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Sigmund ain Ringeck

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Sigmund ain Ringeck
Period 15th century
Occupation Fencing master
Nationality German
Patron Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
Movement Fellowship of Liechtenauer
Influences Johannes Liechtenauer
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s) Hypothetical
First printed
english edition
Tobler, 2001
Concordance by Michael Chidester

Sigmund ain Ringeck (Ainring, Amring, Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a 15th century German fencing master. While the meaning of the name "Schining" (assigned him by Hans Medel) is uncertain, the surname "Ainring[ck]" may indicate that he came from the village of Ainring on the current German/Austrian border. He is named in the text as Schirmaister to Albrecht, Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria. This may signify Schirrmeister, a logistical officer charged with overseeing the wagons and horse-drawn artillery pieces, or potentially Schirmmeister, a title used by lower-class itinerant fencing masters in the Medieval period.[1] Apart from his service to the duke, the only thing that can be determined about his life is that he was connected in some way to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer—his name was included by Paulus Kal in his roll of members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer in ca. 1470.[2]

The identity of Ringeck's patron remains unclear, as four men named Albrecht ruled Bavaria during the fifteenth century; assuming that Ringeck was a personal student of Johannes Liechtenauer further narrows the list down to just two. If the MS 3227a is correctly dated to 1389, then Liechtenauer was a 14th century master and Ringeck's patron was Albrecht Ⅰ, who reigned from 1353 to 1404. If, on the other hand, Liechtenauer was an early 15th century master (an associate of H. Beringer) and the Fellowship of Liechtenauer was assembled to fight in the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 30s, then Ringeck's patron would have been Albrecht Ⅲ, who carried the title from 1438 to 1460.[3] Albrecht Ⅳ claimed the title in 1460 and thus also could have been Ringeck's patron; this would probably signify that Ringeck was not a direct student of Liechtenauer at all, but a later inheritor of the tradition. That said, Albrecht Ⅳ lived until 1508 and so the Dresden, Glasgow, and Salzburg manuscripts were likely created during his reign.

Ringeck is often erroneously credited as the author of the MS Dresd.C.487. Ringeck was indeed the author of one of the core texts, a complete gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on unarmored long sword fencing. However, the remainder of the manuscript contains an assortment of treatises by several different masters in the tradition, and it is currently thought to have been composed in the early 16th century[4] (putting it after the master's presumed lifetime). Regardless, the fact that he was one of only a few known authors of a gloss of the Recital makes Ringeck one of the most important masters of the Liechtenauer tradition.


While only one treatise bears Ringeck's name, a gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on the long sword, he is often considered to be the author of the glosses of the short sword and mounted verses as well. The latter are associated with Ringeck largely due to the previously mentioned misattribution of the entire MS Dresd.C.487 (Dresden), but this is not an entirely unreasonable attribution to make considering the long sword is always accompanied by one or both of the others. All three seem to be based on the gloss of the anonymous author known as "pseudo-Peter von Danzig", which is attested from the 1450s; it is also possible that Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig were the same person, and the gloss attributed to Ringeck is simply the only branch of the larger stemma that retained its author's name.

Compared to the pseudo-Danzig gloss, Ringeck's descriptions are often slightly shorter and contain fewer variations; Ringeck does, however, include a number of unique plays not discussed in the other. Unlike the 15th century versions of pseudo-Danzig, Ringeck's long sword gloss was probably extensively illustrated: both the MS E.1939.65.341 (Glasgow) and MS Var.82 (Rostock) frequently refer readers to these illustrations, and it appears that source for the Dresden did as well, though the scribe attempted to remove all such references as he copied it (one remains intact,[5] one merely dropped the word "pictured",[6] and one was inexplicably replaced by the word "gloss"[7]).

Provisional stemma codicum for Ringeck

The earliest extant version of Ringeck's gloss (apart from the segments that are identical with the pseudo-Danzig) consists of just elevent paragraphs added by Hans von Speyer as addenda to certain sections of the Lew gloss in his 1491 manuscript M.Ⅰ.29 (Salzburg).[8] A twelfth paragraph was integrated by Speyer into pseudo-Danzig's introduction to the Krumphaw, so that Ringeck's explanation of how to use the Krump as a counter-cut compliments pseudo-Danzig's explanation of how to use it to break the guard Ochs.

The early 16th century saw three more versions created, two containing the majority of the text. Dresden, which has been by far the subject of the most previous research, has been dated by watermark analysis to 1504-19,[4] and thus was likely created in or shortly after that time-frame. It is the most extensive version of Ringeck's work, but unfortunately it also seems to be a hasty, error-ridden copy with frequent deletions, insertions, spelling errors, word confusion, and critical omissions (including key words like subjects and verbs, and even whole lines of verse); the majority of paragraphs also seem to have been shortened or truncated, most references to Ringeck's illustrations have been dropped (as detailed above), and the text stops abruptly in the middle of gloss of the mounted fencing verses.

The 1508[9] Glasgow, in contrast, is written in a clear and tidy hand and its long sword gloss includes 31 painted, if somewhat low-grade, illustrations (presumably copies of the originals). Its text is generally longer than equivalent passages in the Dresden, including additional information and variations, but like the Dresden it appears to be incomplete in its present form: the first 39 paragraphs of the long sword gloss from the Dresden have no equivalent in the extant manuscript, which begins in the middle of the Twerhaw, and only the first 6 paragraphs of the short sword gloss are included before the manuscript switches to the pseudo-Danzig gloss for the remainder of the verses. On the other hand, it contains the full gloss of the mounted fencing verse, including the half missing from the Dresden.

The third version from this period, the Vienna, is found at the end of a manuscript attributed to the workshop of Albrecht Dürer; like all of Dürer's fencing material, appears to be connected with the visit of Emperor Maximilian Ⅰ to Dürer's home city of Nuremberg in 1512.[10] This manuscript contains only a disordered but complete rendering of the short sword gloss; this is strange because the manuscript also contains wrestling plays potentialy derived from the Glasgow Fechtbuch (which omits the short sword and includes the other two).

The remaining two versions of Ringeck's text come from later in the 16th century. In 1553, Paulus Hector Mair produced the Reichstadt Nr. 82 (Augsburg) based on the papers of the late master Antonius Rast.[11] Included in this manuscript was a version of Nicolaüs' long sword gloss that is largely complete up to couplet 95 of the Recital where, with no explanation, it switches over to Ringeck's gloss for the remainder of the text.

The final version, Rostock, is third substantial one (along with Dresden and Glasgow); it was probably created in the 1560s and was owned by Freifechter Joachim Meÿer until his death in 1571.[12] It contains nearly all of Ringeck's presumed gloss of the short sword verses, but only an abbreviated (thought still extensive) version of the long sword gloss. Rostock's long sword gloss only includes key passages and omits most of the follow-on plays to each of the Haupstucke; like Glasgow it directs readers to consult Ringeck's illustrations, but unlike Glasgow these illustrations were never added to the manuscript (nor was room left for them).

All six extant versions of Ringeck's gloss are thus fragmentary, but enough text remains in each to demonstrate a lack of interdependence (apart from Augsburg, which could conceivably derive from Glasgow if the scribe were particularly careless). Each of the other five manuscripts has a unique constellation of plays which can be authenticated from other versions as a group, but do not match any other single version to have been copied from it. All appear therefore to proceed separately from the lost original, unless we suppose that someone gathered up multiple copies to compile a new one (but even that supposition could only account for Rostock, not the others).

Due to the fragmentary nature of the stemma at the moment and the lack of anything resembling an autograph or archetype, for the long sword translation below all versions were treated as co-authoritative: whenever feasible the longest sample was given preference, and the differences between versions detailed in the footnotes.

(A final text of interest is the treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg, which was acquired by Mair in 1539[13] and bound into the Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.5 after 1566.[14] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, including Nicolaüs and Hans Seydenfaden von Erfurt, but his text primarily takes the form of a revision and expansion of Ringeck's long sword gloss. While enough of Ringeck's original text survives Medel's editing that it too can be shown to not derive from any other surviving manuscript, the amount of unique and altered content is such that it is not included in the concordance below, nor used in the translation.)


Additional Resources

  • Cheney, Stephen. Ringeck · Danzig · Lew Longsword. Self-published, 2020. ISBN 978-8649845441
  • Kellett, Rachel E. "'... Vnnd schuß im vnder dem schwert den ort lang ein zu der brust': The Placement and Consequences of Sword-blows in Sigmund Ringeck's Fifteenth-Century Fencing Manual". Wounds and wound repair in Medieval culture: 128-150. Ed. Larissa Tracy and Kelly DeVries. Leiden: Brill, 2015. doi:10.1163/9789004306455_007
  • Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Art of the Longsword. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-58160-410-8
  • Lindholm, David and Svard, Peter. Sigmund Ringeck's Knightly Arts of Combat: Sword-and-Buckler Fighting, Wrestling, and Fighting in Armor. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58160-499-3
  • Tobler, Christian Henry. Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship. Highland Village, TX: Chivalry Bookshelf, 2001. ISBN 1-891448-07-2
  • Wierschin, Martin. Meister Johann Liechtenauers Kunst des Fechtens. München: Beck, 1965.
  • Żabiński, Grzegorz. The Longsword Teachings of Master Liechtenauer. The Early Sixteenth Century Swordsmanship Comments in the "Goliath" Manuscript. Poland: Adam Marshall, 2010. ISBN 978-83-7611-662-4


  1. Jens P. Kleinau. "Schirrmeister, Schermeister, Schirmmeister". Hans Talhoffer ~ A Historical Martial Arts blog by Jens P. Kleinau], 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  2. The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of Paulus Kal's treatise: MS 1825 (1460s), Cgm 1570 (ca. 1470), and MS KK5126 (1480s).
  3. For a different perspective, see Christian Henry Tobler. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Werner J. Hoffmann. "Mscr.Dresd.C.487: Siegmund am Ringeck, Fechtlehre". Tiefenerschließung und Digitalisierung der deutschsprachigen mittelalterlichen Handschriften der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (SLUB) Dresden. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  5. Dresden fol. 31r.
  6. Dresden fol. 20r.
  7. Dresden fol. 27r.
  8. MS M.Ⅰ.29 is signed and internally dated on folio 158r.
  9. MS E.1939.65.341 is internally dated on folio 22r.
  10. Friedrich Dörnhöffer. Albrecht Dürers Fechtbuch. Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1910.
  11. The origin of Reichstadt Nr. 82 is detailed on folio Ⅱr.
  12. The only date, 1570, is given on folio 123 (between the first and second sections of Meyer's rapier text); the rest of the manuscript shows a few different hands and was likely compiled prior to its acquisition by Meyer. See Joachim Meyer. The Art of Combat. A German Martial Arts Treatise of 1570. Trans. Jeffrey L. Forgeng. London: Frontline Books, 2014. pp 32-33.
  13. Medel's section of the Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.5 is internally dated on folio 21r.
  14. The record of the Marxbrüder in the manuscript ends on folio 20r with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 15.26 15.27 15.28 15.29 15.30 15.31 15.32 15.33 15.34 15.35 15.36 15.37 15.38 15.39 15.40 15.41 15.42 15.43 15.44 15.45 15.46 15.47 15.48 15.49 15.50 15.51 15.52 15.53 15.54 15.55 Word omitted from the Dresden.
  16. "Known as" omitted from the Dresden.
  17. D. schirmaiste~, R. schiermeister.
  18. Count Palatine
  19. Duke
  20. "and pictured" omitted from the Dresden.
  21. Corrected from »am«.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Line omitted from the Dresden.
  23. lit: hastening. hasten, maturare, accelerare, see Grimm
  24. alt: instruction
  25. D. Zeck: Tick; R. Zeckruhr: Insect bites.
  26. Possibly "strongly desire to conduct".
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Note, this is" omitted from the Dresden.
  28. "You shall" omitted from the Rostock.
  29. Lit: "Before the moment he comes with his to you".
  30. wiederhalten: lit. "hold against"; to withstand, resist.
  31. Alternately: weapons.
  32. D. Wer dz wäre: "Whoever defends these".
  33. Alternately: avow, legally promise.
  34. Possibly "wages".
  35. Lit: "hew other hews".
  36. "In the same five hews" omitted from the Rostock.
  37. ober is an adjective, oben is an adverb.
  38. R. "the".
  39. 39.00 39.01 39.02 39.03 39.04 39.05 39.06 39.07 39.08 39.09 39.10 39.11 39.12 39.13 39.14 39.15 39.16 39.17 39.18 39.19 39.20 39.21 39.22 39.23 39.24 39.25 39.26 39.27 39.28 39.29 39.30 39.31 39.32 39.33 39.34 39.35 39.36 39.37 39.38 39.39 39.40 39.41 39.42 39.43 39.44 Clause omitted from the Dresden.
  40. 40.0 40.1 "This is" omitted from the Dresden.
  41. abrucken: "removere" (remove), "absetzen" (offset).
  42. D. wider[sic]: "again".
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 D. "the".
  44. D. bind: "bind-in".
  45. R. Jun ger [sic].
  46. R. dem krieg: "the war".
  47. D. hurten: "to rush".
  48. "The hew, or thrust, or cut" omitted from the Dresden.
  49. "Nor thrust… cut" omitted from the Rostock.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Sentence omitted from the Rostock.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 51.5 51.6 51.7 51.8 Word omitted from the Rostock.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Word omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.
  53. Alternately: ponder, weigh, calculate, estimate, consider.
  54. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 17rv
  55. Alternately: avenge, take full legal retribution.
  56. Alternately: straight, upright, properly.
  57. D. schüczen, R. behuetẽ.
  58. Rostock hews off at this point and picks up in the middle of the sixth subsequent play, probably indicating a missing page.
  59. Alternately: part, piece.
  60. aufkrummen: Lat. sursum torquere, twist, turn or bend up; twist, turn, bend, or cast back; avert, deflect .
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 61.4 61.5 Word omitted from the Salzburg.
  62. Likely a scribal error and should be "his".
  63. "The opening" omitted from the Salzburg.
  64. S. "the over- or under-hew".
  65. Possibly "it".
  66. S. vß gestreckten: "outstretched".
  67. Sentence omitted from the Salzburg; instead, it segues into the Lew gloss of the same verse, describing how the Crooked hew breaks the Ox.
  68. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 18v
  69. This phrase has no verb, likely due to scribal error; it has been completed based on the version in the treatise of Hans Medel.
  70. Rostock begins again at this point.
  71. "Cut" omitted from the Dresden.
  72. S. "Item".
  73. 73.0 73.1 Paragraphs 33 and 35 are substantially similar and are likely based on the same original text. However, they contain significant differences in the beginning of the device and it is unclear which represents the original version; the version found in Rostock and Salzburg seems to refer to the technique in 32, whereas the Dresden refers to 34 (not found in the others). In this compilation, the two versions are displayed separately, first that of the Rostock and Salzburg (33) and then that of the Dresden (35).
  74. S. "if".
  75. S. "his".
  76. S. "the".
  77. S. "where he shall guard himself".
  78. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), ff 20v-21r
  79. D. has the word "Gloss" here; this appears to be a scribal error, as it corresponds to the position of the phrase "as is pictured here-after" in the Rostock, and all instances of that phrase were removed by the scribe of the Dresden.
  80. "Komp" added below the line in a different hand.
  81. "Stand with… shoulder, and" omitted from the Dresden.
  82. D. "thwart".
  83. 83.0 83.1 Alternately, wiederhalten: to struggle or resist.
  84. Word omitted from the Glasgow, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  85. "Or otherwise" omitted from the Salzburg.
  86. "-Cut" omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Rostock.
  87. Clause omitted from the Dresden; struck out in the Rostock.
  88. 88.0 88.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Rostock.
  89. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 21v
  90. R. "wind".
  91. "With the over-hew" omitted from the Glasgow.
  92. R. unternn: "lower".
  93. "Next to" omitted from the Rostock.
  94. Glasgow adds albeg: "always, continually".
  95. Or "connects"; alternately: rouses, stirs (ostensibly your opponent).
  96. "This is" omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  97. "Will strike" omitted from the Dresden.
  98. G. twerhaw: "thwart-hew".
  99. R. "wind".
  100. "Or left" omitted from the Glasgow.
  101. Everything from "and steal away" to the end of the sentence is omitted from the Dresden.
  102. Alternately: to turn around.
  103. "And strike in" omitted from the Dresden.
  104. D. "is".
  105. 105.0 105.1 D. "right".
  106. D. mit auß: "with from".
  107. As a thief would break into a house.
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 108.3 Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  109. Word is doubled in the Glasgow.
  110. annehmen: receive, accept, take up, assume, claim, obtain, etc.
  111. "Into the weak of his sword" omitted from the Rostock
  112. "Upright, elevated, straight, at a right angle"; Glasgow gives auff gerackten, which may be a misspelling of pPvD's aus gestrackten, "out-stretched".
  113. "With upright arms… right shoulder" omitted from the Rostock.
  114. Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  115. R. "pictured here".
  116. 116.00 116.01 116.02 116.03 116.04 116.05 116.06 116.07 116.08 116.09 116.10 116.11 116.12 116.13 116.14 116.15 116.16 116.17 116.18 116.19 116.20 116.21 116.22 116.23 Word omitted from the Glasgow.
  117. Corrected from »seiner«.
  118. S. bestetigstu: "to plant".
  119. G. abent: "evening", clearly an error; Medel: anwinden: "winding-upon".
  120. 120.0 120.1 120.2 120.3 120.4 120.5 Word omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  121. "To his point" omitted from the Rostock.
  122. "To his point" omitted from the Glasgow.
  123. S. "You may also do this".
  124. "A free over-hew" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  125. "With the visage" omitted from the Salzburg.
  126. "To his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  127. D., G. "the head".
  128. R. includes couplet 64 with this gloss.
  129. R. denn Schaytler: "the parter".
  130. 130.0 130.1 130.2 130.3 Clause omitted from the Rostock.
  131. D. der lange: "long, high, tall, or lofty".
  132. "To his head" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  133. "If he displaces" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  134. einhangen: to adhere, stick to, cleave to, hold on to, engage deeply.
  135. "With the long… and thrust him" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  136. Kehr has two etymologies: one is "to turn", the other is "to sweep away" or to "carry off"; the gloss supports the first derivation.
  137. Alternately: strongly, firmly, steadfastly.
  138. R. includes this couplet with the previous gloss.
  139. G., R., S. "Item".
  140. D. "hang-in"; "strike-in and" omitted.
  141. "The point" omitted from the Salzburg.
  142. Sentence omitted from the Glasgow and the Rostock.
  143. D., G., R. "you".
  144. D., G., S. "the".
  145. "In the displacement" omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.
  146. "Of the parter" omitted from the Dresden, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  147. S. fast vber sich: "firmly upward".
  148. Clause omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Salzburg.
  149. "His hands" omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Salzburg.
  150. G. "since".
  151. 151.0 151.1 Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 28v
  152. Rostock combines the glosses for couplets 65-67 into a single paragraph; they have been separated here according to their presentation in Dresden and Glasgow.
  153. D., G. Schon, lit. "already", "yet".
  154. D. stuch, R. stich: "press the thrust".
  155. D., G., S. "cut".
  156. 156.0 156.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden, the Rostock, and the Salzburg.
  157. S. "well broken".
  158. "From the under-cut" omitted from the Salzburg.
  159. "And wind your sword… withdraw yourself" omitted from the Rostock.
  160. Imperative of fliehen.
  161. alt: unpleasant, repugnant
  162. "Note, this" omitted from the Dresden.
  163. "Will be" omitted from the Glasgow.
  164. 164.0 164.1 164.2 164.3 "Is called" omitted from the Dresden
  165. "With the hilt" omitted from the Dresden.
  166. G. auß gestrackten: "upstretched".
  167. "It all" omitted from the Dresden.
  168. "In this book" omitted from the Glasgow.
  169. G. "Guard yourself displacing crossed in front".
  170. D. instead continues "that the four displacings, they are the four hews".
  171. Setzen", possibly a shortening of versetzen, "displaces".
  172. D. "oxen".
  173. S. other.
  174. "they allow the... do not parry" omitted from the Dresden and Glasgow.
  175. S. Item
  176. R. "This is when one displaces your over-hew"; S. "If your over-hew is parried and it comes nearing upon him".
  177. D. "in front of".
  178. G., S. versetzte: "shifted, misplaced, displaced, parried".
  179. Word omitted from the Dresden, the Glasgow, and the Rostock.
  180. 180.0 180.1 Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 31r
  181. "And wrench… his below" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  182. "The head" omitted from the Salzburg.
  183. 183.0 183.1 Clause omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.
  184. S. "also".
  185. G. mit dem schwert: "with the sword".
  186. D. "grasp with the sword".
  187. G. magst: "may".
  188. 188.0 188.1 G. "the".
  189. Alternately: defense.
  190. "And hit him" omitted from the Rostock.
  191. 191.0 191.1 "The moment" omitted from the Dresden.
  192. D. wieder-kommen: to meet, to encounter, to run into".
  193. "Or fall… from you" omitted from the Rostock.
  194. Corrected from »dem«.
  195. Line omitted from the Rostock.
  196. R. "or".
  197. "If he then" omitted from the Rostock".
  198. D. haw: "hew".
  199. Mähnen, menen, mennen. To drive cattle, to impel an animal to move(in particular a driver or rider with a cattle-drive). To exert command over something reacting. To lead.
  200. geim: "watchfully, to observe, cautiously, with foresight".
  201. Word omitted from the Glasgow and the Salzburg.
  202. S. "the feeling work thusly".
  203. "You come… onset and" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  204. S. "soft or hard".
  205. S. "feeling".
  206. "To the nearest opening" omitted from the Salzburg.
  207. D., G. gewar, S. ÿnnen.
  208. Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29), f 33v
  209. Word omitted from the Dresden and the Salzburg.
  210. D. "winds".
  211. D. blitzscht: "flashes".
  212. Corrected from »arnn«.
  213. D. "Item".
  214. G. "note".
  215. Schier has the sense of approaching quickly and closely.
  216. Zucken has the connotation of yanking something hard or quickly, like yanking or snatching; there is an essence of agitation in the yank.
  217. "On the sword" omitted from the Dresden.
  218. Beginning of sentence in Glasgow reads "and work swiftly with the doubling.
  219. D. "(and with other plays)".
  220. 220.0 220.1 R. "hang down behind you".
  221. G. "next to this".
  222. R. "when in the running-in he also drives-up with the arms".
  223. Corrected from »dim«.
  224. Line omitted from the Glasgow.
  225. D. "left hand inverted".
  226. 226.0 226.1 D. "your".
  227. "With an inverted hand" omitted from the Dresden.
  228. 228.0 228.1 G. "his".
  229. "Thus you" omitted from the Glasgow.
  230. Corrected from »rechtem«.
  231. Corrected from »sinem«.
  232. D. "One other wrestling at the sword".
  233. Clause omitted from the Glasgow.
  234. Sentence omitted from the Glasgow.
  235. D. "A sword taking".
  236. Read: "attacks".
  237. "With strength" omitted from the Glasgow.
  238. 238.0 238.1 G. far: "drive".
  239. D. "Yet another cut".
  240. "He then" omitted from the Dresden.
  241. "And press… pictured here" omitted from the Dresden.
  242. G. "your".
  243. "With that" omitted from the Dresden.
  244. "With the cut" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  245. Clause omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  246. Sentence omitted from the Dresden.
  247. Remainder of fragments from Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82), ff 13r-14v
  248. "With him" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  249. "Or test" omitted from the Dresden.
  250. Sentence omitted from the Augsburg and the Dresden.
  251. sach: thing, or disagreement, contention, dispute, or the thing underlying the disagreement, contention or dispute.
  252. 252.0 252.1 252.2 252.3 252.4 252.5 252.6 Word omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  253. A. "and".
  254. 254.0 254.1 254.2 254.3 254.4 254.5 Word omitted from the Augsburg and the Dresden.
  255. The word »es« is almost illegible.
  256. 256.0 256.1 256.2 256.3 256.4 256.5 Word omitted from the Augsburg.
  257. nachbinden: "attach to the end or behind something".
  258. "With the long edge" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  259. "From the sword" omitted from the Dresden.
  260. "With the point" omitted from the Dresden.
  261. D. "or"; word omitted from the Augsburg.
  262. abziechen.
  263. D. Mörck Ee: "Note, before".
  264. "just near" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  265. "When he… the sword" omitted from the Dresden.
  266. A., D. "the".
  267. D. "hews from above to below".
  268. Corrected from »ausgerattñ«.
  269. D. "to the other side to the opening".
  270. "Your sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  271. Sentence omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  272. shifting, balance
  273. "Art of" omitted from the Dresden.
  274. A., D. "shortened for you to understand".
  275. "Quite well" omitted from the Augsburg.
  276. Dresden reverses these.
  277. "Also so that… play" omitted from the Dresden.
  278. wägen: "to have weight, to lay on a scale, to estimate"; it has a bunch of other senses that are provocative to the action at hand, such as: "to poise, balance, to stir up or agitate, to incite a response", but there's not enough in the text to make it a defensible choice.
  279. "And properly estimate" omitted from the Dresden.
  280. "The sword" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  281. D. "understand".
  282. "With strength" omitted from the Dresden.
  283. "And thrust" omitted from the Dresden.
  284. "Of the" omitted from the Glasgow.
  285. "-In the point above" omitted from the Dresden and the Glasgow.
  286. A. "over-windings-upon".
  287. A. "and".
  288. D. "and"; omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  289. "And shall" omitted from the Augsburg and the Glasgow.
  290. "You step towards" omitted from the Dresden.
  291. D. "wounder".
  292. R. and V. seems to match the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss.
  293. Orignal: “ableyttest,” - “ableiten,” literally to lead away, also to derive, deduce, divert, drain, deflect, channel off.
  294. “Zu dem treffen,” could be in the sense of the two fencers meeting each other, or one lance connecting to the other, or a lance landing a hit. Context indicates that it is the first for this one.
  295. “Schaff griff,” the translation “sheep hold” is not conclusive, it may also refer to a type of water carrier that is held in a similar way to the hold. It may also be related to how one would carry a sheep when shearing or otherwise.
  296. Original: “sytigklich,” or “sittiglich,” at the time meant “moderately” in the sense of slowly or not too fast, modern “sittlich” means morally or ethically.
  297. Original: “taschn haw.” A “tasset” is a piece of armor that covers the side of the thigh. It is possible that the last part of this hew aims for a gap in the armor on the back of the leg. This translation is not conclusive.
  298. Original: “auß,” however the Dresden version says “vff” here, and “aus” does not make sense.
  299. “Zawm,” - “zaum,” literally “bridle,” context continually indicates that they are talking about the reins.
  300. Original: “ob dich das roß vertrueg,” literally “if the horse make a fool out of you.” Likely means something like if the horse moves in a way that you don’t expect, or if the horse runs away while you’re trying to do something.
  301. Original: “schütten”.
  302. Original: “gehultz,” could be modernized to “hilt,” which is a term that could mean multiple parts of the sword today, but they are talking about the crossguard.
  303. “Stoss,” could also mean push, strike, or bash.
  304. “Twer,” also often translated as thwart, cross, crosswise.
  305. The verb is missing in this sentence, in the Dresden version “heng” (hang) is used here.
  306. Corrected from »geradt«.
  307. “Verschlingst” - “verschlingen,” to devour, engulf, scarf, etc.
  308. Unclear, could be “when he hews in to you, parry…” Unclear because “hawt” is used instead of “haw,” also the construction of the sentence is not typical. The Dresden version is much clearer that you are the one hewing in and he is parrying.
  309. “Zu vor auß,” in the sense of bringing something to the forefront.
  310. Engages - “greyff… an,” (angreiffen), attacks - “velt… an” (anfallen), these words have roughly the same meaning. You are both engaging in wrestling against each other.
  311. “Aliud,” Latin.
  312. Likely an error intending “your,” as it is in the previous passage.
  313. “Gewappent,” - “gewappnet,” wearing armor.
  314. “Jagen,” to hunt, seems to mean when someone is riding behind another, rather than “gleich” (equally) or “zusammen” (together), when both riders ride toward one another.
  315. “Muß er das swert fallñ lassñ,” literally “he must let the sword fall.”
  316. Original: “dich massen,” to measure or moderate yourself, different original word from “moderately” early in the text, which was translated from “sittiglich.”
  317. Original: “schünre,” translated as “schnüre,” meaning “laces” or “cords.”
  318. “vier haubt ringñ”