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| archetype            = Hypothetical
 
| archetype            = Hypothetical
 
| manuscript(s)        = {{collapsible list
 
| manuscript(s)        = {{collapsible list
  | [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M.I.29]] (1491)  
+
  | [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M..29]] (1491)  
 +
| [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|MS 26-232]] (1512)
 +
| [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (1553)
 +
| [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.2]] (1564)
 +
}}
 +
| principal manuscript(s)={{collapsible list
 
  | [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|MS Dresd.C.487]] (1504-19)
 
  | [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|MS Dresd.C.487]] (1504-19)
 
  | [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] (1508)
 
  | [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] (1508)
| [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|MS 26-232]] (1512)
 
| [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (1553)
 
| [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. I.6.2º.2]] (1564)
 
 
  | [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|MS Var.82]] (ca. 1570)
 
  | [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|MS Var.82]] (ca. 1570)
 
}}
 
}}
| principal manuscript(s)=
 
 
| first printed edition= [[Christian Henry Tobler|Tobler]], 2001
 
| first printed edition= [[Christian Henry Tobler|Tobler]], 2001
 
| wiktenauer compilation by=[[Michael Chidester]]
 
| wiktenauer compilation by=[[Michael Chidester]]
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  | [[Hans Medel]]
 
  | [[Hans Medel]]
 
  | [[Joachim Meÿer]]
 
  | [[Joachim Meÿer]]
| [[Andre Paurñfeyndt]]
 
 
}}
 
}}
 
| awards              =  
 
| awards              =  
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| below                =  
 
| below                =  
 
}}
 
}}
'''Sigmund ain Ringeck''' (Sigmund ain Ringeck, Sigmund Amring, Sigmund Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by [[Hans Medel]]) is uncertain, the suffix "ein Ringeck" may indicate that he came from the Rhineland region of south-eastern Germany. He is named in the text as ''Schirmaister'' to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify ''Schirrmeister'', a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially ''Schirmmeister'', a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.<ref>[[Jens P. Kleinau]]. "[http://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2011/07/04/schirrmeister-schermeister-schirmmeister/ Schirrmeister, Schermeister, Schirmmeister]". '' Hans Talhoffer ~ A Historical Martial Arts blog by Jens P. Kleinau], 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.</ref> Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]—his name was included by [[Paulus Kal]] in his roll of members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]] in ca. 1470.<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
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{{about|the master and his glosses|the treatise on fencing from the sweeps sometimes ascribed to Ringeck|Stuck im aufstreichen}}
 +
'''Sigmund ain Ringeck''' (Ainring, Amring, Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by [[Hans Medel]]) is uncertain, the surname "Ainring[ck]" may indicate that he came from the village of Ainring on the current German/Austrian border. He is named in the text as ''Schirmaister'' to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify ''Schirrmeister'', a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially ''Schirmmeister'', a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.<ref>[[Jens P. Kleinau]]. "[http://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2011/07/04/schirrmeister-schermeister-schirmmeister/ Schirrmeister, Schermeister, Schirmmeister]". '' Hans Talhoffer ~ A Historical Martial Arts blog by Jens P. Kleinau], 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.</ref> Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]—his name was included by [[Paulus Kal]] in his roll of members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]] in ca. 1470.<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
  
The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]] further narrows the list down to just two. If the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|MS 3227a]] is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was [[wikipedia:Albert I, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht I]], who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of [[H. Beringer]]) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been [[wikipedia:Albert III, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht III]], who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.<ref>For a different perspective, see [[Christian Henry Tobler]]. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" ''In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts''. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2010.</ref> [[wikipedia:Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht IV]] claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht IV lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.
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The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]] further narrows the list down to just two. If the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|MS 3227a]] is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was [[wikipedia:Albert I, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht ]], who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of [[H. Beringer]]) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been [[wikipedia:Albert III, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht ]], who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.<ref>For a different perspective, see [[Christian Henry Tobler]]. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" ''In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts''. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2010.</ref> [[wikipedia:Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht ]] claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.
  
 
Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|MS Dresd.C.487]]. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete [[gloss]] of Liechtenauer's [[Recital]] on unarmored [[long sword]] fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century<ref name="Hoffman">Werner J. Hoffmann. [http://www.manuscripta-mediaevalia.de/dokumente/html/obj31600186 "Mscr.Dresd.C.487: Siegmund am Ringeck, Fechtlehre"]. ''Tiefenerschließung und Digitalisierung der deutschsprachigen mittelalterlichen Handschriften der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (SLUB) Dresden''. Retrieved 26 May 2015.</ref> (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.
 
Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|MS Dresd.C.487]]. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete [[gloss]] of Liechtenauer's [[Recital]] on unarmored [[long sword]] fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century<ref name="Hoffman">Werner J. Hoffmann. [http://www.manuscripta-mediaevalia.de/dokumente/html/obj31600186 "Mscr.Dresd.C.487: Siegmund am Ringeck, Fechtlehre"]. ''Tiefenerschließung und Digitalisierung der deutschsprachigen mittelalterlichen Handschriften der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (SLUB) Dresden''. Retrieved 26 May 2015.</ref> (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.
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[[file:Ringeck stemma.png|300px|left|thumb|Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck]]
 
[[file:Ringeck stemma.png|300px|left|thumb|Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck]]
  
The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by [[Hans von Speyer]] as addenda to certain sections of the Jud Lew gloss in his 1491 manuscript [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|M.I.29]] (Salzburg).<ref>[[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M.I.29]] is signed and internally dated on [[page:MS M.I.29 158r.jpg|folio 158r]].</ref> A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.
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The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by [[Hans von Speyer]] as addenda to certain sections of the [[Lew]] gloss in his 1491 manuscript [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|M..29]] (Salzburg).<ref>[[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M..29]] is signed and internally dated on [[page:MS M.I.29 158r.jpg|folio 158r]].</ref> A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.
  
The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing substantial portions of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,<ref name="Hoffman"/> and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.
+
The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,<ref name="Hoffman"/> and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.
  
 
The 1508<ref>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] is internally dated on [[page:MS E.1939.65.341 022r.jpg|folio 22r]].</ref> Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.
 
The 1508<ref>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] is internally dated on [[page:MS E.1939.65.341 022r.jpg|folio 22r]].</ref> Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.
  
The third version from this period is another fragment, published by Freifechter [[Andre Paurñfeyndt]] in 1516 as part of his treatise ''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'' ("Foundation of the Chivalric Art of Swordplay")<ref>''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'' is internally dated on [[page:E.1939.65.357 K4r.jpg|page K4r]].</ref> and containing only the material on fencing from low guards; in characteristic fashion, Paurñfeyndt does not attribute this material to Ringeck. The section is illustrated by the same crude woodblock art as the rest of his book, though their connection to Ringeck's original text is doubtful. (Paurñfeyndt's text would be reprinted by [[Christian Egenolff]] four times between 1531 and 1558,<ref>The first three printings of ''Der Altenn Fechter anfengliche Kunst'' are undated, but the first edition must have been produced between 1531, when Egenolff set up his shop in Frankfurt-am-Main, and Hans Weiditz' death in 1537; the second and third editions were released some time before Egenolff's own death in 1555. The only dated edition was published by Egenolff's heirs in 1558 (see [[page:DAFaK 1558 mIIIv.jpg|page XLVIIv]]).</ref> transcribed by [[Lienhart Sollinger]] into the [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. I.6.2º.2]] in 1564,<ref>The material in [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. I.6.2º.2]] based on Paurñfeyndt is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.2 71r.jpg|folio 71r]]</ref> and translated to Walloon and printed by [[Willem Vorsterman]] in 1538.<ref>''La noble science des ioueurs d'espee'' is internally dated on [[page:Hn 236 35v.jpg|page 35v]].</ref>)
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The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of [[Albrecht Dürer]]; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian Ⅰ to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.<ref name="Dornhoffer">[[Friedrich Dörnhöffer]]. ''[http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/fencing/albrecht.pdf Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch].'' Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.</ref> This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).
  
The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, [[Paulus Hector Mair]] produced the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master [[Antonius Rast]].<ref>The origin of [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] is detailed on [[page:Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 IIr.jpg|folio IIr]].</ref> Included in this manuscript was a version of the pseudo-Danzig long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text (speculatively, perhaps the rest of Rast's copy of Ringeck was not among the papers Mair purchased, so he attempted to fill the gap using the copy of pseudo-Danzig that he already possessed).
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The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, [[Paulus Hector Mair]] produced the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master [[Antonius Rast]].<ref>The origin of [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] is detailed on [[page:Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 IIr.jpg|folio Ⅱr]].</ref> Included in this manuscript was a version of [[Nicolaüs]]' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.
  
The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter [[Joachim Meÿer]] until his death in 1571.<ref>The only date, 1570, is given on [[page:MS Var.82 123r.png|folio 123]] (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See [[Joachim Meyer]]. ''The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570.'' Trans. [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.</ref> It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke, and also omits the entire section on fencing from the low guards; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).
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The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter [[Joachim Meÿer]] until his death in 1571.<ref>The only date, 1570, is given on [[page:MS Var.82 123r.png|folio 123]] (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See [[Joachim Meyer]]. ''The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570.'' Trans. [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.</ref> It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).
  
 
All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).
 
All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).
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Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.
 
Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.
  
(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of [[Hans Medel|Hans Medel von Salzburg]],<ref>Medel's section of the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 21r.jpg|folio 21r]].</ref> which was acquired by Mair and bound into the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] after 1566.<ref>The record of the [[Marxbrüder]] in the manuscript ends on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 20r.jpg|folio 20r]] with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.</ref> Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including pseudo-Danzig and [[Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt]], but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)
+
(A final text of interest is the treatise of [[Hans Medel|Hans Medel von Salzburg]], which was acquired by Mair in 1539<ref>Medel's section of the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. .6.2º.5]] is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 21r.jpg|folio 21r]].</ref> and bound into the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. .6.2º.5]] after 1566.<ref>The record of the [[Marxbrüder]] in the manuscript ends on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 20r.jpg|folio 20r]] with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.</ref> Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and [[Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt]], but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
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}}
 
}}
 
<section begin="credits1"/>
 
<section begin="credits1"/>
{| class="floated master" style="clear:right;"
+
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images</p>
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|A}}<br/>by [[Christian Trosclair]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|A}}<br/>by [[Christian Trosclair]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
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<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}.<ref name="word-d"/> Note, the Recital sets down five obscure hews. Many masters of the sword do know nothing to say about this: that you should not learn to make other hews,<ref>Lit: "hew other hews".</ref> when from the right side, against those who arrange themselves against you in defense. And if you select one hew from the five hews, then one must hit with the first strike. Whoever can break that without their harm will be praised by the masters of the Recital, because his art shall be praised better than another fencer who cannot fence the five hews against it. (And how you shall hew the five hews, you find that written hereafter in the same five hews.<ref>"In the same five hews" omitted from the Rostock.</ref>)</p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}.<ref name="word-d"/> Note, the Recital sets down five obscure hews. Many masters of the sword do know nothing to say about this: that you should not learn to make other hews,<ref>Lit: "hew other hews".</ref> when from the right side, against those who arrange themselves against you in defense. And if you select one hew from the five hews, then one must hit with the first strike. Whoever can break that without their harm will be praised by the masters of the Recital, because his art shall be praised better than another fencer who cannot fence the five hews against it. (And how you shall hew the five hews, you find that written hereafter in the same five hews.<ref>"In the same five hews" omitted from the Rostock.</ref>)</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 016v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{paget|Page:MS Dresd.C.487|017r|png|lbl=17r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 017v.png|1|lbl=17v|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 016v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 017r.png|1|lbl=17r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 017v.png|1|lbl=17v|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 007v.png|1|lbl=07v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 007v.png|1|lbl=07v}}
Line 475: Line 476:
 
| Go upon all<br/>&emsp;Without doubt how he bares.
 
| Go upon all<br/>&emsp;Without doubt how he bares.
 
|}
 
|}
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. You shall here note the four openings on the man which you shall always fence to. The first opening is the right side; the second is<ref name="word-r">Word omitted from the Rostock.</ref> the left side<ref name="word-r"/> above the girdle of the man. The other two are also the right and the left sides below the girdle.<section end="wrath-10"/> <section begin="wrath-11"/>In the onset, precisely observe the openings with which he uncovers himself against you. Artfully target the same without danger with the shooting-in of the long point and<ref name="word-dg"/> with following-after, and also with the winding upon the sword,<ref name="clause-d"/> and otherwise with all techniques, and do not pay attention<ref>Alternately: ponder, weigh, calculate, estimate, consider.</ref> to how he bares against you with his techniques. So you fence wisely and from that make attacks which are excellent, and with those do not allow him to come to his plays.</p><section end="wrath-11"/>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. You shall here note the four openings on the man which you shall always fence to. The first opening is the right side; the second is<ref name="word-r">Word omitted from the Rostock.</ref> the left side<ref name="word-r"/> above the girdle of the man. The other two are also the right and the left sides below the girdle.<section end="wrath-10"/> <section begin="wrath-11"/>In the onset, precisely observe the openings with which he uncovers himself against you. Artfully target the same without danger with the shooting-in of the long point and<ref name="word-dr">Word omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.</ref> with following-after, and also with the winding upon the sword,<ref name="clause-d"/> and otherwise with all techniques, and do not pay attention<ref>Alternately: ponder, weigh, calculate, estimate, consider.</ref> to how he bares against you with his techniques. So you fence wisely and from that make attacks which are excellent, and with those do not allow him to come to his plays.</p><section end="wrath-11"/>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 022v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 023r.png|1|lbl=23r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 022v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 023r.png|1|lbl=23r|p=1}}
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| Crook on<ref>''aufkrummen'': Lat. ''sursum torquere'', twist, turn or bend up; twist, turn, bend, or cast back; avert, deflect .</ref> swiftly,<br/>&emsp;Throw the point upon the hands.
 
| Crook on<ref>''aufkrummen'': Lat. ''sursum torquere'', twist, turn or bend up; twist, turn, bend, or cast back; avert, deflect .</ref> swiftly,<br/>&emsp;Throw the point upon the hands.
 
|}
 
|}
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}.<ref name="word-s">Word omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> This is how you shall hew crooked to the hands, and conduct the play thusly: When he hews from your<ref>Likely a scribal error and should be "his".</ref> right side to the opening<ref>"The opening" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> with over- or under-hews,<ref>S. "the over- or under-hew".</ref> spring away from the hew with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him<ref>Possibly "it".</ref> with crossed<ref>S. ''vß gestreckten'': "outstretched".</ref> arms with the point<ref name="word-s"/> upon his<ref name="the-d"/> hands. And also conduct this play against him when he stands against you in the guard of the oxen.<ref>Sentence omitted from the Salzburg; instead, it segues into the [[Jud Lew|Pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] gloss of the same verse, describing how the Crooked hew breaks the Ox.</ref></p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}.<ref name="word-s">Word omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> This is how you shall hew crooked to the hands, and conduct the play thusly: When he hews from your<ref>Likely a scribal error and should be "his".</ref> right side to the opening<ref>"The opening" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> with over- or under-hews,<ref>S. "the over- or under-hew".</ref> spring away from the hew with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him<ref>Possibly "it".</ref> with crossed<ref>S. ''vß gestreckten'': "outstretched".</ref> arms with the point<ref name="word-s"/> upon his<ref name="the-d"/> hands. And also conduct this play against him when he stands against you in the guard of the oxen.<ref>Sentence omitted from the Salzburg; instead, it segues into the [[Lew]] gloss of the same verse, describing how the Crooked hew breaks the Ox.</ref></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 024v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 025r.png|1|lbl=25r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 024v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 025r.png|1|lbl=25r|p=1}}
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| <p>[39] {{red|b=1|Again a play from the thwart-hew}}</p>
 
| <p>[39] {{red|b=1|Again a play from the thwart-hew}}</p>
  
<p>Item. When you bind onto his sword with the thwart, if he is then weak upon the sword, so lay the short edge to his right side upon the neck, and spring with the right foot behind his left, and back him over that with the sword.</p>
+
<p>Item. When you bind onto his sword with the thwart, if he is then Soft upon the sword, so lay the short edge to his right side upon the neck, and spring with the right foot behind his left, and back him over that with the sword.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 028r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 028r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 713: Line 714:
 
| <p>[40] {{red|b=1|Another play}}</p>
 
| <p>[40] {{red|b=1|Another play}}</p>
  
<p>Item. When you bind onto his sword with the thwart, if he is then weak upon the sword, so press his sword down with the thwart and lay the short edge afore behind his arms on his neck.</p>
+
<p>Item. When you bind onto his sword with the thwart, if he is then Soft upon the sword, so press his sword down with the thwart and lay the short edge afore behind his arms on his neck.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 028r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 028r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
Line 864: Line 865:
 
| Whoever threatens to change,<br/>&emsp;The squinter robs him of it.
 
| Whoever threatens to change,<br/>&emsp;The squinter robs him of it.
 
|}
 
|}
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Note here<ref name="word-gr">Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.</ref> that the squinter is a hew which breaks-in<ref>Word is doubled in the Glasgow.</ref> the hews and thrusts of the buffalo ([one] who acquires<ref>''annehmen'': receive, accept, take up, assume, claim, obtain, etc.</ref> victory with power), and<ref name="word-r"/> conduct the hew thusly: When he cleaves-in above from his right side, so hew from your right against his hew into the weak of his sword,<ref>"Into the weak of his sword" omitted from the Rostock</ref> with the short edge [and] with upright<ref>"Upright, elevated, straight, at a right angle"; Glasgow gives ''auff gerackten'', which may be a misspelling of pPvD's ''aus gestrackten'', "out-stretched".</ref> arms, and strike him upon his right shoulder;<ref>"With upright arms… right shoulder" omitted from the Rostock.</ref> so you strike and displace with each other and hit him with the hew<ref name="clause-dg"/> (as stands pictured hereafter next to this).<ref>R. "pictured here".</ref><ref name="clause-d"/> If he changes-through, shoot with the hew long into his chest and<ref name="word-g">Word omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> also hew when he stands against you in the guard of the plow or when he will thrust you from below.<ref name="sentence-r"/></p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Note here<ref name="word-gr">Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.</ref> that the squinter is a hew which breaks-in<ref>Word is doubled in the Glasgow.</ref> the hews and thrusts of the buffalo ([one] who acquires<ref>''annehmen'': receive, accept, take up, assume, claim, obtain, etc.</ref> victory with power), and<ref name="word-r"/> conduct the hew thusly: When he cleaves-in above from his right side, so hew from your right against his hew into the weak of his sword,<ref>"Into the weak of his sword" omitted from the Rostock</ref> with the short edge [and] with upright<ref>"Upright, elevated, straight, at a right angle"; Glasgow gives ''auff gerackten'', which may be a misspelling of pPvD's ''aus gestrackten'', "out-stretched".</ref> arms, and strike him upon his right shoulder;<ref>"With upright arms… right shoulder" omitted from the Rostock.</ref> so you strike and displace with each other and hit him with the hew<ref name="clause-dg">Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> (as stands pictured hereafter next to this).<ref>R. "pictured here".</ref><ref name="clause-d"/> If he changes-through, shoot with the hew long into his chest and<ref name="word-g">Word omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> also hew when he stands against you in the guard of the plow or when he will thrust you from below.<ref name="sentence-r"/></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 031r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 031v.png|1|lbl=31v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 031r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 031v.png|1|lbl=31v|p=1}}
Line 1,176: Line 1,177:
 
| Learn the racing-after,<br/>&emsp;Doubly or cut into the weapon<ref>Alternately: defense.</ref>
 
| Learn the racing-after,<br/>&emsp;Doubly or cut into the weapon<ref>Alternately: defense.</ref>
 
|}
 
|}
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Note,<ref name="word-d"/> this is so that you shall learn the racings-after quite well, because they are dual,<ref name="clause-r"/> and<ref name="word-d"/> the first<ref name="word-r"/> conduct thusly:<ref name="word-d"/> when he wishes to cleave-in above him,<ref name="word-r"/> so note while he yanks up the sword to the strike, [and] race-after him with a strike,<ref>"A strike" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> a hew, or with a thrust, and hit him<ref>"And hit him" omitted from the Rostock.</ref> to the upper<ref name="word-r"/> opening before the moment<ref name="moment-d">"The moment" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> he descends<ref>D. ''wieder-kommen'': to meet, to encounter, to run into".</ref> with the hew, or fall with the long edge above him onto his arm and with that, press him from you.<ref>"Or fall… from you" omitted from the Rostock.</ref></p>
+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}. Note,<ref name="word-d"/> this is so that you shall learn the racings-after quite well, because they are dual,<ref name="clause-r"/> and<ref name="word-d"/> the first<ref name="word-r"/> conduct thusly:<ref name="word-d"/> when he wishes to cleave-in above him,<ref name="word-r"/> so note while he yanks up the sword to the strike, [and] race-after him with a hew or with a thrust, and hit him<ref>"And hit him" omitted from the Rostock.</ref> to the upper<ref name="word-r"/> opening before the moment<ref name="moment-d">"The moment" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> he descends<ref>D. ''wieder-kommen'': to meet, to encounter, to run into".</ref> with the hew, or fall with the long edge above him onto his arm and with that, press him from you.<ref>"Or fall… from you" omitted from the Rostock.</ref></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 036v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 037r.png|1|lbl=37r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 036v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 037r.png|1|lbl=37r|p=1}}
Line 1,187: Line 1,188:
 
| <p>[74] {{red|b=1|Yet another racing-after}}<ref name="line-r">Line omitted from the Rostock.</ref></p>
 
| <p>[74] {{red|b=1|Yet another racing-after}}<ref name="line-r">Line omitted from the Rostock.</ref></p>
  
<p>Item.<ref>R. "or".</ref> When he begins to hew you downward<ref name="word-d"/> from above, and<ref name="word-d"/> if he then<ref>"If he then" omitted from the Rostock".</ref> allows his sword to go down to the earth with the hew: so<ref name="word-d"/> race-after him with an over-hew<ref>D. ''haw'': "hew".</ref> to the head before the moment<ref name="moment-d"/> he comes-up with the sword, so is he struck.<ref name="clause-d"/> Or if he will thrust you, note the moment he yanks the sword to him for the thrust, so race-after him and thrust him before he completes his thrust.<ref name="sentence-r"/></p>
+
<p>Item.<ref>R. "or".</ref> When he begins to hew you downward<ref name="word-d"/> from above, and<ref name="word-d"/> if he then<ref>"If he then" omitted from the Rostock".</ref> allows his sword to go down to the earth with the hew: so<ref name="word-d"/> race-after him with an over-hew<ref>D. ''haw'': "hew".</ref> to the head before the moment<ref name="moment-d"/> he comes-up with the sword, so is he struck.<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 037r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 037r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,197: Line 1,198:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[75] {{red|b=1|About the outer-cattle-drives}}</p>
+
| <p>[75] Or if he will thrust you, note the moment he yanks the sword to him for the thrust, so race-after him and thrust him before he completes his thrust.</p>
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 037r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>[76] {{red|b=1|About the outer-cattle-drives}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,214: Line 1,223:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[76] {{red|b=1|The other outer-cattle-drives}}</p>
+
| <p>[77] {{red|b=1|The other outer-cattle-drives}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item. When you fence cautiously<ref>''geim'': "watchfully, to observe, cautiously, with foresight".</ref> from the under-hews (or otherwise from the under-attacks): if he then lays over you and winds upon your sword before you come up with that, [and] then remains strong with your sword below upon his winding and works to your upper opening, so follow-after with the sword and take weak of his sword with the long edge, and press down and stab him in the face.</p>
 
<p>Item. When you fence cautiously<ref>''geim'': "watchfully, to observe, cautiously, with foresight".</ref> from the under-hews (or otherwise from the under-attacks): if he then lays over you and winds upon your sword before you come up with that, [and] then remains strong with your sword below upon his winding and works to your upper opening, so follow-after with the sword and take weak of his sword with the long edge, and press down and stab him in the face.</p>
Line 1,225: Line 1,234:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[77] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the feeling and about the word "in-the-moment"}}</p>
+
| <p>[78] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the feeling and about the word "in-the-moment"}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,239: Line 1,248:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[78] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-d"/> And<ref name="word-gs">Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Salzburg.</ref> understand it thusly:<ref>S. "the feeling work thusly".</ref> When you come to him with the onset and<ref>"You come… onset and" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> one binds another on the sword, so in that you shall feel with the hand (that is, perceive),<ref name="clause-ds"/> just as the swords spark together, whether they have bound soft or hard, and as soon as you have perceived that,<ref>S. "soft or hard".</ref> think of the word "in-the-moment"; that is, in that same swift perceiving<ref>S. "feeling".</ref> of the soft and of the hard, you shall work to the nearest opening,<ref>"To the nearest opening" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> so [he] becomes struck before he will have his insight.<ref>D., G. ''gewar'', S. ''ÿnnen''.</ref></p>
+
| <p>[79] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-d"/> And<ref name="word-gs">Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Salzburg.</ref> understand it thusly:<ref>S. "the feeling work thusly".</ref> When you come to him with the onset and<ref>"You come… onset and" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> one binds another on the sword, so in that you shall feel with the hand (that is, perceive),<ref name="clause-ds"/> just as the swords spark together, whether they have bound soft or hard, and as soon as you have perceived that,<ref>S. "soft or hard".</ref> think of the word "in-the-moment"; that is, in that same swift perceiving<ref>S. "feeling".</ref> of the soft and of the hard, you shall work to the nearest opening,<ref>"To the nearest opening" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> so [he] becomes struck before he will have his insight.<ref>D., G. ''gewar'', S. ''ÿnnen''.</ref></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 038r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 038v.png|1|lbl=38v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 038r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 038v.png|1|lbl=38v|p=1}}
Line 1,249: Line 1,258:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[79] {{red|b=1|Item}}. Note,<ref name="word-ds">Word omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.</ref> you shall think of the word "in-the-moment" in all bindings of the sword, because in-the-moment doubles and<ref name="word-g"/> in-the-moment mutates, in-the-moment runs-through, in-the-moment changes-through,<ref name="clause-d"/> and<ref name="word-g"/> in-the-moment takes the cut; in-the-moment wrestles, and with in-the-moment, take the sword. In the art, In-the-moment does whatever your heart desires. In-the-moment is a sharp word; with it, any fencer who knows nothing of the word becomes hew. And the word "in-the-moment" is also<ref name="word-g"/> the key in which all of the art of fencing becomes unlocked.</p>
+
| <p>[80] {{red|b=1|Item}}. Note,<ref name="word-ds">Word omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.</ref> you shall think of the word "in-the-moment" in all bindings of the sword, because in-the-moment doubles and<ref name="word-g"/> in-the-moment mutates, in-the-moment runs-through, in-the-moment changes-through,<ref name="clause-d"/> and<ref name="word-g"/> in-the-moment takes the cut; in-the-moment wrestles, and with in-the-moment, take the sword. In the art, In-the-moment does whatever your heart desires. In-the-moment is a sharp word; with it, any fencer who knows nothing of the word becomes hew. And the word "in-the-moment" is also<ref name="word-g"/> the key in which all of the art of fencing becomes unlocked.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 038v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 039r.png|1|lbl=39r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 038v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 039r.png|1|lbl=39r|p=1}}
Line 1,258: Line 1,267:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 013v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 013v.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[80] {{red|b=1|This is yet another play text and gloss about racing-after}}</p>
+
| <p>[81] {{red|b=1|This is yet another play text and gloss about racing-after}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,273: Line 1,282:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 014r.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 014r.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[81] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about running-over}}</p>
+
| <p>[82] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about running-over}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,293: Line 1,302:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 014v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 014v.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[82] <ref>D. "Item".</ref>{{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss: how one shall offset hews and thrusts}}</p>
+
| <p>[83] <ref>D. "Item".</ref>{{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss: how one shall offset hews and thrusts}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,314: Line 1,323:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 015r.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 015r.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[83] {{red|b=1|Yet another play from setting-aside}}</p>
+
| <p>[84] {{red|b=1|Yet another play from setting-aside}}</p>
  
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when you stand against him in the guard of the plow from the left side: if he then hews to the upper opening of your left side, then drive up with the sword, and wind<ref name="word-d"/> to the left side against his hew (such that the hilt is in front of your head), and step into him with your<ref name="the-d"/> right foot and stab him in the face (as stands pictured hereafter next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when you stand against him in the guard of the plow from the left side: if he then hews to the upper opening of your left side, then drive up with the sword, and wind<ref name="word-d"/> to the left side against his hew (such that the hilt is in front of your head), and step into him with your<ref name="the-d"/> right foot and stab him in the face (as stands pictured hereafter next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
Line 1,324: Line 1,333:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 015v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 015v.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[84] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about Changing-through}}</p>
+
| <p>[85] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about Changing-through}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,342: Line 1,351:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[85] Item. If he then becomes aware of the thrust and drives after it with the displacing, then but change-through to the other side.</p>
+
| <p>[86] Item. If he then becomes aware of the thrust and drives after it with the displacing, then but change-through to the other side.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 015v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 015v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 1,349: Line 1,358:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[86] {{red|b=1|Item. Another.}}</p>
+
| <p>[87] {{red|b=1|Item. Another.}}</p>
  
 
<p>As you come to him, set your left foot forward and hold the long [point] against his face. If he then hews to the sword (over or under) and will strike it away, allow your point to sink downwards and stab him to the other opening of the other side, and do that against all hews.</p>
 
<p>As you come to him, set your left foot forward and hold the long [point] against his face. If he then hews to the sword (over or under) and will strike it away, allow your point to sink downwards and stab him to the other opening of the other side, and do that against all hews.</p>
Line 1,359: Line 1,368:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 016r.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 016r.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[87] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about yanking}}</p>
+
| <p>[88] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about yanking}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>Or act as if you will yank and [then] remain upon the sword, and quickly thrust-in again upon the sword to the face. If you then do not quite hit him with the thrust, so work with the doubling or otherwise with other plays.</p>
+
| <p>[89] Or act as if you will yank and [then] remain upon the sword, and quickly thrust-in again upon the sword to the face. If you then do not quite hit him with the thrust, so work with the doubling or otherwise with other plays.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 016r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 016r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 016v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 016v.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[88] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about running-through}}</p>
+
| <p>[90] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about running-through}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-
 
|-
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 017r.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 017r.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[89] {{red|b=1|This is yet another play about running-through}}</p>
+
| <p>[91] {{red|b=1|This is yet another play about running-through}}</p>
  
<p>Item.<ref name="word-gr"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when he wishes to overpower you with strength by running-in with the sword high:<ref>R. "when in the running-in he also drives-up with the arms".</ref> so hold your sword with the left hand near the pommel and let the blade hang over your back.<ref name="back-r"/> Run-through with the head under his right arm, and remain with the right foot forward<ref name="word-dg"/> before his right and drive in<ref name="word-dr">Word omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.</ref> well behind him with the right arm around the body, and clasp him upon your right hip and throw him behind you (as stands pictured here).<ref name="word-g"/><ref name="clause-d"/></p>
+
<p>Item.<ref name="word-gr"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when he wishes to overpower you with strength by running-in with the sword high:<ref>R. "when in the running-in he also drives-up with the arms".</ref> so hold your sword with the left hand near the pommel and let the blade hang over your back.<ref name="back-r"/> Run-through with the head under his right arm, and remain with the right foot forward<ref name="word-dg"/> before his right and drive in<ref name="word-dr"/> well behind him with the right arm around the body, and clasp him upon your right hip and throw him behind you (as stands pictured here).<ref name="word-g"/><ref name="clause-d"/></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 042v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 042v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS E.1939.65.341|017r|jpg|lbl=17r}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS E.1939.65.341|017r|jpg|lbl=17r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[90] {{red|b=1|A wresting at the sword}}</p>
+
| <p>[92] {{red|b=1|A wresting at the sword}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item. When one runs-in to the other: so release your sword from the left hand and hold it with the right, and shove his sword from you to your right side with your hilt, and spring with the left foot in front of his right and drive him well back with your left arm around the body, and clasp him to your left hip and throw him in front of you.</p>
 
<p>Item. When one runs-in to the other: so release your sword from the left hand and hold it with the right, and shove his sword from you to your right side with your hilt, and spring with the left foot in front of his right and drive him well back with your left arm around the body, and clasp him to your left hip and throw him in front of you.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[91] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting at the sword}}</p>
+
| <p>[93] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting at the sword}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item. When one runs-in to the other: so release your sword from the left hand and hold it in the right, and shove his sword from you to your right side with the hilt, and spring with the left foot behind his right and drive him forward with the left arm under his chest (well around the body), and throw him backward over your foot.</p>
 
<p>Item. When one runs-in to the other: so release your sword from the left hand and hold it in the right, and shove his sword from you to your right side with the hilt, and spring with the left foot behind his right and drive him forward with the left arm under his chest (well around the body), and throw him backward over your foot.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 017v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 017v.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[92] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting at the sword}}</p>
+
| <p>[94] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting at the sword}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when you run-in with another: so release your sword from the left hand and hold it in the right, and drive him outside<ref name="word-g"/> with the pommel over his right arm and with that yank downwards, and seize his right elbow with the left hand<ref name="word-g"/> and spring with the left foot in front of his right, and back him thusly over the foot to your right side (as stands pictured next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when you run-in with another: so release your sword from the left hand and hold it in the right, and drive him outside<ref name="word-g"/> with the pommel over his right arm and with that yank downwards, and seize his right elbow with the left hand<ref name="word-g"/> and spring with the left foot in front of his right, and back him thusly over the foot to your right side (as stands pictured next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
Line 1,450: Line 1,459:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[93] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting at the sword}}<ref name="line-g">Line omitted from the Glasgow.</ref></p>
+
| <p>[95] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting at the sword}}<ref name="line-g">Line omitted from the Glasgow.</ref></p>
  
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when one runs-in to the other: so drive with the left arm<ref>D. "left hand inverted".</ref> over his right, and with that seize his<ref name="your-d">D. "your".</ref> right arm with an inverted hand<ref>"With an inverted hand" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and press his left<ref name="right-d"/> over your left with the<ref name="your-d"/> right arm, and spring with your<ref name="the-g"/> right foot behind his right and turn yourself away from him to your<ref name="his-g">G. "his".</ref> left side, and<ref name="word-d"/> thus you<ref>"Thus you" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> throw him over your<ref name="his-g"/> right hip (as stands pictured next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when one runs-in to the other: so drive with the left arm<ref>D. "left hand inverted".</ref> over his right, and with that seize his<ref name="your-d">D. "your".</ref> right arm with an inverted hand<ref>"With an inverted hand" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and press his left<ref name="right-d"/> over your left with the<ref name="your-d"/> right arm, and spring with your<ref name="the-g"/> right foot behind his right and turn yourself away from him to your<ref name="his-g">G. "his".</ref> left side, and<ref name="word-d"/> thus you<ref>"Thus you" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> throw him over your<ref name="his-g"/> right hip (as stands pictured next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
Line 1,463: Line 1,472:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[94] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting}}</p>
+
| <p>[96] {{red|b=1|Yet another wresting}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item. When someone runs-in at the sword, etc.: so let your sword fall and invert your right hand, and with that seize his right hand outside and clasp it near the right elbow with the left, and spring with the left foot in front of his right and shove his right arm over your left with the right hand, and with that lift it upwards; thus is he locked and thus [you] may break the arm, or throw him in front of you over the leg.</p>
 
<p>Item. When someone runs-in at the sword, etc.: so let your sword fall and invert your right hand, and with that seize his right hand outside and clasp it near the right elbow with the left, and spring with the left foot in front of his right and shove his right arm over your left with the right hand, and with that lift it upwards; thus is he locked and thus [you] may break the arm, or throw him in front of you over the leg.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[95] {{red|b=1|A sword taking}}<ref>D. "One other wrestling at the sword".</ref></p>
+
| <p>[97] {{red|b=1|A sword taking}}<ref>D. "One other wrestling at the sword".</ref></p>
  
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when one runs-in to the other: so invert your left hand and with that drive over his right arm, and with that seize his sword by the grip between both hands, and back to your left side (as stands pictured next to this);<ref name="clause-d"/> so you take the sword from him.<ref name="clause-g">Clause omitted from the Glasgow.</ref></p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when one runs-in to the other: so invert your left hand and with that drive over his right arm, and with that seize his sword by the grip between both hands, and back to your left side (as stands pictured next to this);<ref name="clause-d"/> so you take the sword from him.<ref name="clause-g">Clause omitted from the Glasgow.</ref></p>
Line 1,485: Line 1,494:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 019r.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 019r.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[96] {{red|b=1|This is yet another sword taking}}<ref>D. "A sword taking".</ref></p>
+
| <p>[98] {{red|b=1|This is yet another sword taking}}<ref>D. "A sword taking".</ref></p>
  
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when he binds on your sword (with displacing or otherwise): so seize both swords in the middle<ref name="word-d"/> of the blade with the left hand inverted<ref name="word-g"/> and hold them tightly together, and drive through below with the pommel with the right hand against the left side over both his hands, and with that back yourself upward to the right side. So you keep both swords (as stands pictured next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-g"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> when he binds on your sword (with displacing or otherwise): so seize both swords in the middle<ref name="word-d"/> of the blade with the left hand inverted<ref name="word-g"/> and hold them tightly together, and drive through below with the pommel with the right hand against the left side over both his hands, and with that back yourself upward to the right side. So you keep both swords (as stands pictured next to this).<ref name="clause-d"/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 019v.jpg|300px|center]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS E.1939.65.341 019v.jpg|300px|center]]
| <p>[97] {{red|b=1|This is the text and gloss about cutting-off}}</p>
+
| <p>[99] {{red|b=1|This is the text and gloss about cutting-off}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[98] {{red|b=1|Yet another cut}}</p>
+
| <p>[100] {{red|b=1|Yet another cut}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item. When you bind strongly on his sword (with a hew or otherwise): if he then allows his sword to snap-away from yours and strikes you above to the head, so twist your sword with the hilt in front of your head and cut-through his arm below, and with the cut, set the point below upon his chest.</p>
 
<p>Item. When you bind strongly on his sword (with a hew or otherwise): if he then allows his sword to snap-away from yours and strikes you above to the head, so twist your sword with the hilt in front of your head and cut-through his arm below, and with the cut, set the point below upon his chest.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[99] {{red|b=1|This is the over-cut}}<ref>D. "Yet another cut".</ref></p>
+
| <p>[101] {{red|b=1|This is the over-cut}}<ref>D. "Yet another cut".</ref></p>
  
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-r"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> conduct the cut thusly: when one binds on the sword against your left side, and<ref name="word-r"/> he then<ref>"He then" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> strikes around from the sword to the right side (with the thwart or otherwise),<ref name="clause-r"/> so spring from the hew with the left foot to his right side, and fall with the long edge above over both arms and press him from you (as stands pictured here).<ref>"And press… pictured here" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> Deploy this to both sides.<ref name="sentence-r"/></p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-r"/> Note,<ref name="word-d"/> conduct the cut thusly: when one binds on the sword against your left side, and<ref name="word-r"/> he then<ref>"He then" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> strikes around from the sword to the right side (with the thwart or otherwise),<ref name="clause-r"/> so spring from the hew with the left foot to his right side, and fall with the long edge above over both arms and press him from you (as stands pictured here).<ref>"And press… pictured here" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> Deploy this to both sides.<ref name="sentence-r"/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[100] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the transformation of the cut}}</p>
+
| <p>[102] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the transformation of the cut}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,548: Line 1,557:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[101] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the two hangings}}</p>
+
| <p>[103] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the two hangings}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,566: Line 1,575:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[102] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the speaking-window}}</p>
+
| <p>[104] {{red|b=1|This is the text and the gloss about the speaking-window}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,591: Line 1,600:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[103] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-a">Word omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> If he strikes-around from the sword with an over-hew to the other side, so bind-after<ref>''nachbinden'': "attach to the end or behind something".</ref> with the long edge<ref>"With the long edge" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> against<ref name="word-d"/> his hew with strength, above into the head.</p>
+
| <p>[105] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-a">Word omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> If he strikes-around from the sword with an over-hew to the other side, so bind-after<ref>''nachbinden'': "attach to the end or behind something".</ref> with the long edge<ref>"With the long edge" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> against<ref name="word-d"/> his hew with strength, above into the head.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|1|lbl=47v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|1|lbl=47v|p=1}}
Line 1,600: Line 1,609:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[104] Or<ref name="word-a"/> if he strikes-around from the sword<ref>"From the sword" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> with the thwart, so fall into his arms with the over-cut.</p>
+
| <p>[106] Or<ref name="word-a"/> if he strikes-around from the sword<ref>"From the sword" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> with the thwart, so fall into his arms with the over-cut.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 1,608: Line 1,617:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[105] Or<ref name="word-a"/> if he yanks his sword to himself and wishes to thrust you below, so race-after him upon the sword with the point,<ref>"With the point" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and set-upon him above.</p>
+
| <p>[107] Or<ref name="word-a"/> if he yanks his sword to himself and wishes to thrust you below, so race-after him upon the sword with the point,<ref>"With the point" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and set-upon him above.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[106] {{red|b=1|Item.<ref name="word-ag"/> Note,}}<ref>D. "or"; word omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> if he does not wish to withdraw<ref>''abziechen''.</ref> nor strike-around from the sword, so work upon the sword with the doubling (or otherwise with other plays) as you thereafter perceive the soft and the hard upon the sword.</p>
+
| <p>[108] {{red|b=1|Item.<ref name="word-ag"/> Note,}}<ref>D. "or"; word omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> if he does not wish to withdraw<ref>''abziechen''.</ref> nor strike-around from the sword, so work upon the sword with the doubling (or otherwise with other plays) as you thereafter perceive the soft and the hard upon the sword.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
Line 1,624: Line 1,633:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[107] {{red|b=1|Here note how you shall stand in the long-point and what plays you shall conduct from it}}</p>
+
| <p>[109] {{red|b=1|Here note how you shall stand in the long-point and what plays you shall conduct from it}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-dg"/> Note,<ref>D. ''Mörck Ee'': "Note, before".</ref> when you come just near<ref>"just near" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> to him with the onset: so set your left foot forward before when he binds you on the sword,<ref>"When he… the sword" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and hold your<ref>A., D. "the".</ref> point long with<ref name="word-ad"/> extended arms against the face or against<ref name="word-ad"/> the chest. If he then hews-in from above<ref>D. "hews from above to below".</ref> to your head, so wind against his hew with the sword and thrust into his face.</p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-dg"/> Note,<ref>D. ''Mörck Ee'': "Note, before".</ref> when you come just near<ref>"just near" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> to him with the onset: so set your left foot forward before when he binds you on the sword,<ref>"When he… the sword" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and hold your<ref>A., D. "the".</ref> point long with<ref name="word-ad"/> extended arms against the face or against<ref name="word-ad"/> the chest. If he then hews-in from above<ref>D. "hews from above to below".</ref> to your head, so wind against his hew with the sword and thrust into his face.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|1|lbl=124r|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|1|lbl=123r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 020v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,637: Line 1,646:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[108] Or if he hews from above to below, or from below up into the sword, and wishes to strike the point away, so change-through and thrust to the other opening or side.<ref>D. "to the other side to the opening".</ref></p>
+
| <p>[110] Or if he hews from above to below, or from below up into the sword, and wishes to strike the point away, so change-through and thrust to the other opening or side.<ref>D. "to the other side to the opening".</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,646: Line 1,655:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[109] Or if he hits your sword with strength with the hew, so allow your sword<ref>"Your sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> to snap-around, so you hit him in the head.</p>
+
| <p>[111] Or if he hits your sword with strength with the hew, so allow your sword<ref>"Your sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> to snap-around, so you hit him in the head.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 021r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 021r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 1,654: Line 1,663:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[110] {{red|b=1|Or}}<ref name="word-ad"/> if he runs-in, so conduct the cut or await<ref name="word-d"/> the wrestling.</p>
+
| <p>[112] {{red|b=1|Or}}<ref name="word-ad"/> if he runs-in, so conduct the cut or await<ref name="word-d"/> the wrestling.</p>
  
 
<p>'''Watch that it does not fail you.'''<ref name="sentence-ag">Sentence omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
 
<p>'''Watch that it does not fail you.'''<ref name="sentence-ag">Sentence omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
Line 1,664: Line 1,673:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[111] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the conclusion of the entire Recital}}</p>
+
| <p>[113] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the conclusion of the entire Recital}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,700: Line 1,709:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[112] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-ad"/> You shall also properly hang upon the sword and from the hangings you shall bring eight windings, and you shall also consider and properly estimate<ref>''wägen'': "to have weight, to lay on a scale, to estimate"; it has a bunch of other senses that are provocative to the action at hand, such as: "to poise, balance, to stir up or agitate, to incite a response", but there's not enough in the text to make it a defensible choice.</ref><ref>"And properly estimate" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> the windings, so that you know to conduct which one of the said three.</p>
+
| <p>[114] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-ad"/> You shall also properly hang upon the sword and from the hangings you shall bring eight windings, and you shall also consider and properly estimate<ref>''wägen'': "to have weight, to lay on a scale, to estimate"; it has a bunch of other senses that are provocative to the action at hand, such as: "to poise, balance, to stir up or agitate, to incite a response", but there's not enough in the text to make it a defensible choice.</ref><ref>"And properly estimate" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> the windings, so that you know to conduct which one of the said three.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 124r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 124r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 021r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 021r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
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|  
| <p>[113] {{red|b=1|Here note how you shall conduct the hangings and the windings}}</p>
+
| <p>[115] {{red|b=1|Here note how you shall conduct the hangings and the windings}}</p>
  
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-d"/> Understand it thusly: there are four bindings-on of the sword, two over and<ref name="word-a"/> two under. You shall only conduct two particular windings from each binding-on of the sword.<ref>"The sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-d"/> Understand it thusly: there are four bindings-on of the sword, two over and<ref name="word-a"/> two under. You shall only conduct two particular windings from each binding-on of the sword.<ref>"The sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[114] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-ad"/> Do<ref>D. "understand".</ref> it thusly: When you come to him with the onset,<ref name="clause-d"/> if he then binds-on to you above against your left side, so wind the short edge upon his sword and drive well up with the arms, and hang-in your point to him above and thrust into his face. If he displaces the thrust with strength,<ref>"With strength" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> allow your point to hang-in above upon the sword, and wind to your right side and thrust.<ref>"And thrust" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> These are two windings on one side of the<ref>"Of the" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> sword.</p>
+
| <p>[116] {{red|b=1|Item}}.<ref name="word-ad"/> Do<ref>D. "understand".</ref> it thusly: When you come to him with the onset,<ref name="clause-d"/> if he then binds-on to you above against your left side, so wind the short edge upon his sword and drive well up with the arms, and hang-in your point to him above and thrust into his face. If he displaces the thrust with strength,<ref>"With strength" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> allow your point to hang-in above upon the sword, and wind to your right side and thrust.<ref>"And thrust" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> These are two windings on one side of the<ref>"Of the" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> sword.</p>
 
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| <p>[115] {{red|b=1|Item.<ref name="word-ag"/> Or}}<ref name="word-a"/> if he binds-on above against your right side, wind the long edge upon his sword also against your right side and drive well up with the arms, and hang-in your point to him above, and thrust-in the point above<ref>"-In the point above" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> into his face. If he displaces the thrust with strength, allow your point to hang-in above upon the sword, and wind to your left side and thrust. These are four windings from the two over-bindings-on,<ref>A. "over-windings-upon".</ref> from<ref>A. "and".</ref> the left and from<ref name="word-g"/> the right sides.</p>
+
| <p>[117] {{red|b=1|Item.<ref name="word-ag"/> Or}}<ref name="word-a"/> if he binds-on above against your right side, wind the long edge upon his sword also against your right side and drive well up with the arms, and hang-in your point to him above, and thrust-in the point above<ref>"-In the point above" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> into his face. If he displaces the thrust with strength, allow your point to hang-in above upon the sword, and wind to your left side and thrust. These are four windings from the two over-bindings-on,<ref>A. "over-windings-upon".</ref> from<ref>A. "and".</ref> the left and from<ref name="word-g"/> the right sides.</p>
 
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| class="noline" |  
| <p>[116] {{red|b=1|Item.<ref name="word-a"/> Now you shall know}} that you shall also conduct four windings from the two under-bindings-on with all attacks, as from the over[-bindings-on]. Thus the windings, over and under, become eight. And<ref name="word-g"/> remember that you shall conduct one particular hew, or<ref name="word-ag"/> one<ref name="word-d"/> cut, or<ref>D. "and"; omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> one thrust, from each winding. And<ref name="word-ag"/> this is called the<ref name="word-ag"/> three wounders. From those, one can and shall<ref>"And shall" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> conduct them from the eight windings into twenty-four instances. And you shall properly learn to conduct the eight windings from both sides, so that you step in<ref>"You step towards" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> with each winding,<ref>D. "wounder".</ref> and you test his attack, no more than<ref name="word-ag"/> if he is soft or hard upon the sword. And when you have sensed these two things, conduct the play into the winding which is called for. Whenever you do not do this, you become struck by all windings.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[118] {{red|b=1|Item.<ref name="word-a"/> Now you shall know}} that you shall also conduct four windings from the two under-bindings-on with all attacks, as from the over[-bindings-on]. Thus the windings, over and under, become eight. And<ref name="word-g"/> remember that you shall conduct one particular hew, or<ref name="word-ag"/> one<ref name="word-d"/> cut, or<ref>D. "and"; omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> one thrust, from each winding. And<ref name="word-ag"/> this is called the<ref name="word-ag"/> three wounders. From those, one can and shall<ref>"And shall" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> conduct them from the eight windings into twenty-four instances. And you shall properly learn to conduct the eight windings from both sides, so that you step in<ref>"You step towards" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> with each winding,<ref>D. "wounder".</ref> and you test his attack, no more than<ref name="word-ag"/> if he is soft or hard upon the sword. And when you have sensed these two things, conduct the play into the winding which is called for. Whenever you do not do this, you become struck by all windings.</p>
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| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 021v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 014v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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|}
 
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Short Sword Gloss
 
  | title = Short Sword Gloss
  | width = 180em
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  | width = 150em
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="floated master" style="clear:right;"
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{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images</p>
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|Start|Verse}} by [[Mike Rasmusson]]<br/>{{rating|Start|Dresden Gloss}} by [[David Rawlings]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|Start|Verse}} by [[Mike Rasmusson]]<br/>{{rating|Start|Dresden Gloss}} by [[David Rawlings]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]] (1508){{edit index|Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna Transcription]] (1512){{edit index|Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]] (ca. 1570){{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]] (ca. 1570){{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna Transcription]] (1512){{edit index|Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
  
  
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
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<p>When you come in to fight him, then you should know, just as you should step in front or behind his leg, you should no longer need to step.</p>
 
<p>When you come in to fight him, then you should know, just as you should step in front or behind his leg, you should no longer need to step.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 091v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
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| <p>[12]</p>
 
| <p>[12]</p>
 
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| <p>[13] If he then jabs with the spear, drive high and parry the stab before your left hand with sword the on the left side, and spring to him and set the point on him. If this is not possible, then let your sword fall [drop it] and go over in the wrestle.</p>
 
| <p>[13] If he then jabs with the spear, drive high and parry the stab before your left hand with sword the on the left side, and spring to him and set the point on him. If this is not possible, then let your sword fall [drop it] and go over in the wrestle.</p>
 
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<p>When you stand in the lower guard, and he jabs above to you, and he holds the spear, so that the point in front broadly juts over the hands. Then strike his spear down to the side with your left hand , and spring to him setting the point on him.</p>
 
<p>When you stand in the lower guard, and he jabs above to you, and he holds the spear, so that the point in front broadly juts over the hands. Then strike his spear down to the side with your left hand , and spring to him setting the point on him.</p>
 
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| <p>[21] Grip his left hand with your left hand, just above the hand, and tear him to you. Strike your right arm strongly over his left arm (in the bend) and break it over your right using your left. Spring with your right foot behind his right and throw him over that.</p>
 
| <p>[21] Grip his left hand with your left hand, just above the hand, and tear him to you. Strike your right arm strongly over his left arm (in the bend) and break it over your right using your left. Spring with your right foot behind his right and throw him over that.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 095v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 096r.png|1|lbl=96r|p=1}}
 
 
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| <p>[22] When he drives through under your right arm with his left arm and wants to catch you around the body, then strike with your right arm strongly from above and outside into his left elbow joint and turn away from him.</p>
 
| <p>[22] When he drives through under your right arm with his left arm and wants to catch you around the body, then strike with your right arm strongly from above and outside into his left elbow joint and turn away from him.</p>
 
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| <p>[24] You will also thrust with the knee or foot into the testicles. But be aware that he does not catch your leg.</p>
 
| <p>[24] You will also thrust with the knee or foot into the testicles. But be aware that he does not catch your leg.</p>
 
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<p>Holding your sword with the right hand on the grip and the left in the middle of your sword, keeping it on your right side above your head and let the point hang down towards his face.</p>
 
<p>Holding your sword with the right hand on the grip and the left in the middle of your sword, keeping it on your right side above your head and let the point hang down towards his face.</p>
 
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| <p>[29] If he then stands in the lower guard and wants to stab you underneath, then stab down from above between the sword and his closest hand. Press the pommel underneath, wind the point on his sword under and through to his right side and set the point on him.</p>
 
| <p>[29] If he then stands in the lower guard and wants to stab you underneath, then stab down from above between the sword and his closest hand. Press the pommel underneath, wind the point on his sword under and through to his right side and set the point on him.</p>
 
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| <p>[30] Stab him in the face from the first guard. If he fends that off then jerk or go through with the point to the other side, just as before. When you have set the point against him then put your sword under your right armpit with the hilt on your breast and push him from you.</p>
 
| <p>[30] Stab him in the face from the first guard. If he fends that off then jerk or go through with the point to the other side, just as before. When you have set the point against him then put your sword under your right armpit with the hilt on your breast and push him from you.</p>
 
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| <p>[41] Note: Thrust to him strongly from the lower guard to the face. If he thrusts the same way to you, grasp his sword in the center to yours with your left hand inverted and hold the two swords fast together. And go through with the pommel under his sword, with the right arm jerking it over to your right side, so that you can take his sword.</p>
 
| <p>[41] Note: Thrust to him strongly from the lower guard to the face. If he thrusts the same way to you, grasp his sword in the center to yours with your left hand inverted and hold the two swords fast together. And go through with the pommel under his sword, with the right arm jerking it over to your right side, so that you can take his sword.</p>
 
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| <p>[43] Note: Thrust to his face from the lower guard while turning. If he displaces, yank and thrust to his face. If he displaces, move your pommel over his right shoulder and around his neck, jumping with your right foot behind his left, and tearing him over your leg with the pommel so that he falls.</p>
 
| <p>[43] Note: Thrust to his face from the lower guard while turning. If he displaces, yank and thrust to his face. If he displaces, move your pommel over his right shoulder and around his neck, jumping with your right foot behind his left, and tearing him over your leg with the pommel so that he falls.</p>
 
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| <p>[45] Note, you will also want to strike him from the lower guard, when he likewise has you.</p>
 
| <p>[45] Note, you will also want to strike him from the lower guard, when he likewise has you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
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|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|1|lbl=125v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|1|lbl=125v|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,329: Line 2,287:
 
| <p>[47] If he thrusts to your face from the upper guard, set the thrust aside to his right side with your sword in front of your left hand driving into the upper guard and setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| <p>[47] If he thrusts to your face from the upper guard, set the thrust aside to his right side with your sword in front of your left hand driving into the upper guard and setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,337: Line 2,294:
 
| <p>[48] Or drive up with the sword, displacing the thrust from above between your two hands. And drive with the pommel over his forward hand and with it jerk down; setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| <p>[48] Or drive up with the sword, displacing the thrust from above between your two hands. And drive with the pommel over his forward hand and with it jerk down; setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|3|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|1|lbl=100r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|1|lbl=100r}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>[49] Move the pommel over his forward hand and then back through, and jerk him down with it. You can also change through below with the pommel and set aside his thrust.</p>
 
| <p>[49] Move the pommel over his forward hand and then back through, and jerk him down with it. You can also change through below with the pommel and set aside his thrust.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|1|lbl=101r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|1|lbl=101r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,353: Line 2,309:
 
| <p>[50] Note, you wind and hereafter is described how you should do the third guard and how to strike your opponent with the pommel.</p>
 
| <p>[50] Note, you wind and hereafter is described how you should do the third guard and how to strike your opponent with the pommel.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,365: Line 2,320:
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|7|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|1|lbl=112v|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|7|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|1|lbl=112v|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,374: Line 2,328:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|1|lbl=101v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|1|lbl=101v|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,382: Line 2,335:
 
| <p>[53] When you have applied it and he has a longer reach than you, then push him thus from you, so that the point sticks out above and is set well into the rings of the chain mail.</p>
 
| <p>[53] When you have applied it and he has a longer reach than you, then push him thus from you, so that the point sticks out above and is set well into the rings of the chain mail.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|
 
|
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 +
|
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,391: Line 2,343:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,407: Line 2,358:
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|3|lbl=105v|p=1}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
Line 2,412: Line 2,364:
  
 
<p><br/><br/>{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|2|lbl=102r|p=1}}</p>
 
<p><br/><br/>{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|2|lbl=102r|p=1}}</p>
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|3|lbl=105v|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,422: Line 2,372:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,430: Line 2,379:
 
| <p>[57] You should therefore respect that in the fight/fence you take no more than a step towards or away from him. When he is faster than you and you can no longer set him aside, then go backwards one step only with your left foot and be aware that you can step back in with the left foot and set in again or seize him with the wrestle.</p>
 
| <p>[57] You should therefore respect that in the fight/fence you take no more than a step towards or away from him. When he is faster than you and you can no longer set him aside, then go backwards one step only with your left foot and be aware that you can step back in with the left foot and set in again or seize him with the wrestle.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,451: Line 2,399:
 
<p>You should use the travelling after against the strong fencer, that with outstretched arms, long reach fights. But otherwise possesses nothing else from the art.</p>
 
<p>You should use the travelling after against the strong fencer, that with outstretched arms, long reach fights. But otherwise possesses nothing else from the art.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|1|lbl=103v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|1|lbl=103v}}
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|1|lbl=106r}}
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|1|lbl=106r}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,462: Line 2,409:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104r.png|1|lbl=104r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|1|lbl=104v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104r.png|1|lbl=104r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|1|lbl=104v|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,477: Line 2,423:
 
<p>When he has set to you and pushes you back, then stab him in the palm of the hand, which holds the sword in the middle. When he the hands reversed, then stab up from below again in the same guard.</p>
 
<p>When he has set to you and pushes you back, then stab him in the palm of the hand, which holds the sword in the middle. When he the hands reversed, then stab up from below again in the same guard.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|1|lbl=101r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|1|lbl=101r}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,487: Line 2,432:
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|1|lbl=105r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|1|lbl=105r|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,495: Line 2,439:
 
| <p>[62] Or stab through over his forward hand and press down from above. Place your hilt on your breast and set to him.</p>
 
| <p>[62] Or stab through over his forward hand and press down from above. Place your hilt on your breast and set to him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,504: Line 2,447:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|1|lbl=105v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|1|lbl=105v|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,522: Line 2,464:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|1|lbl=106r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|1|lbl=106r|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}}<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}}<br/><br/>
  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|1|lbl=101v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|1|lbl=101v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,534: Line 2,475:
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|3|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,543: Line 2,483:
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|4|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,552: Line 2,491:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|2|lbl=100r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|2|lbl=100r|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,562: Line 2,500:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,570: Line 2,507:
 
| <p>[69] When you hold your sword on your right side in the lower guard, and he strikes with the pommel to your point, and takes it out wide. Then straight way jump near to him, so that he strikes over beyond you - at the same time you cannot pass - and set the point on him.</p>
 
| <p>[69] When you hold your sword on your right side in the lower guard, and he strikes with the pommel to your point, and takes it out wide. Then straight way jump near to him, so that he strikes over beyond you - at the same time you cannot pass - and set the point on him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,578: Line 2,514:
 
| <p>[70] You will always use travelling after and setting in, whilst he draws out with the pommel.</p>
 
| <p>[70] You will always use travelling after and setting in, whilst he draws out with the pommel.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,594: Line 2,529:
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|1|lbl=108r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|1|lbl=108r|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|1|lbl=100v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|1|lbl=100v}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
| <p>[72] Beware therefore if he strikes to your forward knee or forward hand and set him aside with the pieces described earlier so that he cannot hurt you.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[72] Beware therefore if he strikes to your forward knee or forward hand and set him aside with the pieces described earlier so that he cannot hurt you.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
== Temp ==
+
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Mounted Fencing Gloss
 
  | title = Mounted Fencing Gloss
 
  | width = 150em
 
  | width = 150em
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="floated master" style="clear:right;"
+
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images</p>
+
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating}}</p>
+
! <p>{{rating|c|Draft Translation (from the Glasgow)}}<br/>by [[Stephen Cheney]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]] (1508){{edit index|Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]] (1508){{edit index|Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
Line 2,623: Line 2,556:
 
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| <p>[1] <br/><br/></p>
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<p>{{red|Here begins Master Johannes Liechtenauer’s mounted fencing, which he has allowed to be written with obscure and disguised words, which is interpreted and glossed here in this book, so that any fencer may well hear it, if he can otherwise fence.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 109r.png|1|lbl=109r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 109r.png|1|lbl=109r}}
 
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/><br/></p>
Line 2,632: Line 2,567:
 
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| <p>[2] '''This is the text'''</p>
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{|class="zettel"
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|-
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| <small>1</small>
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| {{red|Direct your spear<br/>Against riding, make useless}}
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|}
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<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, this is when you have a lance, and another also has one, and wants to ride together with you, you shall therefore know to arrange yourself with your lance so that, with it, you divert<ref>Orignal: “ableyttest,” - “ableiten,” literally to lead away, also to derive, deduce, divert, drain, deflect, channel off.</ref> his and hit him with the stab, and he does not hit you, and you shall know to drive the plays with the lance from two guards, which will be named to you hereafter.</p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
Line 2,641: Line 2,582:
 
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| <p>[3] The 21st figure speaks about this: The strength in the wielding, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
Line 2,648: Line 2,589:
 
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| <p>[4] '''This is the text about the play from the first guard'''</p>
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{|class="zettel"
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|-
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| <small>2</small>
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| {{red|If it recommends<br/>Your end to him, unbuckle}}
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|}
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<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, this is the play from the first guard: When you ride together with him, hold your lance under the arm to the stab, and when it comes to the meeting,<ref>“Zu dem treffen,” could be in the sense of the two fencers meeting each other, or one lance connecting to the other, or a lance landing a hit. Context indicates that it is the first for this one.</ref> do as if it is too heavy for you, and let it sink with the point low forward against your left side. If he then rides upon you with a stab, raise up your lance upwards with strength at his, so you hit him, and he does not hit you, because his lance goes away next to the side.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 109v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110r.png|1|lbl=110r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 109v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110r.png|1|lbl=110r|p=1}}
Line 2,656: Line 2,603:
 
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| <p>[5] The first figure speaks about this: Hunt from the chest, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 2,663: Line 2,610:
 
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| <p>[6] {{red|b=1|This is the play from the second guard}}</p>
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<p>Note, when you ride together with him, hold your lance with both hands in the middle in front of you athwart on the saddle bow. If he then rides upon you with a stab, then strike his lance away with the front part of your lance onto your right side from you, and wind your lance with it under your right arm, so you hit him and he does not hit you.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110v.png|1|lbl=110v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110v.png|1|lbl=110v|p=1}}
Line 2,671: Line 2,620:
 
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| <p>[7] The 17th figure speaks about this: Hunt to the, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
Line 2,678: Line 2,627:
 
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| <p>[8] '''This is the text'''</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110v.png|2|lbl=-}}
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{|class="zettel"
|  
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|-  
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| <small>3</small>
 
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| {{red|Hew in, don’t draw<br/>From scabbard jolt to him left}}
 
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| <small>4</small>
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| {{red|Grip to his right<br/>So you catch him without fencing}}
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|}
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<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is if both fail with the lance while riding, let yours fall from your hand, and draw neither sword nor knife, and ride to him, and turn yourself with your left side to his right, and drive the wrestles described hereafter:</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
 
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111r.png|1|lbl=111r|p=1}}
 
 
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{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|1|lbl=76r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|1|lbl=76r|p=1}}
Line 2,697: Line 2,644:
 
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| <p>[9] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you come with the left side at his right, if he then grips at you with the right hand forward and wants to wrestle, grip his right arm forward by the hand with your right, and drive the unnamed hold, or the secret.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111r.png|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>[10] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if he has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, grip his right elbow with the left hand, and shove him from you with it, and raise his right foot with your left foot, so he falls.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111v.png|1|lbl=111v}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
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Line 2,713: Line 2,658:
 
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| <p>[11] Or, when you have gripped his right elbow with the left hand, grip his sword pommel with the right, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112r.png|1|lbl=112r|p=1}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
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Line 2,721: Line 2,665:
 
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| <p>[12] {{red|b=1|Here note another}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
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<p>This is if you may not come to his right side with the left side, hold yourself with the right at his right. If he then grips to you with wrestling, drive the sheep hold,<ref>“Schaff griff,” the translation “sheep hold” is not conclusive, it may also refer to a type of water carrier that is held in a similar way to the hold. It may also be related to how one would carry a sheep when shearing or otherwise.</ref> or the sun showing.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112v.png|1|lbl=112v|p=1}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
  
Line 2,736: Line 2,674:
 
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| <p>[13] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you come with your right side at his right, if he then has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, then move with your right arm down from above outwards over his right, and press the arm to the right side, and ride forward, so you take his sword, or rise with the right arm from inwards over his right, and press the arm forward to your chest, and ride forward, so you again take his sword.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113r.png|1|lbl=113r|p=1}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
 
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| <p>[14] The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand…</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
Line 2,753: Line 2,688:
 
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|-  
 
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| <p>[15] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Grip his right hand with your left and jolt it in front of your chest, and turn your horse from him, so he falls.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|1|lbl=76v}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113v.png|1|lbl=113v|p=1}}
 
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 +
| <p>[16] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, grip his right elbow with the right hand, and raise his right foot with your right foot, so he must fall.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113v.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|1|lbl=76v}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>[17] The second figure speaks about this: Turn around with the horse, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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|-  
 
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| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113v.png|3|lbl=-}}
+
{|class="zettel"
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <small>5</small>
 +
| {{red|The lance stabbing, fencing<br/>Learn to break moderately without hurry}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} When someone rides upon you with a lance, you shall quite moderately<ref>Original: “sytigklich,” or “sittiglich,” at the time meant “moderately” in the sense of slowly or not too fast, modern “sittlich” means morally or ethically.</ref> ride against him, and with hurrying with the horse, so you may make all of his ridings upon you worthless with the previously written plays.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114r.png|1|lbl=114r}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
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Line 2,791: Line 2,722:
 
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 +
| <p>[19] Or, when you hurry or run, you can’t come to the art or to the play, and are similarly insecure on the horse.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114v.png|1|lbl=114v|p=1}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
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Line 2,799: Line 2,729:
 
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 +
| <p>[20] The 22nd figure speaks about this: This is now the spear, run, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
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Line 2,806: Line 2,736:
 
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 +
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the tasset<ref>Original: “taschn haw.” A “tasset” is a piece of armor that covers the side of the thigh. It is possible that the last part of this hew aims for a gap in the armor on the back of the leg. This translation is not conclusive.</ref> hew}}</p>
 +
{|class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>6</small>
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| {{red|If it converts itself<br/>So that sword will be dealt against sword}}
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|-
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| <small>7</small>
 +
| {{red|Correctly grasp the strong<br/>You search and note the tasset hew}}
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|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is if you both have come from the lance, and shall fence with swords, lay your sword on<ref>Original: “auß,” however the Dresden version says “vff” here, and “aus” does not make sense.</ref> the left arm in the guard, and ride directly to him under eyes to his right side. If he then hews an over hew upon you, rise with the sword and parry the hew strongly with the long edge, and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and rises high, hew with the long edge to the left hand, or to the reins,<ref>“Zawm,” - “zaum,” literally “bridle,” context continually indicates that they are talking about the reins.</ref> and if the horse tricks you,<ref>Original: “ob dich das roß vertrueg,” literally “if the horse make a fool out of you.” Likely means something like if the horse moves in a way that you don’t expect, or if the horse runs away while you’re trying to do something.</ref> then hew him to the right leg in the running away.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 115v.png|1|lbl=115v}}
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
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 +
| <p>[22] The 7th figure speaks about this: Here begins, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 115v.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
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 +
| <p>[23] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 +
{|class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>8</small>
 +
| {{red|Learn to compel<ref>Original: “schütten”.</ref> well strong<br/>All hits without danger, distress him with it}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>9</small>
 +
| {{red|Plant without danger<br/>Whoever brushes, hang to his hair}}
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|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, that is, that you always shall bind on artfully with the sword, be it with hews or with stabs, and don’t withdraw yourself from the sword, and force him with the point to the plays written hereafter.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|1|lbl=77r}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 115v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|1|lbl=116r|p=1}}
 
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 +
| <p>[24] The 20th figure speaks about this: Compel against, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
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 +
| <p>[25] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Assess if you may plant to him with the sword. If he parries onto his left side and rides to you, rise with the pommel from below, through his sword, around his neck, and come with the left to the pommel to help, and jolt him to you onto the side.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|3|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
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 +
| <p>[26] The 6th figure speaks about this: Grip at with both hands, etc.</p>
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116v.png|1|lbl=116v|p=1}}
 
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 +
| <p>[27] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When he parries your hew, move with your crossguard<ref>Original: “gehultz,” could be modernized to “hilt,” which is a term that could mean multiple parts of the sword today, but they are talking about the crossguard.</ref> under [his] jawbone, and grip him with the left hand by the helmet, and pull to yourself with it, and shove<ref>“Stoss,” could also mean push, strike, or bash.</ref> from you with the crossguard, so he falls.</p>
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117r.png|1|lbl=117r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
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 +
| <p>[28] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he parries your hew or stab, and hurries to you, grip his right hand with the left, and with the right, set your point into his face.</p>
 
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|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117r.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>[29] The 8th figure speaks about this: Turn the right hand to him, etc.</p>
 
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|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117v.png|1|lbl=117v}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|1|lbl=77r}}
 
 
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|-  
 
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 +
| <p>[30] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he parries your over hew with the lateral,<ref>“Twer,” also often translated as thwart, cross, crosswise.</ref> rise high with the right hand, and [hang]<ref>The verb is missing in this sentence, in the Dresden version “heng” (hang) is used here.</ref> with the point over top of his sword to his face or chest, and plant to him.</p>
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
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 +
| <p>[31] The 4th figure speaks about this: Plant high, swing, etc.</p>
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|1|lbl=118r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
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+
| <p>[32] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
{| class="zettel"
|  
+
|-  
|  
+
| <small>10</small>
 
+
| {{red|If you want to touch<br/>Long hunting, that severely hurts}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>11</small>
 +
| {{red|Whoever wards that<br/>So wind that, also hurts}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <small>12</small>
 +
| {{red|If he will continue it<br/>Catch reins, and let the bit guard}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Hold your sword next to your right leg in the guard, and ride to him as such, and stab him to the face with long outstretched arm. If he parries the stab, rise with the right hand and wind at the sword, and remain with the point in front of his face.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|10|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|1|lbl=77v|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[33] The 4th speaks about this: Plant high, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118v.png|2|lbl=118v}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[34] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he then parries with the sword and hurries to you, rise with your hand inwards over his right arm, and grip your reins with left inverted hand under his arm, therefore you engulf<ref>“Verschlingst” - “verschlingen,” to devour, engulf, scarf, etc.</ref> his hand with the reins.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|3|lbl=118r}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[35] The 10th figure speaks: Press firm, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118v.png|1|lbl=118v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| <p>[36] {{red|b=1|Here note the set-asides with the sword on horseback}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119r.png|1|lbl=119r}}
+
<p>Note, when you ride to the man, and have your sword in a guard, note to which side he hews to you. If he hews to you from above to your left side, wind also onto your left side against his hew. Or, if he hews to you to your right side, wind also onto your right, so that your thumb always comes under, and with the parry, always set the point into his face, and drive this out against the lance also as such.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[37] The 19th figure speaks about this: Plant the point, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|1|lbl=119v|p=1}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[38] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When he parries your hew,<ref>Unclear, could be “when he hews in to you, parry…” Unclear because “hawt” is used instead of “haw,” also the construction of the sentence is not typical. The Dresden version is much clearer that you are the one hewing in and he is parrying.</ref> if he then remains by you as such, move with the pommel outside over top of his right hand, and shove the hand in front of you with the crossguard to your saddle bow, and with your left, grip his sword’s pommel, and ride forward, so you take his sword.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[39] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>13</small>
 +
| {{red|Think about the opening<br/>Search for knife, don’t ward pommel}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is when you shall fence with someone in armor, you shall, before all cases, know to which side you may best defeat him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|3|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|1|lbl=78r}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[40] {{red|b=1|Item:}} That is, under the face, or under the armpit, or outwards on the hand in the glove, or inwards into the hand of the palm, and in all joints of the armor at arms and at legs, and search for all the openings with stabs, and not with strikes.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120r.png|1|lbl=120r|p=1}}
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[41] And if you may not quite work with the sword, when you come too near to him, work with the dagger, and if you may not come to your dagger, then assess if you may take his, and work with it to the opening.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120v.png|2|lbl=120v}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|10|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|1|lbl=77v|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[42] The 11th figure speaks: Search for the opening, arm, leather, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[43] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>14</small>
 +
| {{red|Learn two sweeps<br/>With empty hand against the weapons}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} That is, that you, before all cases, shall know and learn to take, how you shall work with free hand on horseback, and most importantly<ref>“Zu vor auß,” in the sense of bringing something to the forefront.</ref> with the wrestling. Therefore, you shall address the reins as such, so that you may shift from one hand to the other, and therefore search for your advantage with it, and that is the greatest art on horseback.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[44] The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand, learn, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[45] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the sheep hold}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>15</small>
 +
| {{red|The sheep hold teaches<br/>Whoever turns themselves wrestling to you}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>16</small>
 +
| {{red|As under eyes<br/>Grip him correctly with striking}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is the best wrestling of one on horseback, drive it as follows: When you want to wrestle, ride equally to the man under eyes to his right side, and engage him with wrestling. If he then attacks<ref>Engages - “greyff… an,” (angreiffen), attacks - “velt… an” (anfallen), these words have roughly the same meaning. You are both engaging in wrestling against each other.</ref> against you, grip his right arm forward by the hand with your left inverted hand, and jolt it under your chest, and move over it with your right arm, and grip the saddle bow with it, and ride forward, so he must fall.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| <p><br/></p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121r.png|1|lbl=121r|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|1|lbl=78v}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[46] The 13th figure speaks about this: The sheep hold wards…</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121r.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[47] {{red|b=1|This is the text about wrestling}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>17</small>
 +
| {{red|Whoever attacks you<br/>Against riding, he will be joined}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>18</small>
 +
| {{red|Hanging to the earth<br/>Over grip him correctly with conduct}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} That is, when you ride together with someone, if he then comes with his right side to yours, and falls with the right arm forward into your neck, move also around his as such, and move with the left hand behind around him, and come with it to your right to help, and jolt him to you onto the side, or strike your right arm above over his right, and throw him with the sheep hold.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120r.png|2|lbl=120r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120v.png|1|lbl=120v|p=1}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[48] {{red|b=1|Another}}<ref>“Aliud,” Latin.</ref></p>
 +
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} When you ride together with someone, if he then comes with his left side to your right, and if he falls with the left hand behind around your neck, rise with the right arm behind you strong over his left, and come with the left hand to the right hand to help, and press his left arm to him tight behind into your nape. If he then swerves with the arm, grip his left hand with the left, and drive the unnamed hold, or the forbidden hold.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121r.png|3|lbl=121r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121v.png|1|lbl=121v|p=1}}
 
|
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[49] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if he grips behind around with the left hand and wants to wrestle, strike with the right arm outwards strong down from above into the joint of his left arm, and ride forward.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|1|lbl=78r}}
+
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|1|lbl=79r|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[50] The 26th figure: Over grip, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[51] {{red|b=1|This is the text about a lesson}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>19</small>
 +
| {{red|To both sides<br/>You learn all ridings against him}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} That is, to whichever side you come to the man, you shall hold yourself near to him, and drive the art as follows: If you come upon him with your right side, drive the previous plays, which pertain to the right side. Or, if you come upon him with the left side, drive also what pertains to the left side, so he may not come to his plays.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[52] {{red|b=1|This is the text to the left side}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>20</small>
 +
| {{red|If you want to ride<br/>Horse runs to the other side}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>21</small>
 +
| {{red|Compel the strong<br/>Plant with it, distress}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>22</small>
 +
| {{red|In weapon which is valuable to you<br/>Wide sword, catch, carry, near the hand hate}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} That is, if you want to ride to someone to his left side, you shall also bind on strong with the sword, be it with hewing or with stabbing, and always aim for the openings with the point, as you have done to the right side. With it, you force him to the plays which pertain to the left side, because there are several plays which one drives to the left side, which one cannot drive to the right.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[53] The fifth figure speaks about this: The compelling, going before all, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[54] {{red|b=1|Item:}} That is, when you ride to him to the left side, hew in an over hew strong. If he then also hews in strong and wants to plant to you, you shall parry him while he is far from you with the sword. Or, if he comes near to you, grip his right hand with your left.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[55] The 16th figure speaks: Catch the weapon, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
  
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|1|lbl=78v}}
+
|-
 
|  
 
|  
 
+
| <p>[56] {{red|b=1|This is the text about a lesson}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>23</small>
 +
| {{red|Or turn around<br/>Rested, defended to hunting}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <small>24</small>
 +
| {{red|With all arts<br/>He hunts, he sends as is good}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} That is, if your horse carries you away in front of him, so that you can drive no play upon him, turn yourself to him to the side, there you may best drive the advantage.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|1|lbl=79v}}
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[57] The 14th figure speaks about this: In the length, turn around, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[58] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>25</small>
 +
| {{red|If you pass<br/>And go left against your will}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>26</small>
 +
| {{red|Touch upon your sword<br/>And wrestle, strike, not firmly}}
 +
|}
 +
Gloss: That is, if your horse tricks you, or how that happened, that you must ride to his left side against your will, lay your sword upon the left arm. If he then hews to the head, rise with the sword, and parry with the long edge. If you then come near to him with the parry, then move with the left arm over his right hand, and press it firmly as such into your left side, and bash him with the pommel under the face.
 +
</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[59] The 18th figure speaks about this: If you hunt left, fall upon it, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|1|lbl=79r|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[60] {{red|b=1|Note}}</p>
 +
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Or,}} when you press his right arm into his<ref>Likely an error intending “your,” as it is in the previous passage.</ref> left side, and ride away next to him, you take his sword. You may also catch with the reins into the hand with the move-over if you want.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[61] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you parry his over hew as is written before, hew in a free over hew above to the head.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[62] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you have your sword on the left arm in the guard, if one then rides upon you with a lance to your left side, rise well with the pommel and let the blade hang to the left side, and set aside his lance with it as such, and hew to his head, or plant to him. Or, if he rides to you with the lance to your right side, sweep straight up with the sword to his lance, and wind into the over hanging, and plant to him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
+
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|7|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|1|lbl=80r|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[63] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>27</small>
 +
| {{red|Hunt one to the right<br/>Half turn around, ward fencing}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>28</small>
 +
| {{red|Catching with arm<br/>So may no harm near you}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} That is, if you become forced to flee, and you were armed,<ref>“Gewappent,” - “gewappnet,” wearing armor.</ref> and have nothing but a sword, and and then one plants with the lance behind to your right side, turn yourself out of the stab against him upon your left side, and turn yourself with the sword against his lance, and plant to him. Or, if he plants to you behind to your left side, turn yourself onto your right against him, and wind with the sword as before, and plant to him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[64] The 24th figure speaks about this: If one hunts you from both sides, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[65] {{red|b=1|Item:}} While you flee, you shall also know to nimbly turn yourself around in the saddle from one side to the other, and stab behind you, and set-aside sword and lance to both sides.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[66] {{red|b=1|Note a nimbleness with the lance}}</p>
 +
 +
<p>When you are hunted,<ref>“Jagen,” to hunt, seems to mean when someone is riding behind another, rather than “gleich” (equally) or “zusammen” (together), when both riders ride toward one another.</ref> and have a lance, if someone hunts towards you, and also has one, hold your lance with the right hand on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is nearly behind at you, raise the lance over the head upon your left shoulder, and let your point remain behind you, and turn yourself against him upon your left side, and strike your lance with it under the arm, so you come equally with him under the eyes.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|1|lbl=79v}}
+
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|1|lbl=80v|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[67] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>29</small>
 +
| {{red|The knife taking<br/>Learn to hold without shame}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Here note, how [you] shall take his sword or his knife or the dagger: Ride to his right side, and search for the opening, however you may, with hew or with stab. If he parries and comes near to you, grab his right arm behind his right hand with your left inverted hand, and jolt it in front of you, and hold him firmly by it, and bend  your left arm outwards at the handle of his sword, so he must drop his sword.<ref>“Muß er das swert fallñ lassñ,” literally “he must let the sword fall.”</ref> And when you hold him by the arm as such, you may strike him with the sword, or throw him with the sheep hold.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[68] The 25th figure speaks about this: The knife taking, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[69] {{red|b=1|This is about the unnamed hold}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>30</small>
 +
| {{red|The unnamed<br/>Turn the strong, they stab}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>31</small>
 +
| {{red|They strike<br/>Destroyed without any reach}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, this is the unnamed hold: When you come to him with the left side, if he then has drawn his weapon and wants to strike you, or grabs you with the right hand in front with wrestling, grab his right arm with your right hand in front by the hand, and jolt it under your chest, and lie yourself upon it with the body, and ride forward, so you break his arm.</p>
 
|  
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
+
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|1|lbl=81r|p=1}}
 
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 +
| <p>[70] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If you don’t want to break the arm, when you have jolted him in front of your chest, grab his right elbow with your left hand, and shove him from you with it, and grab his sword by the pommel with your right hand, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.</p>
 
|  
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[71] The 23rd figure speaks about this: The unnamed hold, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[72] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the sun showing}}</p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>32</small>
 +
| {{red|If you want to grapple<br/>You shall not allow riding next to you}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>33</small>
 +
| {{red|The sun showing<br/>If you want to bend the left arm}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>34</small>
 +
| {{red|The front head touches<br/>Against after press very firmly}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>35</small>
 +
| {{red|So that he sinks himself<br/>And rarely lengthens again on}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, this is the best wrestling of one on horseback. When you ride together with him, if you then come with your right side to his right, hold yourself near to him, and grip behind around him with your left hand, and grab him with it by his left arm, and pull it tight around to you, and with your right hand, grip him below at his jawbone, and shove it firmly at you, upwards up, against his left side, so you turn his face against the sun. With it, you win his momentum, so that he may not hold himself.</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
 
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+
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|1|lbl=81v|p=1}}
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|7|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|1|lbl=80r|p=1}}
 
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
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 +
| <p>[73] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if you come with the left side to his right, grab him as before, and throw him behind you onto your left side, and that wrestle is called the sun showing.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[74] The 15th figure speaks about this: In the after, catch the hand, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[75] </p>
 +
{| class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>36</small>
 +
| {{red|Whoever aims that<br/>Grip over, then he will be shamed}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>37</small>
 +
| {{red|Press arm to head<br/>The grip has often robbed saddle}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Here note, this is the break against the sun showing. If someone comes with his right side to your right and wants to throw you with the sun showing, note when he grabs you with the right hand at the jawbone, then strike the right arm over his right, and jolt it firmly to your chest, and lie yourself upon it with the body, and ride forwards, so you throw him, or throw him with the sheep hold.</p>
 
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|  
|  
+
| <p><br/></p>
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
+
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
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 +
| <p>[76] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he comes with his left side to your right and grabs with his left hand behind around you towards your left arm, rise from below backward over his left arm and press him tight behind in the nape. If he then weasels away with the arm, grab his left hand with the left hand, and throw him with the unnamed hold.</p>
 
|  
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|1|lbl=80v|p=1}}
 
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
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 +
| <p>[77] The fourth figure speaks about this: Whoever wards the stab, catch to him, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
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+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
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+
| <p>[78] {{red|b=1|Another text}}</p>
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{| class="zettel"
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
+
|-
|
+
| <small>38</small>
 
+
| {{red|Yet if you want to moderate<ref>Original: “dich massen,” to measure or moderate yourself, different original word from “moderately” early in the text, which was translated from “sittiglich.”</ref> yourself<br/>Of the catching, light letting go from you}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| <small>39</small>
 +
| {{red|Then lead wrestling<br/>Caught without laces}}<ref>Original: “schünre,” translated as “schnüre,” meaning “laces” or “cords.”</ref>
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, this is called the secret wrestle, if you want to make it common, and allow to be evidently seen, drive it as follows: Ride with your left side at his right. If he grips you in front with wrestling, with your right hand, grip his right arm in front by the hand, and jolt it forward, and with the left hand, grip his right elbow, and shove it upwards, and shove his right arm above over the left arm with the right hand, and raise his right arm upwards as such with the left arm. Therefore you have caught him and bound without any bind, and drive this to both sides.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
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{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|1|lbl=81r|p=1}}
 
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{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 082r.jpg|1|lbl=82r}}
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
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|-  
 
|-  
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| class="noline" |  
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| class="noline" | <p>[79] </p>
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{| class="zettel"
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
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|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| <small>40</small>
|  
+
| {{red|Note the before-hold<br/>It continually breaks his strength}}
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+
|}
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+
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} That is, you shall always come before, sooner than he, with the grappling and wrestling which you have heard, and most importantly with the four chief wrestles,<ref>“vier haubt ringñ”</ref> with which you let him come to no plays, that is the sheep hold, the unnamed hold, the sun showing, and the secret hold, and of the catches with the reins, you shall not forget with, and when you can do the wrestles well, no one may throw you hard from the horse without harm.</p>
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|1|lbl=81v|p=1}}
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| class="noline" |  
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| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
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{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 082r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
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{{master end}}
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
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{{master begin
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  | title = Copyright and License Summary
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  | width = 100%
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}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
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For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the [[Talk:{{PAGENAME}}|discussion page]].
|  
 
  
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<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
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{{sourcebox
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| work        = [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Illustrations]]
|
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| authors    = Unknown
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
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| source link =
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  | source title=  
 
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  | license    = public domain
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 082r.jpg|1|lbl=82r}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 082r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
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{{master end}}
 
 
 
Apart from the glosses, a brief text covering long sword fencing from a low guard called [[iron gate]] or [[side guard]] is also typically attributed to Ringeck. This is less certain, since this text also appears in [[Andre Paurñfeyndt]]'s 1516 work ''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'', which was published within a decade of the creation of both of the extant manuscript copies. As Paurñfeyndt includes the entire section and no other material associated with Ringeck, it is entirely possible that Paurñfeyndt was the original author of this text, or that both Paurñfeyndt and the scribes of the Dresden and Glasgow manuscripts were copying from an unknown third source.
 
 
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Additional Long Sword Teachings
 
  | width = 174em
 
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="floated master" style="clear:right;"
+
{{sourcebox
|-
+
| work        = Translation (Long Sword)
! id="thin" | <p>Images</p>
+
| authors    = [[Christian Trosclair]]
! <p>{{rating|C}}<br/>by [[Christian Trosclair]]</p>
+
| source link =
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
| source title= Wiktenauer
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]] (1508){{edit index|Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
| license    = noncommercial
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]] (ca. 1570){{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
}}
! <p>''[[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey]]'' (1516)<br/> by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
{{sourcebox
 
+
| work        = Translation (Short Sword)
|-
+
| authors    = [[David Rawlings]]
|  
+
| source link =
| <p>[1] {{red|b=1|Here note how one shall fence with the long sword from the guard which is called the iron-gate [or] side-guard,<ref>D. ''nebenhůtten'': "side-guard"; G. '' Eysenen pfort'', "iron-gate"; P. uses both interchangeably in this section.</ref> and how one shall execute the sweeps<ref>''streichn''.</ref> from it. For there are many good plays which come from this, which many masters of the sword know nothing to speak about them.}}<ref>D. "Here note to fence from the side-guards, that is, also the sweeps"; P. "Play in the sweeping-upon".</ref></p>
+
| source title= Document circulated online
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049r.png|1|lbl=49r}}
+
| license    = copyrighted
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|1|lbl=22v}}
+
}}
|  
+
{{sourcebox
| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[D4r]</small> '''STVCK ym auftreichñ'''</p>
+
| work        = Translation (Mounted)
 
+
| authors    = [[Stephen Cheney]]
|-
+
| source link =
|
+
| source title= Wiktenauer
| <p>[2] Know that [there] is good fencing from the sweeps, although<ref>''wiewohl''.</ref> they are not named in the Recital. Yet the plays from the Recital arise when one fences from them. And one shall execute the sweeps from the left side, because when they are from the right they are not as certain as from the left.<ref>G. "Item. Know that one shall execute the sweeps from the iron-gate from the left side because it is not as certain from the right."</ref></p>
+
| license    = copyrighted
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049r.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
+
{{sourcebox
|
+
| work        = [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|Salzburg Fragments]]
|
+
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
+
| source link =
|-
+
| source title= [[Index:Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)]]
| [[File:Paurñfeyndt 6.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| license    = copyrighted
| <p>[3] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p">Word omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> Execute the first play thusly}}:<ref name="clause-dp">Clause omitted from the Dresden and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> when you lay in the side-guard to your left side and someone cleaves-in to you downward from above,<ref>P. "from his right shoulder".</ref> so firmly sweep onto his sword with the short edge. If he holds<ref>''wiederhalten'': lit. "hold against"; "to withstand, resist".</ref> strongly against [it] and is not too high with the hands, double-in<ref>''einduplieren''.</ref> with the short edge (between him and his sword) on the left side to his neck.<ref name="ear-p">P. "ear".</ref></p>
+
}}
|  
+
{{sourcebox
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049v.png|1|lbl=49v|p=1}}
+
| work        = [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]]
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
+
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
|
+
| source link =
| <p>Wan du leist yn der nebñ huet auf deiner linckñ seitñ&nbsp;/ vud ainer haut auf dich ain oberhau von seiner rechten axel so streich von vndñ auf vast yn sein schwert mit der kurczñ scneid&nbsp;/ helt er starck wider vñ ist nit hoch mit den hendñ&nbsp;/ so duplier czwischñ dem man vñ seinem schwert ein&nbsp;/ mit der kurczen schneid czu seinem lincken or</p>
+
| source title= [[Index:Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)]]
 
+
| license    = copyrighted
|-
+
}}
|
+
{{sourcebox
| <p>[4] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When one sweeps}}-on to the sword {{red|as before}},<ref>"As before" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> if he holds strongly against, so strike-around quickly<ref>"-Around quickly" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> with the thwart-cut to his left side, and double-in again<ref name="word-g"/> to his right side, between the man and the<ref>"The man and the sword" replaced by "his" in ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> sword, with the long edge on his<ref name="the-g"/> neck.<ref name="ear-p"/></p>
+
| work        = [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]]
|
+
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
+
| source link =  
|
+
| source title= [[Index:Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)]]
| <p>Wan du auff streichst an sein schwert helt er starck wider&nbsp;/ so sclach mit der twer seine lin/cken seittñ&nbsp;/ vnd duplier aber czwischñ seinem schwert vñ sclach czu seinem rechtñ or mit der langen schneidt</p>
+
| license    = copyrighted
 +
}}
 +
{{sourcebox
 +
| work        = [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg Fragments]]
 +
| authors    = [[Werner Ueberschär]]
 +
| source link =  
 +
| source title= [[Index:Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)]]
 +
| license    = noncommercial
 +
}}
 +
{{sourcebox
 +
| work        = [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]]
 +
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 +
| source link =  
 +
| source title= [[Index:Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)]]
 +
| license    = copyrighted
 +
}}
 +
{{sourcebox footer}}<section end="sourcebox"/>
 +
{{master end}}
  
|-
+
== Additional Resources ==
|
 
| <p>[5] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you sweep underneath<ref name="word-d"/> onto his sword}} as before, and<ref name="word-dg"/> if he is then soft upon the sword and low with the hands,<ref>"And low with the hands" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> so cleave-in straight<ref>"-In straight" omitted from the Dresden and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> above with the long edge to the opening at hand.<ref>"At hand" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wen du vndñ auf streichst an sein schwert vnd ist er waich am schwert vñ nider mit den hendñ so hav ym mit der langñ schneid obñ nach der pleß</p>
 
  
|-  
+
* [[Stephen Cheney|Cheney, Stephen]]. ''Ringeck &middot; Danzig &middot; Lew Longsword''. Self-published, 2020. ISBN 978-8649845441
|  
+
* [[David Lindholm|Lindholm, David]] and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword''. Boulder, CO: [[Paladin Press]], 2003. ISBN 978-1-58160-410-8
| <p>[6] {{red|Item. When you sweep onto his sword}},<ref name="clause-d"/> or<ref name="word-g"/> if he falls with the sword strongly onto yours, so drive quickly above his sword with the pommel, and remain thereupon with the hands<ref name="clause-g"/> and allow your<ref name="the-d"/> point backwards to your left side,<ref>"To your left side" omitted from the Glasgow.</ref> and snap-off from the sword and strike<ref>"Off from the sword and strike" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> with the short side to the head.<ref>D. ''haüpt'', G. ''kopf''.</ref></p>
+
* Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Arts of Combat: Sword-and-Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor''. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-499-3
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 049v.png|3|lbl=-}}
+
* [[Christian Henry Tobler|Tobler, Christian Henry]]. ''Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship''. Highland Village, TX: [[Chivalry Bookshelf]], 2001. ISBN 1-891448-07-2
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
+
* [[Martin Wierschin|Wierschin, Martin]]. ''Meister Johann Liechtenauers Kunst des Fechtens''. München: Beck, 1965.
|
+
* [[Grzegorz Żabiński|Żabiński, Grzegorz]]. ''The Longsword Teachings of Master Liechtenauer. The Early Sixteenth Century Swordsmanship Comments in the "Goliath" Manuscript.'' Poland: [[Adam Marshall]], 2010. ISBN 978-83-7611-662-4
|
 
  
|-
+
== References ==
|
 
| <p>[7] {{red|Item. When you sweep}} onto his sword, if he then<ref name="word-d"/> drives high up and winds, so strike him in the right side with outstretched arms, and with that step to the back.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050r.png|1|lbl=50r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 022v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
|
 
  
|-
+
{{reflist|2}}
|
+
{{DEFAULTSORT:Ringeck, Sigmund ain}}
| <p>[8] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you sweep onto his sword}}, if he drives high up and winds, so strengthen with the long edge. If he then strikes-around again<ref name="word-dg"/> with the thwart, so strike him into the left side with a step away.</p>
+
{{Liechtenauer tradition}}
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050r.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
__FORCETOC__
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wan du ym streichst an das schwert fert er hoch auf vnd windt&nbsp;/ so steck mit der langen schneidt&nbsp;/ schlecht er aber mit der twer&nbsp;/ so schlach yn indie linck seitten mit ainem ab trit</p>
 
  
|-
+
[[Category:Masters]]
|
 
| <p>[9] {{red|Item}}.<ref name="word-p"/> When you lay in the side-guard or<ref>"You lay… guard, or" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> {{red|you execute the sweeps to the man}}, and if he then holds his sword athwart before him and is high with the arms and wishes to fall onto your sword, so sweep onto his sword below and slash him on the arm, or jab<ref>''stoß''; this could either be to stab him or hit him.</ref> him under his sword<ref>"Him under his sword" omitted from the Dresden and Glasgow.</ref> on the<ref name="word-p"/> chest.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|1|lbl=50v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wan du ligst in der neben huet&nbsp;/ oder treibst die streichñ czu dem man&nbsp;/ helt er dan sein sch/wert twerchs vor ym&nbsp;/ vñ wil dir auf dein schwert vallñ&nbsp;/ vnd ist er hoch mit den armen&nbsp;/ so streich ym vnden an das schwert&nbsp;/ vnd stoß yn vnder seinem schwert in prust</p>
 
  
|-
+
[[Category:Translation]]
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Paurñfeyndt 5.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[10] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-dp">Word omitted from the Dresden and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> If he is low with the hands}} and will fall<ref>P. ''farñ'': "drive".</ref> upon you, so sweep-through to the other side and jab him in the chest. So have [you] changed-through.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[E1r]</small> IST er nider mit den henden&nbsp;/ vnd wil auff farñ&nbsp;/ so streich durch&nbsp;/ vnd stoß yn czv der prust auf die ander seittñ daß ist durch gewechselt</p>
 
  
|-
+
[[Category:German]]
| <p>[11] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you sweep-through}}, so fall on his sword with the long edge and wind to your left side (such that your thumb comes under), and drive with the long edge upon the right side of<ref>"Side of" omitted from the Dresden and Glasgow.</ref> his neck with the strong, and spring with the right foot behind his left<ref>"Behind his neck" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> and move him with the sword<ref>Marginalia: The word ''schrit'' ("a step") appears over the word "sword" in the Dresden, and ''schret'' ("a step or make a step") appears under.</ref> thereover.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wandu durch streichst&nbsp;/ so fall ym mit der langñ schneidt auf sein schwerdt&nbsp;/ vñ windt auf dein lincke seittñ das dein daum vnden kumpt&nbsp;/ vnd var ym mit der langen schneidt mit der sterck an sein rechte seittñ deß halß&nbsp;/ vnd spring mit dem rechtñ fuß vnd ruck yn mit deim scwerdt dar vber</p>
 
  
|-
+
[[Category:Armored Fencing]]
|
+
[[Category:Longsword]]
| <p>[12] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you change-through from the sweeps}} and arrive on the other side on top<ref>''obenauf''.</ref> of his sword, you may execute the play just as well as before to the other<ref>D. "opposite".</ref> side, with fleshwounds and with all things as before (to all sides).<ref>"As before (to all sides)" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
+
[[Category:Mounted Fencing]]
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 050v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051r.png|1|lbl=51r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wan du auß dem streichñ durch wechselst&nbsp;/ vñ kumbst zv der anderñ seittñ obñ auff sein schwerdt&nbsp;/ so magstu die stuck gleich als wol treibñ als vor mit czeckrurñ&nbsp;/ vñ mit allñ din/gñ alß vor auff allñ seitñ</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[13] {{red|b=1|Note an onset from the setting-aside}}</p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-gp">Word omitted from the Glasgow and ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> When you fence with someone and when you come closing in to him}}, so approach in the plow, and drive it swiftly with winding from one side to the other and such that your point always<ref name="word-dg"/> stands still in front,<ref>"In front" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and from that you may execute the parries;<ref>Alternately: "parrying(s)".</ref> this is the “nearing”<ref name="nearing">I.e. closing-in. It is not "the ''nach''" (after) because ''nach'' is neuter and would be ''das nach''. G. also writes ''die neche''. ''næhe'' could also be "the boat".</ref> and into that you may strengthen with the long edge, and from that execute all the afore-named plays. You may also set-aside cuts and thrusts, and break them simply with winding, and seek the openings with the point.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|1|lbl=51v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Fechtñ auß dem abseczen'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ vnd nahendt czu ym kumst&nbsp;/ so kum in den phflug&nbsp;/ vnd treib den behendlich mit wendñ von ainer seitñ czu der andrñ&nbsp;/ vnd daß dein ort alweg vor dir pleib&nbsp;/ auß dem magstu treibñ daß verseczñ&nbsp;/ daß ist die nech&nbsp;/ vnd yn dem magstu sterckñ mit der langen schneidt&nbsp;/ vnd dar auß treiben alle vor geende stuch&nbsp;/ auch magstu hew vnd stich abseczñ vnd die flechlichñ prechñ&nbsp;/ vnd mit dem ort die pleß suchen</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
| [[File:Paurñfeyndt 14.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[14] {{red|b=1|The barrier-guard,<ref>P. "side-guard".</ref> make it thusly:}}</p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you fence with someone and come closing into him}}, so stand with the left foot forward and lay the sword with the point upon the ground to your right side and<ref name="word-p"/> such that the long edge is above; and from the left side, the short edge below<ref name="word-g"/> and the right<ref name="word-d"/> foot stands<ref name="word-g"/> forward.<ref>"And from… stands forward" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> This goes to both sides.<ref name="sentence-dg">Sentence omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|1|lbl=23v}}
 
|
 
| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[E2r]</small> '''Nebñ Hut'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ vñ nahendt czu ym kumst&nbsp;/ so ste mit dem linckñ fuß vor vnd leg das schwerdt mit dem ort auf die erdt czu deiner rechtñ seittñ/das die lang schneid obñ sey daß get czu paiden seittñ</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[15] {{red|b=1|This play executes from the barrier-guard<ref>P. "side-guard".</ref> thusly:}}</p>
 
 
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-p"/> If one cuts above to you or from under up (or wherever it otherwise is),<ref name="clause-dg">Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> so cleave-in to him crooked into the opening with a step-out.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Stuck aus der Nebñ hut'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>Haut dir ainer obñ czu&nbsp;/ oder sunst wo eß sey&nbsp;/ so haw du ym krump ein zu der pleß mit ainẽ auß trit</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[16] Item. Or cut him crooked to the flats and as soon as it sparks, seek the “nearing”<ref name="nearing"/> with the short edge.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 051v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052r.png|1|lbl=52r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[17] Item.<ref name="word-p"/> Or execute the inverter into his face with the point, and when he binds-on to you, so strengthen with the long edge and [you] may execute any plays which are afore named in the striking.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Treib den verkerer ein mit dem ort czu seinem gsicht&nbsp;/ vnd wan er anpindt&nbsp;/ so sterk mit der langñ schneidt&nbsp;/ vnd magst alle stuck treiben die vorgeendt seindt in dem streichñ</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|This is called the little-wheel}}</p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you fence with another, so stretch your arm from you long}} and such that your thumb remains upon the sword above, and wind the sword<ref name="word-g"/> around with the point in front of you, just like a little-wheel; with that you may execute<ref name="clause-dg"/> from below swiftly to your left side and with that<ref>"With that" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> go to the man, and from that you may change-through or bind-on to whichever side you wish, and when you have bound-upon, you may execute whatever play you wish that you think best,<ref>P. "convenient".</ref> as before.<ref name="clause-g"/><ref>P. "then escape afterwards".</ref></p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052v.png|1|lbl=52v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Auß legung deß Racz'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ so streck dein arm͂ lang von dir&nbsp;/ vñ daß dein daum obñ pleib auff dem schwerdt&nbsp;/ vñ wendt daß schwerdt von dir mit dem ort&nbsp;/ darmit du auftreiben magst&nbsp;/ von vndñ auff deiner linckñ seittñ behendt&nbsp;/ vñ gee czu dem man&nbsp;/ dar auß magstu auff wel/che seitten du wildt durchwechslñ&nbsp;/ oder waß stuck dir fuglich ist&nbsp;/ dẽ pfortail nach</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[19] {{red|b=1|Also break the thwart}}</p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> When you stand in the<ref name="word-d"/> guard from-the-roof and one}} cuts {{red|you}} with the thwart, simultaneously cleave-in to him with the wrath-cut, and bind on<ref>"Bind on" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> his sword with strength, and seek the openings with the point;<ref name="clause-p">Clause omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> and if he then<ref name="word-p"/> wishes to strike-around it to the other side<ref>"To the other side" omitted from ''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey''.</ref> with the thwart, so come before with the thwart under his sword to his neck, or slice him with the long edge into the arm when he strikes-around.<ref>P. "So thwart in before to his neck".</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 052v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 023v.jpg|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|1|lbl=24r|p=1}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Twer Hew prechñ'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>Wan du stest in der hut vom tag&nbsp;/ vñ ainer auf dich haut mit der twer&nbsp;/ so haw den zorñhaw gleich mit ym ein vnd pindt ym starck mitten auff sein schwerdt vñ wil er vmschlahñ mit der twer&nbsp;/ so twer ym vorñ czu seinẽ halß&nbsp;/ auch magstu alle stuck treibñ als in dem streichñ</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
| [[File:Paurñfeyndt 15.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[20] {{red|b=1|A break against the break}}</p>
 
 
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-dg"/> {{red|Note}},<ref name="word-d"/> when you thwart, and one wishes to also come before ahead with the thwart under your sword on the neck, so fall-down<ref name="word-gp"/> in-the-moment<ref name="word-d"/> with the long edge strongly onto his sword, thus is it broken. And<ref name="word-d"/> take the nearest opening which may appear to you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053r.png|1|lbl=53r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p><small style="font-weight:normal; vertical-align:text-bottom;">[E3r]</small> '''Ain Anders'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>MERCK wan du twerst vnd dir ainer auch mit der twer wil uorñ vor kumen vnder dein schwerdt an den halß&nbsp;/ so vall ym indes mit der langñ schneidt starck auff sein schwerdt&nbsp;/ so ist es geprochen&nbsp;/ vnd nym die nechst pleß an dye dir werden mag</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|Against the slice below into the arms<ref>P. "From the wrath-cut".</ref>}}</p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|Item}}.<ref name="word-p"/> When you fence someone and if [you]<ref>"Fence someone and if [you]" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> cleave-in to him with the wrath-cut (or otherwise)<ref>"With the wrath-cut or otherwise" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> from above downward,<ref name="word-dg"/> and he parries it and drives high with the hilt,<ref>P. "arms".</ref> and you as well,<ref name="clause-p"/> and [you] both<ref name="word-dg"/> run-in with each other, so take the under-slice; and if he is then so prudent and wishes to take<ref>D., G. "will take".</ref> the under-slice to you, under your hands into the arms, follow-after underneath his sword with the long edge and press down; thus you have broken it, and seek the openings.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053v.png|1|lbl=53v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>'''Vom zorn haw'''</p>
 
 
 
<p>Wan du mit ainem fichst&nbsp;/ vnd haust ym ein mit dem zorñhaw&nbsp;/ oder sunst von oben nider&nbsp;/ vud er dir das verseczt&nbsp;/ vnd fert hoch auff mit den armen&nbsp;/ vnd lauft paidt einander ein&nbsp;/ vñ ist er dan so fursichtig vñ will dir dein schnidt nemen vnder den hendñ in die arm͂&nbsp;/ so volg seinem schwerdt nach vndrsich mit der langñ schneidt vñ truck nider&nbsp;/ so hastus prochñ</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[22] {{red|Item.<ref name="word-p"/> But when you come high with the arms, and if he also goes}} thusly and again runs-in, and if he will then jab with the pommel [either] through the arms, under your hands, under the eyes, or on the chest, then drive below with the pommel strongly with the arms, and move into him<ref>Sic, lit. "you".</ref> and strike him with your sword upon his head;<ref>"And move… his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.</ref> thus you have broken it.<ref name="clause-p"/></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
| <p>Wan du aber hoch mit den armen kumst&nbsp;/ vnd ainer auch also&nbsp;/  vnd laufft dir ein vñ wolt er dich den mit dem knopf durch dein arm͂ vnder deinen lendñ&nbsp;/ vnder die augñ&nbsp;/ oder in die prust stossñ&nbsp;/ so var vndersich mit dem knopf starck mit den armen&nbsp;/ vud ruck an dich&nbsp;/ vnd schlach yn mit deim schwerdt auff sein kopf</p>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[23] {{red|Item. When you have bound-upon with someone and if he}} changes-through with the pommel and falls with the half-sword, this breaks simply with the over-slice; and in the slice,<ref name="clause-g"/> you may fall into the half sword and set-upon him.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 053v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 054r.png|1|lbl=54r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 024r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Copyright and License Summary
 
  | width = 100%
 
}}
 
For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the [[Talk:{{PAGENAME}}|discussion page]].
 
 
 
<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Images]]
 
| authors    = Unknown
 
| source link =
 
| source title=
 
| license    = public domain
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = Translation (Long Sword)
 
| authors    = [[Christian Trosclair]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= Wiktenauer
 
| license    = noncommercial
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = Translation (Short Sword)
 
| authors    = [[David Rawlings]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= Document circulated online
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|Salzburg Fragments]]
 
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= [[Index:Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)]]
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]]
 
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= [[Index:Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)]]
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]]
 
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= [[Index:Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)]]
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey (Andre Paurñfeyndt)|''Ergrundung Ritterlicher Kunst der Fechterey'']]
 
| authors    = [[Michael Chidester]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= Wiktenauer
 
| license    = noncommercial
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg Fragments]]
 
| authors    = [[Werner Ueberschär]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= [[Index:Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)]]
 
| license    = noncommercial
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]]
 
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= [[Index:Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)]]
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox footer}}<section end="sourcebox"/>
 
{{master end}}
 
 
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
 
 
* [[David Lindholm|Lindholm, David]] and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword''. Boulder, CO: [[Paladin Press]], 2003. ISBN 978-1-58160-410-8
 
* Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Arts of Combat: Sword-and-Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor''. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-499-3
 
* [[Christian Henry Tobler|Tobler, Christian Henry]]. ''Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship''. Highland Village, TX: [[Chivalry Bookshelf]], 2001. ISBN 1-891448-07-2
 
* [[Martin Wierschin|Wierschin, Martin]]. ''Meister Johann Liechtenauers Kunst des Fechtens''. München: Beck, 1965.
 
* [[Grzegorz Żabiński|Żabiński, Grzegorz]]. ''The Longsword Teachings of Master Liechtenauer. The Early Sixteenth Century Swordsmanship Comments in the "Goliath" Manuscript.'' Poland: [[Adam Marshall]], 2010. ISBN 978-83-7611-662-4
 
 
 
== References ==
 
  
{{reflist|2}}
+
[[Category:New format]]
{{DEFAULTSORT:Ringeck, Sigmund ain}}
 
{{Liechtenauer tradition}}
 
__FORCETOC__
 
 
 
[[Category:Masters]]
 
 
 
[[Category:Translation]]
 
 
 
[[Category:German]]
 
 
 
[[Category:Armored Fencing]]
 
[[Category:Longsword]]
 
[[Category:Mounted Fencing]]
 

Latest revision as of 17:34, 17 July 2021

Sigmund ain Ringeck
Period 15th century
Occupation Fencing master
Nationality German
Patron Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
Movement Fellowship of Liechtenauer
Influences Johannes Liechtenauer
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s) Hypothetical
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Tobler, 2001
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Sigmund ain Ringeck (Ainring, Amring, Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a 15th century German fencing master. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by Hans Medel) is uncertain, the surname "Ainring[ck]" may indicate that he came from the village of Ainring on the current German/Austrian border. He is named in the text as Schirmaister to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify Schirrmeister, a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially Schirmmeister, a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.[1] Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer—his name was included by Paulus Kal in his roll of members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer in ca. 1470.[2]

The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of Johannes Liechtenauer further narrows the list down to just two. If the MS 3227a is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was Albrecht Ⅰ, who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of H. Beringer) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been Albrecht Ⅲ, who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.[3] Albrecht Ⅳ claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht Ⅳ lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.

Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the MS Dresd.C.487. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on unarmored long sword fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century[4] (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.

Stemma

While only one treatise bears Ringeck's name, a gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on the long sword, he is often considered to be the author of the glosses of the short sword and mounted verses as well. The latter are associated with Ringeck largely due to the previously mentioned misattribution of the entire MS Dresd.C.487 (Dresden), but this is not an entirely unreasonable attribution to make considering the long sword is always accompanied by one or both of the others. All three seem to be based on the gloss of the anonymous author known as "pseudo-Peter von Danzig", which is attested from the 1450s; it is also possible that Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig were the same person, and the gloss attributed to Ringeck is simply the only branch of the larger stemma that retained its author's name.

Compared to the pseudo-Danzig gloss, Ringeck's descriptions are often slightly shorter and contain fewer variations; Ringeck does, however, include a number of unique plays not discussed in the other. Unlike the 15th century versions of pseudo-Danzig, Ringeck's long sword gloss was probably extensively illustrated: both the MS E.1939.65.341 (Glasgow) and MS Var.82 (Rostock) frequently refer readers to these illustrations, and it appears that source for the Dresden did as well, though the scribe attempted to remove all such references as he copied it (one remains intact,[5] one merely dropped the word "pictured",[6] and one was inexplicably replaced by the word "gloss"[7]).

Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck

The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by Hans von Speyer as addenda to certain sections of the Lew gloss in his 1491 manuscript M.Ⅰ.29 (Salzburg).[8] A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.

The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,[4] and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.

The 1508[9] Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.

The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of Albrecht Dürer; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian Ⅰ to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.[10] This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).

The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, Paulus Hector Mair produced the Reichstadt Nr. 82 (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master Antonius Rast.[11] Included in this manuscript was a version of Nicolaüs' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.

The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter Joachim Meÿer until his death in 1571.[12] It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).

All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).

Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.

(A final text of interest is the treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg, which was acquired by Mair in 1539[13] and bound into the Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.5 after 1566.[14] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt, but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)

Treatise