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{{about|the master and his glosses|the treatise on fencing from the sweeps sometimes ascribed to him|Stuck im aufstreichen}}
 
 
{{infobox writer
 
{{infobox writer
 
| name                = [[name::Sigmund ain Ringeck]]
 
| name                = [[name::Sigmund ain Ringeck]]
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| archetype            = Hypothetical
 
| archetype            = Hypothetical
 
| manuscript(s)        = {{collapsible list
 
| manuscript(s)        = {{collapsible list
  | [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M.I.29]] (1491)  
+
  | [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M..29]] (1491)  
 
  | [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|MS 26-232]] (1512)
 
  | [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|MS 26-232]] (1512)
 
  | [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (1553)
 
  | [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (1553)
  | [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. I.6.2º.2]] (1564)
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  | [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Cod. .6.2º.2]] (1564)
 
}}
 
}}
 
| principal manuscript(s)={{collapsible list
 
| principal manuscript(s)={{collapsible list
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| below                =  
 
| below                =  
 
}}
 
}}
'''Sigmund ain Ringeck''' (Sigmund ain Ringeck, Sigmund Amring, Sigmund Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by [[Hans Medel]]) is uncertain, the suffix "ein Ringeck" may indicate that he came from the Rhineland region of south-eastern Germany. He is named in the text as ''Schirmaister'' to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify ''Schirrmeister'', a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially ''Schirmmeister'', a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.<ref>[[Jens P. Kleinau]]. "[http://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2011/07/04/schirrmeister-schermeister-schirmmeister/ Schirrmeister, Schermeister, Schirmmeister]". '' Hans Talhoffer ~ A Historical Martial Arts blog by Jens P. Kleinau], 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.</ref> Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]—his name was included by [[Paulus Kal]] in his roll of members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]] in ca. 1470.<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
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{{about|the master and his glosses|the treatise on fencing from the sweeps sometimes ascribed to Ringeck|Stuck im aufstreichen}}
 +
'''Sigmund ain Ringeck''' (Ainring, Amring, Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by [[Hans Medel]]) is uncertain, the surname "Ainring[ck]" may indicate that he came from the village of Ainring on the current German/Austrian border. He is named in the text as ''Schirmaister'' to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify ''Schirrmeister'', a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially ''Schirmmeister'', a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.<ref>[[Jens P. Kleinau]]. "[http://talhoffer.wordpress.com/2011/07/04/schirrmeister-schermeister-schirmmeister/ Schirrmeister, Schermeister, Schirmmeister]". '' Hans Talhoffer ~ A Historical Martial Arts blog by Jens P. Kleinau], 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.</ref> Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]—his name was included by [[Paulus Kal]] in his roll of members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]] in ca. 1470.<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
  
The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]] further narrows the list down to just two. If the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|MS 3227a]] is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was [[wikipedia:Albert I, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht I]], who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of [[H. Beringer]]) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been [[wikipedia:Albert III, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht III]], who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.<ref>For a different perspective, see [[Christian Henry Tobler]]. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" ''In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts''. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2010.</ref> [[wikipedia:Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht IV]] claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht IV lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.
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The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]] further narrows the list down to just two. If the [[Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)|MS 3227a]] is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was [[wikipedia:Albert I, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht ]], who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of [[H. Beringer]]) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been [[wikipedia:Albert III, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht ]], who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.<ref>For a different perspective, see [[Christian Henry Tobler]]. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" ''In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts''. Wheaton, IL: [[Freelance Academy Press]], 2010.</ref> [[wikipedia:Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria|Albrecht ]] claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.
  
 
Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|MS Dresd.C.487]]. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete [[gloss]] of Liechtenauer's [[Recital]] on unarmored [[long sword]] fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century<ref name="Hoffman">Werner J. Hoffmann. [http://www.manuscripta-mediaevalia.de/dokumente/html/obj31600186 "Mscr.Dresd.C.487: Siegmund am Ringeck, Fechtlehre"]. ''Tiefenerschließung und Digitalisierung der deutschsprachigen mittelalterlichen Handschriften der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (SLUB) Dresden''. Retrieved 26 May 2015.</ref> (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.
 
Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the [[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|MS Dresd.C.487]]. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete [[gloss]] of Liechtenauer's [[Recital]] on unarmored [[long sword]] fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century<ref name="Hoffman">Werner J. Hoffmann. [http://www.manuscripta-mediaevalia.de/dokumente/html/obj31600186 "Mscr.Dresd.C.487: Siegmund am Ringeck, Fechtlehre"]. ''Tiefenerschließung und Digitalisierung der deutschsprachigen mittelalterlichen Handschriften der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (SLUB) Dresden''. Retrieved 26 May 2015.</ref> (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.
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[[file:Ringeck stemma.png|300px|left|thumb|Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck]]
 
[[file:Ringeck stemma.png|300px|left|thumb|Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck]]
  
The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by [[Hans von Speyer]] as addenda to certain sections of the [[Lew]] gloss in his 1491 manuscript [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|M.I.29]] (Salzburg).<ref>[[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M.I.29]] is signed and internally dated on [[page:MS M.I.29 158r.jpg|folio 158r]].</ref> A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.
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The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by [[Hans von Speyer]] as addenda to certain sections of the [[Lew]] gloss in his 1491 manuscript [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|M..29]] (Salzburg).<ref>[[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|MS M..29]] is signed and internally dated on [[page:MS M.I.29 158r.jpg|folio 158r]].</ref> A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.
  
 
The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,<ref name="Hoffman"/> and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.
 
The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,<ref name="Hoffman"/> and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.
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The 1508<ref>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] is internally dated on [[page:MS E.1939.65.341 022r.jpg|folio 22r]].</ref> Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.
 
The 1508<ref>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|MS E.1939.65.341]] is internally dated on [[page:MS E.1939.65.341 022r.jpg|folio 22r]].</ref> Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.
  
The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of [[Albrecht Dürer]]; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian I to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.<ref name="Dornhoffer">[[Friedrich Dörnhöffer]]. ''[http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/fencing/albrecht.pdf Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch].'' Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.</ref> This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).
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The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of [[Albrecht Dürer]]; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.<ref name="Dornhoffer">[[Friedrich Dörnhöffer]]. ''[http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/fencing/albrecht.pdf Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch].'' Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.</ref> This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).
  
The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, [[Paulus Hector Mair]] produced the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master [[Antonius Rast]].<ref>The origin of [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] is detailed on [[page:Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 IIr.jpg|folio IIr]].</ref> Included in this manuscript was a version of [[Nicolaüs]]' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.
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The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, [[Paulus Hector Mair]] produced the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master [[Antonius Rast]].<ref>The origin of [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Reichstadt Nr. 82]] is detailed on [[page:Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82 IIr.jpg|folio Ⅱr]].</ref> Included in this manuscript was a version of [[Nicolaüs]]' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.
  
 
The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter [[Joachim Meÿer]] until his death in 1571.<ref>The only date, 1570, is given on [[page:MS Var.82 123r.png|folio 123]] (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See [[Joachim Meyer]]. ''The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570.'' Trans. [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.</ref> It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).
 
The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter [[Joachim Meÿer]] until his death in 1571.<ref>The only date, 1570, is given on [[page:MS Var.82 123r.png|folio 123]] (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See [[Joachim Meyer]]. ''The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570.'' Trans. [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.</ref> It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).
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Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.
 
Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.
  
(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of [[Hans Medel|Hans Medel von Salzburg]],<ref>Medel's section of the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 21r.jpg|folio 21r]].</ref> which was acquired by Mair and bound into the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] after 1566.<ref>The record of the [[Marxbrüder]] in the manuscript ends on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 20r.jpg|folio 20r]] with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.</ref> Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and [[Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt]], but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)
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(A final text of interest is the treatise of [[Hans Medel|Hans Medel von Salzburg]], which was acquired by Mair in 1539<ref>Medel's section of the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. .6.2º.5]] is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 21r.jpg|folio 21r]].</ref> and bound into the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. .6.2º.5]] after 1566.<ref>The record of the [[Marxbrüder]] in the manuscript ends on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 20r.jpg|folio 20r]] with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.</ref> Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and [[Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt]], but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
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<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}.<ref name="word-d"/> Note, the Recital sets down five obscure hews. Many masters of the sword do know nothing to say about this: that you should not learn to make other hews,<ref>Lit: "hew other hews".</ref> when from the right side, against those who arrange themselves against you in defense. And if you select one hew from the five hews, then one must hit with the first strike. Whoever can break that without their harm will be praised by the masters of the Recital, because his art shall be praised better than another fencer who cannot fence the five hews against it. (And how you shall hew the five hews, you find that written hereafter in the same five hews.<ref>"In the same five hews" omitted from the Rostock.</ref>)</p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss}}.<ref name="word-d"/> Note, the Recital sets down five obscure hews. Many masters of the sword do know nothing to say about this: that you should not learn to make other hews,<ref>Lit: "hew other hews".</ref> when from the right side, against those who arrange themselves against you in defense. And if you select one hew from the five hews, then one must hit with the first strike. Whoever can break that without their harm will be praised by the masters of the Recital, because his art shall be praised better than another fencer who cannot fence the five hews against it. (And how you shall hew the five hews, you find that written hereafter in the same five hews.<ref>"In the same five hews" omitted from the Rostock.</ref>)</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 016v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{paget|Page:MS Dresd.C.487|017r|png|lbl=17r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 017v.png|1|lbl=17v|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 016v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 017r.png|1|lbl=17r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 017v.png|1|lbl=17v|p=1}}
 
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<p>Item.<ref name="word-dg"/> Note,<ref>D. ''Mörck Ee'': "Note, before".</ref> when you come just near<ref>"just near" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> to him with the onset: so set your left foot forward before when he binds you on the sword,<ref>"When he… the sword" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and hold your<ref>A., D. "the".</ref> point long with<ref name="word-ad"/> extended arms against the face or against<ref name="word-ad"/> the chest. If he then hews-in from above<ref>D. "hews from above to below".</ref> to your head, so wind against his hew with the sword and thrust into his face.</p>
 
<p>Item.<ref name="word-dg"/> Note,<ref>D. ''Mörck Ee'': "Note, before".</ref> when you come just near<ref>"just near" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.</ref> to him with the onset: so set your left foot forward before when he binds you on the sword,<ref>"When he… the sword" omitted from the Dresden.</ref> and hold your<ref>A., D. "the".</ref> point long with<ref name="word-ad"/> extended arms against the face or against<ref name="word-ad"/> the chest. If he then hews-in from above<ref>D. "hews from above to below".</ref> to your head, so wind against his hew with the sword and thrust into his face.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|1|lbl=124r|p=1}}
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 047v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 123r.png|1|lbl=123r|p=1}}
 
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{{master end}}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
 
  | title = Short Sword Gloss
 
  | title = Short Sword Gloss
  | width = 180em
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  | width = 150em
 
}}
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
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! <p>{{rating|Start|Verse}} by [[Mike Rasmusson]]<br/>{{rating|Start|Dresden Gloss}} by [[David Rawlings]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|Start|Verse}} by [[Mike Rasmusson]]<br/>{{rating|Start|Dresden Gloss}} by [[David Rawlings]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)|Dresden Transcription]] (1504-19){{edit index|Johan Liechtnawers Fechtbuch geschriebenn (MS Dresd.C.487)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow Transcription]] (1508){{edit index|Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
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! <p>[[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna Transcription]] (1512){{edit index|Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]] (ca. 1570){{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Rostock Transcription]] (ca. 1570){{edit index|Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
! <p>[[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna Transcription]] (1512){{edit index|Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
  
  
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<p>When you come in to fight him, then you should know, just as you should step in front or behind his leg, you should no longer need to step.</p>
 
<p>When you come in to fight him, then you should know, just as you should step in front or behind his leg, you should no longer need to step.</p>
 
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| <p>[12]</p>
 
| <p>[12]</p>
 
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| <p>[13] If he then jabs with the spear, drive high and parry the stab before your left hand with sword the on the left side, and spring to him and set the point on him. If this is not possible, then let your sword fall [drop it] and go over in the wrestle.</p>
 
| <p>[13] If he then jabs with the spear, drive high and parry the stab before your left hand with sword the on the left side, and spring to him and set the point on him. If this is not possible, then let your sword fall [drop it] and go over in the wrestle.</p>
 
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<p>When you stand in the lower guard, and he jabs above to you, and he holds the spear, so that the point in front broadly juts over the hands. Then strike his spear down to the side with your left hand , and spring to him setting the point on him.</p>
 
<p>When you stand in the lower guard, and he jabs above to you, and he holds the spear, so that the point in front broadly juts over the hands. Then strike his spear down to the side with your left hand , and spring to him setting the point on him.</p>
 
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| <p>[21] Grip his left hand with your left hand, just above the hand, and tear him to you. Strike your right arm strongly over his left arm (in the bend) and break it over your right using your left. Spring with your right foot behind his right and throw him over that.</p>
 
| <p>[21] Grip his left hand with your left hand, just above the hand, and tear him to you. Strike your right arm strongly over his left arm (in the bend) and break it over your right using your left. Spring with your right foot behind his right and throw him over that.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 095v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 096r.png|1|lbl=96r|p=1}}
 
 
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| <p>[22] When he drives through under your right arm with his left arm and wants to catch you around the body, then strike with your right arm strongly from above and outside into his left elbow joint and turn away from him.</p>
 
| <p>[22] When he drives through under your right arm with his left arm and wants to catch you around the body, then strike with your right arm strongly from above and outside into his left elbow joint and turn away from him.</p>
 
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| <p>[24] You will also thrust with the knee or foot into the testicles. But be aware that he does not catch your leg.</p>
 
| <p>[24] You will also thrust with the knee or foot into the testicles. But be aware that he does not catch your leg.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 110v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
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|}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 096v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097r.png|1|lbl=97r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097v.png|1|lbl=97v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097r.png|1|lbl=97r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097v.png|1|lbl=97v|p=1}}
 
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 106v.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}}
  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 107r.png|1|lbl=107r}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 107r.png|1|lbl=107r}}
|
 
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|-  
 
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Line 2,159: Line 2,127:
 
<p>Holding your sword with the right hand on the grip and the left in the middle of your sword, keeping it on your right side above your head and let the point hang down towards his face.</p>
 
<p>Holding your sword with the right hand on the grip and the left in the middle of your sword, keeping it on your right side above your head and let the point hang down towards his face.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097v.png|2|lbl=-}}
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+
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|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 107r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,168: Line 2,135:
 
| <p>[29] If he then stands in the lower guard and wants to stab you underneath, then stab down from above between the sword and his closest hand. Press the pommel underneath, wind the point on his sword under and through to his right side and set the point on him.</p>
 
| <p>[29] If he then stands in the lower guard and wants to stab you underneath, then stab down from above between the sword and his closest hand. Press the pommel underneath, wind the point on his sword under and through to his right side and set the point on him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 097v.png|3|lbl=-}}
|  
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 107v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,176: Line 2,142:
 
| <p>[30] Stab him in the face from the first guard. If he fends that off then jerk or go through with the point to the other side, just as before. When you have set the point against him then put your sword under your right armpit with the hilt on your breast and push him from you.</p>
 
| <p>[30] Stab him in the face from the first guard. If he fends that off then jerk or go through with the point to the other side, just as before. When you have set the point against him then put your sword under your right armpit with the hilt on your breast and push him from you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 098r.png|1|lbl=98r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 098r.png|1|lbl=98r}}
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Line 2,187: Line 2,152:
 
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
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|-  
Line 2,197: Line 2,161:
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 098v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 098v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 108r.png|2|lbl=-}}
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 108r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 108v.png|1|lbl=108v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 108v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
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|-  
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|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 100v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122r.png|1|lbl=122r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 100v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122r.png|1|lbl=122r|p=1}}
|  
+
| <p><br/>{{section|Page:MS 26-232 111v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 109r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 109r.png|3|lbl=-}}
| <p><br/>{{section|Page:MS 26-232 111v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}}</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,280: Line 2,235:
 
| <p>[41] Note: Thrust to him strongly from the lower guard to the face. If he thrusts the same way to you, grasp his sword in the center to yours with your left hand inverted and hold the two swords fast together. And go through with the pommel under his sword, with the right arm jerking it over to your right side, so that you can take his sword.</p>
 
| <p>[41] Note: Thrust to him strongly from the lower guard to the face. If he thrusts the same way to you, grasp his sword in the center to yours with your left hand inverted and hold the two swords fast together. And go through with the pommel under his sword, with the right arm jerking it over to your right side, so that you can take his sword.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099r.png|1|lbl=99r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099r.png|1|lbl=99r}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,291: Line 2,245:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122v.png|1|lbl=122v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122v.png|1|lbl=122v|p=1}}
|  
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,299: Line 2,252:
 
| <p>[43] Note: Thrust to his face from the lower guard while turning. If he displaces, yank and thrust to his face. If he displaces, move your pommel over his right shoulder and around his neck, jumping with your right foot behind his left, and tearing him over your leg with the pommel so that he falls.</p>
 
| <p>[43] Note: Thrust to his face from the lower guard while turning. If he displaces, yank and thrust to his face. If he displaces, move your pommel over his right shoulder and around his neck, jumping with your right foot behind his left, and tearing him over your leg with the pommel so that he falls.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 122v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
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|  
 
|  
 
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 111v.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,311: Line 2,263:
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|1|lbl=125r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|1|lbl=125r}}
 
|  
 
|  
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| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|
 
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|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,319: Line 2,270:
 
| <p>[45] Note, you will also want to strike him from the lower guard, when he likewise has you.</p>
 
| <p>[45] Note, you will also want to strike him from the lower guard, when he likewise has you.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,330: Line 2,280:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|1|lbl=125v|p=1}}
 
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|  
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,338: Line 2,287:
 
| <p>[47] If he thrusts to your face from the upper guard, set the thrust aside to his right side with your sword in front of your left hand driving into the upper guard and setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| <p>[47] If he thrusts to your face from the upper guard, set the thrust aside to his right side with your sword in front of your left hand driving into the upper guard and setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 099v.png|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,346: Line 2,294:
 
| <p>[48] Or drive up with the sword, displacing the thrust from above between your two hands. And drive with the pommel over his forward hand and with it jerk down; setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| <p>[48] Or drive up with the sword, displacing the thrust from above between your two hands. And drive with the pommel over his forward hand and with it jerk down; setting the point upon him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|3|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|1|lbl=100r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|1|lbl=100r}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p>[49] Move the pommel over his forward hand and then back through, and jerk him down with it. You can also change through below with the pommel and set aside his thrust.</p>
 
| <p>[49] Move the pommel over his forward hand and then back through, and jerk him down with it. You can also change through below with the pommel and set aside his thrust.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|1|lbl=101r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 125v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|1|lbl=101r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,362: Line 2,309:
 
| <p>[50] Note, you wind and hereafter is described how you should do the third guard and how to strike your opponent with the pommel.</p>
 
| <p>[50] Note, you wind and hereafter is described how you should do the third guard and how to strike your opponent with the pommel.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
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|  
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| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112r.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
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|  
 
|  
|
 
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|-  
 
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|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|1|lbl=101v|p=1}}
 
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 +
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,391: Line 2,335:
 
| <p>[53] When you have applied it and he has a longer reach than you, then push him thus from you, so that the point sticks out above and is set well into the rings of the chain mail.</p>
 
| <p>[53] When you have applied it and he has a longer reach than you, then push him thus from you, so that the point sticks out above and is set well into the rings of the chain mail.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|
 
|
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|3|lbl=-}}
  
 +
|
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
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|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 101v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|3|lbl=105v|p=1}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
Line 2,421: Line 2,364:
  
 
<p><br/><br/>{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|2|lbl=102r|p=1}}</p>
 
<p><br/><br/>{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|2|lbl=102r|p=1}}</p>
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 112v.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|3|lbl=105v|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
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|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 102v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,439: Line 2,379:
 
| <p>[57] You should therefore respect that in the fight/fence you take no more than a step towards or away from him. When he is faster than you and you can no longer set him aside, then go backwards one step only with your left foot and be aware that you can step back in with the left foot and set in again or seize him with the wrestle.</p>
 
| <p>[57] You should therefore respect that in the fight/fence you take no more than a step towards or away from him. When he is faster than you and you can no longer set him aside, then go backwards one step only with your left foot and be aware that you can step back in with the left foot and set in again or seize him with the wrestle.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|1|lbl=102v|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,460: Line 2,399:
 
<p>You should use the travelling after against the strong fencer, that with outstretched arms, long reach fights. But otherwise possesses nothing else from the art.</p>
 
<p>You should use the travelling after against the strong fencer, that with outstretched arms, long reach fights. But otherwise possesses nothing else from the art.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|1|lbl=103v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|1|lbl=103v}}
|
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 105v.png|6|lbl=-}}
  
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|1|lbl=106r}}
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|1|lbl=106r}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,471: Line 2,409:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104r.png|1|lbl=104r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|1|lbl=104v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 103v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104r.png|1|lbl=104r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|1|lbl=104v|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 103r.png|1|lbl=103r|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,486: Line 2,423:
 
<p>When he has set to you and pushes you back, then stab him in the palm of the hand, which holds the sword in the middle. When he the hands reversed, then stab up from below again in the same guard.</p>
 
<p>When he has set to you and pushes you back, then stab him in the palm of the hand, which holds the sword in the middle. When he the hands reversed, then stab up from below again in the same guard.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|1|lbl=101r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|1|lbl=101r}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,496: Line 2,432:
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|1|lbl=105r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 104v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|1|lbl=105r|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,504: Line 2,439:
 
| <p>[62] Or stab through over his forward hand and press down from above. Place your hilt on your breast and set to him.</p>
 
| <p>[62] Or stab through over his forward hand and press down from above. Place your hilt on your breast and set to him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,513: Line 2,447:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|1|lbl=105v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|1|lbl=105v|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,531: Line 2,464:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|1|lbl=106r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 105v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|1|lbl=106r|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}}<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101r.png|5|lbl=-|p=1}}<br/><br/>
  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|1|lbl=101v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|1|lbl=101v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,543: Line 2,475:
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|3|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,552: Line 2,483:
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 101v.png|4|lbl=-}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 106v.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,561: Line 2,491:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|1|lbl=106v|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|2|lbl=100r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 102r.png|1|lbl=102r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|2|lbl=100r|p=1}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,571: Line 2,500:
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 106v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|1|lbl=107r|p=1}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|3|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,579: Line 2,507:
 
| <p>[69] When you hold your sword on your right side in the lower guard, and he strikes with the pommel to your point, and takes it out wide. Then straight way jump near to him, so that he strikes over beyond you - at the same time you cannot pass - and set the point on him.</p>
 
| <p>[69] When you hold your sword on your right side in the lower guard, and he strikes with the pommel to your point, and takes it out wide. Then straight way jump near to him, so that he strikes over beyond you - at the same time you cannot pass - and set the point on him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|2|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|4|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|4|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,587: Line 2,514:
 
| <p>[70] You will always use travelling after and setting in, whilst he draws out with the pommel.</p>
 
| <p>[70] You will always use travelling after and setting in, whilst he draws out with the pommel.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107r.png|3|lbl=-}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100r.png|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|5|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,603: Line 2,529:
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|1|lbl=108r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|1|lbl=108r|p=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
 +
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|1|lbl=100v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|1|lbl=100v}}
|
 
{{section|Page:MS 26-232 107r.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|1|lbl=107v|p=1}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,611: Line 2,536:
 
| class="noline" | <p>[72] Beware therefore if he strikes to your forward knee or forward hand and set him aside with the pieces described earlier so that he cannot hurt you.</p>
 
| class="noline" | <p>[72] Beware therefore if he strikes to your forward knee or forward hand and set him aside with the pieces described earlier so that he cannot hurt you.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 108r.png|2|lbl=-}}
| class="noline" |  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Var.82 100v.png|2|lbl=-}}
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS 26-232 107v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|}
 
|}
Line 2,703: Line 2,627:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[8] </p>
+
| <p>[8] '''This is the text'''</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[9] '''This is the text'''</p>
 
 
{|class="zettel"
 
{|class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,720: Line 2,637:
 
|}
 
|}
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is if both fail with the lance while riding, let yours fall from your hand, and draw neither sword nor knife, and ride to him, and turn yourself with your left side to his right, and drive the wrestles described hereafter:</p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is if both fail with the lance while riding, let yours fall from your hand, and draw neither sword nor knife, and ride to him, and turn yourself with your left side to his right, and drive the wrestles described hereafter:</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
|  
 
 
<p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 110v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111r.png|1|lbl=111r|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|1|lbl=76r|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 075v.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|1|lbl=76r|p=1}}
Line 2,731: Line 2,644:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[10] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[9] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you come with the left side at his right, if he then grips at you with the right hand forward and wants to wrestle, grip his right arm forward by the hand with your right, and drive the unnamed hold, or the secret.</p>
 
+
|  
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} When you come with the left side at his right, if he then grips at you with the right hand forward and wants to wrestle, grip his right arm forward by the hand with your right, and drive the unnamed hold, or the secret.</p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[11] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if he has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, grip his right elbow with the left hand, and shove him from you with it, and raise his right foot with your left foot, so he falls.</p>
+
| <p>[10] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if he has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, grip his right elbow with the left hand, and shove him from you with it, and raise his right foot with your left foot, so he falls.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111v.png|1|lbl=111v}}
+
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,749: Line 2,658:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[12] Or, when you have gripped his right elbow with the left hand, grip his sword pommel with the right, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.</p>
+
| <p>[11] Or, when you have gripped his right elbow with the left hand, grip his sword pommel with the right, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 111v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112r.png|1|lbl=112r|p=1}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,757: Line 2,665:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[13] </p>
+
| <p>[12] {{red|b=1|Here note another}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[14] {{red|b=1|Here note another}}<br/><br/></p>
 
  
 
<p>This is if you may not come to his right side with the left side, hold yourself with the right at his right. If he then grips to you with wrestling, drive the sheep hold,<ref>“Schaff griff,” the translation “sheep hold” is not conclusive, it may also refer to a type of water carrier that is held in a similar way to the hold. It may also be related to how one would carry a sheep when shearing or otherwise.</ref> or the sun showing.</p>
 
<p>This is if you may not come to his right side with the left side, hold yourself with the right at his right. If he then grips to you with wrestling, drive the sheep hold,<ref>“Schaff griff,” the translation “sheep hold” is not conclusive, it may also refer to a type of water carrier that is held in a similar way to the hold. It may also be related to how one would carry a sheep when shearing or otherwise.</ref> or the sun showing.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112r.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112v.png|1|lbl=112v|p=1}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
  
Line 2,774: Line 2,674:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[15] </p>
+
| <p>[13] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you come with your right side at his right, if he then has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, then move with your right arm down from above outwards over his right, and press the arm to the right side, and ride forward, so you take his sword, or rise with the right arm from inwards over his right, and press the arm forward to your chest, and ride forward, so you again take his sword.</p>
 
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} When you come with your right side at his right, if he then has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, then move with your right arm down from above outwards over his right, and press the arm to the right side, and ride forward, so you take his sword, or rise with the right arm from inwards over his right, and press the arm forward to your chest, and ride forward, so you again take his sword.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 112v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113r.png|1|lbl=113r|p=1}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[16] The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand…</p>
+
| <p>[14] The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand…</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
Line 2,793: Line 2,688:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[17] </p>
+
| <p>[15] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Grip his right hand with your left and jolt it in front of your chest, and turn your horse from him, so he falls.</p>
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113v.png|1|lbl=113v|p=1}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[18] </p>
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|1|lbl=76v}}
 
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} Grip his right hand with your left and jolt it in front of your chest, and turn your horse from him, so he falls.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|1|lbl=76v}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[19] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, grip his right elbow with the right hand, and raise his right foot with your right foot, so he must fall.</p>
+
| <p>[16] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, grip his right elbow with the right hand, and raise his right foot with your right foot, so he must fall.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 2,819: Line 2,702:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[20] The second figure speaks about this: Turn around with the horse, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[17] The second figure speaks about this: Turn around with the horse, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 113v.png|3|lbl=-}}
+
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,826: Line 2,709:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
+
| <p>[18] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{|class="zettel"
 
{|class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,833: Line 2,716:
 
|}
 
|}
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} When someone rides upon you with a lance, you shall quite moderately<ref>Original: “sytigklich,” or “sittiglich,” at the time meant “moderately” in the sense of slowly or not too fast, modern “sittlich” means morally or ethically.</ref> ride against him, and with hurrying with the horse, so you may make all of his ridings upon you worthless with the previously written plays.</p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} When someone rides upon you with a lance, you shall quite moderately<ref>Original: “sytigklich,” or “sittiglich,” at the time meant “moderately” in the sense of slowly or not too fast, modern “sittlich” means morally or ethically.</ref> ride against him, and with hurrying with the horse, so you may make all of his ridings upon you worthless with the previously written plays.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114r.png|1|lbl=114r}}
+
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,839: Line 2,722:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[22] Or, when you hurry or run, you can’t come to the art or to the play, and are similarly insecure on the horse.</p>
+
| <p>[19] Or, when you hurry or run, you can’t come to the art or to the play, and are similarly insecure on the horse.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114v.png|1|lbl=114v|p=1}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,847: Line 2,729:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[23] The 22nd figure speaks about this: This is now the spear, run, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[20] The 22nd figure speaks about this: This is now the spear, run, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 114v.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,854: Line 2,736:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[24] </p>
+
| <p>[21] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the tasset<ref>Original: “taschn haw.” A “tasset” is a piece of armor that covers the side of the thigh. It is possible that the last part of this hew aims for a gap in the armor on the back of the leg. This translation is not conclusive.</ref> hew}}</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 115v.png|1|lbl=115v}}
+
{|class="zettel"
 +
|-
 +
| <small>6</small>
 +
| {{red|If it converts itself<br/>So that sword will be dealt against sword}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>7</small>
 +
| {{red|Correctly grasp the strong<br/>You search and note the tasset hew}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is if you both have come from the lance, and shall fence with swords, lay your sword on<ref>Original: “auß,” however the Dresden version says “vff” here, and “aus” does not make sense.</ref> the left arm in the guard, and ride directly to him under eyes to his right side. If he then hews an over hew upon you, rise with the sword and parry the hew strongly with the long edge, and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and rises high, hew with the long edge to the left hand, or to the reins,<ref>“Zawm,” - “zaum,” literally “bridle,” context continually indicates that they are talking about the reins.</ref> and if the horse tricks you,<ref>Original: “ob dich das roß vertrueg,” literally “if the horse make a fool out of you.” Likely means something like if the horse moves in a way that you don’t expect, or if the horse runs away while you’re trying to do something.</ref> then hew him to the right leg in the running away.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[25] </p>
+
| <p>[22] The 7th figure speaks about this: Here begins, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 115v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[26] </p>
+
| <p>[23] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
|  
+
{|class="zettel"
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 115v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|1|lbl=116r|p=1}}
+
|-
 +
| <small>8</small>
 +
| {{red|Learn to compel<ref>Original: “schütten”.</ref> well strong<br/>All hits without danger, distress him with it}}
 +
|-
 +
| <small>9</small>
 +
| {{red|Plant without danger<br/>Whoever brushes, hang to his hair}}
 +
|}
 +
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, that is, that you always shall bind on artfully with the sword, be it with hews or with stabs, and don’t withdraw yourself from the sword, and force him with the point to the plays written hereafter.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|1|lbl=77r}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[27] </p>
+
| <p>[24] The 20th figure speaks about this: Compel against, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[28] </p>
+
| <p>[25] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Assess if you may plant to him with the sword. If he parries onto his left side and rides to you, rise with the pommel from below, through his sword, around his neck, and come with the left to the pommel to help, and jolt him to you onto the side.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[29] </p>
+
| <p>[26] The 6th figure speaks about this: Grip at with both hands, etc.</p>
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116v.png|1|lbl=116v|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[30] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the tasset<ref>Original: “taschn haw.” A “tasset” is a piece of armor that covers the side of the thigh. It is possible that the last part of this hew aims for a gap in the armor on the back of the leg. This translation is not conclusive.</ref> hew}}</p>
+
| <p>[27] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When he parries your hew, move with your crossguard<ref>Original: “gehultz,” could be modernized to “hilt,” which is a term that could mean multiple parts of the sword today, but they are talking about the crossguard.</ref> under [his] jawbone, and grip him with the left hand by the helmet, and pull to yourself with it, and shove<ref>“Stoss,” could also mean push, strike, or bash.</ref> from you with the crossguard, so he falls.</p>
{|class="zettel"
 
|-
 
| <small>6</small>
 
| {{red|If it converts itself<br/>So that sword will be dealt against sword}}
 
|-
 
| <small>7</small>
 
| {{red|Correctly grasp the strong<br/>You search and note the tasset hew}}
 
|}
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} This is if you both have come from the lance, and shall fence with swords, lay your sword on<ref>Original: “auß,” however the Dresden version says “vff” here, and “aus” does not make sense.</ref> the left arm in the guard, and ride directly to him under eyes to his right side. If he then hews an over hew upon you, rise with the sword and parry the hew strongly with the long edge, and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and rises high, hew with the long edge to the left hand, or to the reins,<ref>“Zawm,” - “zaum,” literally “bridle,” context continually indicates that they are talking about the reins.</ref> and if the horse tricks you,<ref>Original: “ob dich das roß vertrueg,” literally “if the horse make a fool out of you.” Likely means something like if the horse moves in a way that you don’t expect, or if the horse runs away while you’re trying to do something.</ref> then hew him to the right leg in the running away.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 116v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117r.png|1|lbl=117r|p=1}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[31] The 7th figure speaks about this: Here begins, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[28] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he parries your hew or stab, and hurries to you, grip his right hand with the left, and with the right, set your point into his face.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 076v.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[32] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{|class="zettel"
 
|-
 
| <small>8</small>
 
| {{red|Learn to compel<ref>Original: “schütten”.</ref> well strong<br/>All hits without danger, distress him with it}}
 
|-
 
| <small>9</small>
 
| {{red|Plant without danger<br/>Whoever brushes, hang to his hair}}
 
|}
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Note, that is, that you always shall bind on artfully with the sword, be it with hews or with stabs, and don’t withdraw yourself from the sword, and force him with the point to the plays written hereafter.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117v.png|1|lbl=117v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|1|lbl=77r}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[33] The 20th figure speaks about this: Compel against, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[29] The 8th figure speaks about this: Turn the right hand to him, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[34] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Assess if you may plant to him with the sword. If he parries onto his left side and rides to you, rise with the pommel from below, through his sword, around his neck, and come with the left to the pommel to help, and jolt him to you onto the side.</p>
+
| <p>[30] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he parries your over hew with the lateral,<ref>“Twer,” also often translated as thwart, cross, crosswise.</ref> rise high with the right hand, and [hang]<ref>The verb is missing in this sentence, in the Dresden version “heng” (hang) is used here.</ref> with the point over top of his sword to his face or chest, and plant to him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 117v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|1|lbl=118r|p=1}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[35] </p>
+
| <p>[31] The 4th figure speaks about this: Plant high, swing, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[36] The 6th figure speaks about this: Grip at with both hands, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[32] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
|
+
{| class="zettel"
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
+
| <small>10</small>
| <p>[37] </p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} When he parries your hew, move with your crossguard<ref>Original: “gehultz,” could be modernized to “hilt,” which is a term that could mean multiple parts of the sword today, but they are talking about the crossguard.</ref> under [his] jawbone, and grip him with the left hand by the helmet, and pull to yourself with it, and shove<ref>“Stoss,” could also mean push, strike, or bash.</ref> from you with the crossguard, so he falls.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118v.png|2|lbl=118v}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[38] </p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} If he parries your hew or stab, and hurries to you, grip his right hand with the left, and with the right, set your point into his face.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|3|lbl=118r}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[39] The 8th figure speaks about this: Turn the right hand to him, etc.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118v.png|1|lbl=118v|p=1}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[40] </p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 118v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119r.png|1|lbl=119r}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[41] </p>
 
 
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} If he parries your over hew with the lateral,<ref>“Twer,” also often translated as thwart, cross, crosswise.</ref> rise high with the right hand, and [hang]<ref>The verb is missing in this sentence, in the Dresden version “heng” (hang) is used here.</ref> with the point over top of his sword to his face or chest, and plant to him.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119r.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|1|lbl=119v|p=1}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|8|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[42] </p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[43] The 4th figure speaks about this: Plant high, swing, etc.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|9|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[44] </p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 119v.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120r.png|1|lbl=120r|p=1}}
 
|
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[45] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-
 
| <small>10</small>
 
 
| {{red|If you want to touch<br/>Long hunting, that severely hurts}}
 
| {{red|If you want to touch<br/>Long hunting, that severely hurts}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,053: Line 2,844:
 
|}
 
|}
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Hold your sword next to your right leg in the guard, and ride to him as such, and stab him to the face with long outstretched arm. If he parries the stab, rise with the right hand and wind at the sword, and remain with the point in front of his face.</p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Gloss:}} Hold your sword next to your right leg in the guard, and ride to him as such, and stab him to the face with long outstretched arm. If he parries the stab, rise with the right hand and wind at the sword, and remain with the point in front of his face.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120v.png|2|lbl=120v}}
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|10|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|1|lbl=77v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077r.jpg|10|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|1|lbl=77v|p=1}}
Line 3,060: Line 2,851:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[46] The 4th speaks about this: Plant high, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[33] The 4th speaks about this: Plant high, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 3,067: Line 2,858:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[47] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he then parries with the sword and hurries to you, rise with your hand inwards over his right arm, and grip your reins with left inverted hand under his arm, therefore you engulf<ref>“Verschlingst” - “verschlingen,” to devour, engulf, scarf, etc.</ref> his hand with the reins.</p>
+
| <p>[34] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he then parries with the sword and hurries to you, rise with your hand inwards over his right arm, and grip your reins with left inverted hand under his arm, therefore you engulf<ref>“Verschlingst” - “verschlingen,” to devour, engulf, scarf, etc.</ref> his hand with the reins.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 3,074: Line 2,865:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[48] The 10th figure speaks: Press firm, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[35] The 10th figure speaks: Press firm, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
Line 3,081: Line 2,872:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[49] {{red|b=1|Here note the set-asides with the sword on horseback}}</p>
+
| <p>[36] {{red|b=1|Here note the set-asides with the sword on horseback}}</p>
  
 
<p>Note, when you ride to the man, and have your sword in a guard, note to which side he hews to you. If he hews to you from above to your left side, wind also onto your left side against his hew. Or, if he hews to you to your right side, wind also onto your right, so that your thumb always comes under, and with the parry, always set the point into his face, and drive this out against the lance also as such.</p>
 
<p>Note, when you ride to the man, and have your sword in a guard, note to which side he hews to you. If he hews to you from above to your left side, wind also onto your left side against his hew. Or, if he hews to you to your right side, wind also onto your right, so that your thumb always comes under, and with the parry, always set the point into his face, and drive this out against the lance also as such.</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
|  
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120v.png|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121r.png|1|lbl=121r|p=1}}
 
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 3,092: Line 2,881:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[50] The 19th figure speaks about this: Plant the point, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[37] The 19th figure speaks about this: Plant the point, etc.</p>
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121r.png|2|lbl=-}}
+
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
Line 3,099: Line 2,888:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[51] </p>
+
| <p>[38] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When he parries your hew,<ref>Unclear, could be “when he hews in to you, parry…” Unclear because “hawt” is used instead of “haw,” also the construction of the sentence is not typical. The Dresden version is much clearer that you are the one hewing in and he is parrying.</ref> if he then remains by you as such, move with the pommel outside over top of his right hand, and shove the hand in front of you with the crossguard to your saddle bow, and with your left, grip his sword’s pommel, and ride forward, so you take his sword.</p>
 
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} When he parries your hew,<ref>Unclear, could be “when he hews in to you, parry…” Unclear because “hawt” is used instead of “haw,” also the construction of the sentence is not typical. The Dresden version is much clearer that you are the one hewing in and he is parrying.</ref> if he then remains by you as such, move with the pommel outside over top of his right hand, and shove the hand in front of you with the crossguard to your saddle bow, and with your left, grip his sword’s pommel, and ride forward, so you take his sword.</p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120r.png|2|lbl=120r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 120v.png|1|lbl=120v|p=1}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
 
 
{{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
|
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
| <p>[52] </p>
 
|
 
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121r.png|3|lbl=121r|p=1}} {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.487 121v.png|1|lbl=121v|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 077v.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[53] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
+
| <p>[39] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,132: Line 2,908:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[54] {{red|b=1|Item:}} That is, under the face, or under the armpit, or outwards on the hand in the glove, or inwards into the hand of the palm, and in all joints of the armor at arms and at legs, and search for all the openings with stabs, and not with strikes.</p>
+
| <p>[40] {{red|b=1|Item:}} That is, under the face, or under the armpit, or outwards on the hand in the glove, or inwards into the hand of the palm, and in all joints of the armor at arms and at legs, and search for all the openings with stabs, and not with strikes.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 3,139: Line 2,915:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[55] And if you may not quite work with the sword, when you come too near to him, work with the dagger, and if you may not come to your dagger, then assess if you may take his, and work with it to the opening.</p>
+
| <p>[41] And if you may not quite work with the sword, when you come too near to him, work with the dagger, and if you may not come to your dagger, then assess if you may take his, and work with it to the opening.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 3,146: Line 2,922:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[56] The 11th figure speaks: Search for the opening, arm, leather, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[42] The 11th figure speaks: Search for the opening, arm, leather, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
Line 3,153: Line 2,929:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[57] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
+
| <p>[43] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,166: Line 2,942:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[58] The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand, learn, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[44] The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand, learn, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
Line 3,173: Line 2,949:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[59] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the sheep hold}}</p>
+
| <p>[45] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the sheep hold}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,191: Line 2,967:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[60] The 13th figure speaks about this: The sheep hold wards…</p>
+
| <p>[46] The 13th figure speaks about this: The sheep hold wards…</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 078v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 3,198: Line 2,974:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[61] {{red|b=1|This is the text about wrestling}}</p>
+
| <p>[47] {{red|b=1|This is the text about wrestling}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,214: Line 2,990:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[62] {{red|b=1|Another}}<ref>“Aliud,” Latin.</ref></p>
+
| <p>[48] {{red|b=1|Another}}<ref>“Aliud,” Latin.</ref></p>
  
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} When you ride together with someone, if he then comes with his left side to your right, and if he falls with the left hand behind around your neck, rise with the right arm behind you strong over his left, and come with the left hand to the right hand to help, and press his left arm to him tight behind into your nape. If he then swerves with the arm, grip his left hand with the left, and drive the unnamed hold, or the forbidden hold.</p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Item:}} When you ride together with someone, if he then comes with his left side to your right, and if he falls with the left hand behind around your neck, rise with the right arm behind you strong over his left, and come with the left hand to the right hand to help, and press his left arm to him tight behind into your nape. If he then swerves with the arm, grip his left hand with the left, and drive the unnamed hold, or the forbidden hold.</p>
Line 3,223: Line 2,999:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[63] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if he grips behind around with the left hand and wants to wrestle, strike with the right arm outwards strong down from above into the joint of his left arm, and ride forward.</p>
+
| <p>[49] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if he grips behind around with the left hand and wants to wrestle, strike with the right arm outwards strong down from above into the joint of his left arm, and ride forward.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 3,231: Line 3,007:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[64] The 26th figure: Over grip, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[50] The 26th figure: Over grip, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 3,238: Line 3,014:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[65] {{red|b=1|This is the text about a lesson}}</p>
+
| <p>[51] {{red|b=1|This is the text about a lesson}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,251: Line 3,027:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[66] {{red|b=1|This is the text to the left side}}</p>
+
| <p>[52] {{red|b=1|This is the text to the left side}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,270: Line 3,046:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[67] The fifth figure speaks about this: The compelling, going before all, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[53] The fifth figure speaks about this: The compelling, going before all, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
Line 3,277: Line 3,053:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[68] {{red|b=1|Item:}} That is, when you ride to him to the left side, hew in an over hew strong. If he then also hews in strong and wants to plant to you, you shall parry him while he is far from you with the sword. Or, if he comes near to you, grip his right hand with your left.</p>
+
| <p>[54] {{red|b=1|Item:}} That is, when you ride to him to the left side, hew in an over hew strong. If he then also hews in strong and wants to plant to you, you shall parry him while he is far from you with the sword. Or, if he comes near to you, grip his right hand with your left.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
Line 3,284: Line 3,060:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[69] The 16th figure speaks: Catch the weapon, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[55] The 16th figure speaks: Catch the weapon, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079r.jpg|7|lbl=-}}
Line 3,291: Line 3,067:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[70] {{red|b=1|This is the text about a lesson}}</p>
+
| <p>[56] {{red|b=1|This is the text about a lesson}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,307: Line 3,083:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[71] The 14th figure speaks about this: In the length, turn around, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[57] The 14th figure speaks about this: In the length, turn around, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 3,314: Line 3,090:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[72] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
+
| <p>[58] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,331: Line 3,107:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[73] The 18th figure speaks about this: If you hunt left, fall upon it, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[59] The 18th figure speaks about this: If you hunt left, fall upon it, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
Line 3,338: Line 3,114:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[74] {{red|b=1|Note}}</p>
+
| <p>[60] {{red|b=1|Note}}</p>
  
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Or,}} when you press his right arm into his<ref>Likely an error intending “your,” as it is in the previous passage.</ref> left side, and ride away next to him, you take his sword. You may also catch with the reins into the hand with the move-over if you want.</p>
 
<p>{{red|b=1|Or,}} when you press his right arm into his<ref>Likely an error intending “your,” as it is in the previous passage.</ref> left side, and ride away next to him, you take his sword. You may also catch with the reins into the hand with the move-over if you want.</p>
Line 3,347: Line 3,123:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[75] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you parry his over hew as is written before, hew in a free over hew above to the head.</p>
+
| <p>[61] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you parry his over hew as is written before, hew in a free over hew above to the head.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 079v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
Line 3,354: Line 3,130:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[76] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you have your sword on the left arm in the guard, if one then rides upon you with a lance to your left side, rise well with the pommel and let the blade hang to the left side, and set aside his lance with it as such, and hew to his head, or plant to him. Or, if he rides to you with the lance to your right side, sweep straight up with the sword to his lance, and wind into the over hanging, and plant to him.</p>
+
| <p>[62] {{red|b=1|Item:}} When you have your sword on the left arm in the guard, if one then rides upon you with a lance to your left side, rise well with the pommel and let the blade hang to the left side, and set aside his lance with it as such, and hew to his head, or plant to him. Or, if he rides to you with the lance to your right side, sweep straight up with the sword to his lance, and wind into the over hanging, and plant to him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 3,362: Line 3,138:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[77] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
+
| <p>[63] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,378: Line 3,154:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[78] The 24th figure speaks about this: If one hunts you from both sides, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[64] The 24th figure speaks about this: If one hunts you from both sides, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 3,385: Line 3,161:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[79] {{red|b=1|Item:}} While you flee, you shall also know to nimbly turn yourself around in the saddle from one side to the other, and stab behind you, and set-aside sword and lance to both sides.</p>
+
| <p>[65] {{red|b=1|Item:}} While you flee, you shall also know to nimbly turn yourself around in the saddle from one side to the other, and stab behind you, and set-aside sword and lance to both sides.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080r.jpg|4|lbl=-}}
Line 3,392: Line 3,168:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[80] {{red|b=1|Note a nimbleness with the lance}}</p>
+
| <p>[66] {{red|b=1|Note a nimbleness with the lance}}</p>
  
 
<p>When you are hunted,<ref>“Jagen,” to hunt, seems to mean when someone is riding behind another, rather than “gleich” (equally) or “zusammen” (together), when both riders ride toward one another.</ref> and have a lance, if someone hunts towards you, and also has one, hold your lance with the right hand on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is nearly behind at you, raise the lance over the head upon your left shoulder, and let your point remain behind you, and turn yourself against him upon your left side, and strike your lance with it under the arm, so you come equally with him under the eyes.</p>
 
<p>When you are hunted,<ref>“Jagen,” to hunt, seems to mean when someone is riding behind another, rather than “gleich” (equally) or “zusammen” (together), when both riders ride toward one another.</ref> and have a lance, if someone hunts towards you, and also has one, hold your lance with the right hand on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is nearly behind at you, raise the lance over the head upon your left shoulder, and let your point remain behind you, and turn yourself against him upon your left side, and strike your lance with it under the arm, so you come equally with him under the eyes.</p>
Line 3,402: Line 3,178:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[81] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
+
| <p>[67] {{red|b=1|This is the text}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,415: Line 3,191:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[82] The 25th figure speaks about this: The knife taking, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[68] The 25th figure speaks about this: The knife taking, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 080v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 3,422: Line 3,198:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[83] {{red|b=1|This is about the unnamed hold}}</p>
+
| <p>[69] {{red|b=1|This is about the unnamed hold}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,439: Line 3,215:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[84] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If you don’t want to break the arm, when you have jolted him in front of your chest, grab his right elbow with your left hand, and shove him from you with it, and grab his sword by the pommel with your right hand, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.</p>
+
| <p>[70] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If you don’t want to break the arm, when you have jolted him in front of your chest, grab his right elbow with your left hand, and shove him from you with it, and grab his sword by the pommel with your right hand, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 3,446: Line 3,222:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[85] The 23rd figure speaks about this: The unnamed hold, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[71] The 23rd figure speaks about this: The unnamed hold, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 3,453: Line 3,229:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[86] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the sun showing}}</p>
+
| <p>[72] {{red|b=1|This is the text about the sun showing}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,476: Line 3,252:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[87] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if you come with the left side to his right, grab him as before, and throw him behind you onto your left side, and that wrestle is called the sun showing.</p>
+
| <p>[73] {{red|b=1|Item:}} Or, if you come with the left side to his right, grab him as before, and throw him behind you onto your left side, and that wrestle is called the sun showing.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 3,483: Line 3,259:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[88] The 15th figure speaks about this: In the after, catch the hand, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[74] The 15th figure speaks about this: In the after, catch the hand, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 3,490: Line 3,266:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[89] </p>
+
| <p>[75] </p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,508: Line 3,284:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[90] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he comes with his left side to your right and grabs with his left hand behind around you towards your left arm, rise from below backward over his left arm and press him tight behind in the nape. If he then weasels away with the arm, grab his left hand with the left hand, and throw him with the unnamed hold.</p>
+
| <p>[76] {{red|b=1|Item:}} If he comes with his left side to your right and grabs with his left hand behind around you towards your left arm, rise from below backward over his left arm and press him tight behind in the nape. If he then weasels away with the arm, grab his left hand with the left hand, and throw him with the unnamed hold.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|5|lbl=-}}
Line 3,515: Line 3,291:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[91] The fourth figure speaks about this: Whoever wards the stab, catch to him, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[77] The fourth figure speaks about this: Whoever wards the stab, catch to him, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS E.1939.65.341 081v.jpg|6|lbl=-}}
Line 3,522: Line 3,298:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| <p>[92] {{red|b=1|Another text}}</p>
+
| <p>[78] {{red|b=1|Another text}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,540: Line 3,316:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[93] </p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[79] </p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 3,631: Line 3,407:
 
== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==
  
 +
* [[Stephen Cheney|Cheney, Stephen]]. ''Ringeck &middot; Danzig &middot; Lew Longsword''. Self-published, 2020. ISBN 978-8649845441
 
* [[David Lindholm|Lindholm, David]] and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword''. Boulder, CO: [[Paladin Press]], 2003. ISBN 978-1-58160-410-8
 
* [[David Lindholm|Lindholm, David]] and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword''. Boulder, CO: [[Paladin Press]], 2003. ISBN 978-1-58160-410-8
 
* Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Arts of Combat: Sword-and-Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor''. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-499-3
 
* Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. ''Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Arts of Combat: Sword-and-Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor''. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-499-3

Latest revision as of 17:34, 17 July 2021

Sigmund ain Ringeck
Period 15th century
Occupation Fencing master
Nationality German
Patron Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
Movement Fellowship of Liechtenauer
Influences Johannes Liechtenauer
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s) Hypothetical
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
First printed
english edition
Tobler, 2001
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Sigmund ain Ringeck (Ainring, Amring, Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a 15th century German fencing master. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by Hans Medel) is uncertain, the surname "Ainring[ck]" may indicate that he came from the village of Ainring on the current German/Austrian border. He is named in the text as Schirmaister to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify Schirrmeister, a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially Schirmmeister, a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.[1] Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer—his name was included by Paulus Kal in his roll of members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer in ca. 1470.[2]

The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of Johannes Liechtenauer further narrows the list down to just two. If the MS 3227a is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was Albrecht Ⅰ, who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of H. Beringer) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been Albrecht Ⅲ, who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.[3] Albrecht Ⅳ claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht Ⅳ lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.

Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the MS Dresd.C.487. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on unarmored long sword fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century[4] (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.

Stemma

While only one treatise bears Ringeck's name, a gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on the long sword, he is often considered to be the author of the glosses of the short sword and mounted verses as well. The latter are associated with Ringeck largely due to the previously mentioned misattribution of the entire MS Dresd.C.487 (Dresden), but this is not an entirely unreasonable attribution to make considering the long sword is always accompanied by one or both of the others. All three seem to be based on the gloss of the anonymous author known as "pseudo-Peter von Danzig", which is attested from the 1450s; it is also possible that Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig were the same person, and the gloss attributed to Ringeck is simply the only branch of the larger stemma that retained its author's name.

Compared to the pseudo-Danzig gloss, Ringeck's descriptions are often slightly shorter and contain fewer variations; Ringeck does, however, include a number of unique plays not discussed in the other. Unlike the 15th century versions of pseudo-Danzig, Ringeck's long sword gloss was probably extensively illustrated: both the MS E.1939.65.341 (Glasgow) and MS Var.82 (Rostock) frequently refer readers to these illustrations, and it appears that source for the Dresden did as well, though the scribe attempted to remove all such references as he copied it (one remains intact,[5] one merely dropped the word "pictured",[6] and one was inexplicably replaced by the word "gloss"[7]).

Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck

The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by Hans von Speyer as addenda to certain sections of the Lew gloss in his 1491 manuscript M.Ⅰ.29 (Salzburg).[8] A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.

The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,[4] and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.

The 1508[9] Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.

The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of Albrecht Dürer; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian Ⅰ to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.[10] This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).

The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, Paulus Hector Mair produced the Reichstadt Nr. 82 (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master Antonius Rast.[11] Included in this manuscript was a version of Nicolaüs' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.

The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter Joachim Meÿer until his death in 1571.[12] It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).

All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).

Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.

(A final text of interest is the treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg, which was acquired by Mair in 1539[13] and bound into the Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.5 after 1566.[14] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt, but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)

Treatise

Additional Resources

  • Cheney, Stephen. Ringeck · Danzig · Lew Longsword. Self-published, 2020. ISBN 978-8649845441
  • Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-58160-410-8
  • Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Arts of Combat: Sword-and-Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-499-3
  • Tobler, Christian Henry. Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship. Highland Village, TX: Chivalry Bookshelf, 2001. ISBN 1-891448-07-2
  • Wierschin, Martin. Meister Johann Liechtenauers Kunst des Fechtens. München: Beck, 1965.
  • Żabiński, Grzegorz. The Longsword Teachings of Master Liechtenauer. The Early Sixteenth Century Swordsmanship Comments in the "Goliath" Manuscript. Poland: Adam Marshall, 2010. ISBN 978-83-7611-662-4

References

  1. Jens P. Kleinau. "Schirrmeister, Schermeister, Schirmmeister". Hans Talhoffer ~ A Historical Martial Arts blog by Jens P. Kleinau], 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  2. The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of Paulus Kal's treatise: MS 1825 (1460s), Cgm 1570 (ca. 1470), and MS KK5126 (1480s).
  3. For a different perspective, see Christian Henry Tobler. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Werner J. Hoffmann. "Mscr.Dresd.C.487: Siegmund am Ringeck, Fechtlehre". Tiefenerschließung und Digitalisierung der deutschsprachigen mittelalterlichen Handschriften der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (SLUB) Dresden. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  5. Dresden fol. 31r.
  6. Dresden fol. 20r.
  7. Dresden fol. 27r.
  8. MS M.Ⅰ.29 is signed and internally dated on folio 158r.
  9. MS E.1939.65.341 is internally dated on folio 22r.
  10. Friedrich Dörnhöffer. Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch. Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.
  11. The origin of Reichstadt Nr. 82 is detailed on folio Ⅱr.
  12. The only date, 1570, is given on folio 123 (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See Joachim Meyer. The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.
  13. Medel's section of the Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.5 is internally dated on folio 21r.
  14. The record of the Marxbrüder in the manuscript ends on folio 20r with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 15.26 15.27 15.28 15.29 15.30 15.31 15.32 15.33 15.34 15.35 15.36 15.37 15.38 15.39 15.40 15.41 15.42 15.43 15.44 15.45 15.46 15.47 15.48 15.49 15.50 15.51 15.52 15.53 15.54 15.55 Word omitted from the Dresden.
  16. "Known as" omitted from the Dresden.
  17. D. schirmaiste~, R. schiermeister.
  18. Count Palatine
  19. Duke
  20. "and pictured" omitted from the Dresden.
  21. Corrected from »am«.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Line omitted from the Dresden.
  23. lit: hastening. hasten, maturare, accelerare, see Grimm
  24. alt: instruction
  25. D. Zeck: Tick; R. Zeckruhr: Insect bites.
  26. Possibly "strongly desire to conduct".
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Note, this is" omitted from the Dresden.
  28. "You shall" omitted from the Rostock.
  29. Lit: "Before the moment he comes with his to you".
  30. wiederhalten: lit. "hold against"; to withstand, resist.
  31. Alternately: weapons.
  32. D. Wer dz wäre: "Whoever defends these".
  33. Alternately: avow, legally promise.
  34. Possibly "wages".
  35. Lit: "hew other hews".
  36. "In the same five hews" omitted from the Rostock.
  37. ober is an adjective, oben is an adverb.
  38. R. "the".
  39. 39.00 39.01 39.02 39.03 39.04 39.05 39.06 39.07 39.08 39.09 39.10 39.11 39.12 39.13 39.14 39.15 39.16 39.17 39.18 39.19 39.20 39.21 39.22 39.23 39.24 39.25 39.26 39.27 39.28 39.29 39.30 39.31 39.32 39.33 39.34 39.35 39.36 39.37 39.38 39.39 39.40 39.41 39.42 39.43 39.44 Clause omitted from the Dresden.
  40. 40.0 40.1 "This is" omitted from the Dresden.
  41. abrucken: "removere" (remove), "absetzen" (offset).
  42. D. wider[sic]: "again".
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 D. "the".
  44. D. bind: "bind-in".
  45. R. Jun ger [sic].
  46. R. dem krieg: "the war".
  47. D. hurten: "to rush".
  48. "The hew, or thrust, or cut" omitted from the Dresden.
  49. "Nor thrust… cut" omitted from the Rostock.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Sentence omitted from the Rostock.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 51.5 51.6 51.7 51.8 Word omitted from the Rostock.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Word omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.
  53. Alternately: ponder, weigh, calculate, estimate, consider.
  54. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 17rv
  55. Alternately: avenge, take full legal retribution.
  56. Alternately: straight, upright, properly.
  57. D. schüczen, R. behuetẽ.
  58. Rostock hews off at this point and picks up in the middle of the sixth subsequent play, probably indicating a missing page.
  59. Alternately: part, piece.
  60. aufkrummen: Lat. sursum torquere, twist, turn or bend up; twist, turn, bend, or cast back; avert, deflect .
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 61.4 61.5 Word omitted from the Salzburg.
  62. Likely a scribal error and should be "his".
  63. "The opening" omitted from the Salzburg.
  64. S. "the over- or under-hew".
  65. Possibly "it".
  66. S. vß gestreckten: "outstretched".
  67. Sentence omitted from the Salzburg; instead, it segues into the Lew gloss of the same verse, describing how the Crooked hew breaks the Ox.
  68. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 18v
  69. This phrase has no verb, likely due to scribal error; it has been completed based on the version in the treatise of Hans Medel.
  70. Rostock begins again at this point.
  71. "Cut" omitted from the Dresden.
  72. S. "Item".
  73. 73.0 73.1 Paragraphs 33 and 35 are substantially similar and are likely based on the same original text. However, they contain significant differences in the beginning of the device and it is unclear which represents the original version; the version found in Rostock and Salzburg seems to refer to the technique in 32, whereas the Dresden refers to 34 (not found in the others). In this compilation, the two versions are displayed separately, first that of the Rostock and Salzburg (34) and then that of the Dresden (35).
  74. S. "if".
  75. S. "his".
  76. S. "the".
  77. S. "where he shall guard himself".
  78. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 20v-21r
  79. D. has the word "Gloss" here; this appears to be a scribal error, as it corresponds to the position of the phrase "as is pictured here-after" in the Rostock, and all instances of that phrase were removed by the scribe of the Dresden.
  80. "Komp" added below the line in a different hand.
  81. "Stand with… shoulder, and" omitted from the Dresden.
  82. D. "thwart".
  83. 83.0 83.1 Alternately, wiederhalten: to struggle or resist.
  84. Word omitted from the Glasgow, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  85. "Or otherwise" omitted from the Salzburg.
  86. "-Cut" omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Rostock.
  87. Clause omitted from the Dresden; struck out in the Rostock.
  88. 88.0 88.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.
  89. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 21v
  90. R. "wind".
  91. "With the over-hew" omitted from the Glasgow.
  92. R. unternn: "lower".
  93. "Next to" omitted from the Rostock.
  94. Glasgow adds albeg: "always, continually".
  95. Or "connects"; alternately: rouses, stirs (ostensibly your opponent).
  96. "This is" omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  97. "Will strike" omitted from the Dresden.
  98. G. twerhaw: "thwart-hew".
  99. R. "wind".
  100. "Or left" omitted from the Glasgow.
  101. Everything from "and steal away" to the end of the sentence is omitted from the Dresden.
  102. Alternately: to turn around.
  103. "And strike in" omitted from the Dresden.
  104. D. "is".
  105. 105.0 105.1 D. "right".
  106. D. mit auß: "with from".
  107. As a thief would break into a house.
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 108.3 Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  109. Word is doubled in the Glasgow.
  110. annehmen: receive, accept, take up, assume, claim, obtain, etc.
  111. "Into the weak of his sword" omitted from the Rostock
  112. "Upright, elevated, straight, at a right angle"; Glasgow gives auff gerackten, which may be a misspelling of pPvD's aus gestrackten, "out-stretched".
  113. "With upright arms… right shoulder" omitted from the Rostock.
  114. Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  115. R. "pictured here".
  116. 116.00 116.01 116.02 116.03 116.04 116.05 116.06 116.07 116.08 116.09 116.10 116.11 116.12 116.13 116.14 116.15 116.16 116.17 116.18 116.19 116.20 116.21 116.22 116.23 Word omitted from the Glasgow.
  117. Corrected from »seiner«.
  118. S. bestetigstu: "to plant".
  119. G. abent: "evening", clearly an error; Medel: anwinden: "winding-upon".
  120. 120.0 120.1 120.2 120.3 120.4 120.5 Word omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  121. "To his point" omitted from the Rostock.
  122. "To his point" omitted from the Glasgow.
  123. S. "You may also do this".
  124. "A free over-hew" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  125. "With the visage" omitted from the Salzburg.
  126. "To his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  127. D., G. "the head".
  128. R. includes couplet 64 with this gloss.
  129. R. denn Schaytler: "the parter".
  130. 130.0 130.1 130.2 130.3 Clause omitted from the Rostock.
  131. D. der lange: "long, high, tall, or lofty".
  132. "To his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  133. "If he displaces" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  134. einhangen: to adhere, stick to, cleave to, hold on to, engage deeply.
  135. "With the long… and thrust him" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  136. Kehr has two etymologies: one is "to turn", the other is "to sweep away" or to "carry off"; the gloss supports the first derivation.
  137. Alternately: strongly, firmly, steadfastly.
  138. R. includes this couplet with the previous gloss.
  139. G., R., S. "Item".
  140. D. "hang-in"; "strike-in and" omitted.
  141. "The point" omitted from the Salzburg.
  142. Sentence omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  143. D., G., R. "you".
  144. D., G., S. "the".
  145. "In the displacement" omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.
  146. "Of the parter" omitted from the Dresden, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  147. S. fast vber sich: "firmly upward".
  148. Clause omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Salzburg.
  149. "His hands" omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Salzburg.
  150. G. "since".
  151. 151.0 151.1 Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 28v
  152. Rostock combines the glosses for couplets 65-67 into a single paragraph; they have been separated here according to their presentation in Dresden and Glasgow.
  153. D., G. Schon, lit. "already", "yet".
  154. D. stuch, R. stich: "press the thrust".
  155. D., G., S. "cut".
  156. 156.0 156.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  157. S. "well broken".
  158. "From the under-cut" omitted from the Salzburg.
  159. "And wind your sword… withdraw yourself" omitted from the Rostock.
  160. Imperative of fliehen.
  161. alt: unpleasant, repugnant
  162. "Note, this" omitted from the Dresden.
  163. "Will be" omitted from the Glasgow.
  164. 164.0 164.1 164.2 164.3 "Is called" omitted from the Dresden
  165. "With the hilt" omitted from the Dresden.
  166. G. auß gestrackten: "upstretched".
  167. "It all" omitted from the Dresden.
  168. "In this book" omitted from the Glasgow.
  169. G. "Guard yourself displacing crossed in front".
  170. D. instead continues "that the four displacings, they are the four hews".
  171. Setzen", possibly a shortening of versetzen, "displaces".
  172. D. "oxen".
  173. S. other.
  174. "they allow the... do not parry" omitted from the Dresden and Glasgow.
  175. S. Item
  176. R. "This is when one displaces your over-hew"; S. "If your over-hew is parried and it comes nearing upon him".
  177. D. "in front of".
  178. G., S. versetzte: "shifted, misplaced, displaced, parried".
  179. Word omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Rostock.
  180. 180.0 180.1 Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 31r
  181. "And wrench… his below" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  182. "The head" omitted from the Salzburg.
  183. 183.0 183.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.
  184. S. "also".
  185. G. mit dem schwert: "with the sword".
  186. D. "grasp with the sword".
  187. G. magst: "may".
  188. 188.0 188.1 G. "the".
  189. Alternately: defense.
  190. "And hit him" omitted from the Rostock.
  191. 191.0 191.1 "The moment" omitted from the Dresden.
  192. D. wieder-kommen: to meet, to encounter, to run into".
  193. "Or fall… from you" omitted from the Rostock.
  194. Corrected from »dem«.
  195. Line omitted from the Rostock.
  196. R. "or".
  197. "If he then" omitted from the Rostock".
  198. D. haw: "hew".
  199. Mähnen, menen, mennen. To drive cattle, to impel an animal to move(in particular a driver or rider with a cattle-drive). To exert command over something reacting. To lead.
  200. geim: "watchfully, to observe, cautiously, with foresight".
  201. Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Salzburg.
  202. S. "the feeling work thusly".
  203. "You come… onset and" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  204. S. "soft or hard".
  205. S. "feeling".
  206. "To the nearest opening" omitted from the Salzburg.
  207. D., G. gewar, S. ÿnnen.
  208. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 33v
  209. Word omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.
  210. D. "winds".
  211. D. blitzscht: "flashes".
  212. Corrected from »arnn«.
  213. D. "Item".
  214. G. "note".
  215. Schier has the sense of approaching quickly and closely.