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Here the gloss and the exposition of the recital of the longsword begins,

which Johannes Liechtenauer, may God be merciful to him, who was known to be a high master of the art, had composed and created. And that is the reason this art belongs to princes and lords, knights and squires that they should learn and know this. For this reason, he had allowed it to be written in veiled and misleading words, so that no one could distinguish and comprehend it. And he had this done in light of the half-baked masters of defense, whose art amounts to little, so that his art would not be revealed nor become coarsened by these masters. These same veiled and misleading words of the recital are clarified and laid straight in the glosses hereafter so that anyone can ponder and comprehend that can already otherwise fence.

Here, precisely note whatever is written in red in the beginning of the written plays hereafter. This is the text of the veiled and misleading words of the recital of the longsword. The subsequent black writing, this is the gloss and the exposition of the veiled and misleading words of the recital.

This is the forward.

Young knight learn To have love for god, honor women So that you expand your honor. Practice Knighthood and learn Art that decorates you And in war exalts you with honor. Use the good grips of wrestling, Lance, spear, sword, and messer Like a man And render them useless in other's hands. Attack suddenly and charge in, Flow onwards, engage or let pass. Thus the intellectuals hate him, Yet this one sees glories. Hold yourself to this: All art has a time and place.[1]

This is a general lesson of the long sword in which much good art is held

Text

If you wish to examine the art, Go left and right with cutting And left with right, That is, if you desire to fence strongly.

Gloss: Note this is the foremost art of the long sword, that above all you should learn to cut correctly. That is, if you wish to otherwise fence strongly. Look at it like this. When you stand with your left foot forwards and cut from your right side, if you then do not follow along with the cut with the ingress of your right foot, then this cut is spurious and incorrect. When your right side remains behind it, the cut becomes too short thereby and its correct path down to the other side in front of the left foot cannot happen.

Or if you stand with your right foot forwards and cut from the left side, if you do not then also follow along with the cut with your left foot, then the cut is again spurious. Therefore, see to it that when you cut from the right side that you always follow along with the cut with the right foot. Do exactly the same when you cut from the left side so that your body brings itself correctly into balance with it. In this way, the cuts become long and are conducted correctly.

In the same way for the companion play (crossing from the left side) you shall always render cut and footstep together with each other.

This again is the text and the gloss about a lesson

Whoever chases after cuts Allows themselves to enjoy little of the art.

Gloss. This means when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, you do not stand still and look upon their cut nor await whatever they fence against you. Know that all fencers that look out and wait upon another's cut and will do nothing other than parry, they allow themselves to enjoy quite little of the art, because it is dismantled and they become struck for this reason.

This again is the text and the gloss about a lesson

Cut from close proximity whatever you wish No changer gets past your shield To the head, to the body Do not omit the stingers With the entire body Fence whatever you desire to conduct with strength.

Gloss: Note this means when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, from that point, whatever you wish to fence, drive that with the entire strength of the body and in this fashion toward their head and toward their body from close proximity and remain with the point in front of their face or their breast so that they cannot disengage in front of the point. If they parry with strength and let their point go off away from you to the side, then give them a wound on the arm.

Or if they rise up high with the arms with an act of parrying, then strike below with a free cut to their body and with that, immediately step back. Thus are they struck before they become aware of it.

This again is the text and the gloss about a lesson

Now hear what is bad Do not fence lefty from above if you are a righty And if you are a lefty You also quite awkward on the right

Gloss: Note this is a lesson that hits upon two people, a righty and a lefty and it is also how you shall cut so that one cannot win the weak of your sword with the first cut. Look at it like this. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if you are a righty, then do not cut the first cut from the left side by choice because it is weak and with it you cannot hold fast when they cut in with you strongly. Therefore, cut from the right so you can stay in contact with full strength and work whatever you wish at the sword.

In the same way if you are lefty, then also do not cut the first cut from the right side because it is quite undependable art for a lefty to drive from the right side. It is also the same for a righty from the left side.

This again is the text and the gloss about a lesson

Before and After, the two things Are the singular origin of the entire art. Weak and strong Indes, note them with this word So that you may learn To work and ward with art. Whoever frightens easily Never learns to fence.

Gloss: Note this means that you shall see and understand the two things correctly for all situations. This is the before and the after and after that, the weak and the strong of the sword and the word Indes, because the entire art of fencing comes from those. When you correctly see and comprehend these things and have not forgotten the word Indes therein, in all plays that you conduct, then you are indeed a good master of the sword and can fully teach princes and lords so that they may keep with the proper art of the sword in battle and in earnest.

Here note what is here called the before.

This means that you should always come before, be it with a cut or with a stab, before the opponent does. And when you preempt them with a cut or what have you so that they must parry you, then Indes work swiftly for yourself in their act of parrying with your sword or whatever, with other plays so that they cannot come to any work.

Here note what is here called the after.

The after, these are the breaks against all plays and cuts that one drives upon you and look at it like this. When the opponent preempts you with a cut so that you must parry them, then Indes work swiftly to the nearest opening during your act of parrying using your sword so that you break their before with your after.

Here note the weak and the strong of the sword.

The weak and the strong, look at it like this. On the sword, from the hilt to the midpoint of the blade, this is the strong of the sword and further past the midpoint to the point of the sword is the weak. And how you shall work with the strong of your sword according to the weak of their sword will be explained to you hereafter.

This is the text and the gloss of the five cuts.

Learn five cuts From the right hand, whoever invests in these, We swear to them To gladly pay them back in skills.

Gloss: Note there are five concealed cuts that many masters of the sword know nothing of which to speak of. You shall learn to execute these from the right side. Whichever fencer that can break the cuts with the proper art without harm, they will be valued by other masters, for their art shall be more worthwhile to them than other fencers. And how one shall execute these cuts with their plays will be explained to you hereafter.

Wrathcut Crook and Cross, If the Eye Cocker keeps with the Parter, The Fool parries. Pursuing and Overrunn, places the attack Disengage, Suddenly withdraw, Rush through, Cut off, Press the hands Tilt and Turn to uncover with Slash, catch, sweep, stab to clash with

Gloss: Note here the correct chief components of the recital of the long sword have been named for you as they are each designated with its name so that you can better recognize and understand them.

The first, these are the five cuts as they are specifically named

Item: The first is called the wrathcut Item: The second, the crooked cut Item: The third, the crosswise cut Item: The fourth, the cockeyed cut Item: The fifth, the part cut

Now note the components

The first, these are the four guards The second, the four parries The third, the pursuing The fourth, the overruning The fifth, the displacing The sixth, is the disengaging the seventh, is the withdrawing suddenly The eighth, the rushing through The ninth, the cutting off The tenth is the hand pressing The eleventh, these are the hangings The twelfth, these are the windings

And what you should fence from the components and how you should acquire yourself openings by hanging and the winding, you will find these written hereafter one after the other in the order above.

Here the text and the gloss begin

The first is about the wrathcut with it's plays

Whoever makes a descending cut at you The point of wrathcut threatens them

Gloss: Note the wrathcut interrupts any descending cut with the point and is yet nothing other than a simple peasant strike. Execute it like this: when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they subsequently cut in at your head from high from their right side, then you wrathfully cut in with them from high from your right side as well, atop their sword without any act of parrying. (marginalia: into the weakness of their sword) If they are then soft against your sword, then shoot the point in at them long, straight ahead and stab them in the face or breast, then lodge against them.

This is the text and the gloss of another play of the wrathcut

If they become aware of it Then abscond above without concern

Gloss: Note this is when you cut in with the wrathcut, then shoot the point in long into their face or breast as was written before. Then if they become aware of the point and parry strongly and press your sword to your side, then with your sword against their sword's blade, rise high off upwards, away from their sword and cut back in at the opponent's head again on the other side against their blade. This is called absconding above.

Break it like this

When they abscond above, then bind in against their sword from above with the long edge towards their head.

This is again the text and the gloss of the wrathcut

Be strong in turn Wind. Stab. If they see it, then take it below

Gloss: Note that this is when you cut in with the wrathcut. If they parry and remain strong against the sword with their act of parrying, then remain strongly in opposition with your sword against their sword and rise up high with your arms and wind against their sword with your hilt forwards, in front of your head and thrust into their face from above. If they become aware of the thrust and rise up with the arms high and parry with their hilt, then remain standing like this with your hilt in front of your head and set your point below onto their neck or onto their breast between both of their arms.

This is the text and the gloss of a lesson of the wrathcut

Precisely note this Cut, stab, position, soft or hard Indes and before and after Without rush, your war is not hasty.

Gloss: Note this is when the opponent has bound against your sword with a cut or with a stab or however else. You should not let yourself be too hasty with the windings, because it is done this way: You precisely note first whether it is soft or hard when one sword clashes onto another. And after you have perceived that, then work Indes with the winding according to the soft and according to the hard, always to the nearest opening as will be explained and conveyed to you hereafter in the plays.

This is the text and the gloss of the war.

For the one whose war takes aim Above, they will be shamed below.

Gloss: Note the war, these are the winds and the work which continues into the four openings with the point. Execute it like this: When you cut in with the wrathcut, then as soon as they parry, rise sufficiently up with your arms and against their sword "wind" in your point to the upper opening of their left side from above. Then, if they displace your upper thrust, remain standing in the winding like this with the hilt in front of your head and still to their left side, let your point sink down to the lower opening. Then if they chase your sword with an act of parrying, seek the lower opening of their right side with your point. Then if they chase your sword further with an act of parrying, then rise up with your sword to your left side and hang in your point to the upper opening of their right side. In this way they become shamed above and below via the war if you otherwise execute it correctly.

This is again the text and the gloss of a lesson of the wrathcut

In all winds Cut, stab, slice learn to apply Also with that you shall Gauge cut, stab or slice In all encounters Of the masters, if you wish to dishonor them.

Gloss: Note this is for when you cut in with the wrathcut. You should be quite well practiced and quite polished with the windings because each winding has three particular plays, that is, a cut, a stab and a slice. And when you wind against the sword, then you should completely make sure that you do not conduct the incorrect play. Therefore you should not cut when you should stab and not slice when you should cut and not stab when you should slice. And you should always know which play to conduct that is rightfully called for in all encounters and binds of the sword else if you wish to dishonor or confound the masters that set themselves against you.

And how you shall conduct the windings and how they are numbered, you can find that written in the last play of the recital that says: "Who fully commands and correctly breaks..."

This is the text and the gloss of the four openings

Know the four openings Take aim so that you strike wisely Into any movement Without doubt however they are situated.

Gloss: Note whoever wishes to be a master of the sword, they shall know how one shall seek the openings with art, if they otherwise wish fence correctly and wisely. Above the girdle, the first opening is the right side, the second the left. Below the girdle the other two are the right and left sides. It follows that there are just two applications from which one may seek the openings. In the first one can seek them from the initiation of fencing by pursuing and by the shooting in of the long point. In the second, one shall seek them with the eight winds when one has bound the opponent against the sword.

You shall understand it like this. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, you shall boldly, without any fear, with a cut or a stab, target whichever one of the four openings that you may best get to. And do not heed whatever it is that they conduct or fence against you. By doing this, you constrain your opponent so that they must parry you. And when they have parried, then immediately seek the nearest opening again by winding against their sword in the act of parrying. Always target the openings of the opponent in this fashion and not to the sword like in the play here which says "Lodge against four regions, Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish"

(marginalia: with the shooting in of the long point and with pursuing, seek the openings)

This is the text and the gloss of how one shall break the four openings.

If you wish arrange yourself To artfully break the four openings Double high Mutate down below I say to you truthfully No one defends themselves without danger If you have understood this, They can scarcely come to blows, etc.

Gloss: Note when opponent cuts in at you, if you then wish to set yourself up against them and secure the opening from them with art so that they must allow themselves to be struck without their consent, then execute the doubling against the strong of their sword and execute the mutating when they are weak against the sword. For I say to you truthfully, that when facing you they cannot protect themselves from strikes nor can they come to blows themselves.

Here note how you shall conduct doubling to both sides

Note when they initiate a cut from their right shoulder, then also cut in strongly from above with them at the same time from your right to their head. If they parry and stay strong against the sword, then 'Indes', rise up with your arms and thrust your sword's pommel under your right arm using your left hand and strike them on their head with the long edge and crossed arms and from behind their sword's blade.

Note, if they cut in from above to your head with their long edge and you do it back to them the same way, if they then stay strong against the sword, then immediately rise up with your arms and strike them on their head using your short edge and from behind their sword's blade.

(marginalia: I have taught it and warr with the sword and crossing under to the other side)

Here note how one shall execute the mutating to both sides

Note when you cut in strongly from your right shoulder and they parry and are soft against your sword, then "wind" the short edge against their sword to your left side and rise up sufficiently with your arms and pass over their sword with your sword's blade and stab them in their lower opening.

Another

Note when when you cut in at their head up from your left side, if they parry and are soft against your sword, then rise up with your arms and hang your point down from up over their sword and stab them in their lower opening. You may also conduct these two plays from any attack from after the point you sense weak and strong against their sword.

These are the trials of the sword and whoever wins them is worthy of praise.

This is the text and the gloss of the crooked cut with its plays

Crook up swiftly Throw the point onto the hands Whoever waits well crooked Disrupts many cuts with stepping.

Note the crooked cut is one of the four parries against the four guards because with them one breaks the guards that are called the ox here and also rising and descending cuts. Execute it like this. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they then stand against you and hold their sword in front of their head in the guard of the ox on their left side, then advance your left foot and hold your sword in guard on your right shoulder and spring facing them well to your right side with your right foot and strike them across their hands with the long edge from crossed arms.

Another

Note you can also execute the crooked cut from the barrier guard on both sides. Take yourself into the guard like this. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, then stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword such that the long edge is above with your point on the ground by your right side and present yourself open with your left side. Then, if they cut into your opening, spring away from the cut, facing them, with the right foot well to your right side and from the long edge strike them with crossed hands on their hands with your point.

Item

Take yourself to your left side with the barrier guard like this. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, do it with your right foot forwards and hold your sword upon the ground by your left side with crossed hands such that the short edge is up and present yourself open with your right side. Then if they cut into your opening, then spring away from the cut, facing them, with your left foot well to their right side and strike them in the spring with the short edge across their hands.

This is the text and the gloss of a good play from the crooked cut

Cut crooked to the flats Of the masters if you wish to weaken them When it sparks above Then dismount, that I will praise

Gloss: Note you shall conduct this play against the masters from the bind of the sword. Execute it like this. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, then either lay down your sword to the right side into the barrier guard and stand with your left foot forwards or hold it on your right shoulder. Then if they cut at the opening from above, cut across their cut with your long edge from criss-crossed arms. And as soon as the swords spark together, then 'Indes', wind your short edge against their sword facing your left side and stab them in the face. Or if you don't want to thrust, then 'Indes', cut to their head or to their body with your short edge.

This is again the text and the gloss of one from the crooked cut

Don't crook, short cut With that, look for the disengage.

Gloss: Note this is for when the opponent cuts in from their right side from above. So rise up with your hands high and act as if you wish to bind against their sword with the crooked cut and pass through below their sword with your point and stab them in the face or in the breast on the other side and take care that you are well covered with your hilt in front of your face.

[Marginal note in a different hand:] against the ox

You can also break the guard of the ox with this play. Execute it like this. When you go to them with the initiation of fencing, if they then stand facing you and hold their sword with their hilt in front of their head on their left side, then throw your sword on your right shoulder and act as if you wish to bind against their sword with the crooked cut and cut short and with that disengage below their sword and shoot your point in long to the other side under their sword into their throat so they must parry. With this you come to strikes and other work with the sword.

[Marginal note in a different hand:] crooked cut w. Which breaks the guard of the ox

This is again the text and the gloss of one of the plays from the crooked cut

Crook whoever bewilders you The noble war bewilders them For they truthfully Do not know where they are without danger

Gloss: Note whenever you conduct the crooked cut, you will always make yourself open with it. Look at it like this, when you cut in or bind against their sword with the crooked cut from your right side, you are open on the left side during this. If they are also crafty and will cut from your sword to your opening and bewilder you with agility, then keep your sword against theirs and track their sword from there onward and wind your point into their face and continue to work with the war, that is, with the windings to the openings so that they become so baffled that they truthfully will not know which regions that they should shield themselves from your cuts and thrusts.

Here begins the text and the gloss of the crosswise cut with its plays

The crosswise cut seizes Whatever arrives from the roof

Gloss: Note the crosswise cut breaks the roof guard and any cut that is hewn down from above. Execute the crosswise cut like this, when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, do it with your left foot forwards and hold your sword on your right shoulder. Then if they stand facing you and hold their sword with outstretched arms high over their head and threaten to cut in from above, come with your cut before they do and spring well to your right side with your right foot and in that spring, wind your sword with your hilt in front of your head such that your thumb comes under and strike them with the short edge against their left side in the head

Or if they come before you do with their cut down from above, then spring away from their cut with your right foot, well to your right side with the previously mentioned act of parrying so that you catch their cut in your hilt and strike them with the crosswise cut on the left side of their head

Here note the break against the crosswise cut

Note when you stand facing the opponent in the roof guard, boldly cut in at their head from above. Then if they spring away from your cut and intend to arrive first with the crosswise cut and strike you with it on the left side of your head, fall upon their sword with your long edge. Then if they strike around to your other side with the crosswise cut, 'Indes' you go forth ahead of them under their sword and in front of yourself against their neck so that they slash themselves with your sword.

Note when you have bound the opponent against your sword, if they then strike from your sword around to the other side with the crosswise cut, then fall into their hands or upon their arms with your long edge and press their arms away from you with everything you've got with a slice, and from that slice of their arms strike them on their head with your sword.

Here note the break against the upper slice into the arm

Note when you strike the opponent with the crosswise cut to their right side, if they then fall into your arm with a slice, then strike them in their mouth with your short edge from behind their sword's blade by doubling.

Again, this is the text and the gloss of a play from the crosswise cut

Cross with the strong Remember your work with it

Gloss: Note when you wish to strike the crosswise cut, you shall strike with the entire strength of the body and you shall always bind against their sword with the strong of your sword. With that, you secure their opening. Look at it like this: When you make a crosswise cut from your right side, if they parry and bind strongly against your sword with it, then execute the doubling or right from of crosswise cut, knock their sword off to the side with your hilt and strike them on the other side with it.

Yet another

When you make a strong crosswise cut from your right side, if they parry and are soft against the sword, then either drive the short edge of your sword against their neck on their right side and spring behind their left foot with your right foot and drag them over it like this with your sword's blade or execute the mutating into their lower opening.

Break it like this

When the opponent drives their sword against your neck, rise up inside of their sword with your pommel and let your blade hang down and shove their sword away from your neck and strike in at their head from above by snapping. Or strike them by doubling with your right hand up over their sword and beneathe their face while they have their sword against your neck.

This is the text and the gloss of the crosswise strike to the four openings

Cross to the plow Yoke it hard to the ox Whoever crosses themselves well Threatens the head by spinging

Gloss: Note you have heard before that the ox and the plow are either two positions or two guards, but here they indicate the four openings. The ox, which are the upper two openings, the right and the left side of the head and the plow which are the two lower, the right and the left side below the belt of the opponent. You shall turn to each of these four openings with the crosswise strike in one sortie[2].

You should also remember that in broad terms, you should always spring out off to one side facing the opponent with each and every crosswise strike so that you can fully connect to the head and take care that you are fully covered the entire time with your hilt up in front of your head.

Here note a break against the lower crosswise strikes

Note when the opponent strikes at your head with the crosswise from their right side to your left side, parry with the long edge and keep your point in front of their breast. Then if they strike around from your sword to your lower right opening using the crosswise strike, then you also make a crosswise strike down through between you and them also against their right side and with that bind against their sword and staying in the bind, stab them 'Indes' in the lower opening

This is the text and the gloss of a play that is called the failer

The failer misleads It wounds according to desire from below

Gloss: The failer is a play whereby many fencers that like to parry and also those that fence to the sword and not to the openings become deceived and wounded according to desire and and are beaten.

Note when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, act as if you will strike at their head with a free descending cut and suddenly withdraw the cut and strike at the lower openings of their left or right side, whichever you wish, with the crosswise strike. And take care that you are fully covered by your hilt over your head. You can also conduct crosswise cut like this.

This is the text and the gloss of a play that is here called the inverter

The inverter constrains. The one who rushes through also wrestles with it. Take the elbow surely Spring into their stance.

Gloss: Note the inverter is called the halfcut or the hand-turner. With it, one constrains the opponent so that you can rush through and capture with wrestling.

Execute it like this:

When you go toward the opponent with the initiation of fencing, go with the left foot forwards and execute the halfcut from the right side with an inverted long edge over and over, up and down in time with your left foot until you arrive at the opponent. And as soon as you bind against their sword with it, then 'Indes' hang your point inward from above and stab them in the face. If they parry the thrust and rise up high with there arms, then rush through.

Or if they remain with their hands low with their act of parrying, then seize their right elbow with your left hand and hold them firmly and spring in front of their right with your left foot and shove them over your foot like this.

Or if you do not wish to shove them over your foot by the elbow with your left hand as was written above, then pass your left hand back around their body and throw them in front of you across your left hip.

This is again the text and the gloss about the failer

The failer doubles. If they make contact, make the slice with it. Double it further Step in left and do not be lazy

Gloss: Note this is called the double failer. Execute it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, do it with your left foot forwards and hold your sword on your right shoulder. When it is suitable to you, spring full on toward them with your right foot over to their left side and act as if you would strike them with a free crosswise strike at their head to their left side and suddenly withdraw the strike and spring to their right side with your left foot and strike them from there out into their head. If they parry and you hit their sword, then spring out off next to them on the same side and slice them in their mouth with the short edge from behind their sword by doubling or fall into the slice with your sword across both their arms.

In the same way, you can also successfully conduct the failer from descending cuts just like from the crosswise strikes whenever it is availble to you or whenever you wish.

Here begins the cockeyed cut with it's plays

The cockeyed cut breaks inside Whatever the buffalo cuts or thrusts Whoever threatens to change, The cockeyed cut robs them of it.

Gloss: Note the cockeyed cut breaks the guard here called the plow and is a good, strange and grim cut because it breaks into cuts and into thrusts with violence and goes forth with an inverted sword. This is why many masters of the sword have nothing to say about this cut.

Here note how one shall conduct the cockeyed cut

Note when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, do it with your left foot forwards and hold your sword on your right shoulder. Then if they cut in at the head from above, twist your sword and hew against their cut up over their sword at their head with your short edge, long with extended arms. Then if they are also cunning and aborts during the cut of your sword and will disengage below, let the point shoot in forward and long during the cut so that they cannot disengage below.

Another

When you stand facing the opponent holding your sword on your right shoulder, if they then stand facing you in the guard of the plow and will initiate a thrust from below, cut in with the cockeyed cut long from above and shoot in the point long into their breast so they cannot reach you below with their thrust.

This is the text and the gloss on a lesson from the cockeyed cut

Cock an eye. If they short change you, Disengaging defeats them.

Gloss: Note this lesson. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, you shall sneak a glance and see whether they fence short against you. You can recognize this whenever they initiate a cut and do not extend their arms out away from themselves while cutting. Thus their sword is shortened.

Or if you lie in the guard of the fool and they will then fall upon you with their sword crooked, their sword is again shortened.

Or if they move themselves against you into the guard of the ox or the plow, their sword is again shortened. Also know that all windings of the sword ahead of the opponent are short and withdraw the sword. And against whichever fencers that execute the windings in this way, freely disengage from your cuts and thrusts and shoot in the long point to the closest opening from this, thereby pressuring them so that they must parry and you come to your proper work.

This is the text and the gloss of how one breaks long point with the cockeyed cut

Cock an eye at the point And take the neck without fear

Gloss: Note when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they then stand facing you and hold the long point toward your face or breast, hold your sword on your right shoulder and focus your gaze on their point and act as if you will strike at it and cut strongly against their sword with your short edge using the cockeyed cut. And with that, shoot in your point into their neck using an entrance of your right foot.

This is again the text and the gloss of a play from the cockeyed cut

Cock an eye at the top of the head If you wish to ruin the hands

Gloss: Note this is another break for when your opponent stands in the long point facing you. Focus your gaze upon their head and act as if you will strike them there and strike them on their hands with your point from the cockeyed cut.

Here begins the text and the gloss of the part cut

The part cut Is a threat to the face With it's turn The breast is yet endangered. Whatever comes from them The crown removes. Slice through the crown So that you break it beautifully and hard Press the sweeps By slicing withdraw it

Gloss: Note the part cut breaks the guard that is here called the fool and to that end, it is quite dangerous to the face and with it's turn, the breast.

Execute it like this

When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they then move themselves against you into the guard of the fool, advance your left foot and hold your sword on your right shoulder in guard and spring into them and cut down from above at their head strongly with the long edge.

Then if they parry the cut such that their point and their hilt both stand up (this is called the crown), remain high with your arms and lift your sword's pommel upwards with your left hand and sink your point over their hilt and into their breast. Then if they rise up with their sword and shove your point upwards with their hilt, then wind your sword through under their crown into their arm using the slice and press. Like this, the crown is again broken. And with the pressing, slice firmly into their arms and withdraw yourself during the slice.

This is the text and the gloss about the four positions

Four positions alone Defend from those and eshew the common Ox, plow, fool, From-the-roof are not contemptable to you

Gloss: Note the four positions. These are the four guards that you shall fence from.

The first guard is called the ox. Put yourself together like this here: stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword next to your right side with your hilt in front of your head such that your thumb is underneath your sword and hang your point toward their face.

Note, Put yourself in ox on the left like this: stand with your right foot forwards and hold your sword by your left side with your hilt in front of your head such that your thumb is underneath your sword and hang your point toward their face. This is the ox on both sides.

This is the second guard

Note that the second guard is called the plow. Put yourself together like this here: Set up with the left foot forwards and hold your sword with crossed hands with the pommel down by your right side at the hip such that the short edge is above and your point against their face.

Note. Put yourself in plow on the left side like this: stand with your right foot forwards and hold your sword by your right side with the pommel low at the hip such that the long edge is above and your point is in line with their face. This is the plow on both sides.

This is the third guard

Note the third guard is called the fool. Put yourself together like this here: stand with your right foot forwards and hold your sword in front of you with extended arms with the point upon the ground with your short edge turned upwards

This is the fourth guard

Note the fourth guard is called roof guard. Put yourself together like this here: stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword on your right shoulder or with upstretched arms high over your head and stand in guard like this.

This is the text and the gloss of the four parries

Four are the parries Which also severly disrupt the positions

Gloss: Note you have heard before that there are four guards. You shall also know this about the four parries: they break these same four guards. Furthermore, there is no actual parrying is called for in these, because the four parries are four cuts that break them.

Note the first cut is the crooked cut which breaks the guard that here is called the ox.

Note the second cut. This is the crosswise cut which breaks the roof guard

Note the third cut. This is the cockeyed cut which breaks the guard that here is called the plow

Note the fourth cut. This is the part cut which breaks the guard that here is called the fool

And how you should break the four guards with the cuts shall be found written previously in these same cuts.

This is the text and the gloss about how one shall not parry

Guard yourself from parrying If this happens, it also severely beleaguers you.

Gloss. Note this is about how one shall not parry like the common fencers do. When they parry, they keep their point up in the air or to one side. This shows that they do not know to seek the four openings in the act of parrying. Therefore, they often become struck. But when you parry, parry with your cut or with your thrust and 'Indes' seek the nearest opening with the point so no master can strike you without their own harm.

This is the text and the gloss about when someone has parried you and what you should conduct against that.

If you are parried And as that is arriving Hear what I advise Break loose, cut quickly with violence.

Gloss. Note this is about when someone has parried you and will not withdraw themselves from your sword and intends to not allow you to come to any plays. In this case, rise up on their sword's blade with your sword as if you would abscond from their sword, but stay against their sword and cut back in against their blade directly at their head using your long edge.

This is the text and the gloss about the four lodgings

Lodge against four regions Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish

Gloss. Note there are four lodgings that are called for in earnest combat. You shall conduct them when you wish to immediately slay or injure your opponent. Drive them like this: When you initiate fencing with the opponent with your sword, move yourself with your sword into the guard of the ox or the guard of the plow. If they will then cut in from above or initiate a thrust from below, note during the moment when they lift up their sword and will strike or will draw down toward themselves to thrust at you, that you go first and shoot in the long point to their nearest opening before they bring forth their cut or thrust and see if you can lodge against them. Do the same thing when they initiate an rising cut. When this happens, shoot in the point the moment before they go up with their rising cut. Execute this to both sides.

Then if they become aware of the lodging against, keep your sword against theirs and swiftly work to the nearest opening

This is the text and the gloss of the pursuing

Learn to pursue Double or slice into the weapon Two couplings to the outside The work begins thereafter And gauge the application Whether they are soft or hard

Gloss. Note pursuing is diverse and varied and is required to be executed with great caution from cuts and thrusts against the fencers that fight from free and lengthy cuts or will not otherwise keep to the proper art of the sword.

Execute pursuing like this

When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, do it with your left foot forwards in the roof guard and watch quite attentively to what they fence against you. If they cut in long from above, take heed that they do not reach you with their cut and not during the cut when their sword goes toward the ground, then spring in with your right foot, cut in at their head from above before they can come up with their sword so that they are stricken.

The play written hereafter is called coupling to the outside

Note when the opponent overcommits themselves attacking and you pursue into the opening with their cut, if they then rise up with their sword and come against your sword from below, remain strong upon it. Then if they firmly lift your sword upwards with theirs, spring behind their right foot with your left and strike them on the right side of their head with the crosswise cut or whatever, immediately working back around to their left side or otherwise with other plays thereafter, as you sense whether they are soft or hard at the sword.

Here note a good pursuing at the sword from rising cuts

Note when you fence against your opponent from rising cuts or from the sweeps or lay against them in the guard that is here called the fool. Then if they fall upon your sword with theirs before you can come upwards with something, stay against their sword like this with yours below and lift upwards. Then if they wind in their point into your face or breast while on your sword, do not let them get away from your sword and adhearing to it and work with your point to their nearest opening. But if they strike around away from your sword then either follow behind or pursue them again with your point like before.

Note you shall pursue them from all cuts and from all guards as soon as you recognize when they commit themselves to a cut away from you or they open themselves with their sword. But take care that you neither open yourself up nor overcommit with your pursuing. Note this on both sides.

Precisely note here the text and the gloss about feeling and about the word that is here called Indes.

Learn to feel Indes, this word cuts sharply

Gloss. Note that feeling and the word 'Indes' are the greatest and the best arts of the sword and whoever is or wishes to be a master of the sword yet cannot feel and cannot perceive the term 'Indes' in it, they are in fact not a master, rather they are a buffalo of the sword. Therefore you shall quite fully study the two things for all situations so that you correctly comprehend it.

Here note the lesson about feeling and about the word that is called Indes

Note when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing and one binds the other on the sword, in this, immediately feel as the swords clash together whether they have bound on soft or hard and as soon as you have sensed this, then reflect on the Indes. This means that you shall work swiftly at the sword within that perception before the opponent comes to their senses.

Here you shall note

That feeling and the word Indes are one thing, for one cannot be without the other. Look at it like this: When you bind against their sword, you must immediately feel whether they are soft or hard at the sword using the word Indes. And when you have felt that, then you must work 'Indes' according to the soft and according to the hard. Like this, they are nothing but one thing. And the word Indes, this is for all plays from beginning to end. Look at it like this:

Indes doubles, Indes mutates, Indes disengages, Indes rushes through, Indes takes the slice, Indes wrestles with, Indes takes the sword, Indes does what your heart desires. Indes, this is a sharp word.

With it, all masters of the sword that neither know nor understand it will be carved up. This is the key of the art.

Here again note the text and the gloss about pursuing

Pursuing twice, If one hits, make the old slice with it.

Gloss. Note this is about how you shall not forget to conduct the pursuing to both sides nor the slices therein. Look at it like this: When the opponent overcommits themselves attacking before you, be it from the right or from the left side, boldly cut into the opening and follow them closely. Then if they rise up and bind against your sword from below, then note as soon as one sword clashes onto the other and then 'Indes', continue with a slice towards their neck or fall upon their arms with your long edge and slice firmly.

Here note the text and the gloss about the overruning

Whoever takes aim from below Overrun, then they will be shamed. When it clashes above, Strengthen, This I wish to praise. Make your work Or press hard twice.

Gloss. Note that this is about when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they then cut from below to the lower openings, do not parry that, rather cut in strong at their head from above. Or if they initiate a cut with rising cuts, then before they come up with their rising cut, shoot in the point into their face or breast long from above and lodge against them from above so they cannot reach you below. Because all of the upper lodgings break and free you from the lower. Then if they rise up and bind against your sword from below, then stay strong on their sword with your long edge and work swiftly to the nearest opening or let them work and if you come Indes then you hit them.

Here note that this is the text and the gloss of how one shall displace thrust and cut

Learn to displace Skillfully disrupt cuts and thrusts Whoever thrusts at you Your point hits and their's breaks From both sides You will hit every time, if you step.

Gloss. Note the displacing. Execute it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they then set themselves against you as if they will thrust, then advance your left foot and setup against them in the guard of plow from your right side and offer yourself open on your left side. Then, if they thrust into that opening, wind to your left side, your short edge against their sword engaging their thrust and displace it with that and step in with your right foot with that and stab them Indes in their face or in their breast.

Another play

Note when you setup in plow from your right side, if they then cut in from above at your head on your left side, rise up with your sword, and with that wind to your left side against their cut such that your hilt is in front of your head and also step in with it with your right foot and stab them in their face or their breast. Execute this play to both sides from the plow.

This is the text with the gloss about how one shall disengage

Learn to disengage From both sides stabbing sharply with it Whoever binds upon you Disengaging surely finds them

Gloss. Note disengaging is many and varied. You shall conduct it against the fencers that like to parry and those that cut to the sword and not to the openings of the body. You shall learn quite well to conduct this with caution so that the opponent does not lodge against you nor otherwise come in while you disengage.

Execute the disengaging like this

When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, cut in strongly from above. Then if they cut back at you but to your sword and not to your body, then during your cut, let your point rush through below their sword before they bind onto your sword and stab them in the breast on the other side. Then if they become aware of the thrust, and immediately chase that thrust with an act of parrying, then disengage again. Always do this when they move behind your sword with a parry.

Or

When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, advance your left foot and hold the long point against your opponent's face. Then if they strike at your sword either down from above or up from below and will bat it away or bind against it strongly, then let your point sink down and stab them on the other side. Execute this against all cuts where the opponent strikes at your sword.

Precisely note,

How you should disengage in such a way that the opponent does not lodge against you while you disengage. Look at it like this: When the opponent parries you and allow their point to go off to your side, boldly disengage and stab them on the other side. Or, if they remain with their point in front of your face or toward your other openings, then do not disengage. Remain on the sword and work with that to the nearest opening such that they cannot pursue, nor lodge against you.

Here note the text and the gloss about the withdrawing suddenly at the sword

Tread close in binds, So that withdrawing suddenly gives good opportunities. Suddenly withdraw. If they engage, suddenly withdraw more. Uncover the work that does them harm. Suddenly withdraw all engagements If you wish to make a fool of the masters

Gloss. Note withdrawing suddenly is appropriate to conduct against the masters that bind strongly against the sword and remain still in the bind of the sword and await to see whether one will cut off in front of them or withdraw from the sword so that they might then pursue into the opening. To make a fool of or mislead these masters, conduct the withdrawing suddenly against them like this: Cut in strongly from above at their head from your right side. Then if they drive forwards strongly with their sword during your cut and will either parry or cut into your sword, then suddenly withdraw your sword towards yourself before they bind you and stab them on the other side. Do this against all engagements and binds of the sword.

Note another withdrawing suddenly

When the opponent has bound against you against your sword, if they subsequently stand opposing you in the bind and watch whether or not you withdraw from the sword, then act as if you will suddenly withdraw and stay at the sword and withdraw suddenly your sword towards yourself just to the midpart of the blade and suddenly thrust back against their sword into their face or breast. If you do not rightly connect with your thrust, then work by doubling or otherwise with other plays, whatever seems best to you.

Here note the text and the gloss about the runing through and about the wrestling with the sword

Rush through, let hang Grab with the pommel if you wish to grapple. Whoever strengthens up against you, Remember to rush through with it.

Gloss. Note the rushing through and wrestling are double in the sword. For rushing through is both body wrestlings and then thereafter, the arm wrestlings and they are appropriate to conduct against the fencers that like to rush in.

Execute the first rushing through like this

Note when the opponent rushes in on you and rises up high with their arms and wishes to overwhelm you with strength from above, rise up with your arms as well and hold your sword over your head with your left hand by the pommel and let your blade hang down behind over your back and pass your head down through their arms toward their right side and spring with your right foot behind their right and with that spring, drive ahead of them toward their left side with your right arm well around their body and fasten them like this to your right hip and throw them backwards on their head in front of yourself.

Yet another body wrestling

Note when the opponent rushes in on you with upstretched arms and you do the same, then rush through them with your head to their right side and let your sword hang back over your back as was written before and step ahead with your right foot in front of their right and drive through under their right arm back around their body with your right arm and fasten them to your right hip and throw them behind you. These two wrestlings go to both sides.

Yet another body wrestling

Note when the opponent rushes in on you to your right side and is high with their arms and you are as well, hold your sword in your right hand with your pommel shored against and shove their arm and their sword away from you with your hilt and spring ahead with your left foot in front of both their feet and pass your left arm way back around their body and fasten them to your left hip and throw them in front of you

Yet another body wrestling

Note when the opponent rushes in on you and is high with their arms and you are as well, you shall hold your sword in your right hand and shove their arm away from you with that and spring behind their right foot with your left and pass your left arm down through in front of their breast to their left side and fasten them to your left hip and throw them behind you. Execute these two wrestlings on both sides.

Now note the arm wrestlings with the sword here:

Note when the opponent rushes in on you at the sword and holds their hands low, invert your left hand and between both of their hands seize their right with it and with that drag them to your left side and using your right, strike them with your sword across their head.

Or

If you do not wish to strike, then spring behind their left foot with your right and pass your right arm around their neck, ahead or behind and throw them over your right knee in this way.

Another arm wrestling

Note when the opponent rushes in at the sword and is low with their hands, let your left hand go from the sword and with your right crosswise out over their right hand and press down with that and seize them by their right elbow with your left hand and spring in front of their right foot with your left and shove them over it like this.

Another arm wrestling

Note when one rushes in on you at the sword, let your sword completely go and invert your right hand. And using that, take an outside grip of their right and with your left grasp them by their right elbow and spring in front of their right foot with your left and shove their right arm over your left with your right hand and lift them upwards with this. Like this, you can either break their arm or throw them over your left leg in front of you, whichever you wish.

Here note a sword disarm

Note when the opponent rushes in on you at the sword, invert your left hand and pass over their right arm with it and seize their sword between both of their hands and drag them to your left side with that so that you take their sword from them.

Another sword disarm

Note when the opponent parries you or otherwise bindsagainst your sword, seize both swords in the crossing of the blades with your left hand and hold them both firmly together and drive forwards, down through with your pommel and over both their hands and drag them up to your right side with it, so that you keep both swords.

Here note the text and the gloss about cutting off

Cut off the hard ones From below in both paths

Gloss. Note this is what you shall do when the opponent strongly binds atop your sword from above (or falls upon it). Look at it like this: When you initiate fencing from rising cuts or from sweeps or lay against your opponent in the guard of the fool, if they then fall upon that with their sword before your come up with yours, keep against their sword from below and lift upwards with your short edge. If they subsequently press your sword down firmly, then from their sword, sweep off backwards from beneath with your sword against their sword's blade, away from their sword and immedately cut back in against their sword from above on the other side at their mouth

Yet another

When you initiate fencing with rising cuts or lay in the guard of the fool, if the opponent subsequently falls onto that close to your hilt, before you come up with it such that their point goes out toward your right side, then swiftly rise up over their sword with your pommel and strike them in the head with your long edge. Or if they bind atop your sword such that their point goes out to your left side, then rise up over their sword with your pommel and strike them in their head with your short edge. This is called snapping.

Here note the text and the gloss about the four slices

Four are the slices With two from below, two from above.

Gloss. Note the four slices. Firstly, know that the upper two are appropriate to conduct against the fencers that like to strike around from the bind of the sword or from an act of parrying to the other side with the crosswise cut or what have you.

Break that like this

When they bind against your sword on your left side and immediately strike back around from that with their left foot on your right side, fall across both their arms from above with your long edge and press them away from you with a slice. You shall always conduct this to either side when they strike around from an act of parrying or cuts away from the sword.

Note

The two lower slices are appropriate to conduct against the fencers that like to rush in with outstretched arms. Execute them like this: When they bind against your sword and rises up high with their arms and rush in on your left side, twist your sword such that your thumb comes under it and drop into their arms with your long edge below their pommel and press them upwards with your slice.

Or if they rush in on you on your right side with outstretched arms, rotate your sword such that your thumb comes under it and drop into their arms with your short edge below their pommel and press them upwards with your slice. These are the four slices.

Here note the text and the gloss about the transfromation of the slice

Turn your slice To flatten, press the hands

Gloss. Note that this is how you should conduct the upper two slices from the lower two. Look at it like this: When the opponent rushes in on you with upstretched arms on your left side, invert your sword and drop into their arms with your long edge below their pommel and press firmly upwards and with that step to their right side and wind your pommel down through underneath and do not comr away from their arms with your sword. And turn your sword into the upper slice from the lower slice with your long edge across their arms.

Or

If the opponent rushes in on you on your right side with upstretched arms, then turn your sword into their arms and under their pommel and press firmly upwards and with that step to their left side, also let your pommel cross through below and turn your sword up over their arms with your long edge and press them away from you with that.

Here note the text and the gloss of the two lower hangings

Two hangings emerge From the ground out of each hand In every application Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard

Gloss. Note that the two hangings from the ground, this is the plow on both sides and when you fence or wish to fence from those, you shall also have the feeling of whether they are soft or hard therein, in cuts and in thrusts and in all binds of the sword.

You shall also conduct four winds from those and from each winding appropriately conduct one cut, one thrust or one slice and in other situations conduct all other applications as you would from the two upper hangings.

Here note the text and the gloss about the speaking window

Make the speaking window Stand freely, watch their situation. Strike them so that it snaps Whoever withdraws themselves before you. I say to you truthfully No one defends themselves without danger If you have understood They cannot come to blows

Gloss. Note you have heard before about how you should place yourself with your sword into the four guards and how you should fence from them. You should now know about the speaking window, which is also a guard that you can stand fully secure in. And this guard is the long point which is the noblest and the best guard of the sword. Whoever fences from it correctly can constrain the opponent with it, such that they must allow themselves to be struck without their consent and cannot come back to neither strikes nor thrusts before your point.

Arrange yourself in the speaking window like this:

Whenever you move toward your opponent with the initiation of fencing, with whichever cut you approach them, be it a rising or descending cut, always let your point shoot in long to their face or to their breast during your cut. With that you constrain them such so that they must parry or bind on the sword. And when they have bound on, remain strong with your long edge against their sword and stand freely and watch their situation and for whatever they will fence against you. If they draw themselves back off from your sword then follow after them with your point to their opening. Or if they strike around to the other side leaving your sword, then bind in behind their cut strongly from above into their head. Or if they neither withdraw from your sword nor strike around, then work by doubling or otherwise using other plays as you subsequently sense weakness or strength in their sword.

This is another stance

And is also called the speaking window. Note when you have almost arrived at the opponent with the initiation of fencing, advance your left foot and hold your point long from your arms and against their face or breast before you bind on their sword and stand freely and watch what they will fence against you. If they will subsequently cut long and deep at your head, then rise up and wind into the ox with your sword against their cut and stab them in their face. But if they will cut at your sword and not to your body, then disengage and stab them on the other side. If the opponent rushes in and is high with their arms, then conduct the lower slice or rush through with wrestling. If they are low with their arms, then seek the arm wrestling. You can conduct all plays from the long point like this.

Here note the text and the gloss of the explanation of the four hangings and the eight windings of the sword to which the recital adhears to.

Who fully commands and correctly breaks And makes complete irrefutable judgement And breaks each one individually Into three wounders, Who hangs consumately and correctly And delivers the winding with it And considers the eight winds With correct judgement And unites them. The windings, I differentiate trebly Thus they are twenty And four counting them individually. From both sides Learn eight windings with steps And gauge these applications Nothing more than soft or hard

Note this is a lesson and an exhortation of hanging and winding. You have to be well practiced and accomplished in this so that you can both swiftly take lead and correctly conduct a break against one of another fencer's plays from them. The hangings are four and account for the ox above from both sides which are the two upper hangings and the plow below from both sides which are the two lower hangings. From the four hangings you shall deliver eight winds, four from the ox and four from the plow. And you shall further consider and correctly judge these eight winds in such a way that you shall conduct from each wind one of the three wounders, that is, a cut, a thrust or a slice.

Precisely note hereafter how you shall conduct the four winds from the two upper hangings, that is, from the ox both from the right side and from the left side.

Execute the first two winds just from the right side like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, do it with your left foot forwards and hold your sword in front of your head on your right side in the ox. If they subsequently cut in from above from their right side, wind your short edge against their cut, your short edge against their sword, again in ox and thrust in at their face from above. This is one wind.

Note

If the opponent parries your thrust with strength and force your sword off to the side, then remain on their sword and wind back to your right side up into ox and thrust in at their face from above. These are the two winds of the sword from the upper hanging of the right side.

Here note that there are two winds from the ox on the left side. Execute them like this:

When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, setup in ox from your left side. If they subsequently cut in from above from their left side, wind your long edge against their sword to your right side opposing their cut and thrust in at their face from above. This is one wind.

Note

If the opponent parries the thrust and press your sword to the side, then remain on their sword and wind the long edge onto their sword back to your left side and thrust in at their face from above. These are the four winds from the two upper hangings both from the left and from the right sides.

Now you shall know

That the plow from both sides, they are the two lower hangings. When you either move yourself into them or wish to fence from them, you shall conduct four winds both from the left and from the right sides, with all of their applications as you would from the upper hangings. In this way the windings become eight. And note every time you wind, in each one of the windings, you decide on the cut or on the thrust or on the slice. In this way, the twenty four plays come from the eight winds. And how you shall conduct the twenty four plays from the eight windings, you shall find all of this written in the glosses before.

Quite precisely note here

That you cannot correctly conduct the eight windings unless they are done with stepping from both sides and also that you must quite precisely gauge ahead of time nothing more than the two applications. They are: First, when they bind against your sword, whether they are soft or hard in their application. Second, wind and work to the four openings as is written before. Also know that all fencers that wind on the sword and do not know the feeling in the sword, they become struck. Therefore educate yourself so that you fully understand feeling and the word Indes, because all the art of fencing comes from these two things.

  1. lit: All art has length and measure
  2. lit: zufechten