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Here begins the interpretation of the recital.
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23 parchment leaves follow after. Therein the Art of Johannes Liechtenauer, the Knightly Art of Fencing, is held. With that, 17 images of the sword.
In this, the knightly art of the long sword lay written; which Johannes Liechtenauer, may God be merciful to him, who was known to be a high master of the art, had composed and created. he had allowed it to be written in veiled and misleading words, for the reason that the art should not become common. And Master Sigmund ein Ringeck, fencing master to the highborn prince and noble Lord Albrecht, Pfalzgraf of Rhein and Herzog of Bavaria had these very veiled and misleading words glossed and interpreted as lay written [Rostock adds: and pictured] here in this little book, so that any fencer that can otherwise fight can fully absorb and understand it.
 
  
The foreward of the recital.
+
1539 Johannes Liechtenauer's Fencing Art.
Young knight learn
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Here the recital begins. In this, the knightly art of the long sword lies written, which Johannes Liechtenauer, who was a great master in the art, composed and created, God have mercy upon him. He had let the recital be written down with opaque and disguised words, so that the art shall not become common. And so Master Sigmund ein Ringeck, who was known at this time as fencing master to the highborn prince and noble Lord Albrecht, Pfalzgraf of the Rhine and Herzog of Bavaria, had these same opaque and disguised words of the recital glossed and interpreted as lay written here in this book, so that any fencer who can otherwise fight properly can see and understand well. And also after that enriched and improved by other masters, especially via master Hans Medel from Salzburg which subsequently follows after this.
To have love for god, honor women
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So that you expand your honor.
+
This is the forward.
Practice Knighthood and learn
+
Young knight, learn.
 +
Worship god, ever honor women
 +
Thus increase your honor.
 +
Practice chivalry and learn
 
Art that decorates you
 
Art that decorates you
And in war exalts you with honor.
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And in war exalts with honor.
Use the good grips of wrestling,
+
Wrestling's good fetters,
Lance, spear, sword, and messer
+
Lance, spear, sword and messer.
Like a man
+
Manfully put to good use
And render them useless in other's hands.
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And make useless in other's hands
Attack suddenly and storm in,
+
Attack suddenly and charge.
Keep rolling, engage or let pass.
+
Flow onwards, hit or let pass
Thus the intellectuals hate him,
+
Whereupon making hostilities in these ways
Yet this one sees glories.
+
Seeks to praise the one.
 
Hold yourself to this:
 
Hold yourself to this:
All art has a time and place.<ref>lit: All art has length and measure</ref>
+
All art has reach and measure
 
 
This is the text of many good common lessons of the long sword
 
  
 +
This is the text about many good general lessons of the long sword.
 
If you wish to examine the art,
 
If you wish to examine the art,
Go left and right with cutting
+
Then go left and right with cutting
 
And left with right
 
And left with right
That is, if you desire to fence strongly.
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Is what you strongly desire to fence.
  
Gloss. Note this is the first lesson of the long sword: In which you shall learn to make the cuts properly from both sides, that is, if you otherwise wish to fence strongly and correctly. Look at it like this: When you wish to cut from the right side, then see to it that your left foot stands forward. If you then make a descending cut from the right side, then support the cut with the right foot. If you do not do that, then the cut is spurious and incorrect, because your right foot remains behind. Therefore the cut is too short and can not posses its correct path downward to the correct other side in front of the left foot.
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Gloss: Note this is the first lesson of the long sword in which you shall learn to cut the hews correctly from both sides if you wish to otherwise fence strongly and correctly. Look at it this way: When you wish to cut from the right side, see that your left foot stands forward. If you then cut a descending cut from the right side, then accompany the cut with the right foot. If you do not do this, then the cut is wrong and incorrect. When your right side stays behind it, the cut is shortened and cannot accomplish it's correct path downward to the other side in front of the left foot.
  
The same when you cut from the left side and [you] do not support the cut with the left foot. Thus the cut is also spurious. Therefore make sure from whichever side you cut, that you support the cut with the same sided foot, so that you can conduct all your plays with strength and all other cuts shall be hewn like this as well.
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Similarly, when you cut from the left side and the cut is not accompanied with the left foot, then the cut is also wrong. Therefore note from whichever side you cut, that you accompany the cut with the same foot if you want to correctly conduct all your plays with strength and all other cuts should also be hewn in this way.
  
Again, the text about a lesson
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Again a text about a lesson
Whoever chases after cuts
+
Whoever chases cuts,
They permit themselves little opportunity for art.
+
Allows themselves to enjoy little of the art.
Cut from close proximity whatever you wish
+
Cut from close proximity whatever you wish.
No change gets past your shield
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No disengaging comes against your shield.
To the head, to the body
+
To the head, to the body,
Do not omit the stingers<ref>Zeck: Tick. (Rostock)Zeckruhr: Insect bites</ref>
+
do not omit the stingers.
With the entire body
+
Fence with the entire body
Fence whatever you desire to conduct with strength.<ref>possibly: `strongly desire to conduct`</ref>
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whatever you desire to conduct with strength.
  
Gloss. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, you should not watch nor await their cut as they conduct it against you. Because all fencers that look out and wait upon the opponent's cut and wish to do nothing else than parry, they allow themelves little opportunity from art because they often become struck with it.
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Gloss. When you arrive at the opponent initiation of fencing, you should not watch nor await their cut as they conduct it against you. Because all fencers that watch and wait upon another's cut and wish to do nothing else than parry, tthey allow themselves to enjoy little of the art because they often become struck with it. Therefore cut and thrust to the openings.
  
Another. You shall note that everything that you wish to fence with, conduct that with the entire strength of the body and with that, cut in from close at the head and at the body, so they can not disengage in front of your point and with that cut, in the binding of the swords, you shall not omit the stingers to the nearest opening. That will be delineated hereafter in the five cuts and in other plays.
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Item. You shall note that everything that you wish to fence with, conduct that with the entire strength of the body and with that, cut in from close at the head and at the body, so they can not disengage in front of your point and with that cut, in the binding up of the swords, you shall not omit the stingers to the nearest opening. That will be delineated hereafter in the five cuts and in other plays.
  
Again, a lesson.
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Again, the text of a lesson.
 
Hear what is bad.
 
Hear what is bad.
Do not fence lefty from above if you are a righty
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Do not fence above left if you are below right
And if you are lefty,
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And if you are left,
In the right [you] are also severely hindered.
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In the right you are also severely hindered.
  
Note the gloss. The lesson hits upon two people, one left and one right. The first cut, understand it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if you subsequently judge and decide to strike the opponent, then do not hew the first cut from the left side. Because it is weak and with it, cannot not hold fast when one binds strongly against it. Therefore cut [from] the right side, so you may work strongly with art. Whatever you wish. The same is if you are lefty. Then do not cut from the right side as well, because the art is quite awkward [when] a lefty drives from the right side. It is also the same [of] a righty from the left side.
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Gloss. The lesson hits upon two people, one left and one right. The first cut, Look at it this way: When you come to the opponent with an initiation of fencing, if you subsequently judge and decide to strike the opponent, then do not hew the first cut from the left side. Because it is weak, and because of that, cannot not resist when one binds strongly against it. Therefore cut from the right side, so you can work whatever you wish strongly with art. The same goes if you are lefty. Then do not cut from the right side as well, because the art is quite awkward when a lefty initiates from the right side. It is also the same of a righty from the left side.
  
This is the text and learn a lesson about before and after.
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A text of a lesson about the before and the after.
Before and After, the two things
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Before and after, the two things
Are the singular origin of the entire art.
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Are the one origin of all art.
 
Weak and strong
 
Weak and strong
Indes, note them with this word
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Indes. Mark that word with these.
So that you may learn
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So that you can learn
 
To work and ward with art.
 
To work and ward with art.
Whoever frightens easily
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If you frighten easily,
Never learns to fence.
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Never learn any fencing
  
Gloss. Note this is so that you shall fully understand the before and the after before any confrontations. Because the two things have one origin that gives rise to the entire art of fencing.
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Gloss: This means that, before any confrontation, you shall understand and be able to perceive the two things. That means, the before and the after and then the weak and the strong of the sword and of the word Indes. From those come the entire foundation and origin of all of fencing. When you properly perceive these things and in particular do not forget the word Indes in any plays that you conduct, you will be a good master.
  
Look at it like this: The before, this is so that you shall always come forth with a cut or with a thrust to the opponent's opening the moment before they do the same to you so that they must parry you. Then work swiftly with your sword in front of you from one opening to the other within the parry. So they can not come with their plays before your work. But if they rush in on you, then come before with the wrestling.
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The Before
 +
The before, This means that you always (if you wish) come forth with a cut or with a thrust to the opponent's opening in such a way that they must parry you. Then work swiftly with your sword in front of yourself in that act of parrying from one opening to the other, so they can not come with their plays before your work. But if they rush in on you, then come before and rush in with wrestling or your point.
  
Here note that which is called the after.
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The After.
Note. If you can not come into the before, then wait upon the after. These are the breaks of all plays that they conduct upon you.
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If you cannot come into the before (or otherwise do not wish to take it), then wait upon the after. These are the breaks of all plays that the opponent drives upon you.
  
Look at it like this: When the opponent comes before such that you must parry them, swiftly work Indes to the nearest opening during the parry, so that you hit them the moment before they accomplish their play. Thus you have seized the before and they remain after. You shall also note in the before and after how you shall work with the word Indes according to the weak and according to the strong of their sword.
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Look at it this way: When the opponent comes before such that you must parry them, swiftly work Indes to the nearest opening during the act of parrying, so that you hit them the moment before they accomplish their play. In this way, you have seized the before and they remain after. You shall also note in the before and after how you shall work with the word Indes according to the weak and according to the strong of their sword.
  
The strong of their sword
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And look at it this way: From the hilt of the sword up until the middle of the blade the sword has its strength. With that you can withstand when someone binds you against it. And farther from the middle up to the point, it has its weak which cannot resist. And when you understand these things properly, you can properly work with art and with that protect yourself and furthermore teach princes and lords so that they can properly remain steadfast with the same art in play and in earnest, but if you frighten easily, you should never learn the art of fencing because you will be struck by any art. Therefore you shall not learn it because a heart drained of blood does no good in fencing.
And understand it like this: From the hilt of the sword up until the middle of the blade the sword has its strength. With that you may resist<ref>wiederhalten: lit. 'hold against'. To withstand, resist</ref> when someone binds you against it. And farther from the middle up until the point, it has it's weak which can not cannot resist. And when you understand these things properly, you can correctly work with art and with that protect yourself and furthermore teach princes and lords so that they may properly remain steadfast using the same art in in play and in earnest, but if you frighten easily, you should not learn the art of fencing because a heart drained of blood does no good when it becomes rattled by any art.
 
  
 
The text of the five cuts
 
The text of the five cuts
 
Learn five cuts
 
Learn five cuts
From the right hand, whoever invests in these,
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from the right hand against the weapon
We swear to them
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We happily promise<ref>avow, legally promise</ref>
To gladly pay them back in skills.
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To repay <ref>possibly: wages</ref> in the Arts.
  
Note the recital sets down five concealed cuts. Many masters of the sword do not know to say that you should not learn to make other cuts, when from the right side, against those that position themelves against you in defence. And if you select one cut from the five cuts, then one can connect during the first strike. Whoever can break that without their harm, will be avowed by the masters of the recital such that their art shall become better rewarded than any other fencer that cannot fence against these five cuts. And how you shall hew the five cuts, you find that in the same five cuts written hereafter.
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Note the recital sets down five opaque cuts. Many that call themselves master do not know to say that you should not teach to cut differently when from the right side against those that position themelves against you in defense. And if you select one cut from the five cuts, then one can hit with the first strike. Whoever can break that cut (and especially whatever work that comes along with it), without their harm, will be avowed by the masters of the recital such that their art shall become better rewarded than any other fencer that cannot fence against these five cuts. And how you shall hew the five cuts, you find that in the same five cuts written and taught in the recital hereafter.
  
This is the text of the plays of the recital
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The text about the chief plays of the recital
Wrathcut Crook and Cross,
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Wrathcut Crook and Cross.
 
If the Eye Cocker keeps with the Parter,
 
If the Eye Cocker keeps with the Parter,
 
The Fool parries.
 
The Fool parries.
 
Pursuing, Overrunning, places the attack
 
Pursuing, Overrunning, places the attack
Disengage, Suddenly withdraw,
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Disengage, Suddenly Withdraw,
 
Rush through, cut off, press the hands
 
Rush through, cut off, press the hands
 
Tilt and Turn to uncover with
 
Tilt and Turn to uncover with
 
Slash, catch, sweep, stab to clash with
 
Slash, catch, sweep, stab to clash with
  
Note the gloss. Here the proper principal plays of the art of the long sword are named as each are specifically titled with their names that you can better understand them.
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Gloss: Note, here the proper principal plays of the recital and of the art of the long sword will be names, as all are specifically titled with their names and are seventeen in number, and it begins with the five cuts.
  
They are seventeen in number and begin with the five cuts
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The first cut is called the wrath cut
Another. Now note the first cut called the wrath-cut
 
 
The second the crooked cut
 
The second the crooked cut
 
The third the crosswise cut
 
The third the crosswise cut
 
The fourth the cockeyed cut
 
The fourth the cockeyed cut
The fifth the scalp-cut
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The fifth the part cut
 +
 
 +
Now the twelve other plays begin.
  
The sixth this is the four guards
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The first, or keeping count, the sixth is called the four guards or positions
 
The seventh the four parries
 
The seventh the four parries
The eighth Pursuing
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The eighth, pursuing
The ninth the overrunnings
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The ninth, overrunning
The tenth the displacements
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The tenth, displacing
The eleventh disengaging
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The eleventh, disengaging
The twelfth yanking back
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The twelfth, suddenly withdrawing
The thirteenth the rush throughs
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The thirteenth, rushing through
The fourteenth the cut offs
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The fourteenth, cutting off
The fifteenth the hand presses
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The fifteenth, hand pressing
The sixteenth the hangings
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The sixteenth, hanging
The seventeenth this is the winds
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The seventeenth, winding
  
And how you shall uncover with the hanging and winding and how you shall conduct all the aforenamed plays, you find that all written hereafter.
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And how you shall uncover by hanging and winding and conduct all the afore named plays, you will find it all taught and written hereafter in the explanation and glossing of the recital, etc.
 +
 
 +
The text on the wrath cut with its plays and works
 +
Whoever cuts at you from above,
 +
The wrath cut point threatens them
 +
If they become aware of it,
 +
Then abscond above without concern
 +
To the head, to the body
 +
Do not omit the stingers<ref>Zeck: a biting insect, ie: a tick.</ref>
  
This is the wrath-cut with it's plays
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Gloss: Whenever the opponent will strike you from their right side to your head with a descending cut, then you cut from your right side as well with a wrath cut in counter, (especially if they are soft in the usage of their sword), and in the cut, the wrath point is cast in and thrust into their face. If they see and recognize it and parry, then abscond above and with that strike right around from your left shoulder to their right. With the short edge the gap is narrower than with the other. And apply the stingers to their head or body if you can. You can completely abscond and strike with the long edge as well; thereafter warring or exiting with a cut, etc.
  
Whoever cuts at you from above,
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Item. The wrath cut is nothing other than a strong wrathful descending cut (like a simple peasant strike) and is the coded name in the recital for the descending cut. The same as with the other four cuts that will follow hereafter with their special names. So that they, along with their subject matter and plays, are not public to everyone.
The wrath-cut point threatens them
 
  
Gloss. Look at it like this: When one cuts in from above from their right side, you also cut in a wrath-cut strongly from your right shoulder with them using your long edge. If they are subsequently soft against the sword, then shoot the point in forward long at their face and threaten to stab them.
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Absconding is nothing other than when you have bound with someone from descending cuts and rise up against their sword and draw your sword up around their sword or point, to your other side or shoulder into another cut to their other side or opening.
  
Yet another play from the wrath-cut
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Break against the absconding
If they become aware of it,
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If someone absconds and strikes at your other side, then bind or lay into them, that is, wind in strongly into their ears with your short edge. This goes to both sides, also called doubling and mutating.
Then take off above without concern
 
  
Gloss. When you shoot the point in during the wrath-cut, then if they become aware of the point and parry the thrust with strength, then drag your sword upwards up off away from theirs and cut in again at their head from above on the other side against their sword.
+
A different absconding
 +
As Master Hans Medel pulls apart and improves: If you wish to abscond, when you have threatened the opponent with your point, abscond using your short edge and do not strike to their right with a descending cut. If they fly in again, wind crooked to the ground sideways in counter. If they will then go back up and strike you on your left, then Indes, strike right back, under their sword to their right, again using the short edge or stay against them again in the after and wind in crooked to their head on their right. Remember the stingers with the short edge upon their head.
  
Yet another play from the wrath-cut
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Again the text
 
Be strong in turn
 
Be strong in turn
And thrust. If they see it, take it again[sic]<ref>Rostock: 'nider' => 'down'</ref>
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Wind thrust, if they seek it above, then take it below
  
Gloss. When you cut in with the wrath-cut, if the opponent parries it and remains strong against the sword with it, then be strong again against them against their sword and rise up with the strong of your sword into the weak of their sword and wind your hilt forwards in front of your head against their sword and then stab them in the face from above.
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Gloss: If you have both bound with a descending cut and wrath cut as above and have not yet thrown your point forwards, then if they are strong against your sword, then be strong in turn and wind upwards against their sword into a thrust or stab. Then if they see it and will ward and fend off and rise up into the air with an attempt to parry, set the point down between their arms against their breast where it has connected or abscond as above with either the short or long edge as the others maintain. Or else if the opponent binds softly against your sword when you fence with them, then drive onwards strongly with your sword and lodge it against their neck and drag them to the side. But if they bind hard and strong, then be strong in turn and turn the short edge against their sword and shove and snap quickly right back around it and strike to their right side. With the short edge the gap is narrower. Or else, when you have turned the short edge against their sword, strike back down atop their head on the same side.
  
Yet another play from the wrath-cut
+
Be strong in turn
When you thrust-in from above during the winding, as was before, if the opponent then rises up with their hands and parries the high thrust with their hilt, then remain standing like that in the winding and set the point down between their arms and the breast.
+
Like Master Hans Medel says: If you will bind the opponent with the wrath cut and point, then be strong against them in the bind using the crosswise cut. Then if they see that, abscond again on their right with the crooked or short edge as above with its work, etc. You can also stay put after your short strike and go behind them.
 
 
A break against the taking off
 
Note. When you bind with someone strongly against their sword, then if they drag their sword upwards up off away from your sword and cuts in again from above at your head on the other side against your sword to your head, then bind <ref>Rostock: "wind stark..." => "twist strongly"</ref>strongly with the long edge from high towards their head.
 
  
Here note a good lesson.
+
The text of a good general lesson
 
Note this precisely:
 
Note this precisely:
 
Cut, thrust, guard; soft or hard,
 
Cut, thrust, guard; soft or hard,
Indes and before after[sic]<ref>Rostock garbles Indes with 'Jun ger'</ref>
+
Indes and before after
Without rush, your war is not hasty.<ref>Rostock: "dem krieg"</ref>
+
Without rush, your war is not hasty.
 
Whoever hunts the war
 
Whoever hunts the war
 
Above, will be exposed below.
 
Above, will be exposed below.
  
Gloss. This is what you shall quite precisely note when one with a cut or with a thrust or otherwise binds against your sword: whether they are soft or hard upon the sword. And when you have sensed this, you shall know Indes which is the best: whether you rush<ref>Rostock: has "arbaiten(to work)" instead of "hurten"</ref> upon them with the before or with the after. But you shall not allow yourself to be too hasty with your war with your onrush. For the war is nothing other than the windings upon the sword.
+
Gloss: This means that you shall accurately consider whether they are soft or hard when someone binds against your sword with a cut or thrust or whatever. As you perceive or feel it, then Indes, turn to the nearest opening according to the soft or hard using the war. Then Indes, you shall know what seems best to you: whether you should work with either the before or with the after. Yet you should not be too hasty during the on rush of the war, because the war is nothing other than the windings in the sword. They are to be conducted wisely against whoever that does not understand or know them well.
  
Another. Conduct the war like this: When you cut in with the wrath-cut, then as soon as the opponent parries, rise sufficiently up with your arms and twist your point into the upper opening. Then if they parry the thrust, keep staying in the winding and stab the lower opening with your point. Then if they chase the sword further by parrying, then pass through below their sword with your point and hang your point in from above into the other opening of their right side. In this way they become ashamed above and below if you can otherwise conduct the passage correctly.
+
A text: How one shall correctly find cut and thrust. A lesson:
  
How one shall properly find cuts and thrusts in all windings
 
 
In all winding
 
In all winding
Learn to properly find cut, thrust.
+
Learn to correctly find cut, thrust, slice.
You shall also with that gauge,
+
You shall also at the same time gauge whether the application's
cut, thrust or slice
+
Position, whether it is soft or hard, etc. (Master Hans calls for this out in other places as well)
In all encounters
+
Cut, thrust or slice into all encounters
Of the masters, if you wish to dishonor them.
+
Of the masters if you wish to dishonor them.
  
Gloss. This is how you shall properly find cut, thrust and slice in all windings. So when you wind, you shall immediately gauge which of the three is best to conduct<ref> Rostock adds: "der heúe, oder stich, od shnit" </ref>. So that you do not cut when you should thrust, and not slice when you should cut, and should not thrust when you should slice. And note when someone parries the one, that you hit them with the other. So if one parries your thrust, then conduct the cut. If someone rushes in, then conduct the under-slice into their arm. Note [this] in all collisions and bindings of the sword, if you wish to confound the masters that sets themelves against you.
+
Gloss: This means that you shall correctly learn to find cut, thrust, and slice in all winding. Also so you shall be quite polished with all winding against the sword. each one of the winds has three particular plays, that is: a cut, a stab and a slice. And when you wind against the sword, then you shall quite precisely gauge it, so that you do not incorrectly select the play that is called for in that winding. Hence, you do not cut when you should thrust and not thrust when you should slice. And when someone parries the one, you hit with the other. In this way, if someone parries your thrust, then conduct the cut. If someone rushes in on you, then drive the lower slice into their arm. Remember this in all encounters and binds of the sword if you wish to dishonor the masters that set themselves against you and do not understand.
  
 
About the four openings
 
About the four openings
 
Know the four openings
 
Know the four openings
 
Take target so that you strike wisely
 
Take target so that you strike wisely
Without any fear
+
Against any fear
 
Without doubt however they are situated.
 
Without doubt however they are situated.
  
Gloss. You shall here note the four openings on the opponent that you should always fence to. The first opening is the right side, the second is the left side above the girdle of the opponent. The other two are also the right and the left sides below the girdle. Precisely observe the openings in the onset with which they uncover themelves against you. Artfully target these without danger with the shooting in of the long point, with pursuing and otherwise with all techniques and and do not heed them as they bare against you with their techniques. Thus, you fence wisely and from this strike strikes that are excellent and with this do not allow them to come to their plays.
+
Gloss: You shall here note the four openings on the opponent that you should always fence to. The first opening is the right side, the second the left side; above the girdle of the opponent. The other two are the right and the left sides below the girdle. Precisely observe the openings in the initiation of fencing with whichever opening they open themselves against you. Target these boldly without danger with the shooting in of the long point and with pursuing and also with the winding against the sword and otherwise with all attacks and do not heed them as they bare against you. For if you perceive wisely and strike the strike upon that, that is indeed exquisite and does not allow them to come to their plays. And always target the opening and not the sword. If they will parry you, then work onward to the closest opening with the war or otherwise.
  
The text and the gloss about the doubling and about the mutating. How they break the four openings.
+
How one shall break the four openings
If you wish estimate for yourself how
+
If you wish to set yourself up
 
To artfully break the four openings
 
To artfully break the four openings
Double above
+
Double up
Mutate right below
+
Mutate right down
 
I say to you truthfully
 
I say to you truthfully
 
No one defends themelves without danger
 
No one defends themelves without danger
Line 182: Line 187:
 
They can scarcely come to blows, etc.
 
They can scarcely come to blows, etc.
  
Gloss. This is for when you wish to set yourself up against the opponent in such a way that you will break the four openings with art. Conduct the doubling to the upper openings against the strong of their sword and the mutating to the other openings. For I say to you truthfully, that they cannot defend themelves from that and can neither come to strikes nor to thrusts.
+
Gloss: Like master Hans Medel has said: If you have bound with someone from earnest descending cuts or whatever and wish to set yourself and the opening up. In this process, they wanted to strike you; you have parried and broken. Then if they strike back around to the other side to the other opening of your head by absconding or whatever, then you shall break their opening again, that is, striking by doubling or mutating so that you break the opening from one side to the other and they will be struck and you parry and strike as one without harm.
 
 
The doubling
 
Another. When you cut in from above with the wrath cut or otherwise, if the opponent parries you with strength, then 'Indes' shove your sword's pommel under your right arm with your left hand and against their sword with crossed hands, strike the opponent across their mouth from behind their sword's blade between the sword and the opponent or else strike them on their head with this play.
 
  
Note the mutating
+
Here note how you shall conduct the doubling on both sides.
Conduct the mutating like this: When you bind them against their sword with a descending cut or otherwise, then wind the short edge against their sword and rise sufficiently up with your arms and hang your sword's blade over their sword to the outside and thrust to their lower opening. This works on both sides.
+
You shall make the doubling like this: When they have bound against you with a descending cut or whatever, etc from their right side to your left and strike right back around to your right side, then do nothing more than as soon as you perceive the moment they strike, then wind your sword in sideways at their head on their left side under their sword using your short edge. Then they are struck and are bound or intertwined simultaneously. This is then called the doubling above and with this the openings break. You can also make the doubling against their right side, yet you must wind in crooked, etc. If after your doubling they will strike back around to the left side of your head, then mutate to their right.
  
The crooked cut with it's plays
+
Here note how you shall conduct the mutating to both sides.
 +
Make the mutating like this: When you have just doubled in and broken the opening as is taught above, then if they strike right back around to your left side, etc. (But even if they will not strike right back, you can nevertheless allow it to go through between as above, etc) Then allow your point to go right through between you both and strike the other opening on the right side of their head. Then if from that they strike to your lower opening, you wind right back staying underneath with your sword. Thus, in this way you break all of their openings such that they do not truthfully know where they are free of danger and cannot fully come to blows. This is called mutating right below and the openings are artfully broken and exploited in the manner Master Hans Medel Von Salzburg says to do so.
  
Crook up swiftly
+
The crooked cut with its plays.
Throw the point onto the hands
+
Crook up swiftly,
 +
Throw the point upon the hands.
  
Gloss. This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands and conduct the play like this: When the opponent cuts at an opening from your right side with either rising or descending cuts, spring away from their cut with your right foot, all the way to their left side, facing them and strike them with crossed arms with the point upon the hands. And also conduct this play against them when they stand against you in the guard of the ox.
+
Gloss: This is how you shall cut crooked at the hands. Execute it like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword "crooked", (that is, with crossed hands) out ahead to the outside with your point on the ground such that the long edge stands forwards, well in balance. Execute the first play according to the text like this: If the opponent initiates a cut from their right shoulder, be it [1] descending or [2] rising, then Indes toward the opponent, step in fully into them with your right foot and let either [1] your crossed hands or [2] the crooked cut go up and displace their cut with your sword with either [1] your long edge or [2] with your point thrown out over their hands, towards their left side. Thereafter, war and work however you wish. [2] But if they throw you back over with their hands with power during their ascent, let go willingly, and turn it into a strike right around your head to their left side with either the short or long edge (the short is closer). If they break that by mutating against you, stand there, then you can use your crooked cut against that. It also breaks rising and descending cuts and is one of the four parries against the four guards, such as the ox<ref>Plow</ref>.
 
 
Yet another play from the crooked cut
 
Crook. Whoever fully commits
 
Disrupts many cuts with stepping.
 
  
Gloss. This is how you shall displace the descending cut with the crooked cut. Conduct the play like this: When the opponent cuts in from above from their right side to the opening, step to their left side with your right foot and fall across their sword in the barrier guard with your point to the ground. Conduct this on both sides. You can also strike them on the head from the displacement.
+
Rule: Prvode yourself solidly open in the crooked cut.
  
Yet another play from the crooked cut.
+
Yet another play
Hew crooked to the flats of
+
Crook. Whoever fully commits,
The masters if you wish to weaken them.
+
Disrupts many cuts by stepping.
  
Gloss. This is for when you wish to weaken a master. Conduct the play like this: When the opponent cuts in from their right side, cut crooked against their cut atop their sword with crossed hands.
+
Gloss: This is how you will displace descending cuts via the crooked cut. Execute it like this: Stand well crooked by your left foot, which shall stand forward with your sword crossed over to that side with your hands crossed and with your point on the ground, that is, in the crooked lodging. Then, when the opponent strikes at your opening from their right side, step and either strike or displace or work as above. (Though you can fall across their hands fully till your point is on the ground in the barrier guard as some call it.) This goes to both sides. And stand in this way and have your sword on the other side in the crooked lodging; not with crossed hands, rather with open arms such that the long edge still stands up. And displace and work with it as before. This means that you, thereafter; during warring or otherwise, will strike or thrust at their head from the displacement. It is also good against the fool<ref>Ox</ref> or the flats. If they throw you right over as above, then strike as above, etc.
  
Yet another play from the crooked cut
+
Yet another play
  When it sparks above
+
Cut crooked to the flat of the masters
  So stand aside, that I will laud.
+
If you wish to weaken them.
 +
When it sparks above
 +
So stand aside, that I will laud.
  
Gloss. This is for when you cut atop the opponent's sword with the crooked cut, strike immediately back up from their sword with your short edge or wind the short edge against their sword during the crooked cut and thrust into their breast
+
This is when you wish to weaken the masters. So note when someone stands hanging in the flats or the fool<ref>Ox</ref> with the right foot forward. Cut from the crooked lodging [position] on your right side and displace them crooked atop their sword with crossed hands and step in. And as soon as your sword clashes against theirs, then stand firm and wait for the after, etc. But if you do not wish to wait, then swiftly strike back up from the sword to the left side of their head with either the short of long edge or wind the short edge against their sword during the crooked cut or do what ever you think is good.
  
 
Yet another play from the crooked cut
 
Yet another play from the crooked cut
Line 219: Line 221:
 
Disengage and with that expose them
 
Disengage and with that expose them
  
Gloss. This is for when the opponent wishes to cut in from above from their right shoulder. So you act as if you will bind against their sword with the crooked cut and shorten and pass through under their sword with your point and wind your hilt over your head to your right side and thrust into their face.
+
Gloss: This is when the opponent cuts or stands against you in the flats or the fool<ref>Ox</ref> as just above, etc, act as if you will bind against their sword with the crooked cut or a lodging, then cut short and drive through under their sword with your point and either wind or draw through to your right side into a thrust on their right side with your point between you both and stab them in their face in the same way that you come into the flat stance and thrust on in sharply.
 
 
Note how one shall break the crooked cut.
 
Whoever foils you crooked,
 
The noble war confounds them
 
That they do not thruthfully knows
 
Where they are without danger.
 
 
 
Gloss. This is for when you initiate a cut from your right side, from above or below. Then if the opponent cuts crooked onto your sword also from their right side with crossed arms and displaces your cut with it, then remain with the your sword strongly against theirs and shoot the point in long into their breast under their sword.
 
 
 
Another break for the crooked cut
 
Note. When you cut in from above from your right side, then if the opponent cuts crooked with crossed arms atop your sword from their right side as well and with that presses you down to the ground, then wind towards your right side and rise all the way up over your head with your arms and set your point against their breast from above.
 
 
 
Gloss. If they parry this, then remain standing as are you are with your hilt in front of your head and work swiftly with your point from one opening to the other. This is called the noble war. With it you confound the opponent so completely that they do not know where they shall keep away from you with certainty.
 
 
 
The crosswise cut with it's plays
 
 
 
The cross seizes
 
Whatever arrives from the roof
 
 
 
Gloss. Note the crosswise cut breaks all cuts that will have been hewn from above down. Conduct the cut like this:<ref>Rostock adds: "Stehe mit dem lincken fûs vor, und halt dein schwert an deiner rechtenn achsel und ..." => "Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword by your right shoulder and ..."</ref>When the opponent cuts in at your head from above, spring away from their cut to their left side with your right foot, facing them and in your springing turn your sword forwards with the hilt high in front of your head such that your thumb comes under and strike them with the short edge to their left side such that you catch their cut in your hilt and hit them in the head.
 
 
 
A play from the crosswise cut
 
  
Cross with the strong
+
Yet another play.
With that note the work
+
Whoever confounds you crooked,
 +
the noble war utterly confuses them
 +
that they do not truthfully
 +
know where they are without danger.
  
Gloss. This is how you shall work from the crosswise cut using the strong and do it like this: When you initiate a cut using the crosswise cut, remember that you wind against the strong of their sword with yours.<ref>Rostock: supplies the missing verb, 'windest'</ref> then if the opponent holds it strongly at bay, then from against their sword strike them on their head with crossed arms from behind their sword's edge as is made here or slice them across their mouth with this play.
+
Gloss: This is whenever you wish to conduct the crooked cut, you will always leave yourself open with it. Look at it this way: When you cleave in with a crooked cut from either your right or left side or bind against their sword, from whichever side you cut, you are then open on the other. If the opponent is also clever and will strike from your sword to your opening and tries to confound you through cunning, then either [1] abide with your sword against their sword or [2] make a pursuing cut and either [1] twist crooked or wind your point into their face and [1] work further via the war or [2] strike into the opening, such that they become so utterly confused that they will no longer know whether they should guard themselves from cuts or thrusts. But if they will confound you like this, such that they mount you with their sword and won't let up, etc... then stay against their sword as above and follow along with them as above.
  
Yet another play from the crosswise cut
+
The crosswise cut with its plays.
Note. When you bind against their sword with the strong of your sword from the crosswise cut, then if the opponent holds it strongly at bay,<ref> alternately, wiederhalten: to struggle or resist</ref>, then shove their sword away from you, down to your right side using your hilt and immediately strike back around with the crosswise cut at their head to their right side.
+
The crosswise cut seizes
 +
Whatever approaches from the roof.
  
Yet another play from the crosswise cut
+
Gloss: The crosswise cut is nothing other than the lateral cut which breaks any cut that will either arrive or will be hewn from above downward or from the roof. You shall conduct it like this: Stand with the left foot forward and hold your sword in behind in the lateral cut at the midsection or waist by the right foot or side such that the long edge is above. And when someone cuts in from above from the roof to either the opening or the head, then step or spring right ahead towards them with the right foot and displace their cut with the crosswise cut, such that it is crooked over to your left, etc. And then after the displacement, wind to the opening of their right side if you wish to remain inside on their sword. Or, swiftly strike from the sword at their head on their left side with your short edge. War if it is necessary. But if they make a sudden withdrawal and will strike you from their left, then swiftly slip back around into their arm with the crooked lower slice, but do not sweep around too widely in the air to displace them.
Another. When you bind against their sword with the crosswise cut, then if they are weak against the sword, lay the short edge against their neck on their right side and spring behind their left foot with your right and drag them over it with your sword.
 
  
 
Another play
 
Another play
Another. When you bind against their sword with the crosswise cut, if they are subsequently weak against the sword, then press their sword down with your crosswise cut and position your short edge out forward against their neck from behind their arms.
+
Cross with the strong.
 
+
With that, remember your work.
[Glasgow]
 
 
 
Here note the break against the upper crosswise cut
 
Note. When you bind the opponent from your right side with a descending cut or otherwise against their sword, then if they strike around to the other side using the crosswise cut, then come forth under their sword against their neck with the crosswise cut as well, as is pictured hereafter next to this, such that they strike themelves the same way with your sword.
 
 
 
Here note the break against the low cross strike
 
Note when you bind against their sword from your right side, then if the opponent strikes from the sword around to the other<ref>Rostock: "unternn" => "lower"</ref> opening of your right side using the crosswise cut, then remain with your hilt above your head and turn your sword's edge downward against their cut and thrust to their lower opening, as is pictured hereafter next to this.
 
 
 
[Dresden]
 
 
 
How one shall strike with the cross to the four openings
 
Cross to the plow
 
Yoke hard to the ox
 
 
 
Gloss. This is how you shall strike to the four openings in one entry using the crosswise cut.
 
Look at it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, note: when it is suitable, spring toward them and strike them to the lower opening of their left side with the crosswise cut. This is called striking to the plow.
 
  
Yet another play from the crosswise cut
+
Gloss: This means that with any type of crosswise cut you shall use it to strengthen and work strongly  (viz:<ref>videlicet: namely; to wit</ref> Clearing cut or War, etc) And in this way in particular: When the opponent will initiate a strike right down from above like from roof guard, rush in strongly against their cut with the crosswise cut just like using the slice, in such a way that that your thumb is underneath, and with that strike them on their left side or head. Thereafter, if they fall against you strongly, then hang well and strike them on their right side from that hanging and step well to their right with your left foot, etc. Namely, make an exit cut or war.
When you have struck to the lower opening with the crosswise cut, immediately strike up to the other side at their head in from above using the crosswise cut. This is called sriking to the ox and then swiftly strike further, again and again one cross strike to the ox and the another to the plow crosswise from one side to the other and with this make a descending cut in from above at their head and with that withdraw yourself.
 
  
Whoever crosses themelves well
+
Item. But if you sense when you bind them with strength that they are weak at the sword, then lay your short edge out over to their right side against their throat.
Threatens the head by springing.
 
  
Gloss. This is so that you are to spring sufficiently to the side of the opponent with each and every cross strike so that if you wish to strike them, you can fully connect with their head and be aware that in your springing, you are to be fully covered up above with your hilt in front of your head.
+
A break for the laying on of the sword [against the throat]. When someone lays against your throat using the upper work in this way, then with the left hand, let your sword go and with your right, shove their sword from the throat and with your left foot, step in front of both of their feet toward their left side and with your left arm, pass over both of their arms close to their hilt and lead theem to dance. Or, and better, step behind them into the fulcrum and with the left arm right around against their throat either to the front or the back and thrown over the foot. Or with the left hand, let your sword go and with your right, strike them across the mouth with your sword over their sword and with your left hand, grasp your sword in the middle of the blade and shove them away from you with your point, etc. If it is not sufficient, it is better to shove or take their load away from you by their elbow.
  
[Glasgow]
+
Yet another play.
 +
Cross into the plow;
 +
Connected well to the ox.
  
This is the text and the gloss of yet another play from the crosswise cut and is called the failer.<ref>The Rostock title matched the Dresden</ref>
+
Gloss: This is when someone lays before you in their stance in the plow<ref>Fool</ref> or ox<ref>Plow</ref>. That is, when they stand with the right foot forward and lies with their sword out forward with the point on the ground, fall upon it from above using the crosswise cut. Thereafter work it into the openings as they make themselves available or war. But if they defend, go into the fool<ref>Ox</ref> at the head, then you can again war by saddling atop it and working. Also in the same way, if someone saddles atop you at the end of a crosswise cut or crooked cut from the left, then remain against their sword and work in the after like in the last stance of the plow<ref>Fool</ref> using the after.
  
Whoever credibly executes the failer
+
Another play.
They wound according to desire from below
+
Whoever crosses themselves well,
 +
endangers the head with springing.
  
Gloss. Note all fencers that like to parry will be mislead and struck by the failer. Conduct the play like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, act as if you will strike at their head with a free crosswise cut on their left side and snatch your sword away during the cut and strike to the lower opening of their right side using the crosswise cut, as is pictured just after to this. In this way the opponent is triggered and struck below according to desire.
+
This is: When you stand in the crosswise cut and will threaten their head with strikes, let your point pass through to your left side in your crosswise cut and in that passage through, spring or step well to their left side with your right foot and strike them threateningly with the crosswise cut to the left side of their head with the short edge yet in such a way that you are well covered in it with your sword or hilt. Similarly, it also goes to the left side by passing through and striking to their right side with the long edge, etc.
  
[Dresden]
+
Another play from the crosswise cut called the failer
 +
The failer misleads.
 +
It wounds from below according to desire.
  
Yet another play from the crosswise cut and this is called the inverter
+
Gloss: Note that with the failer, any fencer that likes to parry will be astonished and misled and easily struck. Execute it like this: When you stand in the crosswise cut and act as if you will strike at their head on their left side from either the crosswise cut or from descending cuts and in the cut divert or suddenly withdraw your cut and strike the opponent with a crosswise cut to the lower openings under their sword to the left side of their head or wherever it may occur to you and is called the wound from below if it happened from below their sword and not from the lower opening below the belt. In this way they are struck and wounded according to desire. War.
  
The inverter constrains.
+
Another play, the crosswise cut inverter
The one who slips across also wrestles with it.
+
The inverter compels
 +
The one who slips through wrestles as well at the same moment
 
Take the elbow surely
 
Take the elbow surely
Spring into their stance.
+
spring into their movement
  
Gloss. Note you shall conduct this play like so: When you bind against the opponent's sword with a rising or descending cut, invert your sword such that your thumb comes under and thrust at their face from above. In this way, you constrain them such that they must parry and in their act of parrying, seize their right elbow with your left hand and spring in front of their right foot with your left and shove them over it. Or rush through using the inverter and wrestle as you will find heareafter in the slipping through.
+
Gloss: This is: When you have cut with the failer as was taught above, strike right back around to their left side using the crosswise cut. Then if they fall upon your sword, swiftly hang and in that hanging rush through and take their balance by the elbow and step in forward with the left foot and shove them over it. You can also execute a bit of grappling in your rushing through like this: step behind them with the left foot and pass your left arm forward around their neck and throw them backwards over the foot. Also, You can completely pass your left arm around their neck from behind their back and throw. Some say it like this: When you have bound with someone, invert your sword so that your thumb comes below, that is, into the crosswise cut and stab them in the face with your point such that you compel them so that they must parry and in that act of parrying, slip in and shove their elbow which wrestles like above, etc.
  
Yet another play from the failer
+
Item. As for how you shall rush through, you find that hereafter in the play that says: Rush through, let hang.
Double the failer
 
If they make contact, make the slice with it
 
  
Glossa. Note this is called the double failer. For the reason that one shall conduct a double misdirection in one sortie. Conduct the first like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, spring toward them with your right foot and act as if you will strike at their head with a cross strike to their left side and snatch your strike away hitting their head on their right side.
+
Yet another play.
 +
The failer hits doubly.
 +
One makes the old slice with power.
  
Yet another play from the failer
+
According to master hans, he says: This is for when you have misdirected the opponent with the first failer and struck them on their right side, etc. as above. Swiftly strike right back around yet one more time for the second [opening] on their right side. That's called the double, etc. You can even go right back around a third time. If you then come upon their sword, such that they parry, then war or wind with them, etc.
  
Double further
+
Then If the opponent will strike as well, then Indes, go in over their arm with the slice and press behind. Some differ and this is also called the failer because one shall conduct a double misdirection in one initiation of fencing with it. Execute the first like this: When you come to them initiation of fencing, step or spring with your right foot such that your left foot stays in front facing them and act as if you will strike to their left side with a crosswise cut and suddenly withdraw the strike and spring out ahead to their right with your left foot and strike at their head on their right side. It is quick like in the first play, war.
Step in left and do not be lazy
 
  
Gloss. This is for when you have struck at the opponent's head on their right side with your first misdirection as was just pictured. Then take the slice into their arms from below<ref>omitted in dresden</ref> and immediately strike back around to the right side of their head and with that<ref>mit omitted in the glasgow</ref> from crossed arms pass over their sword with the short edge and spring left, that is to your left side and slice them with the long edge through the jaw.
+
Yet another play.
 +
Double it further,
 +
Step in left and do not be lazy.
  
The cockeyed cut with it's plays
+
g[loss]: This is the previous play above explained with the slice as master hans says. But others say that when you have struck with the first misdirection to the head on their left side, strike immediately back around to their head on their right side and from crossed hands, pass over their sword with your short edge and spring left, that is to your left side and slice them through their mouth with the long edge and swiftly extract yourself [to the side]<ref>paper is damaged. only the letters 'ne' remain. There's enough room for two or three letters</ref>
  
The cockeyed cut breaks inside
+
Item you can conduct the failer from the descending cuts in the same way as from the crosswise cut whenever you wish and this crosswise cut goes to both sides, though it is more effective from the right side when your left foot stands forward.
Whatever the buffalo strikes or thrusts
 
Whoever threatens to change,
 
The cockeyed cut robs them of it.
 
  
Gloss. Note here that the cockeyed cut is a cut that intrudes into the cuts and thrusts of a buffalo, which acquire dominance with power. Conduct the cut like this: When the opponent cuts in from above from their right side, then you also cut from your right against their cut with upright arms using the short edge into the weak of their sword and strike them on their right shoulder, in this way you strike and parry as one and hit them during the cut. If they disengage, shoot long into their breast during the cut and cut in this way when they stand against you in the guard of the plow or when they will thrust at you from below.
+
This is the cockeyed cut with it's plays
 +
The cockeyed cut intrudes in on
 +
whatever the buffalo strikes or thrusts.
 +
Whoever conducts the change,
 +
the cockeyed cut robs them from that.
  
Yet another play from the cockeyed cut
+
Gloss: The cockeyed cut is nothing other than the switch cut. Named according to the recital, the cockeyed cut, which is such an exquisite cut, that intrudes in on buffalos or ruffians which take victory by force in cuts and in thrusts. Execute the cut like this: If you stand with your right foot forward and lay in the cockeyed cut, then the thumb must be up against the sword. Then if they cut at you from their right side, step into them swiftly, Indes, with your left foot and displace their cut strongly with your short edge and from that, make a quick strike from your left shoulder, crooked, with the long edge into the right side of their head, but if they immediately come right back and parry your cut so that you come onto their sword, then wind in from above with power and lay your sword on their throat. Then if they will continue to escape by force, then just calmly pursue them so that they can't rightly escape. But if you wish to allow them to get off easy, then wind in behind and between their arms as it connects using the war, etc. But if you stand with the left foot forward, then position your thumb underneath, so you can again displace their descending cut with the short edge and strike to their left side to the head with the short edge and with the right foot stepped in. Or, displacing over their sword, winding in, to the head on their right side or laid up against their throat, etc, war. But if in their cut they wish to disengage, then wind in crooked upon their sword and bring your work to conclusion out forward and lay up against them.
  
Cock an eye, If they short change you,
+
Another play
Disengaging defeats them
+
Cock an eye to see if they short change you.
 +
Disengaging vanquishes them.
  
Gloss. Note this is a lesson for when you shall cock an eye slyly and quite precisely see whether the opponent fences short against you. You shall recognize it by this: When the opponent initiates a cut and their arms do not extend long with their cut, cut as well and in the cut pass through below their sword with your point and wind your hilt over your head to your right side and stab them in the face as is pictured just below.
+
Gloss: This is a teaching: When you come to them with the initiation of fencing, you should cock an eye to see whether they stand against you short or straight. With this you shall identify whenever they initiate a cut. Then, if they do not stretch their arms out long from themselves, the sword is shortened. If you lay before them in the cockeyed cut or they lay before you in the fool<ref>Ox</ref> by the head, then it is again shortened. For all windings or crooked stances in the sword in front of the opponent are short and shorten the sword. To all that hold themselves like this, you shall freely disengage out of cuts and out of thrusts with the long point into the face. With it you threaten them such that they must parry or else allow themselves to be struck or stabbed. War. Master Hans likes to disengage the opponent if their right foot is ahead and they stand in either the switch cut or cockeyed cut and when one is shortened against them, especially standing in the fool<ref>Ox</ref>.
  
[Glasgow]
+
[Margin] If you stand in the hanging parry crooked or open, like Seydenfaden had taught, it is also shortened and good for you to disengage
  
Another. All fencers, which fence short, be it from the ox or from the plow, and with all windings in front of the opponent, freely disengage them from both your cuts and from your thrusts with the long point. With this you secure them against your sword such that they must allow you to come to work and to strike them.
+
Yet another play
 +
Squint to the point,
 +
take the neck without fear.
  
[Dresden]
+
Gloss: This means that the cockeyed cut that breaks the long point with a deception of the eyes. Execute it like this according to Master Hans' lesson: If you stand in the cockeyed cut and your right foot lies forward and the opponent also stands with their right foot forward in the fool<ref>Ox</ref> with the flat near the left side of their head and speeds their point toward you, then visibly cock an eye at that and act as if you will cut into it and rush on in with your left foot forwards, under their sword [with yours] crooked into their neck and take their neck without any fear. Thereafter work with the war or whatever you wish. Also do as some say: If you stand with the left foot forward in the cockeyed cut and they hold their point either long or short against your face, then squint at the point and act as if you will strike into it and strike atop their sword with your short edge and with that you shoot the point in long into the right side of their neck without fear, but still step out forward with your right foot as well. War. But if you wish to take the before, then saddle atop them crooked, then strike again immediately from their sword to their left side with your short edge. War.
  
Yet another play from the cockeyed cut
+
Also do it as some say. If you stand with your left foot forward in the cockeyed cut and the opponent holds their point log or short against your face or breast, then cock an eye at their point and act as if you will strike at it and strike atop their sword with the short edge and shoot the point in long with this without fear of their right side, nevertheless step out forwards with your right foot as well. War. But if you wish to take the before, you saddle atop them crooked, then immediately strike again to their left side from their sword with your short edge. War.
  
Squint to the point
+
Another Play.
And take the neck without fear.
+
Cock an eye at the top of the head
 +
If you wish to incapacitate the hands
  
Gloss. Note the cockeyed cut breaks the long point and conduct it like this: When the opponent stands against you and holds their point against your face or breast from extended arms, stand with your left foot forward and with your face, cock an eye slyly at their point and act as if you wish to cut to their point and cut strongly upon their sword with the short edge and with that shoot the point long to their neck with an advance of the right foot.
+
Gloss Master Hans: This is when you stand in the cockeyed cut with your right foot forward and the opponent also stands with the right foot forward and either in the cockeyed cut or else holds themselves as if they will do so, in this case, snap in with your sword or flat to their right side at their head. If they overlook this, then they will be quite grievously struck and thereafter suddenly and swiftly withdraw and from that make a cut upon their sword to their left side at their head with the short edge. War. Some say it like this: When they will cut in from above or stand against you in the long point, then cock an eye using your face as if you will strike atop the head, cut against their cut using your short edge and strike them with the point to the hands from against their sword's edge.
  
Yet another play from the cockeyed cut
+
The cockeyed cut with part cut with it's plays
 +
The part cut is a threat to the face.
 +
With it's turn, the breast is quickly threatened.
  
Squint to the top of the
+
Gloss: This is when you stand with the right foot forwards in the cockeyed cut and the opponent initiates a cut using a descending cut. While they strike, swiftly flip your sword right back around into the plunge cut (this is the part cut in the zettel) and the point against them fully in the fulcrum below their cut or sword into their face or breast. Thereafter work whatever you wish that is threatening to the opponent. Master Hans Seydenfaden also taught the part cut like this: Initiate a strike with your long edge straight ahead from above from the top of your head and on top of that a rising cut at the opponent's head on their right side, following up according to two plays in his school's doctrine with various strikes, footwork and misdirections.
Head if you wish to ruin the hands.
 
  
Gloss. Note when the opponent wishes to cut in from above, cock an eye slyly with your face as if you wish to strike their head and cut against their cut with your short edge and strike them upon their hands from against their sword's blade with your point.
+
Another play. How the crown breaks the part cut.
 +
What comes from them,
 +
The crown takes away.
  
The part cut
+
Gloss: Master Hans. This is: when someone has thrown in the point using the part cut as was first taught, use the crown against it, because it breaks the part cut like this: If they stand in this way, then fall into the cut with your hilt across their blade or across the grip between both hands and drag down so they will be struck upon the head, etc. This is called the crown.
Is a threat to the face
 
  
Here note the part cut is a threat to both the face and to the breast. Conduct it like this: When the opponent stands against you in the guard of the fool, cut down from above, extended from the top of your head, with the long edge, and remain high with your arms during the cut and hang in at their face with your point.
+
Some differ in this way: When you cut in from above with the part cut, then if they parry high with their sword gripped with an armed hand or crossed over their head, this is called the crown against Seydenfaden's part cut and with that, slip in by shoving, etc. In this way, it takes the part cut away. This also breaks an opponent like this, again as above with the hilt thrown over that and wrenched down.
  
[Rostock]
+
Another play. How the slice breaks the crown.
This is the part cut with its plays The part cut is a threat to the face, with its turn, the breast is firmly threatened. Gloss. Note the part cut is conducted like this: cut in with your long edge at the opponent's head down from above from your part. If they parry, then hang your point in with your long edge over their hilt and thrust into their face, as is pictured here.
+
Slice through the crown,
 +
so you break the hard beautifully.
 +
Press the strike.
 +
It drags down using slicing.
  
[Glasgow]
+
Gloss: Master Hans. This is: when someone drags the part cut off using the crown in the same way as above, pursue them and drag them down so you slice them on their head, etc. Then you fade off to the side.
Another. If the opponent firmly shoves your point  upwards with their hilt, then twist your sword with your hilt high in front of your head, such that the thumb comes below and place the point under their hands upon their breast, as is pictured here.
 
  
[Rostock]
+
Some differ in this way: when the opponent parries the part cut or otherwise any cut with the armed crown and rushes in with it, then take the slice under their hands and into their arms and press firmly upward and back yourself off with it with a sweep.
One other play. What comes from them, the crown takes that away, Slice through the crown, so you break the hard beautifully, press the thrust<ref>in pPvD, this is 'strich' not 'stich'. So: "press the strike"</ref>, withdraw it with slicing. Gloss. Note when you cut in from above using the part cut, if they parry hard over their head with their hilt, this parry is called the crown, and they rush in on you with it, then take your lower slice under their hands into their arm, and press firmly upward, so that the crown is broken again.
 
  
[Dresden]
+
About the four positions
A play from the part cut
+
Four positions alone,
With their turn
+
One keeps to those and flees the common.
Firmly threatens the breast.
+
Ox, plow, fool
 
+
From the roof. These three things are not worthless to you, says Master Hans Medel.
Gloss. This is for when you hang your point in at the opponent's face from above using the part cut. Then if the opponent firmly shoves you upward with their hilt in their act of parrying, spin your sword around high in front of your head using your hilt and set the point against their breast from below.
 
  
How the crown breaks the part cut
+
Gloss: This means that you shall specifically hold no other position other than the four positions named here, which are often named the four guards, that is: ox, plow, fool, roof.
Whatever comes from them,
 
The crown takes that away
 
  
Gloss. Note when you cut in from above using the part cut, if the opponent parries high above their head with their hilt, this parrying is called the crown and they rush in on you with it.
+
The first position is the ox<ref>Plow</ref>. Make it according to Master Hans in this way: Stand with the right foot forward and hold your sword on your left side just below your knee, the point a little upwards towards the opponent such that the thumb stays against your sword facing you and the long edge up. Also stand in the same way so that your left foot stands forward yet with crooked or crossed arms and again with your thumb facing you and with your short edge upwards.
  
How the slice breaks the crown.
+
The second is the plow<ref>Fool</ref>. Make it like this: Stand with the right foot forwards and lay your sword out forwards with extended arms with the point upon the ground and the long edge downwards not crooked. If you have the left foot forwards, you can do it that way, although it is somewhat shorter opposing the opponent.
  
Slice through the crown
+
The third is the Fool<ref>Ox</ref>. Make it like this: Stand with your right foot forwards and hold your sword on your left side with your hilt next to your head, not crooked or crosswise, with either your point facing the opponent or hold it next to you in the flat of your thumb. But if your left foot is forward, then hold your sword crooked or crosswise on your right side next to your head, the point against the opponent, your thumb facing you again.
So you break the hard beautifully
 
Press the thrust<ref>in pPvD, this is 'strich' not 'stich'. So: "press the strike"</ref>
 
Withdraw it with slicing.
 
  
Gloss. Note when the opponent parries the part cut or otherwise another cut with the crown and uses that to rush in, take the slice under their hands into their arm and press firmly upwards, so that the crown is broken again and turn your sword from the lower slice into the upper slice and withdraw yourself with it.
+
The fourth position is the roof guard. Make it like this: Stand with the right foot forwards and hold up your sword on your right side with extended arms just like in the speaking window. Master Hans makes one thing out of the fool<ref>Ox</ref> and the roof in this way: When he stands with the right foot forwards, then he cuts down from the roof strangely and cuts through to his left side in front of himself into the fool<ref>Ox</ref>.
  
These are the four positions
+
He makes no more than three positions. And how you shall fence from the guards or positions, you shall find it before and after this. Apart from this, you can also make your work from those as follows hereafter in the seven stances, therein some positions are delineated for when an opponent wishes to break these, etc. Master Hans also explains the four positions or guards differently than the others as you generally find in all other glosses which are not as satisfactory to me.
Four positions alone
 
Defend from those and eshew the common
 
Ox, plow, fool
 
From-the-roof are not dispised by you.
 
  
Gloss. This is about how you shall not operate from any other position than from these four that will be named here.
+
Crooked- -ox<ref>Plow</ref>
 +
Cross- -plow<ref>Fool</ref>
 +
>breaks<
 +
part cut- -fool<ref>Ox</ref>
 +
Cockeyed cut, also the crosswise cut- -roof
  
The first guard
+
About the four parries.
The ox. Send yourself there like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword in front of your head with your hilt next to your right side and let your point hang against the opponent's face.
+
Four are the parries
 +
that also severly disrupt the four positions.
 +
Guard yourself from parrying.
 +
If it happens of necessity, it beleaguers you.
  
The second gaurd
+
Gloss: You have heard before that you shall solely fence from the four positions or guards. But on the other hand, you shall also know that the four parries severely disrupt or break those same four positions. These are the four cuts: crooked cut, crosswise cut, cockeyed cut and part cut and they are nothing other than that from which one brings themselves to work. When the opponent lays before you in a position, you must use one of the four cuts against it because when sword comes against sword, the whole art is integrated, that is play and break from both people, so you must use one of the four cuts against it.
The plow. Send yourself there like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword over your knee next to your right side with crossed hands such that your point stands against the opponent's face.
 
  
The third guard
+
In the same way, if they lay in ox<ref>Plow</ref>, then fall upon it with the crooked cut or with the crosswise cut.
The fool. Send yourself there like this: Stand with the right foot forwards and hold your sword with your point upon the ground with outstretched arms
 
  
The fourth guard
+
Then if they lay before you in plow<ref>Fool</ref>, then use the crosswise cut against it.
From-the-roof. Send yourself there like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword by your right shoulder or hold it over your head with outstretched arms and how you shall fence from these guards, you shall find that written in this book.
 
  
These are the four parries that disrupt or break the four guards
+
Then if they lay in the fool<ref>Ox</ref>, then use the part cut or wrath cut against it, if the part cut from the top of the head as some say will be used,
Four are the parries
 
That also severly disrupt the positions.
 
Guard yourself from parrying
 
If it happens by necessity, it hurts you
 
  
Gloss. Note you have heard before that you shall fence from the four positions alone. You should simply know that the four parries are the four cuts as well.
+
Then if they lay in the position of the roof, then use the cockeyed cut against it.
  
[Glasgow]
+
Also, the crosswise cut is good or better, because all by itself, it breaks three positions or guards:
This is the text and the gloss of the four parries that break the four positions
 
Four are the parries
 
That also severely disrupt the positions.
 
Guard yourself from parrying for two reasons
 
If it happens by necessity, it hurts you
 
  
Gloss. Note you have heard before that you shall fence solely from the four positions, so you should also now know that the four parries break the four positions and that the four parries are the four cuts.
+
The position of the roof, The plow<ref>Fool</ref> and ox<ref>Plow</ref> as well according to the text from above saying "The crosswise cut seizes, etc"
  
[Dresden]
+
Also the plow<ref>Fool</ref> and the ox<ref>Plow</ref> according to the text from above: "Cross to the plow, the ox, etc"
The first cut is the crooked cut which breaks the guard of the ox.
 
  
The second is the crosswise cut which breaks the guard from-the-roof
+
Similarly, the crooked cut not only breaks the ox<ref>Plow</ref>, but also the plow<ref>Fool</ref> and the fool<ref>Ox</ref>
  
The third is the cockeyed cut which breaks the guard of the plow.
+
Also, the cockeyed cut does not solely break what comes from roof guard, but also the fool<ref>Ox</ref>, if they rush in under and crooked from the cockeyed cut from their left side.
  
The fourth is the part cut which breaks the guard, the fool.
+
Also, in the same way, you do not have to use the part cut solely against the fool<ref>Ox</ref>, but also against ox<ref>Plow</ref> and plow<ref>Fool</ref>.
  
And guard yourself from all parries that bad fencers conduct and note whenever the opponent cuts, you cut as well and when they thrust, thrust as well and how you shall cut and thrust, you find that written in the five cuts and in the displacing
+
Therefore in this way, whatever it is that you yourself consider the best, you can change it up and apply it with the four cuts against the four positions or guards such that you disrupt them and hence bring them to the work. Thereafter work using winding in, warring, or cutting and thrusting as the opportunities arise. You find this written and taught beforehand in the five cuts and stances, and in the displacing.
  
A play against an act of parrying
+
Therefore know that parrying isn't actually called for in this, because there are the four cuts that break them that are. Therefore do not parry and note when they cut, then you cut as well. If they stab, then you stab as well and guard yourself so that you do not parry too much, if you wish to otherwise not become struck as the catch<ref>rappen: to gather, to snatch, to seize</ref> fencers do and they willfully conduct nothing but parries.
  
 +
Against an act of parrying
 
If you are parried
 
If you are parried
 
And however it has come to this
 
And however it has come to this
 
Hear what I advise
 
Hear what I advise
Wrench off, cut quickly with haste
+
Scrape or Wrench off, cut quickly with haste
  
Gloss. This is for when you have been parried, however it has come to be. So note if someone parries your descending cut, then in that act of parrying, pass in front of their lead hand with your pommel and wrench downwards and during the wrenching, strike them upon the head with your sword.
+
Gloss. This means, as it comes to be that you have been parried, note if the opponent parries your descending cut, then pass over their leading hand wih your pommel in their attempt to parry and with that wrench it off downward and with that wrenching, strike them upon the head with your sword. Thereafter, you can fully drop your left hand onto your blade and with your left foot, step behind them and with your left arm in front of the throat and shift them and throw them over your foot and that is called an upper intrusion.
  
Yet another play against an act of parrying
+
Another play against the fulcrum.
Note when you execute a rising cut from the right side, then if the opponent falls upon it with their sword so that you cannot come up with yours, swiftly pass over their sword with your pommel and strike at their head with your long edge by snapping or if they fall upon your sword toward your left side, then strike them with the short edge.
+
When you execute a rising cut from the right side, If the opponent then falls upon that with their sword such that you cannot come up with it and pushes you down to the side, then pass over their sword with your pommel and strike them on their head with your long edge by snapping. But if it happens on the left side, then you still pass over their sword with the pommel and step forward with the right foot and strike them with your short edge. But if, Indes, they come right against it with a push or shove during the after, then mind that you lung well into them as you wind over with your pommel and wind over their arm or hand so they cannot properly shove and hold you on the fulcrum.
 
 
Yet another play against parrying.
 
  
 +
Another play against an act of parrying. Text:
 
Lodge against four regions
 
Lodge against four regions
Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish
+
Learn to remain thereupon if you wish to finish.
 
 
Gloss. When you cut in from your right shoulder, if you wish to immediately finish with the opponent, then note when they parry, strike quickly around with the crosswise cut and grasp your sword in the middle of your blade with your left hand and set your point into their face or lodge against them at whichever of the four openings you can best get to.
 
  
[Glasgow]
+
Gloss Master Hans: This is when you from the four lodgings (which are the two crooked lodgings to both sides, the plow<ref>Fool</ref> with the point out forward upon the ground, not crooked and roof) one of which you will take yourself forward therein or you shall stay in it and setup your work and complete the rest using the after. According to the common gloss others also say: When you cleave in from above from your right shoulder, if you then wish to quickly end with that, then note when they parry, then strike quickly around with the crosswise cut and grasp your sword in the middle of the blade and set the point into the face or lodge the four openings, to whichever you may or can best attain. And if they parry one of the lodgings, then strike them with the pommel to the other, the left side or drive over their right shoulder with the pommel in front of their neck, but spring with your right foot behind their left and move and throw them thereover. Break. Take the elbow.
This is the text and the gloss of yet another one of the plays against the parry.
 
  
Lodge against four regions
+
Item. You can also lodge against four regions from above to both sides from the stance of the wrath point near your left knee as will be taught hereafter in the seven stances. If the opponent comes to you with descending cuts after that, you lodge the point against their neck in response. But if they come with rising cuts, lodge against that as well then they come to your side and finish your work.
Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish
 
  
Gloss. This is for when you cut in from above from your right shoulder. If you wish to quickly finish with the sword, note when the opponent parries, then immediately strike around using the crosswise cut and grasp your sword in the middle of the blade with your left hand during the crash and set the point into their face as is pictured next or lodge against them at whichever of the four openings you can best get to.
+
A lesson about the pursuing.
 +
Learn the pursuing.
 +
Double or slice into the weapon.
  
[Dresden]
+
Gloss. First note this general lesson: that pursuing is many and varied and are appropriate to conduct with great prudence against the fencer that fences from free and from long cuts and otherwise does not cut with the proper art of the sword, etc. And this is according to the text: You shall properly learn pursuing, because they are double. The first is conducted like this: If the opponent will cleave in from above, then note while they pull up their sword to strike, pursue them with a cut or with a thrust and hit them in the upper opening before they come down with the cut. And if they bind you and will thereafter work from the sword, then pursue and Indes afterwards take the slice into their arm in from above with your long edge and press them strongly away from you with that, so they have no power. Each time in this way pursue them to their head from above.
Yet another play against parrying
 
  
Another. When you set the point into the opponent's face with the half-sword, if they parry that, jab them in their head with your pommel on their other side or spring behind their left foot with your right and pass around the front of their neck with your pommel to over their right shoulder and drag them over your right leg with it.
+
Another play.
 +
The second pursuing is when the opponent initiates a cut from above, then if they let their sword go to the ground during the cut, pursue them with a cut in from above to the head before they come back up with the sword. Or if they will thrust, then note while they draw their sword towards themselves to thrust, pursue them and then stab them before they carry out their thrust, etc. But if you fence against someone from rising cuts or the sweeps or lay against them in the fool<ref>Ox</ref> or plow<ref>Fool</ref>, then if they fall upon that with their sword before you come up with yours, then stay below just like that against their sword and lift upwards. Then if they will cut in from their act of parrying or wind in on the sword, do not let them abscond from the sword, rather pursue them thereon and work to the nearest opening with the war and the others.
  
About pursuing
+
Item. Note you shall pursue them out of and with all cuts as soon as you realize they overcommit themselves attacking in fornt of you or uncover themselves with their sword.
Learn to pursue
 
Double or slice into the weapon
 
  
Gloss: This is so that you shall learn fully about Pursuing, because they are dual. Conduct the first: when the opponent wishes to cut in from above, note the moment they draw up their sword for the strike, pursue that with a cut or with a thrust and hit them in the upper opening before the opponent ever returns with their cut or drop into their arms from above with your long edge and press them away from you with it.
+
A good lesson about the pursuing
 +
When you fence with someone, bind against their sword strongly, continue to stay strong and press them strongly to the head. If they will strike around, then remain against the sword and press down strongly so they have no power. Each time in this way pursue to their head from above.
  
[Rostock]
+
In the after is another. So if they don't flee, rather they stay still and come into the work or the war with you.
This is about pursuing.
 
Learn to pursue
 
Double or slice into the weapon
 
  
Gloss. Note this is so that you shall quite fully learn about Pursuing, and conduct it like this: When the opponent wishes to cut in from above, note the moment they draw up their sword for the strike, pursue them with a cut or with a thrust into the opening, before they ever come down with their cut.
+
There is a difference between the pursuing and in the after. Pursuing is in fleeing. The after is standing still, working afterwards.
  
[Dresden]
+
About the two couplings to the outside and the two coupling to the insides
Yet another pursuing
+
The two couplings to the outside and the two couplings to the inside,
Another. When the opponent initiates a cut from above, if the opponent allows their sword to go down to the earth with their cut, pursue them with a cut to their head, before they rise up with their sword or if they will thrust at you, note the moment they draw their sword back to themselves for the thrust, then pursue them and thrust them before they ever complete their thrust.
+
The work begins thereafter
 +
And gauge the opponent's applications
 +
Whether they are soft or hard
  
[Rostock]
+
Gloss: This means that you shall note that the couplings are also called pursuing and when you come against their sword with yours, then you shall gauge whether the opponent is soft or hard with their application. Thereafter, you shall begin your work. That is, like this: When someone stands against you in the couplings to the outside (because those are two, one to each side) and stands with their right foot forward and hangs with a flat sword from either the part cut, the fool<ref>Ox</ref>, or plunge cut with the point down, like with roof guard, if they stand in the coupling to the outside on their right side, then come to them as well with the same coupling to the outside from your right side countering them against their sword. And in the clashing of the sword, wind in swiftly under their sword into their head, to the opening or entirely out over to their left shoulder such that your sword comes or lays above and your thumb stands underneath. In the case they want to then exit, pursue them Indes or if they throw you over with force, then ready yourself with striking or with warring in the case you both come crooked into the winding. But if you do not wish to counter them with that, then you can mount and work upon that with the crosswise cut or other cuts, etc. That is the first coupling to the outside or Hew crooked to the flats... or Don't crooked cut, short cut.
Or
 
if the opponent cuts down from above and allows their sword to go down to the earth with their cut, then pursue them with a descending cut to their head, before they come up with their sword, so that they are stricken.
 
  
About the couplings to the outside
+
The second coupling to the outside is as follows: the opponent stands with their left foot forward and with their arms crooked as if they went up with the rising cut or something and it hangs over the left arm. So also come to them countering them in this way from your left side crooked on their sword. Wind in under their sword to the opening at their head like before or at their head from above just to their right shoulder. Thereafter work or war as before.
Two couplings to the outside
 
Your work begins thereafter
 
And gauge the application
 
Whether they are soft or hard
 
  
Gloss. Note the two couplings to the ouside are the two racings behind against the sword. Conduct it like this: When the opponent overcommits themselves attacking before you, pursue them. Then if the opponent parries that, stay with your sword against theirs and guage whether they are soft or hard with their application. Then if the opponent lifts your sword upwards with theirs using strength, extend your sword over theirs to the outside and thrust to their lower opening.
+
There first coupling to the inside is as follows: If the opponent again stands with the right foot forward and holds their sword down by the leg or knee for a thrust like in the ox<ref>Plow</ref>, then also come into opposition in the same way from your left with your right foot forward and in that thrust step into them with your left foot and the swords clash against each other. It is then possible that you both wind against each other, then you both come into the work crooked. Thereafter war and work as you wish. It is possible that the both of you also make a sudden withdrawal from that with a strike right around from their right shoulder to their left side, to their head, or take the lower slice, etc. which will double or mutate.
  
The other coupling to the outside
+
The other coupling to the inside is as follows: The opponent stands with the left foot forward and holds their sword as before, though it must be crooked on the side, then conduct the work against them as before just above. When it is skewed to the side, you will again break their sudden withdrawal then double or mutate however it connects best either according to the work or according to the side, thus they will be struck deaf, etc or sliced. You can also, as before, if you do not wish to use the counter coupling, work the stance or coupling against if with other things such as the crosswise cut or the wrath cut or other displacements or lodgings against and then work as you wish, etc. In this way you have the four couplings explained with their work. However you shall begin it, the common glosses explain differently, but that is not satisfactory to me, etc. This work the opponent can also conduct against you.
Another. When you fence cautiously from the rising cuts or otherwise from the lower applications, then if the opponent lays over you and winds atop your sword before you come up with it, then remain strong below with your sword against theirs. If they turn it and work to your upper opening, then follow with your sword and in their thrust take weak of their sword with your long edge and press down and stab them in the face.
 
  
About the feeling and about the word Indes
+
A lesson about the feeling and the word Indes.
 +
Learn the feeling.
 +
Indes, the word cuts sharply.
  
Learn the feeling
+
Gloss: This means that you shall learn and understand the word, Indes, properly, because the two things belong together and one cannot exist without the other and are the great art of fencing. Look at it this way: When someone binds against the sword, you shall immediately feel or perceive in that, as the swords clash together, whether they have bound soft or hard and as you have perceived that, then think of the word Indes, This means that in that perceiving, you shall work swiftly according to the soft or the hard to the nearest opening. Thus they will be easily struck before they become aware of his.
Indes, that word cuts sharply
 
Gloss. This is so that you properly learn the feeling and the word Indes and shall understand that these two things belong together and are the greatest arts of fencing
 
  
And understand it like this: When one binds someone against their sword, in that, just as the swords spark together, you shall immediately feel, whether they have bound soft or hard. And as soon as you have perceived that, think of the word, Indes. That is, in that same swift perceiving of the soft and of the hard, you shall work to the nearest opening so that they will be struck before they come to thier senses.
+
Item. You shall think upon the word Indes in all binds of the sword, because:
  
Another. You shall think of the word Indes in all bindings of the sword because Indes doubles, Indes mutates, Indes slips through and Indes takes the slice. Indes wrestles. With Indes, take the sword. Indes puts whatever your heart desires into the art. Indes is a sharp word. Consequently, any fencer that knows nothing of this word, becomes cut. And this word, Indes, is also the key with which every art of fencing becomes unlocked.
+
Indes doubles, Indes mutates;
 +
Indes rushes [through], Indes disengages;
 +
Indes takes the slice, Indes wrestles with;
 +
Indes takes the sword away from them, Indes does whatever the heart desires in the art.
  
Pursuing
+
Indes is a sharp word. With it all fencers that do not know of the word become cut and the word Indes is the key. With it, the entire art of fencing will be unlocked. Also with that is the before and especially the after with the strong and the weak. These three things break all plays and art that one may conduct or conceive. Because when sword comes upon sword, all art is integrated.
  
 +
Another about the pursuing
 
Pursue twice,
 
Pursue twice,
If one hits, make the old slice from it.
+
If someone makes contact, make the old slice from it.
  
Gloss. This is for when the opponent overcommits themselves attacking before you, pursue with a cut to their upper opening. Then if they rise up and bind against your sword from below, then note just as soon as one sword clashes against the other, then fall from their sword across their arms with your long edge and in this way press them away from you or slice from the sword through their jaw. Conduct this on both sides.
+
Gloss Note the you shall execute the pursuing doubly, that is, to both sides and also bring the slice thereon. Look at it this way: When they overcommits themselves attacking before you, whether it is from their right or left side, then cut just behind them to the opening without worry. Then if they rise up and bind against the sword from below, then note as soon as one sword clashes against the other, slice at their neck or fall Indes atop their arm with the long edge and take the slice. Conduct this on both sides.
  
 
About overrunning
 
About overrunning
Whoever hunts below
+
Whoever takes aim from below,
Overrun, then they will be shamed.
+
overrun them from above. They will be shamed.
 
When it clashes above,
 
When it clashes above,
Strengthen, This I will praise.
+
then strengthen, that I will laud.
Make your work
+
Make you work,
Or press hard twice.
+
soft or hard or press twice.
  
Gloss. This is for when the opponent targets the lower openings with a cut or with a thrust in the onset, you shall not parry them, rather await, such that you overrun them with a cut in at the head from above or lodge the point from above, so that they become shamed by you because all descending cuts and all logdings against from above reach over the lower.
+
Gloss Master Hans. This is when someone binds you, then you shall stengthen the bind and if they immediately strike around towards your lower openings and target accordingly, then Indes run on in over them and either press behind by pushing or shoving, or in from above with the slice. War.
  
Another. How one shall displace cuts and thrusts
+
Some speak like this according to the common gloss, about how you shall overrun when someone initiates fencing you from below. Look at it this way: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they initiate a cut or a thrust from below, do not parry that, rather note when their rising cut or thrust goes toward you, then cut in long from above from their[sic?] right shoulder and shoot the point in long from above at their face or breast and lodge against them so they cannot reach you. Then if they rise up from below and parry, then remain strong against their sword with your long edge (that's called being strengthened) and quickly work to the nearest opening or await upon the after with the war. And any descending cut and any upper lodging overreaches the lower path, in this way they become ashamed above.
  
 +
About the displacing
 
Learn to displace.
 
Learn to displace.
Skillfully disrupt cut, thrust.
+
To skillfully disrupt cut, thrust.
 
Whoever thrusts at you
 
Whoever thrusts at you
Such that your point hits and their's breaks
+
Such that your point hits and their breaks
 
From both sides
 
From both sides
You will hit every time, if you step.
+
Hit any time when you step.
 
 
Gloss. This is so that you shall learn to displace both cuts and thrusts alike with art such that your point hits them and theirs will be deflected and understand it like this: When someone stands against you and holds their sword as if they will thrust from below, setup in turn against the opponent in the guard of the plow from your right side and give yourself an opening with the left. Then if the opponent thrusts into that opening from below, then wind to your left side against their thrust with your sword and step toward them with your right foot, such that your point hits and their's fails to.
 
  
Yet another play about displacing
+
Gloss Master Hans. This means you shall learn to displace artfully disrupting cut, thrust also breaking point or edge like this: If someone cuts or thrusts towards you, displace the attack and break the point or edge from all positions or stances in general and cuts or mounts from all sides as they encroach you and meeting their point or edge with your point or sword and displacing fully and from that make a strike in from above at the head with the short edge to whichever side makes itself available. Thereafter work Indes using the after and war. Or<ref>marginalia: 'ma?es' => bad</ref> else according to the interpretive intent of others as they execute displacing: When you come to them initiation of fencing, then if they position themselves against you in, say, the plow<ref>Fool</ref>, as they call it (but I call it the ox<ref>Plow</ref> down by the knee) and act as if they will thrust into you, the advance your left foot and stand facing them in the ox<ref>Plow</ref> as well on your right side with crossed arms or hands and leave yourself open on your left side. Then if they thrust into your opening, then wind to your left side with your sword against their sword opposing their thrust and step in with your right foot and with it displace such that the point always remains standing against them and Indes stab them in the face or breast. Thus, your point hits and theirs does not. Or also make a strike and otherwise do whatever you wish if you would like to work with the warring. But if you stand against someone as above in the ox<ref>Plow</ref> and would like to thrust them, then if they cut down from above to your left opening, then go up against their cut with your sword and wind in, to their side (openly or crookedly as the situation provides) and step in with it and wind the point sharply into their face or breast. Thereafter, work or war.
Another. When you setup against the opponent in the guard of the plow from your left side, if they cut to your left side's upper opening, then rise up with your sword and wind against their cut up to your left side, such that the hilt is in front of your head and step toward them with your right foot and stab them in the face as is pictured after this.
 
 
 
About Disengaging
 
  
 +
About the disengaging
 
Learn to disengage
 
Learn to disengage
 
From both sides stabbing sharply with it
 
From both sides stabbing sharply with it
Whoever binds upon you
+
Whoever binds against you
Disengaging surely finds the them
+
Disengaging surely finds them
 
 
Gloss. This is so that you shall learn the disengaging well and conduct it like this: When you cut or thrust in in the initiation of fencing, if the opponent will bind against the sword with either a cut or a parry, then let your point go under their sword and rush through and with that, gravely thrust in on the other side, so that you immediately find the opening of the opponent as is pictured here.
 
 
 
[Glasgow]
 
Another. Then if the opponent becomes aware of the thrust and chases it with a parry, then disengage again to the other side.
 
  
Another. Another.
+
Gloss: Disengaging is many and varied. You can conduct them from all guards or cuts against the fencers that like to parry and those that cut at the sword and not to the openings of the body. You must learn to conduct this quite well with prudence so that one does not lodge against you nor otherwise come in while you disengage. Execute it like this: When you come to them with the initiation of fencing, cleave in at their head from above. Then if they initiate a cut in response against your sword and not to the openings of your body, then let your point rush through below during the cut before they bind you against the sword and stab them into the other side, etc. If they become aware of the thrust and immediately pursue your thrust with their sword and will parry, then disengage again to the other side. And always execute it when they move toward your sword with an act of parrying. Conduct this on both sides, war.
If you arrive at your opponent, then advance your left foot and hold the long [sic. point] against their face. Then if the opponent cuts at the sword from above or below and wants to strike it away, allow your point to sink downward and stab them in the other opening of the other side and do this against all cuts.
 
  
[Dresden]
+
Another play.
About the yanking back
+
When come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing set your left foot forward and hold the long point against their face. Then if they cut to the sword either from above or below and will strike it away or bind strongly against it, then let the point sink downward and disengage and stab them toward the other side. And conduct this against all cuts where someone cuts to your sword and not to the openings of the body.
Tread close in binds,
 
So that yanking back gives good opportunities.
 
Suddenly withdraw. If they engage, suddenly withdraw more.
 
Uncover the work that does them harm.
 
Suddenly withdraw in all engagements
 
If you wish to make a fool of the masters
 
  
Gloss. This is for when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, cut in strongly from above, from your right shoulder to their head. Then if they bind you against their sword by parrying or otherwise, then in the bind step close to them and suddenly withdraw away your sword up off from theirs and cut in again from above on the other side at their head. If they parry that for a second time, then strike back in again from above on the other side and work swiftly according to the upper openings that may occur to you using doubling and by other plays.
+
Another play.
 +
Note this play precisely when the opponent parries you and allows their point to go out sideways next to you in their act of parrying. When this happens, boldly disengage and thrust toward the other side. Or if they remain with their point in front of your face or otherwise toward the other openings of your body, then do not disengage and remain against their sword and work to their nearest opening so they cannot pursue nor lodge against you. War.
  
[Glasgow]
+
About the Sudden Withdrawing
This is the text and the gloss about yanking back
+
[text missing]
Tread close in binds,
 
So that yanking back gives good opportunities.
 
Suddenly withdraw. If they engage, suddenly withdraw more.
 
If they work, slice so that it does them woe.
 
Suddenly withdraw in all engagements
 
If you wish to make a fool of the masters
 
  
Gloss. This is for when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, cut in strongly from above, from your right shoulder to their head. Then if they bind you against their sword by parrying or otherwise, then in the bind step close to them and suddenly withdraw away your sword up off from theirs and cut in again from above on the other side at their head as it is pictured next to this, and work swiftly to their nearest opening by doubling or otherwise by other plays or act as if you will suddenly withdraw and remain upon the sword and thrust immediately back in against the sword at their face. Then if you do not rightly hit them with your thrust, then work using doubling or otherwise with other plays.
+
Hereafter follows the seven stances. Wherein noteworthy work to utilize against the opponent instead of other common fencing is explained :-
  
[Dresden]
+
The seven stances
About Slipping through
+
The first is when you stand as in the plunge or the part cut yet with your sword flat upon your right thumb, fully forward, on the fulcrum with point sunken and right foot forward and keep yourself fully open with the left side. Called the Fool (others c[all it] the sideways ox)
Rush through, let hang
 
Grab with the pommel if you wish to grapple.
 
Whoever strengthens against you,
 
Remember to rush through with it.
 
  
Gloss. Note this is for when you or your opponent rushes in on the other. Then if the opponent rises up with their arms and wishes to overwhelm you with strength from above, then rise up with your arms as well and hold your sword over your head with your left hand by the pommel and allow the blade to hang back over your back<ref>Rostock: "and allow the blade to hang down behind you"</ref> and rush through under their right arm with your head and spring behind their right foot with your right and during the spring, pass all the way around the front of their body with your right arm and clasp them against your right hip like this and throw them in front of you.
+
The second is: Hold your sword by the pommel next to your left leg and with the point a little upwards against the opponent yet so that the same left foot stands forward. This is commonly called the wrath point or equally the ox<ref>Plow</ref> but just only when the left foot stands forward.
  
Yet another slipping through
+
The third stance is when you stand as before, then from that left side draw right back around to the right into the speaking window or into the position or guard "roof"
Another. When the opponent wishes to overpower you in the onrush with strength from above using their sword, hold your sword by the pommel with the left hand and let the blade hang over your back. Rush through under their right arm with your head and remain in front of their right foot with your right and pass all the way around the back of their body with your right arm and clasp them upon your right hip and throw them behind you.
 
  
A wrestling at the sword
+
The fourth stance: Drop from the speaking window to the left side with the crook crossed over against your front foot. One commonly calls this the iron gate or the lodging from the crook[ed cut]. Against the right foot follows after.
Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, let go of your sword with your left hand and hold it with your right and shove their sword away from you to your right side using your hilt and spring in front of their right foot with your left and pass all the way back around their body with your left arm and clasp them upon your right hip and throw them in front of you. Though watch that it does not fail you.<ref>this last sentence is highlighted and a drawn hand is pointing to it.</ref>
 
  
Yet another wresting at the sword
+
The fifth stance is the same as before to the other side next to the right foot yet not crooked. Open, not crossed.
Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, let your sword go with your left hand and hold it in your right and shove their sword away from you to your right side using the hilt and spring behind their right foot with your left and pass all the way around the front of their body under their breast with your left arm and throw them backward over your foot.
 
  
Yet another wresting at the sword
+
The sixth stance comes from the previous being thrown out forward from the right side with the point behind right over into the crook yet your left foot comes forward along with the point fully opposing the opponent.
Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, let your sword go with your left hand and hold it in your right and pass outside over their right arm using your pommel and using that, suddenly withdraw downwards and seize their right elbow with your left hand and spring in front of their right foot with your left and drag them like this over your foot to your right side.
 
  
Yet another wresting at the sword
+
The seventh: From that very crook held, [make] a strike straight up from the left and to the right and with the point on the ground forwards fully into extension and balance, not crooked is called the plow<ref>Fool</ref>. Some call it the fool.
Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, pass over their right arm with your left hand inverted and with it, seize their right arm and with your right arm, press their right arm over your left arm and spring with your right foot behind their right and turn yourself to your left side, away from them, so that you throw them over your right hip
 
  
[Glasgow]
+
Item. Out of all of these, the second, third, fourth and fifth are called the four lodgings.
Note. When one rushes in the other, pass over their right arm with your left and with that seize their right arm with an inverted hand and press their left over your left using your right arm and spring behind their right foot with your right and turn yourself away from them to their left side and throw them over their right hip as is pictured here next to this.
 
  
Yet another wresting
+
Thereafter you shall note the work that goes from each stance or may generally go at first.
Another. When someone rushes in inside your sword, etc, let your sword fall and invert your right hand and using that seize outside their right hand and with your left clasp them by their right elbow and spring in front of their right foot with your left and shove their right arm over your left using your right hand and with that, lift it upwards, so that they are locked and therefore you can break their arm or throw them over your leg in front of you.
 
  
[Dresden]
+
Work from the part cut, plunge or fool<ref>Ox</ref> according to Master Hans using the after.
One other wrestling at the sword
 
Another. When one rushes in the other, invert your left hand and with that, pass over their right arm and with that, seize their sword by the grip between both hands and wrench to your left side, so that you take their sword from them. This will vex them badly.<ref>this sentence is underlined</ref>
 
  
A sword disarm
+
First: Work from the part cut, plunge or fool<ref>Ox</ref> as Master Hans calls it using the after. If you lay before the opponent in the part cut hanging flat as shown above and you await the work of the opponent against you, then if they will initiate a strike with a descending cut to your left side or opening, stand still and go straight up against the opponent to the left side of their head with the crosswise cut, where they are open with an uninverted sword. War if it becomes necessary to do.
Another. When the opponent binds against your sword by parrying or otherwise, seize both swords by the blades<ref>Glasgow adds: in the middle of the blade</ref> with your left hand inverted and hold them tightly together and with your right hand pass down through to your left side and with your pommel pass over both their hands and with that wrench to your right side so that both swords stay with you.
 
  
About cutting off
+
The second: Then if they mount your sword with their descending cut and strike back around with a rising cut or otherwise to your right side, then Indes pursue them swiftly with the stance or extended sword and thrust into their face with whatever you can. War if it becomes necessary. You can also completely disengage as soon as they mount and thrust to their right side. Thereafter strike to their left.
Cut off the hard ones
 
From below in both paths
 
Four are the slices
 
With two from below, two from above.
 
  
Gloss. Note there are four slices. Conduct the first like this: when the opponent rushes in and rises high up with their arms and will overpower you from above with strength toward your left side, twist your sword and drop under their hilt with crossed hands into their arms with your long edge and press upward using the slice or if the opponent rushes in toward your right side, drop<ref>Glasgow: traverse</ref> into their arms using the short edge and press upwards as before.
+
=> Item. In everything afterwards as you put yourself in the middle of things you shall remain standing like this and work Indes and not invert. It then ruins the work of the opponent by striking or mutating however the opponent then holds themself against you.
  
Yet another slice
+
The third: If you stand as before and they will disengage, you then pursue and step toward them and wind in crooked to their head. War if it is necessary. For one shall wind out behind crooked against all disengages.
Another. When you bind strongly on their sword using a cut or otherwise, then if the opponent allows their sword to bounce away from yours and strikes at your head from above, then hang off your sword with your hilt in front of your head and from below, slice through their arm from below and with your slice, set your point against their breast from below.
 
  
Yet another slice
+
The fourth: If you stand as before and they mount atop it crooked, you shall strengthen against them. Then if they will strike to the opening of your left side, then pursue them with the war and your sword to their right shoulder and lay your sword against their neck. If they will subsequently ward that, then Indes, ward yourself again with the war according to the work as it demands. War if it is necessary or pursue them softly everywhere, so they cannot become completely free.
Another. Conduct the slice like this: When the opponent binds against your sword on your left side and from your sword, strikes around to your right side using the crosswise cut or otherwise, spring away from their cut with your left foot and fall across both arms from above using your long edge. Conduct this on both sides.
 
  
Abount the transformation of the slice
+
Break. But if they hold strongly, then wind yourself into them under their sword and step behind their right foot with your left and with the left arm against the front of their neck and throw and if the throwing comes to nothing, then you pursue them gently. But if they will wind themself out with force, then wind in with the pommel between their arms. Break against them, shove the elbow.
  
Turn your edges
+
The fifth: If you stand as before and the opponent stands against you in the crosswise cut and with that they strike against your sword, then pursue them Indes and wind in crooked into their head. If it is necessary to do, then use the war as before.
To flatten, press your hands
 
  
Gloss. This is for when you in your onrush come into the opponent's arms with the lower slice such that your point goes out toward their right side, then press firmly upwards with your slice and during your pressing, spring to their right side with your left foot and turn your sword up over their arms using your long edge, such that your point goes out toward their left side and with that press their arms away from you.
+
The sixth: If you stand as before and if they will then jab or thrust out of ox<ref>Plow</ref> from their left side to your right, then Indes swiftly step and wind in crooked into the head. If it is necessary afterwards, use the war. You can use that in all plays where it makes itself available.
  
[Glasgow]
+
Cut crooked to the flat of the masters if you wish to weaken them. This means that the crooked cut breaks this stance with it's work as you wind in it's explanation in the recital. Or: Crook not, short cut. this is the disengaging or use the coupling to the outside against it. But if they will make a sudden withdrawal from their thrust, then fall into the crook as before and remain standing therein.
This is the text and the gloss about the transformation of the slice
 
  
Turn your edge
+
Item. In all plays, if someone either binds against you or will mount you, then you can withdraw suddenly and make a rising cut into their right side and back around with the short edge into the other side
To flatten, press the hands
 
  
Gloss. This is for when you in your onrush come into the opponent's arms with the lower slice  such that your point goes out toward their right side, then with that press firmly upwards and during the pressing, spring to their right side with your left foot and turn your sword up over their arms using your long edge, such that your point goes out toward their left side. In this way have you transformed the lower slice into the upper. Conduct this on both sides.
+
Work from the second stance, the wrath point using the after laid out
 +
The first play: When you stand in the second stance as written and instructed above, etc. If someone then draws up long and wide and if they intend to strike you with a descending cut from their right into your wrath point, then go straight up Indes with the wrath point against their throat and thrust, etc. War if it is necessary. In the thrust, go up into the flat in such a way that your thumb comes under.
  
[Dresden]
+
The second: When you stand as before in the wrath point, then if the opponent rushes and will thrust out of the ox<ref>Plow</ref> from their left to your right side, then Indes step forward with your right foot and from your counter thrust make a sudden withdrawal right back around and make a strike from your right shoulder to their left side with your short edge. Use the war if it is necessary. In the counter, you can also mutate to their right side to the head.
About the two hangings
 
  
Two hangings emerge
+
The third: When you stand as before and they stand in front of you in the speaking window or roof guard, then go up against them into their face with the wrath point. Then if they mount your sword, then Indes you can completely wind in crooked with a step. Or as soon as they mount, Indes make a rising cut to their right side to the head and back around with the short edge to the other side. If it is necessary to do, then war. But if they will make a rising cut after mounting, then step swiftly Indes and thrust on in forwards with your hands and sword.
From the ground out of each hand
 
In every application
 
Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard
 
  
Gloss. Note there are hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up with them and hang your point down in their face from above and in these hangings you shall swiftly conduct all applications [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you perceive in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it.
+
You can completely thrust as well after mounting or before disengaging. War.
  
[Rostock]
+
The fourth: If you stand as before and again go up with the wrath point as before. Then if they counter with the coupling to the outside against your sword, then wind in crooked and step in after and war if it is necessary to do or work as is taught below in the coupling to the outside in the recital
This is the text and the gloss about the two hangings the sword
 
  
Two hangings emerge
+
The fifth: When you stand as before and go up as before into the thrust and then if the opponent mounts your sword from the crooked lodging from the right side, then if they will work to the right side, swiftly enter into the war from behind with the thrust. But if they work to the left, then wind crooked against them against their sword and stand still. War to their head. Or, if you do not wish to wind, then keep against them, stay using the after.
From the ground out of each hand
 
In every application
 
Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard
 
  
Gloss. Note there are two hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up as well and hang your point down from above in their face and in these two hangings you shall swiftly conduct all applications [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you either perceive or recognize in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it. These hangings from both sides are the plows from both sides.
+
Work from the third stance,
 +
The speaking window, using the after
  
[Dresden]
+
The first play: When you stand as in the third stance as above in the speaking window, if someone then rushes in with force with their act of parrying like with the window or sword crossed over and looks through the arms, then mount gently. Then if they will continue to work wherever they will go, then pursue them with the war, etc. [the war] goes from both sides. Also, if the war comes from their left side, they need to rush in crooked.
About the speaking window
 
  
Make the speaking window
+
The second: When you stand in the speaking window as before and the opponent will wait upon you with a descending cut and in that throw in the point, etc. Then mount them again long. If they will again continue to work, then pursue them with the war as before. But if they abscond, then you can completely double. It does not go well to the other, left side.
Stand freely, watch their situation.
 
Strike them so that it snaps.
 
Whoever withdraws themselves before you,
 
I say to you truthfully
 
No one defends themselves without danger
 
If you have understood
 
They cannot come to blows
 
  
Gloss. Note this called the speaking window. When the opponent binds against your sword by cutting or parrying, remain strong against their sword using your long edge from extended arms with your point in front of their face and stand freely and suss out their situation, whatever they will conduct against you.
+
The third: When you stand as before and the opponent stands in the cockeyed cut or change on their right side and rises up and intends to strike your sword away in the weak, then you make a sudden withdrawal right back around and strike them crooked upon their right side. War if it is necessary to do. The sudden withdrawing and warring go to both sides. You can also double and mutate wherever they suddenly withdraw when it makes sense.
  
Another. If the opponent strikes around from the sword to your other side with a descending cut, then bind in from above with strength in accordance with their cut<ref>G: against their cut</ref> using your long edge.
+
The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent will carry off your sword in their rising from the crooked lodging as before, then suddenly withdraw again as before. War if it is necessary to do. The sudden withdrawing and war goes to both sides. You can again double and mutate them if they suddenly rectract.
  
Or if they strike around using the crosswise cut, then drop into their arms using the upper slice.
+
The fifth: When you stand as before in the speaking window and the opponent will initiate a strike from their right side with a descending cut to your left opening and make a sudden withdrawal or sudden switch to your right, then, Indes, pursue them with the crook to their head, etc. War if it is necessary. On the other side: parry long or crooked, war.
  
Or if they suddenly withdraw their sword to themselves and wish to thrust at you from below, then pursue them against their sword and lodge against them from above.
+
Work from the fourth stance,
 +
Mounting crooked using the after.
  
Another. Or if they do not wish to withdraw themselves nor strike around away from the sword, then work against their sword using doubling or otherwise using other plays as you perceive the soft and the hard on the sword thereafter.
+
The first: When you stand in the crooked lodging to your left side, then if the opponent means to seek the openings of your right side with thrusts from the ox<ref>Plow</ref>, or else strikes; then rise up against them and displace them on their sword well out over their hands with a forward step and await their work and war. Then if they will overthrow you with force, let go so that you come to the war or strike or work inward in the crook and lay upon their neck.
  
hereafter note what is called here, the long point.
+
The second: When you stand as before and the opponent from either their strike or thrust makes a sudden withdrawal to your left side, then Indes rush in swiftly with the lower slice into their arm well into the air. Wherever they will subsequently be lifted, then pursue them with the war.
  
Note the moment before you arrive too close to the opponent initiation of fencing, advance your left foot and hold your point long from extended arms against their face or against their breast. Then if the opponent cuts down at your head from above, then wind against their cut with your sword and thrust into their face.
+
The third: When you stand as before and the opponent strikes at you with a free descending cut from their right side, then step in deeply toward the opponent and from the crooked lodging, displace them fully from behind. Then if they over throw your sword, then let it go and strike and war.
  
[Glasgow]
+
The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent will act as if they will make a descending cut and suddenly withdraws and will strike you on your left side, then swiftly fall into your displacement or rise into the lower slice. War.
Here note how you shall stand in the long point and what plays you shall conduct from it.
 
  
Note. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, advance your left foot the moment before they bind against your sword and hold your point long from extended arms against their face or against their breast. Then if the opponent cuts in from above at your head, then wind against their cut with your sword and thrust into their face.
+
The fifth: When you stand as before and the opponent also opposes you in the crooked lodging on their right side and they rise and intends to strike you crooked to your right side, then make a simple displacement, etc and await the war. You can completely disengage well in that as well, etc. War if it is necessary.
  
[Dresden]
+
Item. Whenever one does not find the opponent when they suddenly withdraw, one should fall into the lower slice.
Or if the opponent cuts down at your sword from above or up from below and wishes to knock away your point, then disengage and thrust to the opening on the other side.
 
  
Or if they hit your sword with strength with their cut, then let your sword to snap around, so you hit them in the head.
+
Work from the fifth
  
If the opponent rushes in, then conduct the wrestling or the slice. Watch that it does not fail you.<ref>this last sentence is highlighted.</ref>
+
The first: When you stand in the crooked lodging upon your right side and the opponent counters you on their right and means to strike you with a descending cut, then displace with crooked hands and if they then do not throw you right up over, let go again and strike crooked to their right. war.
  
The text about the distillation of the recital
+
The second: When you stand in the crooked lodging upon your right side as before and the opponent again makes a descending cut against you from their right, withdraws suddenly and strikes to your right, then Indes, work swiftly against them crooked with the lower slice again, etc. War. It is like the other one yet on the opposite side.
  
Who fully commands and correctly breaks
+
The third: When you stand on the right as before and the opponent rushes in from their right side with the window up from below; then, again, displace them and war.
And makes complete irrefutable judgement
 
And breaks each one individually
 
Into three wounders
 
Who hangs consumately and correctly
 
And carries out windings with it
 
And considers the eight winds
 
With correct judgement
 
And unites them.
 
The windings, I differentiate trebly
 
Thus they are twenty
 
And four counting them individually.
 
From both sides
 
Learn eight windings with steps
 
And gauge these applications
 
Nothing more than soft or hard
 
  
Gloss. This is a lesson in which the recital is succinctly tied together for you. It is taught like this so that you will be fully and completely educated and practiced in the art against those you fence with, so that you know how to execute your break against their play, so that you can complete your work from any particular break using the three wounders.
+
The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent rushes in again as before and from that makes a sudden withdrawal and will strike to your right side, then apply the crooked slice against them again in from below. War.
  
[Glasgow]
+
The fifth: When you stand as before on the right and the opponent is also in the crooked lodging off their right like you, then move toward them against their sword so that you come into the coupling to the outside and wind in toward them in the crook and war. You can also completely wait upon their work. Then if they will go up, then counter them with your point, so that they run onto your point.
This is a lesson in which the art of the recital is artfully tied together. You learn it in this manner so that you wil be fully and completely practiced and educated in the art, and as a consequence of this, so that you can swiftly bring to bear any application or play against those you fence with in such a way that you correctly know how to execute your breaks against their plays in such a way that you can complete your work from any particular break using the three wounders.
 
  
Another. You shall also properly hang against the sword and from these hangings you shall deliver eight winds and you shall also consider and properly estimate these windings, so that you know which one of the aforementioned trio to execute.
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Work from the sixth stance
 +
Crooked cut out forward using the after
  
[Dresden]
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The first: When you stand in the crooked cut out forward with the point upon the ground, the left foot forward and the opponent will initiate a strike with a descending cut from their right, then throw the point well out over onto their hands. Then if they will lever you up with force, lay you sword crooked upon their neck and slice yourself away from them or, during their overpowering, let it go around into a strike to their left. War.
Here note how you shall conduct the hangings and the windings
 
  
Look at it like this: There are four bindings of the sword. Two upper and two lower. You shall only execute two specific windings from each binding of the sword.
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The second: When you stand as before and the opponent will thrust out of ox<ref>Plow</ref> from their left side, then, again, throw your point upon their hands as before. War if they they throw you right over, etc, as before, but if they thrust from the right, then crook against them. but if they suddenly withdraw durqing their thrust and make a strike from the left shoulder, then you slice up crooked into their arm.
  
[Glasgow]
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The third: When you stand as before in the crooked cut and the opponent is again in ox<ref>Plow</ref> upon their left side and from ox<ref>Plow</ref> makes a sudden withdrawal and will strike you on your left, then Indes make the open lower slice from their right side, if they suddenly withdraw, then slice crooked like above.
  
Another. Do it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, then if the opponent binds against your left side from above, then wind your short edge against their sword and rise sufficiently up with your arms and hang your point in at them from above and thrust into their face. If they parry the thrust with strength, allow your point to hang in from above against their sword and wind to your right side and thrust. These are two windings against one side of the sword.
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The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent will strike or mount from their right side from the crooked lodging, then draw up your sword from your left side right around to your right shoulder with a step and strike into them on their left side to their head. War crooked with the short edge or else if you will not do these, then go up against their sword from the crooked cut opposing them with open arms and displace them and wind the point into their face, so that you immediately come together in the part cut or in the roof or fool<ref>Ox</ref> and thrust or go in straight. Crook atop it if it is closer.
  
Or if the opponent binds against your right side from above, also wind your long edge against their sword toward your right side and rise sufficiently up with your arms and hang your point in at them from above and thrust into their face. If they parry the thrust using strength, let your point hang in from above against their sword and wind to your left side and thrust. These are four windings from the two upper bindings from the left and the right sides
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The fifth: When you stand as before in the crooked cut and the opponent stands in the coupling to the outside, then also go up against them in the coupling to the outside. Thereafter: work, etc. Or if they go up into the thrust, then you go up in the thrust, work or wind in, etc.
  
[Dresden]
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Work from the seventh stance
 +
Is the plow using the after
  
Another. Now you shall know
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The first: When you stand in the plow<ref>Fool</ref> with the right foot forward and the opponent will rush upon you with their sword with strike or thrust, then go straight up and displace them, step forward, war, etc. It also happens in the same way using the displacement when they rush from their right side. War, etc.
  
That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings with all applications as from the upper. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut or slice and one thrust in particular from each winding. And these are called the three wounders. Therefore one can and shall execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, so that with each wounder, you gauge their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play into the winding that is called for. If you do not do this, all windings become a means to be struck.
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The second: When you stand as before in the plow<ref>Fool</ref> and the opponent mounts atop your sword from their left using the crosswise cut, then remain on their sword and go up with them into the war, etc.
  
[Glasgow]
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Do it in this way as well when the opponent mounts atop you using the crosswise cut from their right side. Execute the disengaging, if you wish. If they will mount or suddenly withdraw in the disengaging, make a strike into their side according to the work.
  
Another. Now you shall know
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The third: When you stand as before and the opponent will thrust out of <ref>Plow</ref> from their right side to your right and, from that, makes a sudden withdrawal and will strike you on your left side, then make the open lower slice into their arm. War.
  
That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings alongside all applications as from the upper bindings. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut, one slice, one thrust in particular from each winding. These are called the three wounders. From those one can execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, in such a way that you step in with each winding and with that consider their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play that is called for in that winding. Whenever you do not do this, you will become struck by all windings.
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But if you do not wish to slice, then mutate. But if the opponent is again on the right, then double if you do not wish to slice, but rather wish to break and strike. But if they will thrust from their left side and not suddenly withdraw, then wind in crooked against them, etc. You can also suddenly withdraw and strike in your rising up or displacing when they thrust at you, etc. War.

Latest revision as of 20:34, 26 June 2021

23 parchment leaves follow after. Therein the Art of Johannes Liechtenauer, the Knightly Art of Fencing, is held. With that, 17 images of the sword.

1539 Johannes Liechtenauer's Fencing Art. Here the recital begins. In this, the knightly art of the long sword lies written, which Johannes Liechtenauer, who was a great master in the art, composed and created, God have mercy upon him. He had let the recital be written down with opaque and disguised words, so that the art shall not become common. And so Master Sigmund ein Ringeck, who was known at this time as fencing master to the highborn prince and noble Lord Albrecht, Pfalzgraf of the Rhine and Herzog of Bavaria, had these same opaque and disguised words of the recital glossed and interpreted as lay written here in this book, so that any fencer who can otherwise fight properly can see and understand well. And also after that enriched and improved by other masters, especially via master Hans Medel from Salzburg which subsequently follows after this.

This is the forward. Young knight, learn. Worship god, ever honor women Thus increase your honor. Practice chivalry and learn Art that decorates you And in war exalts with honor. Wrestling's good fetters, Lance, spear, sword and messer. Manfully put to good use And make useless in other's hands Attack suddenly and charge. Flow onwards, hit or let pass Whereupon making hostilities in these ways Seeks to praise the one. Hold yourself to this: All art has reach and measure

This is the text about many good general lessons of the long sword. If you wish to examine the art, Then go left and right with cutting And left with right Is what you strongly desire to fence.

Gloss: Note this is the first lesson of the long sword in which you shall learn to cut the hews correctly from both sides if you wish to otherwise fence strongly and correctly. Look at it this way: When you wish to cut from the right side, see that your left foot stands forward. If you then cut a descending cut from the right side, then accompany the cut with the right foot. If you do not do this, then the cut is wrong and incorrect. When your right side stays behind it, the cut is shortened and cannot accomplish it's correct path downward to the other side in front of the left foot.

Similarly, when you cut from the left side and the cut is not accompanied with the left foot, then the cut is also wrong. Therefore note from whichever side you cut, that you accompany the cut with the same foot if you want to correctly conduct all your plays with strength and all other cuts should also be hewn in this way.

Again a text about a lesson Whoever chases cuts, Allows themselves to enjoy little of the art. Cut from close proximity whatever you wish. No disengaging comes against your shield. To the head, to the body, do not omit the stingers. Fence with the entire body whatever you desire to conduct with strength.

Gloss. When you arrive at the opponent initiation of fencing, you should not watch nor await their cut as they conduct it against you. Because all fencers that watch and wait upon another's cut and wish to do nothing else than parry, tthey allow themselves to enjoy little of the art because they often become struck with it. Therefore cut and thrust to the openings.

Item. You shall note that everything that you wish to fence with, conduct that with the entire strength of the body and with that, cut in from close at the head and at the body, so they can not disengage in front of your point and with that cut, in the binding up of the swords, you shall not omit the stingers to the nearest opening. That will be delineated hereafter in the five cuts and in other plays.

Again, the text of a lesson. Hear what is bad. Do not fence above left if you are below right And if you are left, In the right you are also severely hindered.

Gloss. The lesson hits upon two people, one left and one right. The first cut, Look at it this way: When you come to the opponent with an initiation of fencing, if you subsequently judge and decide to strike the opponent, then do not hew the first cut from the left side. Because it is weak, and because of that, cannot not resist when one binds strongly against it. Therefore cut from the right side, so you can work whatever you wish strongly with art. The same goes if you are lefty. Then do not cut from the right side as well, because the art is quite awkward when a lefty initiates from the right side. It is also the same of a righty from the left side.

A text of a lesson about the before and the after. Before and after, the two things Are the one origin of all art. Weak and strong Indes. Mark that word with these. So that you can learn To work and ward with art. If you frighten easily, Never learn any fencing

Gloss: This means that, before any confrontation, you shall understand and be able to perceive the two things. That means, the before and the after and then the weak and the strong of the sword and of the word Indes. From those come the entire foundation and origin of all of fencing. When you properly perceive these things and in particular do not forget the word Indes in any plays that you conduct, you will be a good master.

The Before The before, This means that you always (if you wish) come forth with a cut or with a thrust to the opponent's opening in such a way that they must parry you. Then work swiftly with your sword in front of yourself in that act of parrying from one opening to the other, so they can not come with their plays before your work. But if they rush in on you, then come before and rush in with wrestling or your point.

The After. If you cannot come into the before (or otherwise do not wish to take it), then wait upon the after. These are the breaks of all plays that the opponent drives upon you.

Look at it this way: When the opponent comes before such that you must parry them, swiftly work Indes to the nearest opening during the act of parrying, so that you hit them the moment before they accomplish their play. In this way, you have seized the before and they remain after. You shall also note in the before and after how you shall work with the word Indes according to the weak and according to the strong of their sword.

And look at it this way: From the hilt of the sword up until the middle of the blade the sword has its strength. With that you can withstand when someone binds you against it. And farther from the middle up to the point, it has its weak which cannot resist. And when you understand these things properly, you can properly work with art and with that protect yourself and furthermore teach princes and lords so that they can properly remain steadfast with the same art in play and in earnest, but if you frighten easily, you should never learn the art of fencing because you will be struck by any art. Therefore you shall not learn it because a heart drained of blood does no good in fencing.

The text of the five cuts Learn five cuts from the right hand against the weapon We happily promise[1] To repay [2] in the Arts.

Note the recital sets down five opaque cuts. Many that call themselves master do not know to say that you should not teach to cut differently when from the right side against those that position themelves against you in defense. And if you select one cut from the five cuts, then one can hit with the first strike. Whoever can break that cut (and especially whatever work that comes along with it), without their harm, will be avowed by the masters of the recital such that their art shall become better rewarded than any other fencer that cannot fence against these five cuts. And how you shall hew the five cuts, you find that in the same five cuts written and taught in the recital hereafter.

The text about the chief plays of the recital Wrathcut Crook and Cross. If the Eye Cocker keeps with the Parter, The Fool parries. Pursuing, Overrunning, places the attack Disengage, Suddenly Withdraw, Rush through, cut off, press the hands Tilt and Turn to uncover with Slash, catch, sweep, stab to clash with

Gloss: Note, here the proper principal plays of the recital and of the art of the long sword will be names, as all are specifically titled with their names and are seventeen in number, and it begins with the five cuts.

The first cut is called the wrath cut The second the crooked cut The third the crosswise cut The fourth the cockeyed cut The fifth the part cut

Now the twelve other plays begin.

The first, or keeping count, the sixth is called the four guards or positions The seventh the four parries The eighth, pursuing The ninth, overrunning The tenth, displacing The eleventh, disengaging The twelfth, suddenly withdrawing The thirteenth, rushing through The fourteenth, cutting off The fifteenth, hand pressing The sixteenth, hanging The seventeenth, winding

And how you shall uncover by hanging and winding and conduct all the afore named plays, you will find it all taught and written hereafter in the explanation and glossing of the recital, etc.

The text on the wrath cut with its plays and works Whoever cuts at you from above, The wrath cut point threatens them If they become aware of it, Then abscond above without concern To the head, to the body Do not omit the stingers[3]

Gloss: Whenever the opponent will strike you from their right side to your head with a descending cut, then you cut from your right side as well with a wrath cut in counter, (especially if they are soft in the usage of their sword), and in the cut, the wrath point is cast in and thrust into their face. If they see and recognize it and parry, then abscond above and with that strike right around from your left shoulder to their right. With the short edge the gap is narrower than with the other. And apply the stingers to their head or body if you can. You can completely abscond and strike with the long edge as well; thereafter warring or exiting with a cut, etc.

Item. The wrath cut is nothing other than a strong wrathful descending cut (like a simple peasant strike) and is the coded name in the recital for the descending cut. The same as with the other four cuts that will follow hereafter with their special names. So that they, along with their subject matter and plays, are not public to everyone.

Absconding is nothing other than when you have bound with someone from descending cuts and rise up against their sword and draw your sword up around their sword or point, to your other side or shoulder into another cut to their other side or opening.

Break against the absconding If someone absconds and strikes at your other side, then bind or lay into them, that is, wind in strongly into their ears with your short edge. This goes to both sides, also called doubling and mutating.

A different absconding As Master Hans Medel pulls apart and improves: If you wish to abscond, when you have threatened the opponent with your point, abscond using your short edge and do not strike to their right with a descending cut. If they fly in again, wind crooked to the ground sideways in counter. If they will then go back up and strike you on your left, then Indes, strike right back, under their sword to their right, again using the short edge or stay against them again in the after and wind in crooked to their head on their right. Remember the stingers with the short edge upon their head.

Again the text Be strong in turn Wind thrust, if they seek it above, then take it below

Gloss: If you have both bound with a descending cut and wrath cut as above and have not yet thrown your point forwards, then if they are strong against your sword, then be strong in turn and wind upwards against their sword into a thrust or stab. Then if they see it and will ward and fend off and rise up into the air with an attempt to parry, set the point down between their arms against their breast where it has connected or abscond as above with either the short or long edge as the others maintain. Or else if the opponent binds softly against your sword when you fence with them, then drive onwards strongly with your sword and lodge it against their neck and drag them to the side. But if they bind hard and strong, then be strong in turn and turn the short edge against their sword and shove and snap quickly right back around it and strike to their right side. With the short edge the gap is narrower. Or else, when you have turned the short edge against their sword, strike back down atop their head on the same side.

Be strong in turn Like Master Hans Medel says: If you will bind the opponent with the wrath cut and point, then be strong against them in the bind using the crosswise cut. Then if they see that, abscond again on their right with the crooked or short edge as above with its work, etc. You can also stay put after your short strike and go behind them.

The text of a good general lesson Note this precisely: Cut, thrust, guard; soft or hard, Indes and before after Without rush, your war is not hasty. Whoever hunts the war Above, will be exposed below.

Gloss: This means that you shall accurately consider whether they are soft or hard when someone binds against your sword with a cut or thrust or whatever. As you perceive or feel it, then Indes, turn to the nearest opening according to the soft or hard using the war. Then Indes, you shall know what seems best to you: whether you should work with either the before or with the after. Yet you should not be too hasty during the on rush of the war, because the war is nothing other than the windings in the sword. They are to be conducted wisely against whoever that does not understand or know them well.

A text: How one shall correctly find cut and thrust. A lesson:

In all winding Learn to correctly find cut, thrust, slice. You shall also at the same time gauge whether the application's Position, whether it is soft or hard, etc. (Master Hans calls for this out in other places as well) Cut, thrust or slice into all encounters Of the masters if you wish to dishonor them.

Gloss: This means that you shall correctly learn to find cut, thrust, and slice in all winding. Also so you shall be quite polished with all winding against the sword. each one of the winds has three particular plays, that is: a cut, a stab and a slice. And when you wind against the sword, then you shall quite precisely gauge it, so that you do not incorrectly select the play that is called for in that winding. Hence, you do not cut when you should thrust and not thrust when you should slice. And when someone parries the one, you hit with the other. In this way, if someone parries your thrust, then conduct the cut. If someone rushes in on you, then drive the lower slice into their arm. Remember this in all encounters and binds of the sword if you wish to dishonor the masters that set themselves against you and do not understand.

About the four openings Know the four openings Take target so that you strike wisely Against any fear Without doubt however they are situated.

Gloss: You shall here note the four openings on the opponent that you should always fence to. The first opening is the right side, the second the left side; above the girdle of the opponent. The other two are the right and the left sides below the girdle. Precisely observe the openings in the initiation of fencing with whichever opening they open themselves against you. Target these boldly without danger with the shooting in of the long point and with pursuing and also with the winding against the sword and otherwise with all attacks and do not heed them as they bare against you. For if you perceive wisely and strike the strike upon that, that is indeed exquisite and does not allow them to come to their plays. And always target the opening and not the sword. If they will parry you, then work onward to the closest opening with the war or otherwise.

How one shall break the four openings If you wish to set yourself up To artfully break the four openings Double up Mutate right down I say to you truthfully No one defends themelves without danger If you have properly understood this, They can scarcely come to blows, etc.

Gloss: Like master Hans Medel has said: If you have bound with someone from earnest descending cuts or whatever and wish to set yourself and the opening up. In this process, they wanted to strike you; you have parried and broken. Then if they strike back around to the other side to the other opening of your head by absconding or whatever, then you shall break their opening again, that is, striking by doubling or mutating so that you break the opening from one side to the other and they will be struck and you parry and strike as one without harm.

Here note how you shall conduct the doubling on both sides. You shall make the doubling like this: When they have bound against you with a descending cut or whatever, etc from their right side to your left and strike right back around to your right side, then do nothing more than as soon as you perceive the moment they strike, then wind your sword in sideways at their head on their left side under their sword using your short edge. Then they are struck and are bound or intertwined simultaneously. This is then called the doubling above and with this the openings break. You can also make the doubling against their right side, yet you must wind in crooked, etc. If after your doubling they will strike back around to the left side of your head, then mutate to their right.

Here note how you shall conduct the mutating to both sides. Make the mutating like this: When you have just doubled in and broken the opening as is taught above, then if they strike right back around to your left side, etc. (But even if they will not strike right back, you can nevertheless allow it to go through between as above, etc) Then allow your point to go right through between you both and strike the other opening on the right side of their head. Then if from that they strike to your lower opening, you wind right back staying underneath with your sword. Thus, in this way you break all of their openings such that they do not truthfully know where they are free of danger and cannot fully come to blows. This is called mutating right below and the openings are artfully broken and exploited in the manner Master Hans Medel Von Salzburg says to do so.

The crooked cut with its plays. Crook up swiftly, Throw the point upon the hands.

Gloss: This is how you shall cut crooked at the hands. Execute it like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword "crooked", (that is, with crossed hands) out ahead to the outside with your point on the ground such that the long edge stands forwards, well in balance. Execute the first play according to the text like this: If the opponent initiates a cut from their right shoulder, be it [1] descending or [2] rising, then Indes toward the opponent, step in fully into them with your right foot and let either [1] your crossed hands or [2] the crooked cut go up and displace their cut with your sword with either [1] your long edge or [2] with your point thrown out over their hands, towards their left side. Thereafter, war and work however you wish. [2] But if they throw you back over with their hands with power during their ascent, let go willingly, and turn it into a strike right around your head to their left side with either the short or long edge (the short is closer). If they break that by mutating against you, stand there, then you can use your crooked cut against that. It also breaks rising and descending cuts and is one of the four parries against the four guards, such as the ox[4].

Rule: Prvode yourself solidly open in the crooked cut.

Yet another play Crook. Whoever fully commits, Disrupts many cuts by stepping.

Gloss: This is how you will displace descending cuts via the crooked cut. Execute it like this: Stand well crooked by your left foot, which shall stand forward with your sword crossed over to that side with your hands crossed and with your point on the ground, that is, in the crooked lodging. Then, when the opponent strikes at your opening from their right side, step and either strike or displace or work as above. (Though you can fall across their hands fully till your point is on the ground in the barrier guard as some call it.) This goes to both sides. And stand in this way and have your sword on the other side in the crooked lodging; not with crossed hands, rather with open arms such that the long edge still stands up. And displace and work with it as before. This means that you, thereafter; during warring or otherwise, will strike or thrust at their head from the displacement. It is also good against the fool[5] or the flats. If they throw you right over as above, then strike as above, etc.

Yet another play Cut crooked to the flat of the masters If you wish to weaken them. When it sparks above So stand aside, that I will laud.

This is when you wish to weaken the masters. So note when someone stands hanging in the flats or the fool[6] with the right foot forward. Cut from the crooked lodging [position] on your right side and displace them crooked atop their sword with crossed hands and step in. And as soon as your sword clashes against theirs, then stand firm and wait for the after, etc. But if you do not wish to wait, then swiftly strike back up from the sword to the left side of their head with either the short of long edge or wind the short edge against their sword during the crooked cut or do what ever you think is good.

Yet another play from the crooked cut Don't crook, cut short Disengage and with that expose them

Gloss: This is when the opponent cuts or stands against you in the flats or the fool[7] as just above, etc, act as if you will bind against their sword with the crooked cut or a lodging, then cut short and drive through under their sword with your point and either wind or draw through to your right side into a thrust on their right side with your point between you both and stab them in their face in the same way that you come into the flat stance and thrust on in sharply.

Yet another play. Whoever confounds you crooked, the noble war utterly confuses them that they do not truthfully know where they are without danger.

Gloss: This is whenever you wish to conduct the crooked cut, you will always leave yourself open with it. Look at it this way: When you cleave in with a crooked cut from either your right or left side or bind against their sword, from whichever side you cut, you are then open on the other. If the opponent is also clever and will strike from your sword to your opening and tries to confound you through cunning, then either [1] abide with your sword against their sword or [2] make a pursuing cut and either [1] twist crooked or wind your point into their face and [1] work further via the war or [2] strike into the opening, such that they become so utterly confused that they will no longer know whether they should guard themselves from cuts or thrusts. But if they will confound you like this, such that they mount you with their sword and won't let up, etc... then stay against their sword as above and follow along with them as above.

The crosswise cut with its plays. The crosswise cut seizes Whatever approaches from the roof.

Gloss: The crosswise cut is nothing other than the lateral cut which breaks any cut that will either arrive or will be hewn from above downward or from the roof. You shall conduct it like this: Stand with the left foot forward and hold your sword in behind in the lateral cut at the midsection or waist by the right foot or side such that the long edge is above. And when someone cuts in from above from the roof to either the opening or the head, then step or spring right ahead towards them with the right foot and displace their cut with the crosswise cut, such that it is crooked over to your left, etc. And then after the displacement, wind to the opening of their right side if you wish to remain inside on their sword. Or, swiftly strike from the sword at their head on their left side with your short edge. War if it is necessary. But if they make a sudden withdrawal and will strike you from their left, then swiftly slip back around into their arm with the crooked lower slice, but do not sweep around too widely in the air to displace them.

Another play Cross with the strong. With that, remember your work.

Gloss: This means that with any type of crosswise cut you shall use it to strengthen and work strongly (viz:[8] Clearing cut or War, etc) And in this way in particular: When the opponent will initiate a strike right down from above like from roof guard, rush in strongly against their cut with the crosswise cut just like using the slice, in such a way that that your thumb is underneath, and with that strike them on their left side or head. Thereafter, if they fall against you strongly, then hang well and strike them on their right side from that hanging and step well to their right with your left foot, etc. Namely, make an exit cut or war.

Item. But if you sense when you bind them with strength that they are weak at the sword, then lay your short edge out over to their right side against their throat.

A break for the laying on of the sword [against the throat]. When someone lays against your throat using the upper work in this way, then with the left hand, let your sword go and with your right, shove their sword from the throat and with your left foot, step in front of both of their feet toward their left side and with your left arm, pass over both of their arms close to their hilt and lead theem to dance. Or, and better, step behind them into the fulcrum and with the left arm right around against their throat either to the front or the back and thrown over the foot. Or with the left hand, let your sword go and with your right, strike them across the mouth with your sword over their sword and with your left hand, grasp your sword in the middle of the blade and shove them away from you with your point, etc. If it is not sufficient, it is better to shove or take their load away from you by their elbow.

Yet another play. Cross into the plow; Connected well to the ox.

Gloss: This is when someone lays before you in their stance in the plow[9] or ox[10]. That is, when they stand with the right foot forward and lies with their sword out forward with the point on the ground, fall upon it from above using the crosswise cut. Thereafter work it into the openings as they make themselves available or war. But if they defend, go into the fool[11] at the head, then you can again war by saddling atop it and working. Also in the same way, if someone saddles atop you at the end of a crosswise cut or crooked cut from the left, then remain against their sword and work in the after like in the last stance of the plow[12] using the after.

Another play. Whoever crosses themselves well, endangers the head with springing.

This is: When you stand in the crosswise cut and will threaten their head with strikes, let your point pass through to your left side in your crosswise cut and in that passage through, spring or step well to their left side with your right foot and strike them threateningly with the crosswise cut to the left side of their head with the short edge yet in such a way that you are well covered in it with your sword or hilt. Similarly, it also goes to the left side by passing through and striking to their right side with the long edge, etc.

Another play from the crosswise cut called the failer The failer misleads. It wounds from below according to desire.

Gloss: Note that with the failer, any fencer that likes to parry will be astonished and misled and easily struck. Execute it like this: When you stand in the crosswise cut and act as if you will strike at their head on their left side from either the crosswise cut or from descending cuts and in the cut divert or suddenly withdraw your cut and strike the opponent with a crosswise cut to the lower openings under their sword to the left side of their head or wherever it may occur to you and is called the wound from below if it happened from below their sword and not from the lower opening below the belt. In this way they are struck and wounded according to desire. War.

Another play, the crosswise cut inverter The inverter compels The one who slips through wrestles as well at the same moment Take the elbow surely spring into their movement

Gloss: This is: When you have cut with the failer as was taught above, strike right back around to their left side using the crosswise cut. Then if they fall upon your sword, swiftly hang and in that hanging rush through and take their balance by the elbow and step in forward with the left foot and shove them over it. You can also execute a bit of grappling in your rushing through like this: step behind them with the left foot and pass your left arm forward around their neck and throw them backwards over the foot. Also, You can completely pass your left arm around their neck from behind their back and throw. Some say it like this: When you have bound with someone, invert your sword so that your thumb comes below, that is, into the crosswise cut and stab them in the face with your point such that you compel them so that they must parry and in that act of parrying, slip in and shove their elbow which wrestles like above, etc.

Item. As for how you shall rush through, you find that hereafter in the play that says: Rush through, let hang.

Yet another play. The failer hits doubly. One makes the old slice with power.

According to master hans, he says: This is for when you have misdirected the opponent with the first failer and struck them on their right side, etc. as above. Swiftly strike right back around yet one more time for the second [opening] on their right side. That's called the double, etc. You can even go right back around a third time. If you then come upon their sword, such that they parry, then war or wind with them, etc.

Then If the opponent will strike as well, then Indes, go in over their arm with the slice and press behind. Some differ and this is also called the failer because one shall conduct a double misdirection in one initiation of fencing with it. Execute the first like this: When you come to them initiation of fencing, step or spring with your right foot such that your left foot stays in front facing them and act as if you will strike to their left side with a crosswise cut and suddenly withdraw the strike and spring out ahead to their right with your left foot and strike at their head on their right side. It is quick like in the first play, war.

Yet another play. Double it further, Step in left and do not be lazy.

g[loss]: This is the previous play above explained with the slice as master hans says. But others say that when you have struck with the first misdirection to the head on their left side, strike immediately back around to their head on their right side and from crossed hands, pass over their sword with your short edge and spring left, that is to your left side and slice them through their mouth with the long edge and swiftly extract yourself [to the side][13]

Item you can conduct the failer from the descending cuts in the same way as from the crosswise cut whenever you wish and this crosswise cut goes to both sides, though it is more effective from the right side when your left foot stands forward.

This is the cockeyed cut with it's plays The cockeyed cut intrudes in on whatever the buffalo strikes or thrusts. Whoever conducts the change, the cockeyed cut robs them from that.

Gloss: The cockeyed cut is nothing other than the switch cut. Named according to the recital, the cockeyed cut, which is such an exquisite cut, that intrudes in on buffalos or ruffians which take victory by force in cuts and in thrusts. Execute the cut like this: If you stand with your right foot forward and lay in the cockeyed cut, then the thumb must be up against the sword. Then if they cut at you from their right side, step into them swiftly, Indes, with your left foot and displace their cut strongly with your short edge and from that, make a quick strike from your left shoulder, crooked, with the long edge into the right side of their head, but if they immediately come right back and parry your cut so that you come onto their sword, then wind in from above with power and lay your sword on their throat. Then if they will continue to escape by force, then just calmly pursue them so that they can't rightly escape. But if you wish to allow them to get off easy, then wind in behind and between their arms as it connects using the war, etc. But if you stand with the left foot forward, then position your thumb underneath, so you can again displace their descending cut with the short edge and strike to their left side to the head with the short edge and with the right foot stepped in. Or, displacing over their sword, winding in, to the head on their right side or laid up against their throat, etc, war. But if in their cut they wish to disengage, then wind in crooked upon their sword and bring your work to conclusion out forward and lay up against them.

Another play Cock an eye to see if they short change you. Disengaging vanquishes them.

Gloss: This is a teaching: When you come to them with the initiation of fencing, you should cock an eye to see whether they stand against you short or straight. With this you shall identify whenever they initiate a cut. Then, if they do not stretch their arms out long from themselves, the sword is shortened. If you lay before them in the cockeyed cut or they lay before you in the fool[14] by the head, then it is again shortened. For all windings or crooked stances in the sword in front of the opponent are short and shorten the sword. To all that hold themselves like this, you shall freely disengage out of cuts and out of thrusts with the long point into the face. With it you threaten them such that they must parry or else allow themselves to be struck or stabbed. War. Master Hans likes to disengage the opponent if their right foot is ahead and they stand in either the switch cut or cockeyed cut and when one is shortened against them, especially standing in the fool[15].

[Margin] If you stand in the hanging parry crooked or open, like Seydenfaden had taught, it is also shortened and good for you to disengage

Yet another play Squint to the point, take the neck without fear.

Gloss: This means that the cockeyed cut that breaks the long point with a deception of the eyes. Execute it like this according to Master Hans' lesson: If you stand in the cockeyed cut and your right foot lies forward and the opponent also stands with their right foot forward in the fool[16] with the flat near the left side of their head and speeds their point toward you, then visibly cock an eye at that and act as if you will cut into it and rush on in with your left foot forwards, under their sword [with yours] crooked into their neck and take their neck without any fear. Thereafter work with the war or whatever you wish. Also do as some say: If you stand with the left foot forward in the cockeyed cut and they hold their point either long or short against your face, then squint at the point and act as if you will strike into it and strike atop their sword with your short edge and with that you shoot the point in long into the right side of their neck without fear, but still step out forward with your right foot as well. War. But if you wish to take the before, then saddle atop them crooked, then strike again immediately from their sword to their left side with your short edge. War.

Also do it as some say. If you stand with your left foot forward in the cockeyed cut and the opponent holds their point log or short against your face or breast, then cock an eye at their point and act as if you will strike at it and strike atop their sword with the short edge and shoot the point in long with this without fear of their right side, nevertheless step out forwards with your right foot as well. War. But if you wish to take the before, you saddle atop them crooked, then immediately strike again to their left side from their sword with your short edge. War.

Another Play. Cock an eye at the top of the head If you wish to incapacitate the hands

Gloss Master Hans: This is when you stand in the cockeyed cut with your right foot forward and the opponent also stands with the right foot forward and either in the cockeyed cut or else holds themselves as if they will do so, in this case, snap in with your sword or flat to their right side at their head. If they overlook this, then they will be quite grievously struck and thereafter suddenly and swiftly withdraw and from that make a cut upon their sword to their left side at their head with the short edge. War. Some say it like this: When they will cut in from above or stand against you in the long point, then cock an eye using your face as if you will strike atop the head, cut against their cut using your short edge and strike them with the point to the hands from against their sword's edge.

The cockeyed cut with part cut with it's plays The part cut is a threat to the face. With it's turn, the breast is quickly threatened.

Gloss: This is when you stand with the right foot forwards in the cockeyed cut and the opponent initiates a cut using a descending cut. While they strike, swiftly flip your sword right back around into the plunge cut (this is the part cut in the zettel) and the point against them fully in the fulcrum below their cut or sword into their face or breast. Thereafter work whatever you wish that is threatening to the opponent. Master Hans Seydenfaden also taught the part cut like this: Initiate a strike with your long edge straight ahead from above from the top of your head and on top of that a rising cut at the opponent's head on their right side, following up according to two plays in his school's doctrine with various strikes, footwork and misdirections.

Another play. How the crown breaks the part cut. What comes from them, The crown takes away.

Gloss: Master Hans. This is: when someone has thrown in the point using the part cut as was first taught, use the crown against it, because it breaks the part cut like this: If they stand in this way, then fall into the cut with your hilt across their blade or across the grip between both hands and drag down so they will be struck upon the head, etc. This is called the crown.

Some differ in this way: When you cut in from above with the part cut, then if they parry high with their sword gripped with an armed hand or crossed over their head, this is called the crown against Seydenfaden's part cut and with that, slip in by shoving, etc. In this way, it takes the part cut away. This also breaks an opponent like this, again as above with the hilt thrown over that and wrenched down.

Another play. How the slice breaks the crown. Slice through the crown, so you break the hard beautifully. Press the strike. It drags down using slicing.

Gloss: Master Hans. This is: when someone drags the part cut off using the crown in the same way as above, pursue them and drag them down so you slice them on their head, etc. Then you fade off to the side.

Some differ in this way: when the opponent parries the part cut or otherwise any cut with the armed crown and rushes in with it, then take the slice under their hands and into their arms and press firmly upward and back yourself off with it with a sweep.

About the four positions Four positions alone, One keeps to those and flees the common. Ox, plow, fool From the roof. These three things are not worthless to you, says Master Hans Medel.

Gloss: This means that you shall specifically hold no other position other than the four positions named here, which are often named the four guards, that is: ox, plow, fool, roof.

The first position is the ox[17]. Make it according to Master Hans in this way: Stand with the right foot forward and hold your sword on your left side just below your knee, the point a little upwards towards the opponent such that the thumb stays against your sword facing you and the long edge up. Also stand in the same way so that your left foot stands forward yet with crooked or crossed arms and again with your thumb facing you and with your short edge upwards.

The second is the plow[18]. Make it like this: Stand with the right foot forwards and lay your sword out forwards with extended arms with the point upon the ground and the long edge downwards not crooked. If you have the left foot forwards, you can do it that way, although it is somewhat shorter opposing the opponent.

The third is the Fool[19]. Make it like this: Stand with your right foot forwards and hold your sword on your left side with your hilt next to your head, not crooked or crosswise, with either your point facing the opponent or hold it next to you in the flat of your thumb. But if your left foot is forward, then hold your sword crooked or crosswise on your right side next to your head, the point against the opponent, your thumb facing you again.

The fourth position is the roof guard. Make it like this: Stand with the right foot forwards and hold up your sword on your right side with extended arms just like in the speaking window. Master Hans makes one thing out of the fool[20] and the roof in this way: When he stands with the right foot forwards, then he cuts down from the roof strangely and cuts through to his left side in front of himself into the fool[21].

He makes no more than three positions. And how you shall fence from the guards or positions, you shall find it before and after this. Apart from this, you can also make your work from those as follows hereafter in the seven stances, therein some positions are delineated for when an opponent wishes to break these, etc. Master Hans also explains the four positions or guards differently than the others as you generally find in all other glosses which are not as satisfactory to me.

Crooked- -ox[22] Cross- -plow[23] >breaks< part cut- -fool[24] Cockeyed cut, also the crosswise cut- -roof

About the four parries. Four are the parries that also severly disrupt the four positions. Guard yourself from parrying. If it happens of necessity, it beleaguers you.

Gloss: You have heard before that you shall solely fence from the four positions or guards. But on the other hand, you shall also know that the four parries severely disrupt or break those same four positions. These are the four cuts: crooked cut, crosswise cut, cockeyed cut and part cut and they are nothing other than that from which one brings themselves to work. When the opponent lays before you in a position, you must use one of the four cuts against it because when sword comes against sword, the whole art is integrated, that is play and break from both people, so you must use one of the four cuts against it.

In the same way, if they lay in ox[25], then fall upon it with the crooked cut or with the crosswise cut.

Then if they lay before you in plow[26], then use the crosswise cut against it.

Then if they lay in the fool[27], then use the part cut or wrath cut against it, if the part cut from the top of the head as some say will be used,

Then if they lay in the position of the roof, then use the cockeyed cut against it.

Also, the crosswise cut is good or better, because all by itself, it breaks three positions or guards:

The position of the roof, The plow[28] and ox[29] as well according to the text from above saying "The crosswise cut seizes, etc"

Also the plow[30] and the ox[31] according to the text from above: "Cross to the plow, the ox, etc"

Similarly, the crooked cut not only breaks the ox[32], but also the plow[33] and the fool[34]

Also, the cockeyed cut does not solely break what comes from roof guard, but also the fool[35], if they rush in under and crooked from the cockeyed cut from their left side.

Also, in the same way, you do not have to use the part cut solely against the fool[36], but also against ox[37] and plow[38].

Therefore in this way, whatever it is that you yourself consider the best, you can change it up and apply it with the four cuts against the four positions or guards such that you disrupt them and hence bring them to the work. Thereafter work using winding in, warring, or cutting and thrusting as the opportunities arise. You find this written and taught beforehand in the five cuts and stances, and in the displacing.

Therefore know that parrying isn't actually called for in this, because there are the four cuts that break them that are. Therefore do not parry and note when they cut, then you cut as well. If they stab, then you stab as well and guard yourself so that you do not parry too much, if you wish to otherwise not become struck as the catch[39] fencers do and they willfully conduct nothing but parries.

Against an act of parrying If you are parried And however it has come to this Hear what I advise Scrape or Wrench off, cut quickly with haste

Gloss. This means, as it comes to be that you have been parried, note if the opponent parries your descending cut, then pass over their leading hand wih your pommel in their attempt to parry and with that wrench it off downward and with that wrenching, strike them upon the head with your sword. Thereafter, you can fully drop your left hand onto your blade and with your left foot, step behind them and with your left arm in front of the throat and shift them and throw them over your foot and that is called an upper intrusion.

Another play against the fulcrum. When you execute a rising cut from the right side, If the opponent then falls upon that with their sword such that you cannot come up with it and pushes you down to the side, then pass over their sword with your pommel and strike them on their head with your long edge by snapping. But if it happens on the left side, then you still pass over their sword with the pommel and step forward with the right foot and strike them with your short edge. But if, Indes, they come right against it with a push or shove during the after, then mind that you lung well into them as you wind over with your pommel and wind over their arm or hand so they cannot properly shove and hold you on the fulcrum.

Another play against an act of parrying. Text: Lodge against four regions Learn to remain thereupon if you wish to finish.

Gloss Master Hans: This is when you from the four lodgings (which are the two crooked lodgings to both sides, the plow[40] with the point out forward upon the ground, not crooked and roof) one of which you will take yourself forward therein or you shall stay in it and setup your work and complete the rest using the after. According to the common gloss others also say: When you cleave in from above from your right shoulder, if you then wish to quickly end with that, then note when they parry, then strike quickly around with the crosswise cut and grasp your sword in the middle of the blade and set the point into the face or lodge the four openings, to whichever you may or can best attain. And if they parry one of the lodgings, then strike them with the pommel to the other, the left side or drive over their right shoulder with the pommel in front of their neck, but spring with your right foot behind their left and move and throw them thereover. Break. Take the elbow.

Item. You can also lodge against four regions from above to both sides from the stance of the wrath point near your left knee as will be taught hereafter in the seven stances. If the opponent comes to you with descending cuts after that, you lodge the point against their neck in response. But if they come with rising cuts, lodge against that as well then they come to your side and finish your work.

A lesson about the pursuing. Learn the pursuing. Double or slice into the weapon.

Gloss. First note this general lesson: that pursuing is many and varied and are appropriate to conduct with great prudence against the fencer that fences from free and from long cuts and otherwise does not cut with the proper art of the sword, etc. And this is according to the text: You shall properly learn pursuing, because they are double. The first is conducted like this: If the opponent will cleave in from above, then note while they pull up their sword to strike, pursue them with a cut or with a thrust and hit them in the upper opening before they come down with the cut. And if they bind you and will thereafter work from the sword, then pursue and Indes afterwards take the slice into their arm in from above with your long edge and press them strongly away from you with that, so they have no power. Each time in this way pursue them to their head from above.

Another play. The second pursuing is when the opponent initiates a cut from above, then if they let their sword go to the ground during the cut, pursue them with a cut in from above to the head before they come back up with the sword. Or if they will thrust, then note while they draw their sword towards themselves to thrust, pursue them and then stab them before they carry out their thrust, etc. But if you fence against someone from rising cuts or the sweeps or lay against them in the fool[41] or plow[42], then if they fall upon that with their sword before you come up with yours, then stay below just like that against their sword and lift upwards. Then if they will cut in from their act of parrying or wind in on the sword, do not let them abscond from the sword, rather pursue them thereon and work to the nearest opening with the war and the others.

Item. Note you shall pursue them out of and with all cuts as soon as you realize they overcommit themselves attacking in fornt of you or uncover themselves with their sword.

A good lesson about the pursuing When you fence with someone, bind against their sword strongly, continue to stay strong and press them strongly to the head. If they will strike around, then remain against the sword and press down strongly so they have no power. Each time in this way pursue to their head from above.

In the after is another. So if they don't flee, rather they stay still and come into the work or the war with you.

There is a difference between the pursuing and in the after. Pursuing is in fleeing. The after is standing still, working afterwards.

About the two couplings to the outside and the two coupling to the insides The two couplings to the outside and the two couplings to the inside, The work begins thereafter And gauge the opponent's applications Whether they are soft or hard

Gloss: This means that you shall note that the couplings are also called pursuing and when you come against their sword with yours, then you shall gauge whether the opponent is soft or hard with their application. Thereafter, you shall begin your work. That is, like this: When someone stands against you in the couplings to the outside (because those are two, one to each side) and stands with their right foot forward and hangs with a flat sword from either the part cut, the fool[43], or plunge cut with the point down, like with roof guard, if they stand in the coupling to the outside on their right side, then come to them as well with the same coupling to the outside from your right side countering them against their sword. And in the clashing of the sword, wind in swiftly under their sword into their head, to the opening or entirely out over to their left shoulder such that your sword comes or lays above and your thumb stands underneath. In the case they want to then exit, pursue them Indes or if they throw you over with force, then ready yourself with striking or with warring in the case you both come crooked into the winding. But if you do not wish to counter them with that, then you can mount and work upon that with the crosswise cut or other cuts, etc. That is the first coupling to the outside or Hew crooked to the flats... or Don't crooked cut, short cut.

The second coupling to the outside is as follows: the opponent stands with their left foot forward and with their arms crooked as if they went up with the rising cut or something and it hangs over the left arm. So also come to them countering them in this way from your left side crooked on their sword. Wind in under their sword to the opening at their head like before or at their head from above just to their right shoulder. Thereafter work or war as before.

There first coupling to the inside is as follows: If the opponent again stands with the right foot forward and holds their sword down by the leg or knee for a thrust like in the ox[44], then also come into opposition in the same way from your left with your right foot forward and in that thrust step into them with your left foot and the swords clash against each other. It is then possible that you both wind against each other, then you both come into the work crooked. Thereafter war and work as you wish. It is possible that the both of you also make a sudden withdrawal from that with a strike right around from their right shoulder to their left side, to their head, or take the lower slice, etc. which will double or mutate.

The other coupling to the inside is as follows: The opponent stands with the left foot forward and holds their sword as before, though it must be crooked on the side, then conduct the work against them as before just above. When it is skewed to the side, you will again break their sudden withdrawal then double or mutate however it connects best either according to the work or according to the side, thus they will be struck deaf, etc or sliced. You can also, as before, if you do not wish to use the counter coupling, work the stance or coupling against if with other things such as the crosswise cut or the wrath cut or other displacements or lodgings against and then work as you wish, etc. In this way you have the four couplings explained with their work. However you shall begin it, the common glosses explain differently, but that is not satisfactory to me, etc. This work the opponent can also conduct against you.

A lesson about the feeling and the word Indes. Learn the feeling. Indes, the word cuts sharply.

Gloss: This means that you shall learn and understand the word, Indes, properly, because the two things belong together and one cannot exist without the other and are the great art of fencing. Look at it this way: When someone binds against the sword, you shall immediately feel or perceive in that, as the swords clash together, whether they have bound soft or hard and as you have perceived that, then think of the word Indes, This means that in that perceiving, you shall work swiftly according to the soft or the hard to the nearest opening. Thus they will be easily struck before they become aware of his.

Item. You shall think upon the word Indes in all binds of the sword, because:

Indes doubles, Indes mutates; Indes rushes [through], Indes disengages; Indes takes the slice, Indes wrestles with; Indes takes the sword away from them, Indes does whatever the heart desires in the art.

Indes is a sharp word. With it all fencers that do not know of the word become cut and the word Indes is the key. With it, the entire art of fencing will be unlocked. Also with that is the before and especially the after with the strong and the weak. These three things break all plays and art that one may conduct or conceive. Because when sword comes upon sword, all art is integrated.

Another about the pursuing Pursue twice, If someone makes contact, make the old slice from it.

Gloss Note the you shall execute the pursuing doubly, that is, to both sides and also bring the slice thereon. Look at it this way: When they overcommits themselves attacking before you, whether it is from their right or left side, then cut just behind them to the opening without worry. Then if they rise up and bind against the sword from below, then note as soon as one sword clashes against the other, slice at their neck or fall Indes atop their arm with the long edge and take the slice. Conduct this on both sides.

About overrunning Whoever takes aim from below, overrun them from above. They will be shamed. When it clashes above, then strengthen, that I will laud. Make you work, soft or hard or press twice.

Gloss Master Hans. This is when someone binds you, then you shall stengthen the bind and if they immediately strike around towards your lower openings and target accordingly, then Indes run on in over them and either press behind by pushing or shoving, or in from above with the slice. War.

Some speak like this according to the common gloss, about how you shall overrun when someone initiates fencing you from below. Look at it this way: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if they initiate a cut or a thrust from below, do not parry that, rather note when their rising cut or thrust goes toward you, then cut in long from above from their[sic?] right shoulder and shoot the point in long from above at their face or breast and lodge against them so they cannot reach you. Then if they rise up from below and parry, then remain strong against their sword with your long edge (that's called being strengthened) and quickly work to the nearest opening or await upon the after with the war. And any descending cut and any upper lodging overreaches the lower path, in this way they become ashamed above.

About the displacing Learn to displace. To skillfully disrupt cut, thrust. Whoever thrusts at you Such that your point hits and their breaks From both sides Hit any time when you step.

Gloss Master Hans. This means you shall learn to displace artfully disrupting cut, thrust also breaking point or edge like this: If someone cuts or thrusts towards you, displace the attack and break the point or edge from all positions or stances in general and cuts or mounts from all sides as they encroach you and meeting their point or edge with your point or sword and displacing fully and from that make a strike in from above at the head with the short edge to whichever side makes itself available. Thereafter work Indes using the after and war. Or[45] else according to the interpretive intent of others as they execute displacing: When you come to them initiation of fencing, then if they position themselves against you in, say, the plow[46], as they call it (but I call it the ox[47] down by the knee) and act as if they will thrust into you, the advance your left foot and stand facing them in the ox[48] as well on your right side with crossed arms or hands and leave yourself open on your left side. Then if they thrust into your opening, then wind to your left side with your sword against their sword opposing their thrust and step in with your right foot and with it displace such that the point always remains standing against them and Indes stab them in the face or breast. Thus, your point hits and theirs does not. Or also make a strike and otherwise do whatever you wish if you would like to work with the warring. But if you stand against someone as above in the ox[49] and would like to thrust them, then if they cut down from above to your left opening, then go up against their cut with your sword and wind in, to their side (openly or crookedly as the situation provides) and step in with it and wind the point sharply into their face or breast. Thereafter, work or war.

About the disengaging Learn to disengage From both sides stabbing sharply with it Whoever binds against you Disengaging surely finds them

Gloss: Disengaging is many and varied. You can conduct them from all guards or cuts against the fencers that like to parry and those that cut at the sword and not to the openings of the body. You must learn to conduct this quite well with prudence so that one does not lodge against you nor otherwise come in while you disengage. Execute it like this: When you come to them with the initiation of fencing, cleave in at their head from above. Then if they initiate a cut in response against your sword and not to the openings of your body, then let your point rush through below during the cut before they bind you against the sword and stab them into the other side, etc. If they become aware of the thrust and immediately pursue your thrust with their sword and will parry, then disengage again to the other side. And always execute it when they move toward your sword with an act of parrying. Conduct this on both sides, war.

Another play. When come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing set your left foot forward and hold the long point against their face. Then if they cut to the sword either from above or below and will strike it away or bind strongly against it, then let the point sink downward and disengage and stab them toward the other side. And conduct this against all cuts where someone cuts to your sword and not to the openings of the body.

Another play. Note this play precisely when the opponent parries you and allows their point to go out sideways next to you in their act of parrying. When this happens, boldly disengage and thrust toward the other side. Or if they remain with their point in front of your face or otherwise toward the other openings of your body, then do not disengage and remain against their sword and work to their nearest opening so they cannot pursue nor lodge against you. War.

About the Sudden Withdrawing [text missing]

Hereafter follows the seven stances. Wherein noteworthy work to utilize against the opponent instead of other common fencing is explained :-

The seven stances The first is when you stand as in the plunge or the part cut yet with your sword flat upon your right thumb, fully forward, on the fulcrum with point sunken and right foot forward and keep yourself fully open with the left side. Called the Fool (others c[all it] the sideways ox)

The second is: Hold your sword by the pommel next to your left leg and with the point a little upwards against the opponent yet so that the same left foot stands forward. This is commonly called the wrath point or equally the ox[50] but just only when the left foot stands forward.

The third stance is when you stand as before, then from that left side draw right back around to the right into the speaking window or into the position or guard "roof"

The fourth stance: Drop from the speaking window to the left side with the crook crossed over against your front foot. One commonly calls this the iron gate or the lodging from the crook[ed cut]. Against the right foot follows after.

The fifth stance is the same as before to the other side next to the right foot yet not crooked. Open, not crossed.

The sixth stance comes from the previous being thrown out forward from the right side with the point behind right over into the crook yet your left foot comes forward along with the point fully opposing the opponent.

The seventh: From that very crook held, [make] a strike straight up from the left and to the right and with the point on the ground forwards fully into extension and balance, not crooked is called the plow[51]. Some call it the fool.

Item. Out of all of these, the second, third, fourth and fifth are called the four lodgings.

Thereafter you shall note the work that goes from each stance or may generally go at first.

Work from the part cut, plunge or fool[52] according to Master Hans using the after.

First: Work from the part cut, plunge or fool[53] as Master Hans calls it using the after. If you lay before the opponent in the part cut hanging flat as shown above and you await the work of the opponent against you, then if they will initiate a strike with a descending cut to your left side or opening, stand still and go straight up against the opponent to the left side of their head with the crosswise cut, where they are open with an uninverted sword. War if it becomes necessary to do.

The second: Then if they mount your sword with their descending cut and strike back around with a rising cut or otherwise to your right side, then Indes pursue them swiftly with the stance or extended sword and thrust into their face with whatever you can. War if it becomes necessary. You can also completely disengage as soon as they mount and thrust to their right side. Thereafter strike to their left.

=> Item. In everything afterwards as you put yourself in the middle of things you shall remain standing like this and work Indes and not invert. It then ruins the work of the opponent by striking or mutating however the opponent then holds themself against you.

The third: If you stand as before and they will disengage, you then pursue and step toward them and wind in crooked to their head. War if it is necessary. For one shall wind out behind crooked against all disengages.

The fourth: If you stand as before and they mount atop it crooked, you shall strengthen against them. Then if they will strike to the opening of your left side, then pursue them with the war and your sword to their right shoulder and lay your sword against their neck. If they will subsequently ward that, then Indes, ward yourself again with the war according to the work as it demands. War if it is necessary or pursue them softly everywhere, so they cannot become completely free.

Break. But if they hold strongly, then wind yourself into them under their sword and step behind their right foot with your left and with the left arm against the front of their neck and throw and if the throwing comes to nothing, then you pursue them gently. But if they will wind themself out with force, then wind in with the pommel between their arms. Break against them, shove the elbow.

The fifth: If you stand as before and the opponent stands against you in the crosswise cut and with that they strike against your sword, then pursue them Indes and wind in crooked into their head. If it is necessary to do, then use the war as before.

The sixth: If you stand as before and if they will then jab or thrust out of ox[54] from their left side to your right, then Indes swiftly step and wind in crooked into the head. If it is necessary afterwards, use the war. You can use that in all plays where it makes itself available.

Cut crooked to the flat of the masters if you wish to weaken them. This means that the crooked cut breaks this stance with it's work as you wind in it's explanation in the recital. Or: Crook not, short cut. this is the disengaging or use the coupling to the outside against it. But if they will make a sudden withdrawal from their thrust, then fall into the crook as before and remain standing therein.

Item. In all plays, if someone either binds against you or will mount you, then you can withdraw suddenly and make a rising cut into their right side and back around with the short edge into the other side

Work from the second stance, the wrath point using the after laid out The first play: When you stand in the second stance as written and instructed above, etc. If someone then draws up long and wide and if they intend to strike you with a descending cut from their right into your wrath point, then go straight up Indes with the wrath point against their throat and thrust, etc. War if it is necessary. In the thrust, go up into the flat in such a way that your thumb comes under.

The second: When you stand as before in the wrath point, then if the opponent rushes and will thrust out of the ox[55] from their left to your right side, then Indes step forward with your right foot and from your counter thrust make a sudden withdrawal right back around and make a strike from your right shoulder to their left side with your short edge. Use the war if it is necessary. In the counter, you can also mutate to their right side to the head.

The third: When you stand as before and they stand in front of you in the speaking window or roof guard, then go up against them into their face with the wrath point. Then if they mount your sword, then Indes you can completely wind in crooked with a step. Or as soon as they mount, Indes make a rising cut to their right side to the head and back around with the short edge to the other side. If it is necessary to do, then war. But if they will make a rising cut after mounting, then step swiftly Indes and thrust on in forwards with your hands and sword.

You can completely thrust as well after mounting or before disengaging. War.

The fourth: If you stand as before and again go up with the wrath point as before. Then if they counter with the coupling to the outside against your sword, then wind in crooked and step in after and war if it is necessary to do or work as is taught below in the coupling to the outside in the recital

The fifth: When you stand as before and go up as before into the thrust and then if the opponent mounts your sword from the crooked lodging from the right side, then if they will work to the right side, swiftly enter into the war from behind with the thrust. But if they work to the left, then wind crooked against them against their sword and stand still. War to their head. Or, if you do not wish to wind, then keep against them, stay using the after.

Work from the third stance, The speaking window, using the after

The first play: When you stand as in the third stance as above in the speaking window, if someone then rushes in with force with their act of parrying like with the window or sword crossed over and looks through the arms, then mount gently. Then if they will continue to work wherever they will go, then pursue them with the war, etc. [the war] goes from both sides. Also, if the war comes from their left side, they need to rush in crooked.

The second: When you stand in the speaking window as before and the opponent will wait upon you with a descending cut and in that throw in the point, etc. Then mount them again long. If they will again continue to work, then pursue them with the war as before. But if they abscond, then you can completely double. It does not go well to the other, left side.

The third: When you stand as before and the opponent stands in the cockeyed cut or change on their right side and rises up and intends to strike your sword away in the weak, then you make a sudden withdrawal right back around and strike them crooked upon their right side. War if it is necessary to do. The sudden withdrawing and warring go to both sides. You can also double and mutate wherever they suddenly withdraw when it makes sense.

The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent will carry off your sword in their rising from the crooked lodging as before, then suddenly withdraw again as before. War if it is necessary to do. The sudden withdrawing and war goes to both sides. You can again double and mutate them if they suddenly rectract.

The fifth: When you stand as before in the speaking window and the opponent will initiate a strike from their right side with a descending cut to your left opening and make a sudden withdrawal or sudden switch to your right, then, Indes, pursue them with the crook to their head, etc. War if it is necessary. On the other side: parry long or crooked, war.

Work from the fourth stance, Mounting crooked using the after.

The first: When you stand in the crooked lodging to your left side, then if the opponent means to seek the openings of your right side with thrusts from the ox[56], or else strikes; then rise up against them and displace them on their sword well out over their hands with a forward step and await their work and war. Then if they will overthrow you with force, let go so that you come to the war or strike or work inward in the crook and lay upon their neck.

The second: When you stand as before and the opponent from either their strike or thrust makes a sudden withdrawal to your left side, then Indes rush in swiftly with the lower slice into their arm well into the air. Wherever they will subsequently be lifted, then pursue them with the war.

The third: When you stand as before and the opponent strikes at you with a free descending cut from their right side, then step in deeply toward the opponent and from the crooked lodging, displace them fully from behind. Then if they over throw your sword, then let it go and strike and war.

The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent will act as if they will make a descending cut and suddenly withdraws and will strike you on your left side, then swiftly fall into your displacement or rise into the lower slice. War.

The fifth: When you stand as before and the opponent also opposes you in the crooked lodging on their right side and they rise and intends to strike you crooked to your right side, then make a simple displacement, etc and await the war. You can completely disengage well in that as well, etc. War if it is necessary.

Item. Whenever one does not find the opponent when they suddenly withdraw, one should fall into the lower slice.

Work from the fifth

The first: When you stand in the crooked lodging upon your right side and the opponent counters you on their right and means to strike you with a descending cut, then displace with crooked hands and if they then do not throw you right up over, let go again and strike crooked to their right. war.

The second: When you stand in the crooked lodging upon your right side as before and the opponent again makes a descending cut against you from their right, withdraws suddenly and strikes to your right, then Indes, work swiftly against them crooked with the lower slice again, etc. War. It is like the other one yet on the opposite side.

The third: When you stand on the right as before and the opponent rushes in from their right side with the window up from below; then, again, displace them and war.

The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent rushes in again as before and from that makes a sudden withdrawal and will strike to your right side, then apply the crooked slice against them again in from below. War.

The fifth: When you stand as before on the right and the opponent is also in the crooked lodging off their right like you, then move toward them against their sword so that you come into the coupling to the outside and wind in toward them in the crook and war. You can also completely wait upon their work. Then if they will go up, then counter them with your point, so that they run onto your point.

Work from the sixth stance Crooked cut out forward using the after

The first: When you stand in the crooked cut out forward with the point upon the ground, the left foot forward and the opponent will initiate a strike with a descending cut from their right, then throw the point well out over onto their hands. Then if they will lever you up with force, lay you sword crooked upon their neck and slice yourself away from them or, during their overpowering, let it go around into a strike to their left. War.

The second: When you stand as before and the opponent will thrust out of ox[57] from their left side, then, again, throw your point upon their hands as before. War if they they throw you right over, etc, as before, but if they thrust from the right, then crook against them. but if they suddenly withdraw durqing their thrust and make a strike from the left shoulder, then you slice up crooked into their arm.

The third: When you stand as before in the crooked cut and the opponent is again in ox[58] upon their left side and from ox[59] makes a sudden withdrawal and will strike you on your left, then Indes make the open lower slice from their right side, if they suddenly withdraw, then slice crooked like above.

The fourth: When you stand as before and the opponent will strike or mount from their right side from the crooked lodging, then draw up your sword from your left side right around to your right shoulder with a step and strike into them on their left side to their head. War crooked with the short edge or else if you will not do these, then go up against their sword from the crooked cut opposing them with open arms and displace them and wind the point into their face, so that you immediately come together in the part cut or in the roof or fool[60] and thrust or go in straight. Crook atop it if it is closer.

The fifth: When you stand as before in the crooked cut and the opponent stands in the coupling to the outside, then also go up against them in the coupling to the outside. Thereafter: work, etc. Or if they go up into the thrust, then you go up in the thrust, work or wind in, etc.

Work from the seventh stance Is the plow using the after

The first: When you stand in the plow[61] with the right foot forward and the opponent will rush upon you with their sword with strike or thrust, then go straight up and displace them, step forward, war, etc. It also happens in the same way using the displacement when they rush from their right side. War, etc.

The second: When you stand as before in the plow[62] and the opponent mounts atop your sword from their left using the crosswise cut, then remain on their sword and go up with them into the war, etc.

Do it in this way as well when the opponent mounts atop you using the crosswise cut from their right side. Execute the disengaging, if you wish. If they will mount or suddenly withdraw in the disengaging, make a strike into their side according to the work.

The third: When you stand as before and the opponent will thrust out of [63] from their right side to your right and, from that, makes a sudden withdrawal and will strike you on your left side, then make the open lower slice into their arm. War.

But if you do not wish to slice, then mutate. But if the opponent is again on the right, then double if you do not wish to slice, but rather wish to break and strike. But if they will thrust from their left side and not suddenly withdraw, then wind in crooked against them, etc. You can also suddenly withdraw and strike in your rising up or displacing when they thrust at you, etc. War.

  1. avow, legally promise
  2. possibly: wages
  3. Zeck: a biting insect, ie: a tick.
  4. Plow
  5. Ox
  6. Ox
  7. Ox
  8. videlicet: namely; to wit
  9. Fool
  10. Plow
  11. Ox
  12. Fool
  13. paper is damaged. only the letters 'ne' remain. There's enough room for two or three letters
  14. Ox
  15. Ox
  16. Ox
  17. Plow
  18. Fool
  19. Ox
  20. Ox
  21. Ox
  22. Plow
  23. Fool
  24. Ox
  25. Plow
  26. Fool
  27. Ox
  28. Fool
  29. Plow
  30. Fool
  31. Plow
  32. Plow
  33. Fool
  34. Ox
  35. Ox
  36. Ox
  37. Plow
  38. Fool
  39. rappen: to gather, to snatch, to seize
  40. Fool
  41. Ox
  42. Fool
  43. Ox
  44. Plow
  45. marginalia: 'ma?es' => bad
  46. Fool
  47. Plow
  48. Plow
  49. Plow
  50. Plow
  51. Fool
  52. Ox
  53. Ox
  54. Plow
  55. Plow
  56. Plow
  57. Plow
  58. Plow
  59. Plow
  60. Ox
  61. Fool
  62. Fool
  63. Plow