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Pol Hausbuch (MS 3227a)/18r - 40r
|This is a general introduction for the unarmoured fencing on foot, so remember this correctly.
|[18r] Das ist eyne gemeyne vorrede / des blozfechtens czu fuße / Das merke wol
JVng Ritter lere /
|This is a general teaching for the sword.
|[18v] Das ist eyne gemeyne lere des swertes
WIltu kunst schawen
|This is being followed by general comment
At first learn and know that the Ort of the sword is the centre and the means and the core of the sword. All techniques start and end with the Ort, thus the Hängen and Winden are the begin and the turnings around the centre and many good fencing techniques stem from this.
These have been invented so that a fencer, who immediately strikes at the Ort and yet does not hit instantly, may employ the before mentioned Techniques in combination with strikes thrusts and cuts, with stepping off or in, and with stepping around or jumping, in order to hit his adversary. And if someone has shot his Ort out too far, by thrusting or lunging, he can recover or shorten it by employing the Winden or stepping off, so that he again may use those appropriate techniques and principles of fencing. From there he again may strike thrust or cut, because according to Liechtenauers art, strikes thrusts and cuts stem from all fencing techniques and principles. And later you will hear, how one technique and principle stems from the other and how they can be used in succession, so that if one method is being defended, the other hits and succeeds.
|/ Glosa gn°alis hui9 seq°r /
Von allererste~ merke vnd wisse / das der ort des swertes ist das czentru~
|Secondly, you should learn that there is nothing about the sword that has been invented for without reason and that a fencer should make use of the Ort, of both edges, the hilt and the pommel. Each of these has its own special methods in the art of fencing. And how to practice this, you will see and hear later.||Czu dem andñ mal merke vnd wisse / daz keyn dink an dem sw°te / vm~e züst fu~den vnd irdocht ist / zvnder eyn fechter / den ort / beide sneiden gehilcze klos / vnd als das am swerte ist / nuetczen sal / noch dem [19v] als itzlieichs syn sönderleichs gesetze hat yn der ku~st des fechtens / noch dem als dy Vebunge hat vnd findert / als du itzlichs besvnder hernoch wirst sehen vnd hören /|
|Also know and learn, by the verse beginning with "If you want to show art etc" it is meant that an artful fencer should place his left foot in front and strike from the right side directly to the man, and with threatening strikes just as long as he sees where he may hit him and reach him with his stepping. And when he says "if you intend to fence strongly" so he says that you should fence upwards from the left side with the whole body and with all strength, to the head or to the body wherever he may hit. And never strike to the sword but just work like would not have a weapon or if you don´t see it, and should not avoid Zeckrühr or taps, and permanently be in motion, work and contact, so the opponent may not come to strikes.||Auch merke vnd wisse / mit deme als her spricht wiltu ku~st schawe~ etc / meynt her / das eyn ku~stlicher fechter / der sal den linke~ fuz vorsetzen / vnd võ der rechte~ seite~ mete hawen / gleich czu~ mañe / mit drewe hewen / zo lang / bis das her siet wo her iene~ wol gehaben mag / vnd wol dirreiche~ mit seine~ schreten / Vnd meynt / we~ eyn° stark wil fechte~ zo sal her võ der linke~ seiten of fechte~ / mit gancze~ leibe vnd mit ganczer kraft / czu köppe vnd czu leibe wo her nur treffen mag / vnd nu~mer czu key~ swerte / zvnder her sal tuen / zam iener keyn sw°t habe / aber zam hers nicht sehe / vnd sal keyne czecke~ ader ruren nicht vormeiden / zonder vm~ermer in erbeit vnd in berüru~ge sey~ das iener nicht czu slage mag komen|
|Also he means that one should not follow or step right after the strikes but always a little sideways and in a slope around, so that he gets to his flank. There he will get him much easier with any method compared to confronting him directly. Whatever he strikes to thrusts at his opponent, it will not be defended by any Durchwechsel or other techniques, if the strikes or thrusts are directed at the man and at the openings, to the head or to the body, with stepping around or other footwork.||Auch meynt her das / eyner den hewe~ nicht gleich sal noch gehen vnd treten zonder etwas beseites / vnd krum~es vm~e / das her ieme an dy seite kome / do her in bas / mit allerleye gehabñ mag / deñe vorne czu / was her deñe nür of ienen hewt ader sticht das mag im iener mit keynerleye durchwechsel ader andñ gefechten / |
|Also know and learn when he speaks: "Vor Nach those two.. etc" there he means the five words, Vor Nach Schwach Stark Indes and within these words lies all art of Master Liechtenauer and these are the basic foundation and the core of all fencing on foot or mounted, with armour and without.
By the word "Vor" he means that every good fencer should always gain the Vorschlag, may he hit or miss. And when Liechtenauer says "Strike and hurry to the man, rush in may it hit or miss". This means, as soon he approaches his adversary by stepping or running, he should instantly attack as soon as he is sure he could reach him with either a step or a jump. Then he must attack to his head or to his body, without any fear to the opening which he can hit best. So he should gain the Vorschlag, and it is not important, if it directly hurts the adversary or not. He must also be sure with the correct measure of his steps, so that he may not step too short or too long.
If he now hits with the Vorschlag, so instantly follow through with the hit. However, if he defends the Vorschlag so that he turns aside or leads off the attack, be it a strike or a thrust, away from the intended opening with his sword, you should now, with the swords are still being in contact, feel or be aware whether he is soft or hard, weak or strong at the sword.
If he now feels how the adversary acts in his fencing, if he is strong or hard, in the very moment he realizes this he should, while the adversary is still protecting himself, become soft and weak and in the case of the adversary being weak, vice versa. To make sure that one cannot come to strikes, he should instantly execute the Nachschlag, that means that he attacks again while the other is still protecting himself from the Vorschlag, be it with a strike or a thrust. So he can employ different techniques for hurrying or rushing towards his openings and thus he is permanently in motion and very close to him and this should make him so irritated and confused that he is only busy protecting himself and cannot come to his own strikes. If one has to defend himself or has to be aware of the strikes which are directed against him, he is in much greater danger than the one who strikes at him, because he either can defend or be hit. And this makes it very difficult for him to gain the opportunity for his own strikes. So Liechtenauer says: I tell you truthfully, no one defends without danger, if you understood this, he will not come to strikes.
If these five words, which this teaching and all other fencing is based upon, are not adhered, then this is the reason why a brave peasant often defeats a master by winning the Vorschlag.
|[20r] Auch merke vnd wisse / mit deme als her spricht / vor noch dy zwey dink etc / do / nent her dy fünff wörter / vor noch swach stark Indes / an den selben wörtñ / leit alle kunst / Meister lichtnaw°s / vnd sint dy gruntfeste vnd der / kern alles fechtens czu fusse ader czu rosse / blos ader in harnüsche / Mit deme worte Vor / meynt her das eyn itzlicher gut° fechter / sal alle mal den vorslag haben vnd gewiñen / her treffe ader vele / als lichnawer / spricht / Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar / rawsche hin trif ader la var weñe her czu / eyme gehet ader lewft / als balde als her nur siet / das her in mit eynem schrete / ader mit eynem sprunge dirreichen mag / wo her deñe indert in blos siet / do sal her hin varn / mit frewden / czu koppe ader czu leibe / künlich an alle vorchte wo her in am gewisten gehabñ mag / alzo das her ia den vorslag gewiñe / is tu ieme wol ader we / vnd sal auch mit dem / in syne~ schreten gewisse sein / vnd sal dy haben recht zam gemessen / das her nicht czu korcz ader czu lank schreite / wen her nü den vorslag / tuet / trift her zo volge her dem treffen vaste / noch / weret her aber iener den vorslag alzo das her im den vorslag / is sy haw ader stich mit syme swerte / abeweiset vnd leitet / Dy weile her deñe ieme noch / an syme swerte ist / mit deme als her wirt abe geweist / von der blößen / der her geremet / hat / zo sal her gar eben fülen vnd merken [20v] ab iener in syme abeleiten vnd schützen der hewe ader stiche / an syme swerte / weich ader herte / swach ader stark / sey / Ist deñe das her nü wol fület / wy iener in syme geferte ist / Is das iener stark vnd herte ist / Indes / das hers nü genczlich merkt vnd fület / zo sal her |
|Now it has been said before that that Liechtenauer expresses he should bravely and without fear rush in with a good Vorschlag or the first strike to the head or body may he hit or miss, so that he strikes him just as stunning and frightening him so he does not know what he can do against him. Also it has been said that he should strike the Nachschlag before he recovers or might come to his own strikes. this also means this you should work in a manner that he is permanently busy with protecting and defending.
And if he defends against the Vorschlag, he instantly comes to the Nachschlag while the adversary is still defending for example, by rushing in with the pommel or transitioning into the Zwerchhau, which are generally good. He can generally transition into the Zwerch position, so he may use other technique which he may begin before the adversary can execute his own attack. And you will hear how you generate one technique from the other, if you follow this advice. That is he should execute with one thought and just as with one strike if possible the Vorschlag and the Nachschlag, quickly in succession.
It may happen that one has to defend the adversary´s Vorschlag. So he would defend it by getting at his sword – and if he is a little slow or indecisive so he would want to stay at the sword and use the winden and feel if the adversary wants to pull back from the bind or not.
If one moves off, now that they were just bound at the sword, and the points are facing against each other to the openings, the skilled fencer has followed directly with the point, before the adversary can recover from his pulling-off, thereby executing a good thrust to the chest or anywhere where he could hit him best. And this is the method that the opponent cannot leave the bind unharmed, because with this following he gets nearer by thrusting the point forward at the sword, following the principle of the nearest and shortest target.
And if the opponent tries to attack newly with long strikes or thrusts after pulling off, he may always gain the Nachschlag or a thrust rather than with the first strike. Liechtenauer means this by the word "nach"; if one has struck the Vorschlag so he should move in and without break strike the Nachschlag (in the same movement) and thus he should be permanently in movement and in contact, constantly using one technique after the other. So, if the first one fails, the second, the third or the fourth my hit not letting the opponent come to strikes because no one will ever have any significant advantage in fencing, except him who works according to this teaching and these five words.
Now if it happens that the opponent does stay at the sword after he displaced, and now it comes that he also stays at the sword – not having done the Nachschlag yet – so he shall wind and stand at the sword, and he should note and feel if the adversary is weak or strong at the sword. And if he now feels that the opponent is strong, hard and rigid at the sword and only plans to press into him with his sword, so he should become weak and soft and completely give up his strength against the opponent. And thus he should let go of the opponent´s sword, so it may whip and move off with the pressure. And now he can slide and pull off his sword quickly and then go for the opponents openings quickly and nimbly, to the head or to the body, with strikes, thrusts and cuts, wherever he may hit surest and most direct.
Because the harder the opponent presses with the sword, the more far his sword is flung aside when he suddenly becomes soft and lets the sword slide off. So the opponent will be left open so that he can touch or hit as he wishes before the opponent may recover and come to his own strike or thrust.
If the opponent now is weak and soft at the sword and he feels and notices this, so he should be strong and hard at the sword and should rush in quickly forcefully at the sword, directly and frontal to the next best accessible opening. Just like as a string would be attached to the point which would pull and turn his point to the nearest opening, as to achieve the thrust.
Now if the opponent is strong and defends the thrust and displaces it by becoming strong at the sword, so that the opponent presses into the sword again, so again he should become weak and soft and let his sword slide off. And in this evading he should seek the openings quickly with strikes thrusts or cuts, as he wishes. And this is what Liechtenauer means with the words "weich und hart" "soft and hard".
And this concept is from the auctoritas when Aristoteles says in the book Peyarmenias: "Oppositions shine more clearly if placed next to each other then directly opposing them (conflicting) Weak against strong, hard against weak and vice versa." If it should be only strong against strong, the stronger will always win. That is the reason why Liechtenauers fencing ist real and correct art, so that a weak man can win with his art and wits in the same manner a strong man can do with his strength and it would be no art otherwise.
Because of this fencing teaches the feeling well as Liechtenauer says: "Learn the feeling, Indes is a word that cuts" because if you are at the sword with someone, and you are now skilled at feeling whether your opponent is weak or strong at the sword, Indes or while you are in the bind, you may very well observe and plan what you should do against him. And according to this teaching and art, he may not pull off from the sword without being hurt, because Liechtenauer says: Strike that he is confused when he pulls off.
Now, according to this teaching you understand well that you should try to gain the Vorschlag and as soon as you execute it, so do in one rush instantly and without break the Nachschlag, and that can also be the second, third or fourth strike or thrust. So your opponent may not come to strikes. If you now bind with him so be skilled at the feeling and do as it has been written before, because this is the foundation of fencing so that you are permanently in motion and never pause or hesitate. And if it now comes to the feeling, so also do what is written before.
And what you begin to do, always have measure and control. When you have won the Vorschlag so don´t do it too fast or too committed as you will be unable to recover yourself to do the Nachschlag. That is why Liechtenauer says: "Be ready for this, all things needs measure and control". And this also remember when doing steps and also before all other techniques and principles of fencing.
|[21r] Weñe mit dem worte vor als e gesprochen ist / meynt her / das eyn° mit eyme guten vorslage ader mit dem ersten slage / sal eyn° ku~lich an alle vorchte dar hurte~ vnd rawsche~ / key~ den blössen czu koppe ader czu leibe / her treffe ader vele / das her iene~ czu hant als betewbet / mache vnd in irschrecke / das her nicht weis was her key~ desem solle weder tue~ / vnd auch e deñe sich ien° weder key~s irhole / ader wed° czu im selber kome / das her deñe czu hant den nochslag tue / vnd im io zo vil schaffe / czu were~ vnd czu schütze~ / das her nicht möge czu slage kome~ / deñe wen deser de~ erste~ slag / ader de~ vorslag tuet / vnd in ien° deñe weret / in dem selbe~ were~ vnd schutze~ / zo ku~pt deser deñe alle mal e czu dem nochslage den ien° czu de~ erste~ / den her mag / czu haut czu varn mit dem klosse / ader mag / in dy twerhewe kome~ / dy czu male gut syn / ader mag sost das sw°t dy twer vor werfen / do mite her in ander gefechte ku~pt / ader sost mancherleye mag her wol begiñen / e deñe ien° czu slage ku~pt / als du wirst hore~ wy sich eyns aus de~ and°n macht / das ien° nicht mag von im kome~ vngeslage~ / tut her and°s noch deser lere Weñe her sal mit eyme gedanke~ / vnd zam mit eyme slage / ab is möglich were / den vorslag vnd nochslag tue~ / risch vnd snelle noch ey~nãd Auch möchte is wol dar czu kome~ / ab ien° de~ vorslag weret / zo müste her in were~ mit dem sw°te / vnd alzo müste her dese~ io an sy~ sw°t kome~ / vnd we~ deñe ien° eczwas trege vnd las were / zo möchte deser deñe an dem sw°te bleybe~ / vnd sal deñe czu hãt wi~den / vnd sal gar ebñ merke~ vnd fulen / ab sich ien° wil abeczihe~ võ dem sw°te / ader nicht / Czewt sich ien° ab / als sy im vor mit ey~nander an dy sw°t sint kome~ / vnd dy orter key~ ey~nand° recken / czu de~ blossen / E deñe sich / deñe iener key~s haws ader stichs / of ey~ news weder [21v] irhole~ mag mit syme abeczihe~ / zo hat im deser czu hant / mit syme orte noch gevolget / mit eyne~ gute~ stiche czu der brost / ader söst vorne czu wo her in am schireste~ vnd neheste~ getreffe~ mag / alzo das im ien° mit nichte / ane schade~ von dem sw°te mag kome~ / we~ deser hat io / czu hãt mit syme nochvolge~ / neher czu ieme / mit dem als her syne~ ort / vor / an dem sw°te gestalt hat key~ ieme / noch de~ aller neheste~ vnd körczste~ / we~ das ien° mit syme abeczihe~ / of / ey~ news solde hewe ader stiche / weit vm~e / dar bre~ge~ / alzo mag io deser alle mal • e czu dem nochslage ader stiche kome~ / e deñe ien° czu dem ersten / Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° mit dem worte / noch / we~ eyn° im de~ vorslag hat getan / zo sal her czu hant an vnderloz / of der selben vart den nochslag / tue~ / vnd sal vm~erm° in bewegu~ge / vnd in rüru~ge syn / vnd vm°mer ey~s noch dem and°n treibñ / ab ym das erste vele / dacz daz ander das dritte ader daz vierde treffe / vnd io iene~ nicht lasse czu ky~me slage kome~ / Wen keyn / mag grosser vorteil of fechte~ habñ / den der nach der lere / deser fünff / wörter tuet / Ist aber das ien° an de~ sw°te bleybt / mit dem als her mit syme were~ vnd schutze~ desem an syn sw°t ist kome~ / vnd is sich alzo vorczage~ hat das deser mit im an de~ sw°te ist blebe~ / vnd noch nicht den nochslag hat getan / zo sal deser winden / of vnd mit im alzo an dem sw°te stehe~ / vnd sal gar ebñ merke~ vnd füle~ / ab / ien swach ader stark ist an dem sw°te / Ist deñe das deser merkt vnd fület / das iener stark herte vnd veste an dem sw°te ist / vnd dese~ / nü mey~t syn sw°t hin dringe~ / zo sal deser deñe swach vnd weich dirweder syn / vnd sal syñ sterke weiche~ vnd stat gebñ / vnd sal im syn sw°t / hin lasse~ preln vnd wer varn / mit sy~ dringe~ daz her tuet / vnd deser sal deñe syn sw°t snelle [22r] lassen abegleiten / vnd abeczihñ / balde vnd risch / vnd sal snelle dar varn key~ synen blosse~ / czu koppe ader czu leibe / wo / mit hewe~ stiche~ vnd snete~ / wo her nür / am neheste~ vnd schireste~ mag czu kome~ / wen e herter vnd e sürer ien° dringt vnd druckt mit syme sw°te / vnd deser deñe swach vnd weich dirwed° ist / vnd syn sw°t lest abegleite~ / vnd im alzo weicht / e verrer vnd e weit° deñe ieme sy~n sw°t wek prelt / das her deñe gar blos wirt / vnd das in deñe deser noch wonsche mag treffen vnd rüren / e deñe her sich selber / key~s haws ader stichs irholen mag / Ist aber ien° an dem sw°te swach vnd weich alzo das is deser nü wol merkt vnd fület / zo sal deser deñe stark vnd herte dirweder syn / an dem sw°te / vnd sal deñe mit syme orte sterkliche~ an dem sw°te hin varn vnd rawsche~ key~ iens blosse~ gleich vorne czu / wo her am neheste~ mag / Recht zam im e snure ader vadem / vorne an syne~ ort were gebu~den / der im syne~ ort of das neheste / weizet czu ienes blossen / vnd mit dem selbe~ steche~ das deser tuet / wirt her wol gewar / ab ien° zo swach ist / daz her im sy~ sw°t lest alzo hin dringe~ vnd sich lest treffe~ Ist aber ab her stark ist vnd den stich weret vnd abeleitet / Is das her stark wirt weder an dem sw°te / vnd desem syn sw°t abeweiset vnd den stich weret / also das her dese~ sy~ sw°t vaste hin dringt / zo sal deser aber swach vnd weich dirweder w°den / vnd sal sy~ sw°t lasse~ abegleite~ / vnd im weichen / vnd syne blosse~ rischlichen süche~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader mit snete~ wy her nür mag / Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° / mit dese~ wörter / weich vnd herte / vnd das get of dy aucto’i[22v]tas / als aristotyles spricht in lib° pyarmenias Oppo~ita iuxta se po~ita m~g~ elucescu~t / vel / oppo~ita opposit~ cui aut° / Swach weder stark / herte weder weich / et eqt° / Deñe solde stark weder stark syn / zo gesigt allemal der sterker / dorvm get lichtnawer fechte~ noch recht° vnd worhaftiger ku~st dar / das ey~ swacher mit syn° ku~st vnd list / als schire gesigt / |
|This is the text where he explains the five strikes and other techniques of fencing
|[23r] Das ist der / text / in deme her neñet / dy fünff / hewe vnd andere stöcke des fecht°
FVnf hewe lere
|This is about the Zornhau (wrath strike)
Comment Here learn and know that Liechtenauer strikes an Oberhau (Strike from above) from his shoulder which is called the Zornhau. For someone who is angered and wrathful, no other strike comes as ready as the Zornhau, because this Oberhau strikes from the shoulder to the opponent, and this is why Liechtenauer says: If someone strikes an Oberhau against you, you should strike the Zornhau against him so that your point thrusts forward quickly. If he now defends against your point, pull the sword up and off from his blade and move to the other side of his sword. If he also defends against this, be strong against the sword and wind the point in for the thrust. If he defends this thrust, so take the sword away and strike low to his legs.
So constantly do one after the other thus he may not come to strikes. And always have the already mentioned words, Vor and Nach Indes Schwach Stark and strikes thrusts and cuts, in your mind and never forget these in fencing.
Furthermore, you should not hurry too much in the Krieg because if you aim above and miss so you will hit below. And how you execute one after the other, according to real art with special strikes thrusts and cuts you will hear later.
And you should not strike at someone's sword but directly to him, to the head or to the body wherever you wish.
|Das ist von deme Czornhawe etc
/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das lichtnaw° / ey~ öberhaw slecht von der achsel / heisset den czornhaw /
|Alternatively, you may understand the first verse as if you strike a wrath strike from above, the adversary is being endangered by the point of the wrath strike.||Auch mag mã vorneme~ / das der erste v°se mochte alzo stehen / wem du öberhewest czornhaw / deme drewt der ort / des czornhaws etc|
|Now follow this teaching and stay permanently in motion, if you hit or miss, so that one cannot comes to strikes, and always step sideways off with your strikes.
Also know that there are only two strikes all others are based upon. And these are the Oberhau (strike from above) and the Unterhau (strike from below) from both sides, which are the main strikes and the foundation if all other strikes. And these again are based on the point of the sword which is the core and the centre of all other techniques as it has been written before,
And from the same strikes come the four displacements from both sides, with these you break and defeat all strikes thrusts or guards and these also lead to the hangings which can be very well be used for artful techniques as you will hear later.
And however you fence, always turn the point against the face or the chest of the adversary, so he has always to watch out that you do not move prior to him. (the next sentence is unfinished)
|Nür tu noch deser lere / vnd bis vm~erm° i~ / motu / du treffest ad° nicht / daz ien° nicht czu slage kome vnd schret io wol besytz aus / mit den hewen / Auch wisse das nur czwene hewe seyn aus den alle ander hewe |
|And if it happened, that the adversary got the Vorschlag (first strike) so he should be well practiced and quick with the Abwenden (turning-off) and as soon as he has turned off the (attacks of) the adversary, he should move quickly as soon as possible, and his point should always aim for the chest as you will hear now. And the point should, as soon as he comes at the adversaries sword, be always within a half Elle (roughly 30 cm) of either chest or face. Also he should be well aware if he can move in boldly for the next opening.
And he should never move too far around so that the adversary cannot come forward before him, which will surely happen if the adversary comes forwards and is not hesitating, slow or moves too far.
|Vnd ab is alzo queme / das ien° den vorslag gewuñe / zo sal deser sicher vnd gewis / vnd snelle seyn mit dem wende~ / vnd als bald als her im gewendet hat / zo sal her czu hant czuvaren rich risch vnd balde / vnd syn ort sal allemal iens brust begeren vnd sich keyn der kere~ vnd stellen / als du hernoch wirst bas hore~ / Vnd der ort / als bald her eyme an das sw°t ku~pt / |
|This is about the four openings
Comment Here learn that Liechtenauer would part a man in four parts, just as he would draw a line down from the vertex on his body to the groin.
And an other line horizontally along the girdle on the body, and so there are four quarters, one right and left above the girdle, and also below the girdle and these are the four openings of which each has its own technique which never go for the sword, but always to the openings.
|[25r] Das ist von den vier blössen etc etc
/ Glosa / Hie merke / daz lichtnaw° / der teilt eyn menschen yn vier teil / recht zam das her eym von der scheitel / eyn strich vorne gleich neder machte an sym leybe / bis her neder czwische~ syne beyne / Vnd de~ and°n strich by der görtel dy czwere öber de~ / leib / zo werde~ vier vierteil ey~ rechtes vnd ey~ links öber der görtel / vnd alzo auch vnd° der gortel / das sint dy vier bloße~ / der hat itzlichs syñ sonder gefechte / der reme vnd nu~mer keyns swertes / zonder der bloßen
|About the four openings, how to break them
|Von den vier blössen / wy man dy bricht
WIltu dich rechen /
|This is about the Krumphau
Comment Here learn and know that the Krumphau is an Oberhau which is done in a bent manner with a good step to one side.
This is why Liechtenauer says whoever wants to execute this strike, should step well to the right side while striking and shall throw or thrust the point over the hilt of the adversary onto his hands. And he should strike with the flat if he hits the blade and should stay strong against the sword and press forcefully. From there he may see what he can do best, in the most direct and surest manner, be it with strikes, thrusts or cuts. And he should not strike too short and should not forget the changing-through if it is appropriate.
|Das ist von deme krumphawe / etc
/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das der kru~phaw / ist eyn oberhaw der do mit eyme guten ausschrete / krum~es dar / get / zam noch eyner seiten / Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / der den selben haw wol wil fure~ / der sal wol beseicz aus schreite~ czu der rechte~ hant / dañe her den haw bre~gt / vnd sal synen ort / werfen / ader schißen / ieme ober syn gehilcze of / dy hende / vnd sal
|One strike is called the Fehler (feint) and comes from the Krumphau and yet it is written after the Zwerchhau (where the mark is set) and it should be placed before the Zwerchhau. And this is done from below in a bent curve over the hilt, in the same manner as the Krumphau which comes down from above.||[26v] Eyn / haw / heist der veller / vnd ku~pt aus dem kru~phaw / vnd der stet geschrebe~ noch deme twerhawe / do dy hant ist geschrebñ / vnd der sal vör deme therhawe sten / vnd der get von vnden dar krum~es vnd schiks / eyme ober deme gehilcze yn / mit ort schissen/ Recht zam der kru~phaw von obñ neder /|
[27r] Veller wer füret •
|This is about the Zwerchhau (transversal strike)
Comment Here learn and know that of all fencing techniques with the sword, there is no strike that is as fair, forceful, perfected and good as the Zwerchhau. And this strike is done just horizontal to both sides with both edges, the back and front edge, to all openings above and below. It also defends against any strikes from "vom Tag" which are all strikes from high above or anything that comes down from above, and this all is defended with the Zwerchhau.
If one wishes to execute these well, the sword should be thrown horizontally before the head to whichever side he wishes, just as he would intend to get into the hanging or winding positions, save the edge being oriented horizontally and the flat vertically.
And with these Zwerchhau (crossing strikes) it is easy to get at the sword of the adversary. And as soon this has happened, it is difficult for the adversary get away and will be struck at both sides by the Zwerchhau.
And wherever one wants to aim for with the Zwerchhau, to whichever side above or below, always the sword is held with the inverted hand and with the hilt high in front of the head so that he is well secured and covered. And he should bring the Zwerchau with some strength.
|Das ist von deme Twerehawe / etc
[27v] / Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse / das of dem ganczen / sw°te / keyn haw / als redlich / zo heftik zo vertik vnd zo gut ist als der twerhaw / Vnd der get dar / zam dy twer / czu beyden seiten mit beiden sneiden / der hindern vnd der vörd°n / czu allen blossen / vnden vnde oben / Vnd alles das von dem tage dar ku~pt / das sint dy öb°n hewe / ader was söst von obe~ neder gehet / das bricht vnd / weret eyner / mit den twer hewen / der dy wol kan dar bre~gen / ader das sw°t wol vörwirft / dy twer vor / das hawpt / czu weler seiten her wil / recht zam her in dy ob°n henge~ ader winden wolle kome~ / Nür das eyner in den twerhewe~ / dy flechen des sw°tes / eyne oben ader of / dy ander vnden ader neder kert / vnd dy sneiden / czu den syten / dy twer / eyne / czu der rechte~ / vnd eyne czu der linken / seiten / Vnd mit den selbe~ twerhewe~ / ist gar gut eyme an das sw°t czu kome~ / vnd wen den eyner eyme an das sw°t ku~pt / wy das nür dar kome~ ist / zo mag ien° mülich von im kome~ / her wirt von desem geslage~ czu beiden seiten mit den twerhewe~ / den wy her eynen twerhaw nür dar bre~gt / czu weler seite~ is ist / vnden ader oben / zo get im io das sw°t obñ / mit dem gehilcze / mit vorworfner / hant / vor deme hewpte / das her io wol bewart vnd bedekt ist / Vnd eyner sal dy twerhewe / eczwas mit / sterke dar bre~ge~ /
|And if someone has to fight for his life he should see to it that he gains the Vorschlag (first strike) with a good Zwerchhau, as in the teaching written above . When approaching the adversary, as soon as he sees he could reach him with a step or a leap, he should strike with the Zwerchhau from his upper right side, with the back edge directly to the head. And he should let the point shoot and should well lean so that that the point is directed, and turn or sling around the adversaries sword just like a leather strap, because if one can do the Zwerch in combination with a good step outwards or a leap, an adversary will find it very difficult to defend or turn aside.
And if he gained the Vorschlag with the Zwerchhau and hits or misses to one side, he should immediately, in one motion and without pause do the Nachschlag with the Zwerchhau to the other side with the front edge, before the adversary recovers from the strike, as it has already been taught.
And one should Zwerch to both sides and to Ochs and Pflug, which is to the upper and lower openings, going from one side to the other, high and low, permanently without hesitation, so that he is always in motion and does not let the adversary come to strikes. And again, if he does a Zwerchhau, he should lean and hold the sword inverted in front of his head, so that he remains well-covered.
|Vnd wen eyner vem syne~ hals sölde fechten So solde her schaffen / mit |
|This is regarding the Squinting strike (squinting strike)
Comment Here learn and know that a Shielhau is a strike from above from the right side with back edge of the sword, which is also called the left side. And this strike moves just as a squint-eyed person to the left side while stepping off to the right, with inverted sword and hand.
And this strike breaks all strikes of a Buffalo – which means peasant – that come downwards from above, as most peasants usually do.
The Zwerchhau breaks the same strikes as it has been written before. And whoever threatens with a change-through will be ashamed by the Schielhau and one should well strike long enough with the strike and shoot in the point quickly, so that the adversary will be stopped in his changing through. And one should squint with the point, to the neck bravely without fear.
|[28v] Das ist von deme schilhawe : ~
/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das eyn
Where you see blades
[29v] Wo man von scheidñ /
|This is about the Scheitelhau (Vertex strike)
|[30r] Das ist von deme scheitelhawe etc ~
DEr scheitelere •
|Liechtenauer holds only these four guards that come from the upper and lower hangings, and from these one can fence safely.||[32r] lichtnawer helt nur eczwas võ den vier leger dorv~me das sy aus den ober vnd vnder henge~ gehñ doraus mã schire mag gechte bre~gen etc|
|This is about the four Leger (Guards)
Comment Here he (Liechtenauer) mentions the four guards (Leger or Hut), which he considers useful. But first of all, one should not lie in these for too long, because Liechtenauer has a proverb: "Who lies there, is dead and who moves is still alive." And this relates to the guards – a man should rather move with fencing attacks and techniques than waiting in the guards, which he may use to leave the Schanze (duelling yard)
The first guard is the Pflug (Plough) when someone puts the point in the ground in front of himself or to the sides. If you do this after the Absetzen (parrying) then it is called differently: namely Schrankhut or the gate.
The second guard Ochs (Ox) is the upper hanging from the shoulder
Alber (fool) breaks, what is being struck or thrust. And with hangings break swipes, the travelling after should follows instantly.
The third guard fool, is the low hanging with which you can break all strikes and thrusts if you know to do it correctly.
The fourth guard, from Tag (high guard) is also the long point. Who practices it with extended arms cannot be hit with strikes or thrusts. It may also hit the hanging over the head.
Also know, that all guards are broken with strikes, by courageously striking, so he must move up and defend. That is why Liechtenauer does not hold the guards in high regard but prefers to let his students try to gain the Vorschlag.
|Das ist von den vier leger / etc ~
/ Glosa etc / Hie nent her vier leger ader vier hute~ / do võ etzwas czu halde~ ist / Doch vor allen sache~ / zo sal ey~ mã io nicht czu / lãge doryñe lege~ / We~ lichtnaw° hat eyn sölch sprichwort / wer do leit der ist tot / wer sich rüret der lebt noch / vnd das get of dy leger das sich ey~n mã sal liber rure~ mit gefechten de~ das her / der hute~ wart / mit dem her vorslosse~ möcht dy schancze / Dy erste hute / pflug is / dy / we~ eyn° de~ ort vor sich of dy erde legt ader czu der seiten / noch dem abesetze~ / das heyssen and° / dy schranckhute / ad° dy pforte / Dy and° hute ochse / ist das oberhenge~ / von der achsel Alber io bricht / was man hewt ader sticht / Mit hengen streiche / nochreizen setze gleiche Dy dritte hute / alber / ist das vnderhenge~ / mit der mã alle hewe~ vnd stiche / bricht / wer dy recht füret / Dy vierde hute / vom tage / ist der lange ort / wer den wol furet mit gestragtem arme~ / den mag mã nicht mit hewe~ / noch mit stiche~ wol treffen / Is mag auch wol heissen / das henge~ ober dem hawpte Auch wisse / das man alle leger vnd hute~ bricht mit hewen / mit deme / daz mã eyme ku~lich czu hewt / zo mus io eyn° of varn vnd sich schutze~ / Dorvem helt lichtnaw° nicht vil von den legern ader hute~ / zu~der her schaft lib° daz sich eyn° besorge vor im / mit dem das her den vorslag gewi~t
|This is about the four displacements
Comment Here learn that there are four displacements to both sides, one high and one low, and these break or open all guards. And how you lead away or defends against strikes thrusts or cuts from above or below this may be called displacing (versetzen). And if you have been displaced however this may have happened, so move off with the sword quickly and strike quickly again while you move in towards him.
Now if it happens that you displace or turn off a strike or thrust, so you should move in and follow at his sword so that he cannot move away. And then you can do as you wish – the more you hesitate the more you will receive damage.
Also you should wind well and aim for his chest with the point, so he has to worry.
Also a good fencer should well learn to bind at his sword and this can be done with the displacements, because these come from the four strikes, Oberhau (strike from above) and Unterhau (strike from below) from both sides and these move into the four hangings.
If one defends from above or below he should move in and get into the hangings, and should see to it that he turns away or leads off all strikes and thrusts with the front edge as it is done with all displacements.
|[32v] Das it von vier vorsetczen
/ Glosa / Hie merke / das vier vorsetczen sint / czu beiden / seiten / czu itlich° seiten / eyn obers / vnd eyns venders / vnd dy letcze~ ader brechñ / alle hute~ ader leger / vnd wy du von obñ / ader von vnde~ / eyme / hewe stiche ader snete / mit deyme sw°te abeleitest / ader abweisest / das mag wol heissen vorsetcze~ / Vnd ab dir vorsatz w°t wy das dar ku~pt / zo czewch rislich abe • vnd haw snelle mete czu / yn eyme hurte / Ist deñe das du eyme vorsetzt / ader abewe~dest eyn haw ader stich / zo saltu / czu hant czu trete~ vnd nochvolge~ am sw°te das dir ien° icht abeczihe / vnd salt deñe tue~ was du magst / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest zo nym~estu schaden / Auch saltu wol we~de~ / vnd allemal dey~ ort keren key~s ey~s brust / zo mus h° sich besorgen / Auch sal ey~ guter fechter / wol lerne~ / eyme an das swert kome~
|This is from the Nachreissen (adhering)
|[33r] Das ist von nochreisen etc etc
NOchreisen lere •
|This is about the Überlaufen (overreaching), fencer observe this!
|[33v] Das ist von öberlawfen / ffechter sich czu /
WEr vnden remet •
|This is from Absetzen (setting aside), this learn well
|[34r] Das ist von abesetczen / das lere wol ~
LEre abesetczen •
|This is from the Durchwechsel (changing through)
Comment Here learn that the changing-through goes from both sides down and up again and is very direct, if done quickly. If you now wish to change through from your right downwards, so strike an Oberhau directly at him. Aim for the little hole or window above and behind his hilt and shoot the point to his left opening. So that you may hit between the blade and the hilt; if you hit, you have won.
If he now defends against this by turning aside your point and pushes against your blade, so let your point sink down from the same side and move it around under his sword to the other side. And this should not be done wide around but as close to his sword as possible. And then move your point quickly in above his hilt, with a good and perfect thrust. And if you feel you hit, so follow well through (with your thrust). And you should do the same from the other side, low or high, as you do it on this side. Whoever binds you, so move at his sword against him and he defends, so change through as before, or wind and feel his technique if it is soft or hard. Then seek strikes thrusts and cuts against the openings.
|[34v] Das ist vom durchwechsel / etc etc
|This is from the Zucken (pulling) fencer learn this
|[35r] Das ist vom Czücken / ffecht° merke /
TRit nü in bünde •
|This is from the running-through, now see:
|[35v] Das ist von durchlawfen / nü sich
DVrchlawf loz hangen •
|This is about Abschneiden (cutting off)
|[36r] Das ist von abesneiden etc etc ~
SNeit abe dy herten /
|This is about Hände drücken (pressing the hands)
Also know, as soon as you defend a strike or a thrust with the turning-aside, so you should step sideways and move quickly to him; the slower you are the more damage you sustain.
|[36v] Das ist von hende drücken/ etc etc
Auch wisse / als bald / als du mt dem we~de~ / eyme ey~ haw ader stich / abe we~dest / zo saltu czu hãt czu trete~ / vnd rischlich dar varn czu eyme / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest / zo ny~stu schaden
|Also know and learn that you turn aside all strikes and thrusts with the front edge of the sword, from its middle to the hilt. And the closer to the hilt a strike or a cut comes on the front edge which you have used to turn aside, the slower and stronger you can defend. This is because the closer you bind at the hilt, the stronger you can defend and the closer to the point the weaker you are. Now whoever wants to be a good fencer should firstly learn to turn-aside well, because by turning aside well he can get into the winding from which he can practice all art and grace of fencing.||Auch merke vnd wisse / das man mit der vördern sneiden des swertes / vom mittel der selben sneiden / bis czu deme gehilcze / alle hewe ad° stiche abewendet / Vnd e neher eyme / eyn haw ader stich czu syme gehilcze ku~pt / of der selben sneiden / mit deme als her im gewendet hat dy selbe vörder sneide / e bas / vnd e kreftiger / her dy selben hewe ader stiche / abewenden mag / Weñe e neher czum gehilcze e sterker vnd e / mechtiger / Vnd e neher/czum orte / |
|The front edge at the sword is called the true edge and all strikes or thrusts are ruined by the turning-aside.||Dy vörder sneyde / am sw°te heist dy rechte sneide / vnd alle hewe ad° stiche sint vorterbe~ mt de~ we~de~|
|This is from the Hängen (hanging), fencer learn this
Comment: here learn and know that there are two hangings each side, one Unterhängen (lower hanging) and one Oberhängen (upper hanging) with which you can get at his sword well, because these come from the Oberhau and Unterhau (high strike and low strike). If it now happens that you bind with your opponent on purpose or without so you should well stay at the sword and use the winding. So you can stand happily with relaxed mind and without fear at the sword and see, notice and wait for what he tries to do next; and what his plan is he intends to execute. And the standing at the sword is called the Sprechfenser (speaking window) by Liechtenauer. If you now stand at the sword with him, you should notice and feel his technique, be it soft or hard. And according to this you should act, as it has been written before. Now if he pulls off from the sword before you could begin your technique, so you should follow with him and beat strike or thrust him whatever you can bring surest, before he can do anything himself before you. You can do this because by staying at the sword and extending yourself your (point) moves nearer to him. If someone pulls off because he has to recover from a strike he just executes, then follow in with the point. If he instead stays at the sword you have to gauge and notice whether he his soft or hard at the sword.
If he is soft and weak, you should quickly and bravely proceed and hurry at him with the strength of your sword and force his sword aside with pressure, seeking his openings, to the head or the body wherever you may get at.
If he is hard and strong at the sword and intends to force you aside strongly, you should be soft and weak against his strength, and yield to his strength and forward pressure, thus evading with your sword. And with this evading as his sword swings about, as it has been written before, and now as this happens and while he is recovering from that and thus cannot execute strikes or thrusts, you should attack his openings, with strikes thrusts or cuts, wherever you may hit him best. According to the teaching you should do this quickly bravely and fast so that your adversary cannot come to strikes. As Liechtenauer says: I tell you truthfully, no man defends without danger, if you have understood it, he will not come to strikes. And by this he means that the adversary will not be able to safely defend if you act according to this teaching. As soon as you have done the first strike the adversary has to defend against it or has to take the hit. When you do the first strike, may you hit or muss, so you should quickly in one rush follow with the Nachschlag before he comes to strike. If you want to do the Vorschlag, you should also do the Nachschlag just with same thought or the same intention if possible. This is why he says: Vor and Nach those two things etc... If you do the Vorschlag, no matter if you hit or miss, you should do the Nachschlag in one rush quickly and fast, so that he cannot under any circumstances to his strikes.
So see to it that in all instances of fencing you act before your opponent and as soon as you move before him and have gained the Vorschlag so do the Nachschlag with moving in. You should never do a Vorschlag if you have not prepared the Nachschlag in your senses and mind as well, so that you are always in constant motion and never you should pause or hesitate. Always do one after the other quickly and fast so that your adversary cannot do any technique. Really, if you do exactly that, then he must be a really good (skilled) man to get away from you without being struck.
Because with this art or advantage it often happens that a peasant or anyone untrained defeats a skilled master by gaining the Vorschlag and rushing in quickly. Because it is easily missed that Indes hits him and also defeats and humiliates him. Because one that observes the strikes and waits for the defense is in greater danger than the one who strikes him and thus wins the Vorschlag. So always be that you are the first in all instances of fencing that you get to ones right side, there you are safer than your adversary.
|[37r] Das ist von hengen / ffecht° daz lere / ~
/ Glosa / etc Hie merke vnd wisse das czu itzlicher seiten sint czwey hengen / Eyn vnderhengen / vnd eyn öbirhengen / mit den du eyme wol an das swert magst komen / wen dy kome~ aus den öb°hewe~ vnd vnderhewen / Wen das nu geschiet / das du mit eyme an bindest / ader wy du süst mit im an das swert kömps zo salt du an dem swerte bleybñ
Comment: Here learn that the winden are the real art and the base of all fencing with the sword and from these all other techniques and methods come from. And one rarely is a good fencer without the windings. Just as the Leychmeister disdain them and say that fencing from the winding is weak and they call it from the shortened sword because that they are done simple and stupid. And they mean that these are fenced from the long sword which is done with outstretched arms and extended sword and also aggressively with all strength of the body only by pressing themselves forward.
And this is painful to watch! If one stretches just as running after a rabbit this is not the way, neither the windings nor Liechtenauers art, because there is no strength against (the opposing strength)! Whoever does it differently should prefer strength.
[40r] / Glosa / :• Hie merke / das dy winden / sint dy rechte kunst / vnd gru~tfeste alles fechten / des sw°tes / aus den alle ander gefechte vnd stöcke kome~ / vnd is mag mülich eyn guter fechter /syn / ane dy winden / Wy wol etzliche leychmeistere • dy vornichte~ / vnd spreche~ is sy gar swach was aus den winden ku~pt / vnd neñen is / aus dem korcze~ sw°te / dorvm~e das sy slecht vnd ey~veldik dar gen / vnd meyne~ das sy / aus dem lange~ sw°te gefochte~ / was dar get / mt gestracke~ arme~ / vnd mt gestrakte~ swerte / vnd was gar veyntlich vnd stark von alle~ krefte~ des leybes dar get / nur durch wol stehens wille / vnd das is grawsam an czu sehñ ist / we~ sich eyn° alzo strekt / recht zam her eyne~ hazen wolle irlawfen / vnd daz ist alles nicht / weder dy winden vnd weder lichtnaw°s kunst / wen do ist keyne sterke weder / deñe worvm~e wer anders ku~st / solde allemal dy sterke vörczihen /
- Alternative interpretation: keep your blade on top of his.
- Thrust exchange from the bind.
- Striking the wrist and arms.
- Cut to the hands and then cut the throat.
- from above; the high guard
- upper opening
- lower opening
- The comment ends here and remains unfinished.
- Most of the verses on this page are associated with armored fencing in other treatises.
- crown displacement technique
- This paragraph is above the script level. Unlike other places where there are definitely forgotten passages originally marked with a caret, such is missing here. Thus, it can be conjectured that this is a later addition or comment.
- latin: ut potuit. "as [they] are able" This is underlined and not stricken.