat for pressing the hands
The second is turning aside,
one is winding and the third is hanging
If you wish to despair
the fencers, press with pushing
and quickly cut
over the hands
Also take off the cuts
and strike to the head
Whoever presses hands
without damage protects his fingers

Also know, as soon as you defend a strike or a thrust with the turning-aside, so you should step sideways and move quickly to him; the slower you are the more damage you sustain.

[36v] Das ist von hende drücken/ etc etc

DEyn sneide wende /
czum flechen drücke dy hende /
Eyn anders / ist wenden •
eyns winden / das dritten hengen /
Wiltu mache~ vordrossen /
dy vechter / zo drucke mit stössen /
Ober dy hende /
hewstu hewet man snete behe~de /
Czewch och dy~ snete /
obe~ aus öber de~ hewpte /
Wer he~de drückit /
ane schade~ / vor fi~ger czückit /

Auch wisse / als bald / als du mt dem we~de~ / eyme ey~ haw ader stich / abe we~dest / zo saltu czu hãt czu trete~ / vnd rischlich dar varn czu eyme / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest / zo ny~stu schaden

Also know and learn that you turn aside all strikes and thrusts with the front edge of the sword, from its middle to the hilt. And the closer to the hilt a strike or a cut comes on the front edge which you have used to turn aside, the slower and stronger you can defend. This is because the closer you bind at the hilt, the stronger you can defend and the closer to the point the weaker you are. Now whoever wants to be a good fencer should firstly learn to turn-aside well, because by turning aside well he can get into the winding from which he can practice all art and grace of fencing. Auch merke vnd wisse / das man mit der vördern sneiden des swertes / vom mittel der selben sneiden / bis czu deme gehilcze / alle hewe ad° stiche abewendet / Vnd e neher eyme / eyn haw ader stich czu syme gehilcze ku~pt / of der selben sneiden / mit deme als her im gewendet hat dy selbe vörder sneide / e bas / vnd e kreftiger / her dy selben hewe ader stiche / abewenden mag / Weñe e neher czum gehilcze e sterker vnd e / mechtiger / Vnd e neher/czum orte / e quesw [?] e swecher vnd e krenkher / Dorvem wer eyn guter fechter wil seyn / der sal vör allen dingen lernen wol abewenden / Wen mit dem das her wol abewendet ku~pt her czu hant yn dy winden / aus den her wol ku~st vnd höbscheit mag treibe~ dez gefechtez /
The front edge at the sword is called the true edge and all strikes or thrusts are ruined by the turning-aside. Dy vörder sneyde / am sw°te heist dy rechte sneide / vnd alle hewe ad° stiche sint vorterbe~ mt de~ we~de~
This is from the Hängen (hanging), fencer learn this

















Two hangings
from one side from the ground
in all techniques
strikes thrusts cuts guards soft or hard
Do the Sprechfenster (speaking window)
stand happily and observe him
Strike that he falters
when he pulls off from you
I tell you truthfully
no one defends without danger
Have you understood this,
he may not come to strikes
Be it that you stay
at the sword so you can do
strikes thrusts and cuts,
learn the feeling
without all hesitation,
and you should not flee from the sword
because a masters fencing
is rightfully at the sword
those who bind you
will be forced with the Krieg
The noble winding
may also find him open
With strikes with thrusts
with cuts you find him defenceless
In all windings
you should learn to find strikes thrusts and cuts
the noble hanging
cannot be without the hanging
because from the hanging
you should practice the winding.

Comment: here learn and know that there are two hangings each side, one Unterhängen (lower hanging) and one Oberhängen (upper hanging) with which you can get at his sword well, because these come from the Oberhau and Unterhau (high strike and low strike). If it now happens that you bind with your opponent on purpose or without so you should well stay at the sword and use the winding. So you can stand happily with relaxed mind and without fear at the sword and see, notice and wait for what he tries to do next; and what his plan is he intends to execute. And the standing at the sword is called the Sprechfenser (speaking window) by Liechtenauer. If you now stand at the sword with him, you should notice and feel his technique, be it soft or hard. And according to this you should act, as it has been written before. Now if he pulls off from the sword before you could begin your technique, so you should follow with him and beat strike or thrust him whatever you can bring surest, before he can do anything himself before you. You can do this because by staying at the sword and extending yourself your (point) moves nearer to him. If someone pulls off because he has to recover from a strike he just executes, then follow in with the point. If he instead stays at the sword you have to gauge and notice whether he his soft or hard at the sword.

If he is soft and weak, you should quickly and bravely proceed and hurry at him with the strength of your sword and force his sword aside with pressure, seeking his openings, to the head or the body wherever you may get at.

If he is hard and strong at the sword and intends to force you aside strongly, you should be soft and weak against his strength, and yield to his strength and forward pressure, thus evading with your sword. And with this evading as his sword swings about, as it has been written before, and now as this happens and while he is recovering from that and thus cannot execute strikes or thrusts, you should attack his openings, with strikes thrusts or cuts, wherever you may hit him best. According to the teaching you should do this quickly bravely and fast so that your adversary cannot come to strikes. As Liechtenauer says: I tell you truthfully, no man defends without danger, if you have understood it, he will not come to strikes. And by this he means that the adversary will not be able to safely defend if you act according to this teaching. As soon as you have done the first strike the adversary has to defend against it or has to take the hit. When you do the first strike, may you hit or muss, so you should quickly in one rush follow with the Nachschlag before he comes to strike. If you want to do the Vorschlag, you should also do the Nachschlag just with same thought or the same intention if possible. This is why he says: Vor and Nach those two things etc... If you do the Vorschlag, no matter if you hit or miss, you should do the Nachschlag in one rush quickly and fast, so that he cannot under any circumstances to his strikes.

So see to it that in all instances of fencing you act before your opponent and as soon as you move before him and have gained the Vorschlag so do the Nachschlag with moving in. You should never do a Vorschlag if you have not prepared the Nachschlag in your senses and mind as well, so that you are always in constant motion and never you should pause or hesitate. Always do one after the other quickly and fast so that your adversary cannot do any technique. Really, if you do exactly that, then he must be a really good (skilled) man to get away from you without being struck.

Because with this art or advantage it often happens that a peasant or anyone untrained defeats a skilled master by gaining the Vorschlag and rushing in quickly. Because it is easily missed that Indes hits him and also defeats and humiliates him. Because one that observes the strikes and waits for the defense is in greater danger than the one who strikes him and thus wins the Vorschlag. So always be that you are the first in all instances of fencing that you get to ones right side, there you are safer than your adversary.

[37r] Das ist von hengen / ffecht° daz lere / ~

Czwey hengen werden /
aus eyner hant von der erden /
In allen geferten /
hewe stiche leger weich ader herte /
Sprechfenster mache /
stant frölich sich syne sache /
Sch Slach das her snabe /
wer vor dir zich czewt abe /
Ich sage vor ware /
sich schützt keyn man ane vare /
Hastu vornome~ /
czu slage mag her kleyne komen /
Is das du bleibest
am swerte da mete auch treibest /
Hewe stiche ader snete /
das fülen merke mete /
An alles vorczhczihen /
vom swerte du auch nicht salt flien /
wen meister gefechte /
ist am swerte von rechte /
wer an dich bindet /
der krik mit im sere ringet /
Das edle winden /
kan in auch schire vinden /
Mit hewen mit stichen
mit sneten vindest in werlichen /
In allen winden
hewe stiche snete saltu vinden /
Das edle hengen /
wil nicht syn an dy windñ
wen aus den henge~ /
saltu dy wi~den bre~gen /

/ Glosa / etc Hie merke vnd wisse das czu itzlicher seiten sint czwey hengen / Eyn vnderhengen / vnd eyn öbirhengen / mit den du eyme wol an das swert magst komen / wen dy kome~ aus den öb°hewe~ vnd vnderhewen / Wen das nu geschiet / das du mit eyme an bindest / ader wy du süst mit im an das swert kömps zo salt du an dem swerte bleybñ vnd salt vnd salt winden • vnd salt alzo mit im gar [37v] frölichen / mit gutem mute / vnd künlichen an alle vorchte / an dem sw°te stehen / Vnd salt gar ebñ sehen / merken vnd warten was her wolle tuen / ader was syne sache sey / der her key~ dir pflegen wölle / Vnd daz stehen / alzo an deme swerte / das heisset lichtnaw° eyn sprechvanster / Vnd wen du nü mit im alzo an dem sw°te stehst / zo salt du gar ebñ merken vnd fülen syne geferte / ab sie sint weich aber herte / dornoch salt du dich deñe richte~ als vor ofte gesproche~ ist / Ist / das her sich vör allen sachen / e deñe du noch ichsicht begyñest / abe czewt von deme sw°te / zo salt du czu hant noch volgen vnd salt in slaen hawe~ ader steche~ was du am schiresten magst dar bre~gen / e den her czu keyn°leye dinge kome / weñe du hast io neher czu im mit dem das du am sw°te blibest / vnd dyn ort key~ im reckest / we~ iener mit syme abe czihen / den e her sich ey~s slags erholt dir dar brengt / zo var czu hãt dar mt dy~ orte/ Bleibt her aber mit dir an dem sw°te / zo prüfe / io vnd merke / ab her sy weich aber herte an dem swerte / Ist das her ist / weich vnd swach / zo saltu rischlichen vnd künlichen volvaren vnd dar hurten / mit dyner sterke / vnd salt / im syn swert hin dringen vnd drücken / vnd süche~ syne bloßen / czu koppe ader czu leibe / wo du nür czu magst komen / Ist iener deñe herte vnd stark an deme sw°te / vnd meynt dich vaste hin dringen vnd stossen / zo saltu deñe weich vnd swach seyn / keyn syner sterke / vnd salt syner sterke vnd syme dringen mit dynen sw°te entwychen [38r] vnd yn dem weiche~ als im syn sw°t im hin prelt vnd wischt / als vor auch von deme geschrebñ ist / In deme ad° dy weile als das im geschit / e deñe her sichs weder irholen mag / dar her czu keyme slage ader stiche kome / Zo saltu selber syner blössen war neme~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader sneten / wo du in am schireste~ gehabñ magst / noch der vorgeschrebñ lere / risch / künlich vnd snelle das io iener mit nichte czu slage kome Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° / ich sag vorwar • sich schutzt key~ man ane var / Hastu vornomen / czu slage mag er kleyne kome~ / Do mitt meynt her / das sich keyn° mag ane var ader ane schaden schutcze~ / Is das du tust noch der geschrebñ lere / Ab du im den vorslag gewyñest vnd tust den mus io iener were~ / ad° mus sich lasse slaen / wen du deñe den vorslag tust / du trefst ader velest / zo saltu rischlich vnd in eyme rawsche den nochslag tue~ / e deñe iener czu keyme slage kome / Deñe wen du den vorslag wilt tue~ / zo saltu recht / zã yn eyme gedanke vnd mute den nochslag auch tue~ / recht zam du sy mit ey~nander wellest tue~ / we~ is möglich were / Dorvm spricht her / vor • noch / dy cwey dink etc ~ den tust du den vorslag / du treffest / ader velest / zo tu io / in eyme rawsche / risch vnd snelle den nochslag / das iener mit nichte [38v] czu slage kome / vnd alzo saltu schaffen das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens io e komest deñe iener / vnd als balde als du e kum~est deñe ien° / vnd den vorslag gewiñest / zo tu czu hãt den nochslag / Wen du salt key~ vorslag tue~ / du habst io / de~ nochslag auch mete ym synne vnd ym mute / also dastu vm~mer in motu seist / vnd mit nichte feyerst ader last / zonder vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibst / risch vnd snelle das iener czu keyne~ dingen moge kome~ / Vorwar tustu / das / zo mus her gar eyn guter syn der ungeslage~ von dir kum~t / Weñe mt der selben ku~st / ader mt dem vorteil das / ku~pt is oft / das ey~ pawer ader eyn ungelarter eyn gute~ meist° / slet / mt deme • das her den vorslag tuet / vnd künlich dar hurt / den wy leiche ist das obersehñ / das in/deß trift vnd in alzo beschemet vnd slet / deñe eyn° der der slege war nym~et / vnd des schütcze~s wil warten / der ist io in grosser var / deñe ien° der do of in slet / vnd den vorslag gewyñet / Dorvm~e schaffe / das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens der erste bist / vnd io eyme of dy linkerechte / seiten komest / do bist du wol aller dinge sicher deñe ien° /







From both sides
learn eight windings with the according steps
And each
of those has three techniques
So there are twenty
four windings, count them one by one
Fencer this observe
and correctly understand the windings
And learn to use them well
so you may hit the four openings
Because every opening
has six sure ways to be hit.

Comment: Here learn that the winden are the real art and the base of all fencing with the sword and from these all other techniques and methods come from. And one rarely is a good fencer without the windings. Just as the Leychmeister disdain them and say that fencing from the winding is weak and they call it from the shortened sword because that they are done simple and stupid. And they mean that these are fenced from the long sword which is done with outstretched arms and extended sword and also aggressively with all strength of the body only by pressing themselves forward.

And this is painful to watch! If one stretches just as running after a rabbit this is not the way, neither the windings nor Liechtenauers art, because there is no strength against (the opposing strength)! Whoever does it differently should prefer strength.

[39v] VOn beiden seiten /
ler acht wi~den mit schreite~ /
Vnd io ir eyne /
der wi~de~ mt drey~ stöcke~ meyne /
So synt ir czwenczik •
vnd vier / czele sy enczik /
ffechter das achte /
vnd dy winden rechte betrachte /
Vnd lere sy wol fure~ /
zo magst du dy vier blößen rüre~ /
Wen itzliche blösse /
hat sechs ruren gewisse /

[40r] / Glosa / :• Hie merke / das dy winden / sint dy rechte kunst / vnd gru~tfeste alles fechten / des sw°tes / aus den alle ander gefechte vnd stöcke kome~ / vnd is mag mülich eyn guter fechter /syn / ane dy winden / Wy wol etzliche leychmeistere • dy vornichte~ / vnd spreche~ is sy gar swach was aus den winden ku~pt / vnd neñen is / aus dem korcze~ sw°te / dorvm~e das sy slecht vnd ey~veldik dar gen / vnd meyne~ das sy / aus dem lange~ sw°te gefochte~ / was dar get / mt gestracke~ arme~ / vnd mt gestrakte~ swerte / vnd was gar veyntlich vnd stark von alle~ krefte~ des leybes dar get / nur durch wol stehens wille / vnd das is grawsam an czu sehñ ist / we~ sich eyn° alzo strekt / recht zam her eyne~ hazen wolle irlawfen / vnd daz ist alles nicht / weder dy winden vnd weder lichtnaw°s kunst / wen do ist keyne sterke weder / deñe worvm~e wer anders ku~st / solde allemal dy sterke vörczihen /

  1. Remainder is blacked out.
  2. alt: behold, peer-into, witness, probe, observe, perceive, inspect, investigate, realize, comprehend. alt: show, present, embody, illuminate
  3. latin
  4. lit: tread-full. completing a step or completing the course of a thing.
  5. alt: giving-way, stepping-off. to give something up. to let something go.
  6. alt: safe, sure
  7. alt: has success
  8. ume züst => umsonst
  9. Text gives "deñe her"; correct order based on markings is given here.
  10. schlage, not schlag
  11. Word is almost illegible.
  12. aufwinden: 1) to entangle, wind into a ball 2) to turn or twist upwards.
  13. hindringen: to break or force through. overcome
  14. alt: straight
  15. darfahren: unversehens dazu kommen
  16. A guide letter “w” is visible under the “D” (apparently ignored by the rubricator), making the intended word “Wer”.
  17. Continued up the side margin; due to paper clipping, the bottom line is unclear. 65r gives "gewisse".
  18. wegen preposition
  19. wegen verb
  20. ienen
  21. "Ander" is placed after "Hewe" in the manuscript, with markings indicating the correct order.
  22. Cut to the hands and then cut the throat.
  23. from above; the high guard
  24. upper opening
  25. lower opening
  26. The comment ends here and remains unfinished.
  27. Most of the verses on this page are associated with armored fencing in other treatises.
  28. crown displacement technique
  29. This paragraph is above the script level. Unlike other places where there are definitely forgotten passages originally marked with a caret, such is missing here. Thus, it can be conjectured that this is a later addition or comment.
  30. latin: ut potuit. "as [they] are able" This is underlined and not stricken.