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And thrust. If they see it, take it again[sic]<ref>Rostock: 'nider' => 'down'</ref>
 
And thrust. If they see it, take it again[sic]<ref>Rostock: 'nider' => 'down'</ref>
  
Gloss. When you cut in with the wrath-cut, if the opponent parries it and remains strong against the sword during that, then be strong again against them against their sword and rise up with the strong of your sword into the weak of their sword and wind your hilt forwards in front of your head against their sword and then stab them in the face from above.
+
Gloss. When you cut in with the wrath-cut, if the opponent parries it and remains strong against the sword with it, then be strong again against them against their sword and rise up with the strong of your sword into the weak of their sword and wind your hilt forwards in front of your head against their sword and then stab them in the face from above.
  
 
Yet another play from the wrath-cut
 
Yet another play from the wrath-cut
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Above, will be exposed below.
 
Above, will be exposed below.
  
Gloss. This is what you shall quite precisely note when one with a cut or with a thrust or otherwise binds against your sword: whether they are soft or hard upon the sword. And when you have sensed this, you shall know Indes which is the best: whether you rush<ref>Rostock: has "arbaiten(to work)" instead of "hurten"</ref> upon them with the before or with the after. But during that you shall allow yourself to be without hurry, not too rushed by the war. For the war is nothing other than the windings upon the sword.
+
Gloss. This is what you shall quite precisely note when one with a cut or with a thrust or otherwise binds against your sword: whether they are soft or hard upon the sword. And when you have sensed this, you shall know Indes which is the best: whether you rush<ref>Rostock: has "arbaiten(to work)" instead of "hurten"</ref> upon them with the before or with the after. But you shall not allow yourself to be too hasty with your war with your onrush. For the war is nothing other than the windings upon the sword.
  
 
Another. Conduct the war like this: When you cut in with the wrath-cut, then as soon as the opponent parries, rise sufficiently up with your arms and twist your point into the upper opening. Then if they parry the thrust, keep staying in the winding and stab the lower opening with your point. Then if they chase the sword further by parrying, then pass through below their sword with your point and hang your point in from above into the other opening of their right side. In this way they become ashamed above and below if you can otherwise conduct the passage correctly.
 
Another. Conduct the war like this: When you cut in with the wrath-cut, then as soon as the opponent parries, rise sufficiently up with your arms and twist your point into the upper opening. Then if they parry the thrust, keep staying in the winding and stab the lower opening with your point. Then if they chase the sword further by parrying, then pass through below their sword with your point and hang your point in from above into the other opening of their right side. In this way they become ashamed above and below if you can otherwise conduct the passage correctly.
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In all winding
 
In all winding
 
Learn to properly find cut, thrust.
 
Learn to properly find cut, thrust.
You shall also, with consideration,
+
You shall also with that gauge,
 
cut, thrust or slice
 
cut, thrust or slice
 
In all encounters
 
In all encounters
 
Of the masters, if you wish to dishonor them.
 
Of the masters, if you wish to dishonor them.
  
Gloss. This is how you shall properly find cut, thrust and slice in all windings. So when you wind, you shall immediately consider which of the three is best to conduct<ref> Rostock adds: "der heúe, oder stich, od shnit" </ref>. So that you do not cut when you should thrust, and not slice when you should cut, and should not thrust when you should slice. And note when someone parries the one, that you hit them with the other. So if one parries your thrust, then conduct the cut. If someone rushes in, then conduct the under-slice into their arm. Note [this] in all collisions and bindings of the sword, if you wish to confound the masters that sets themelves against you.
+
Gloss. This is how you shall properly find cut, thrust and slice in all windings. So when you wind, you shall immediately gauge which of the three is best to conduct<ref> Rostock adds: "der heúe, oder stich, od shnit" </ref>. So that you do not cut when you should thrust, and not slice when you should cut, and should not thrust when you should slice. And note when someone parries the one, that you hit them with the other. So if one parries your thrust, then conduct the cut. If someone rushes in, then conduct the under-slice into their arm. Note [this] in all collisions and bindings of the sword, if you wish to confound the masters that sets themelves against you.
  
 
About the four openings
 
About the four openings
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Yet another play from the failer
 
Yet another play from the failer
 
Double the failer
 
Double the failer
If one hits then make the slice with [it]
+
If they make contact, make the slice with it
  
 
Glossa. Note this is called the double failer. For the reason that one shall conduct a double misdirection in one sortie. Conduct the first like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, spring toward them with your right foot and act as if you will strike at their head with a cross strike to their left side and snatch your strike away hitting their head on their right side.
 
Glossa. Note this is called the double failer. For the reason that one shall conduct a double misdirection in one sortie. Conduct the first like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, spring toward them with your right foot and act as if you will strike at their head with a cross strike to their left side and snatch your strike away hitting their head on their right side.
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Disengaging defeats them
 
Disengaging defeats them
  
Gloss. Note this is a lesson for when you shall cock an eye slyly and quite precisely see whether the opponent fences short against you. You shall recognize it by this: When the opponent initiates a cut and their arms do not extend long during that cut, cut as well and in the cut pass through below their sword with your point and wind your hilt over your head to your right side and stab them in the face as is pictured just below.
+
Gloss. Note this is a lesson for when you shall cock an eye slyly and quite precisely see whether the opponent fences short against you. You shall recognize it by this: When the opponent initiates a cut and their arms do not extend long with their cut, cut as well and in the cut pass through below their sword with your point and wind your hilt over your head to your right side and stab them in the face as is pictured just below.
  
 
[Glasgow]
 
[Glasgow]
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And take the neck without fear.
 
And take the neck without fear.
  
Gloss. Note the cockeyed cut breaks the long point and conduct it like this: When the opponent stands against you and holds their point against your face or breast from extended arms, stand with your left foot forward and with your face, cock an eye slyly at their point and act as if you wish to cut to their point and cut strongly upon their sword with the short edge and during that shoot the point long to their neck with an advance of the right foot.
+
Gloss. Note the cockeyed cut breaks the long point and conduct it like this: When the opponent stands against you and holds their point against your face or breast from extended arms, stand with your left foot forward and with your face, cock an eye slyly at their point and act as if you wish to cut to their point and cut strongly upon their sword with the short edge and with that shoot the point long to their neck with an advance of the right foot.
  
 
Yet another play from the cockeyed cut
 
Yet another play from the cockeyed cut
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Withdraw it with slicing.
 
Withdraw it with slicing.
  
Gloss. Note when the opponent parries the part cut or otherwise another cut with the crown and uses that to rush in, take the slice under their hands into their arm and press firmly upwards, so that the crown is broken again and turn your sword from the lower slice into the upper slice and withdraw yourself during that.
+
Gloss. Note when the opponent parries the part cut or otherwise another cut with the crown and uses that to rush in, take the slice under their hands into their arm and press firmly upwards, so that the crown is broken again and turn your sword from the lower slice into the upper slice and withdraw yourself with it.
  
 
These are the four positions
 
These are the four positions
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Two couplings to the outside
 
Two couplings to the outside
 
Your work begins thereafter
 
Your work begins thereafter
Inspecting the application
+
And gauge the application
 
Whether they are soft or hard
 
Whether they are soft or hard
  
Gloss. Note the two couplings to the ouside are the two racings behind against the sword. Conduct it like this: When the opponent overcommits themselves attacking before you, pursue them. Then if the opponent parries that, stay with your sword against theirs and recognize whether they are soft or hard with their application. Then if the opponent lifts your sword upwards with theirs using strength, extend your sword over theirs to the outside and thrust to their lower opening.
+
Gloss. Note the two couplings to the ouside are the two racings behind against the sword. Conduct it like this: When the opponent overcommits themselves attacking before you, pursue them. Then if the opponent parries that, stay with your sword against theirs and guage whether they are soft or hard with their application. Then if the opponent lifts your sword upwards with theirs using strength, extend your sword over theirs to the outside and thrust to their lower opening.
  
 
The other coupling to the outside
 
The other coupling to the outside
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Or press hard twice.
 
Or press hard twice.
  
Gloss. This is for when the opponent targets the lower openings with a cut or with a thrust in the onset, you shall not parry them, rather await, such that you overrun them with a cut in at the head from above or lodge the point from above, so that they become shamed by you because all descending cuts and all pins from above reach over the lower.
+
Gloss. This is for when the opponent targets the lower openings with a cut or with a thrust in the onset, you shall not parry them, rather await, such that you overrun them with a cut in at the head from above or lodge the point from above, so that they become shamed by you because all descending cuts and all logdings against from above reach over the lower.
  
 
Another. How one shall displace cuts and thrusts
 
Another. How one shall displace cuts and thrusts
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Grab with the pommel if you wish to grapple.
 
Grab with the pommel if you wish to grapple.
 
Whoever strengthens against you,
 
Whoever strengthens against you,
Remember to rush through during that.
+
Remember to rush through with it.
  
 
Gloss. Note this is for when you or your opponent rushes in on the other. Then if the opponent rises up with their arms and wishes to overwhelm you with strength from above, then rise up with your arms as well and hold your sword over your head with your left hand by the pommel and allow the blade to hang back over your back<ref>Rostock: "and allow the blade to hang down behind you"</ref> and rush through under their right arm with your head and spring behind their right foot with your right and during the spring, pass all the way around the front of their body with your right arm and clasp them against your right hip like this and throw them in front of you.
 
Gloss. Note this is for when you or your opponent rushes in on the other. Then if the opponent rises up with their arms and wishes to overwhelm you with strength from above, then rise up with your arms as well and hold your sword over your head with your left hand by the pommel and allow the blade to hang back over your back<ref>Rostock: "and allow the blade to hang down behind you"</ref> and rush through under their right arm with your head and spring behind their right foot with your right and during the spring, pass all the way around the front of their body with your right arm and clasp them against your right hip like this and throw them in front of you.
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About cutting off
 
About cutting off
 
Cut off the hard ones
 
Cut off the hard ones
From below in both applications
+
From below in both paths
 
Four are the slices
 
Four are the slices
Two from below, two from above together.
+
With two from below, two from above.
  
 
Gloss. Note there are four slices. Conduct the first like this: when the opponent rushes in and rises high up with their arms and will overpower you from above with strength toward your left side, twist your sword and drop under their hilt with crossed hands into their arms with your long edge and press upward using the slice or if the opponent rushes in toward your right side, drop<ref>Glasgow: traverse</ref> into their arms using the short edge and press upwards as before.
 
Gloss. Note there are four slices. Conduct the first like this: when the opponent rushes in and rises high up with their arms and will overpower you from above with strength toward your left side, twist your sword and drop under their hilt with crossed hands into their arms with your long edge and press upward using the slice or if the opponent rushes in toward your right side, drop<ref>Glasgow: traverse</ref> into their arms using the short edge and press upwards as before.
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Two hangings emerge
 
Two hangings emerge
 
From the ground out of each hand
 
From the ground out of each hand
In every foray
+
In every application
 
Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard
 
Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard
  
Gloss. Note there are hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up with them and hang your point down in their face from above and in these hangings you shall swiftly conduct all forays [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you perceive in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it.
+
Gloss. Note there are hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up with them and hang your point down in their face from above and in these hangings you shall swiftly conduct all applications [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you perceive in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it.
  
 
[Rostock]
 
[Rostock]
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Two hangings emerge
 
Two hangings emerge
 
From the ground out of each hand
 
From the ground out of each hand
In every foray
+
In every application
 
Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard
 
Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard
  
Gloss. Note there are two hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up as well and hang your point down from above in their face and in these two hangings you shall swiftly conduct all forays [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you either perceive or recognize in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it. These hangings from both sides are the plows from both sides.
+
Gloss. Note there are two hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up as well and hang your point down from above in their face and in these two hangings you shall swiftly conduct all applications [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you either perceive or recognize in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it. These hangings from both sides are the plows from both sides.
  
 
[Dresden]
 
[Dresden]
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From both sides
 
From both sides
 
Learn eight windings with steps
 
Learn eight windings with steps
And inspect these applications
+
And gauge these applications
 
Nothing more than soft or hard
 
Nothing more than soft or hard
  
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Another. Now you shall know
 
Another. Now you shall know
  
That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings with all applications as from the upper. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut or slice and one thrust in particular from each winding. And these are called the three wounders. Therefore one can and shall execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, so that with each wounder, you consider their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play into the winding that is called for. If you do not do this, all windings become a means to be struck.
+
That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings with all applications as from the upper. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut or slice and one thrust in particular from each winding. And these are called the three wounders. Therefore one can and shall execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, so that with each wounder, you gauge their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play into the winding that is called for. If you do not do this, all windings become a means to be struck.
  
 
[Glasgow]
 
[Glasgow]
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Another. Now you shall know
 
Another. Now you shall know
  
That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings alongside all applications as from the upper bindings. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut, one slice, one thrust in particular from each winding. These are called the three wounders. From those one can execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, in such a way that you step in with each winding and during that consider their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play that is called for in that winding. Whenever you do not do this, you will become struck by all windings.
+
That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings alongside all applications as from the upper bindings. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut, one slice, one thrust in particular from each winding. These are called the three wounders. From those one can execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, in such a way that you step in with each winding and with that consider their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play that is called for in that winding. Whenever you do not do this, you will become struck by all windings.

Latest revision as of 15:13, 26 June 2021

Here begins the interpretation of the recital. In this, the knightly art of the long sword lay written; which Johannes Liechtenauer, may God be merciful to him, who was known to be a high master of the art, had composed and created. he had allowed it to be written in veiled and misleading words, for the reason that the art should not become common. And Master Sigmund ein Ringeck, fencing master to the highborn prince and noble Lord Albrecht, Pfalzgraf of Rhein and Herzog of Bavaria had these very veiled and misleading words glossed and interpreted as lay written [Rostock adds: and pictured] here in this little book, so that any fencer that can otherwise fight can fully absorb and understand it.

The foreward of the recital. Young knight learn To have love for god, honor women So that you expand your honor. Practice Knighthood and learn Art that decorates you And in war exalts you with honor. Use the good grips of wrestling, Lance, spear, sword, and messer Like a man And render them useless in other's hands. Attack suddenly and storm in, Keep rolling, engage or let pass. Thus the intellectuals hate him, Yet this one sees glories. Hold yourself to this: All art has a time and place.[1]

This is the text of many good common lessons of the long sword

If you wish to examine the art, Go left and right with cutting And left with right That is, if you desire to fence strongly.

Gloss. Note this is the first lesson of the long sword: In which you shall learn to make the cuts properly from both sides, that is, if you otherwise wish to fence strongly and correctly. Look at it like this: When you wish to cut from the right side, then see to it that your left foot stands forward. If you then make a descending cut from the right side, then support the cut with the right foot. If you do not do that, then the cut is spurious and incorrect, because your right foot remains behind. Therefore the cut is too short and can not posses its correct path downward to the correct other side in front of the left foot.

The same when you cut from the left side and [you] do not support the cut with the left foot. Thus the cut is also spurious. Therefore make sure from whichever side you cut, that you support the cut with the same sided foot, so that you can conduct all your plays with strength and all other cuts shall be hewn like this as well.

Again, the text about a lesson Whoever chases after cuts They permit themselves little opportunity for art. Cut from close proximity whatever you wish No change gets past your shield To the head, to the body Do not omit the stingers[2] With the entire body Fence whatever you desire to conduct with strength.[3]

Gloss. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, you should not watch nor await their cut as they conduct it against you. Because all fencers that look out and wait upon the opponent's cut and wish to do nothing else than parry, they allow themelves little opportunity from art because they often become struck with it.

Another. You shall note that everything that you wish to fence with, conduct that with the entire strength of the body and with that, cut in from close at the head and at the body, so they can not disengage in front of your point and with that cut, in the binding of the swords, you shall not omit the stingers to the nearest opening. That will be delineated hereafter in the five cuts and in other plays.

Again, a lesson. Hear what is bad. Do not fence lefty from above if you are a righty And if you are lefty, In the right [you] are also severely hindered.

Note the gloss. The lesson hits upon two people, one left and one right. The first cut, understand it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, if you subsequently judge and decide to strike the opponent, then do not hew the first cut from the left side. Because it is weak and with it, cannot not hold fast when one binds strongly against it. Therefore cut [from] the right side, so you may work strongly with art. Whatever you wish. The same is if you are lefty. Then do not cut from the right side as well, because the art is quite awkward [when] a lefty drives from the right side. It is also the same [of] a righty from the left side.

This is the text and learn a lesson about before and after. Before and After, the two things Are the singular origin of the entire art. Weak and strong Indes, note them with this word So that you may learn To work and ward with art. Whoever frightens easily Never learns to fence.

Gloss. Note this is so that you shall fully understand the before and the after before any confrontations. Because the two things have one origin that gives rise to the entire art of fencing.

Look at it like this: The before, this is so that you shall always come forth with a cut or with a thrust to the opponent's opening the moment before they do the same to you so that they must parry you. Then work swiftly with your sword in front of you from one opening to the other within the parry. So they can not come with their plays before your work. But if they rush in on you, then come before with the wrestling.

Here note that which is called the after. Note. If you can not come into the before, then wait upon the after. These are the breaks of all plays that they conduct upon you.

Look at it like this: When the opponent comes before such that you must parry them, swiftly work Indes to the nearest opening during the parry, so that you hit them the moment before they accomplish their play. Thus you have seized the before and they remain after. You shall also note in the before and after how you shall work with the word Indes according to the weak and according to the strong of their sword.

The strong of their sword And understand it like this: From the hilt of the sword up until the middle of the blade the sword has its strength. With that you may resist[4] when someone binds you against it. And farther from the middle up until the point, it has it's weak which can not cannot resist. And when you understand these things properly, you can correctly work with art and with that protect yourself and furthermore teach princes and lords so that they may properly remain steadfast using the same art in in play and in earnest, but if you frighten easily, you should not learn the art of fencing because a heart drained of blood does no good when it becomes rattled by any art.

The text of the five cuts Learn five cuts From the right hand, whoever invests in these, We swear to them To gladly pay them back in skills.

Note the recital sets down five concealed cuts. Many masters of the sword do not know to say that you should not learn to make other cuts, when from the right side, against those that position themelves against you in defence. And if you select one cut from the five cuts, then one can connect during the first strike. Whoever can break that without their harm, will be avowed by the masters of the recital such that their art shall become better rewarded than any other fencer that cannot fence against these five cuts. And how you shall hew the five cuts, you find that in the same five cuts written hereafter.

This is the text of the plays of the recital Wrathcut Crook and Cross, If the Eye Cocker keeps with the Parter, The Fool parries. Pursuing, Overrunning, places the attack Disengage, Suddenly withdraw, Rush through, cut off, press the hands Tilt and Turn to uncover with Slash, catch, sweep, stab to clash with

Note the gloss. Here the proper principal plays of the art of the long sword are named as each are specifically titled with their names that you can better understand them.

They are seventeen in number and begin with the five cuts Another. Now note the first cut called the wrath-cut The second the crooked cut The third the crosswise cut The fourth the cockeyed cut The fifth the scalp-cut

The sixth this is the four guards The seventh the four parries The eighth Pursuing The ninth the overrunnings The tenth the displacements The eleventh disengaging The twelfth yanking back The thirteenth the rush throughs The fourteenth the cut offs The fifteenth the hand presses The sixteenth the hangings The seventeenth this is the winds

And how you shall uncover with the hanging and winding and how you shall conduct all the aforenamed plays, you find that all written hereafter.

This is the wrath-cut with it's plays

Whoever cuts at you from above, The wrath-cut point threatens them

Gloss. Look at it like this: When one cuts in from above from their right side, you also cut in a wrath-cut strongly from your right shoulder with them using your long edge. If they are subsequently soft against the sword, then shoot the point in forward long at their face and threaten to stab them.

Yet another play from the wrath-cut If they become aware of it, Then take off above without concern

Gloss. When you shoot the point in during the wrath-cut, then if they become aware of the point and parry the thrust with strength, then drag your sword upwards up off away from theirs and cut in again at their head from above on the other side against their sword.

Yet another play from the wrath-cut Be strong in turn And thrust. If they see it, take it again[sic][5]

Gloss. When you cut in with the wrath-cut, if the opponent parries it and remains strong against the sword with it, then be strong again against them against their sword and rise up with the strong of your sword into the weak of their sword and wind your hilt forwards in front of your head against their sword and then stab them in the face from above.

Yet another play from the wrath-cut When you thrust-in from above during the winding, as was before, if the opponent then rises up with their hands and parries the high thrust with their hilt, then remain standing like that in the winding and set the point down between their arms and the breast.

A break against the taking off Note. When you bind with someone strongly against their sword, then if they drag their sword upwards up off away from your sword and cuts in again from above at your head on the other side against your sword to your head, then bind [6]strongly with the long edge from high towards their head.

Here note a good lesson. Note this precisely: Cut, thrust, guard; soft or hard, Indes and before after[sic][7] Without rush, your war is not hasty.[8] Whoever hunts the war Above, will be exposed below.

Gloss. This is what you shall quite precisely note when one with a cut or with a thrust or otherwise binds against your sword: whether they are soft or hard upon the sword. And when you have sensed this, you shall know Indes which is the best: whether you rush[9] upon them with the before or with the after. But you shall not allow yourself to be too hasty with your war with your onrush. For the war is nothing other than the windings upon the sword.

Another. Conduct the war like this: When you cut in with the wrath-cut, then as soon as the opponent parries, rise sufficiently up with your arms and twist your point into the upper opening. Then if they parry the thrust, keep staying in the winding and stab the lower opening with your point. Then if they chase the sword further by parrying, then pass through below their sword with your point and hang your point in from above into the other opening of their right side. In this way they become ashamed above and below if you can otherwise conduct the passage correctly.

How one shall properly find cuts and thrusts in all windings In all winding Learn to properly find cut, thrust. You shall also with that gauge, cut, thrust or slice In all encounters Of the masters, if you wish to dishonor them.

Gloss. This is how you shall properly find cut, thrust and slice in all windings. So when you wind, you shall immediately gauge which of the three is best to conduct[10]. So that you do not cut when you should thrust, and not slice when you should cut, and should not thrust when you should slice. And note when someone parries the one, that you hit them with the other. So if one parries your thrust, then conduct the cut. If someone rushes in, then conduct the under-slice into their arm. Note [this] in all collisions and bindings of the sword, if you wish to confound the masters that sets themelves against you.

About the four openings Know the four openings Take target so that you strike wisely Without any fear Without doubt however they are situated.

Gloss. You shall here note the four openings on the opponent that you should always fence to. The first opening is the right side, the second is the left side above the girdle of the opponent. The other two are also the right and the left sides below the girdle. Precisely observe the openings in the onset with which they uncover themelves against you. Artfully target these without danger with the shooting in of the long point, with pursuing and otherwise with all techniques and and do not heed them as they bare against you with their techniques. Thus, you fence wisely and from this strike strikes that are excellent and with this do not allow them to come to their plays.

The text and the gloss about the doubling and about the mutating. How they break the four openings. If you wish estimate for yourself how To artfully break the four openings Double above Mutate right below I say to you truthfully No one defends themelves without danger If you have properly understood this, They can scarcely come to blows, etc.

Gloss. This is for when you wish to set yourself up against the opponent in such a way that you will break the four openings with art. Conduct the doubling to the upper openings against the strong of their sword and the mutating to the other openings. For I say to you truthfully, that they cannot defend themelves from that and can neither come to strikes nor to thrusts.

The doubling Another. When you cut in from above with the wrath cut or otherwise, if the opponent parries you with strength, then 'Indes' shove your sword's pommel under your right arm with your left hand and against their sword with crossed hands, strike the opponent across their mouth from behind their sword's blade between the sword and the opponent or else strike them on their head with this play.

Note the mutating Conduct the mutating like this: When you bind them against their sword with a descending cut or otherwise, then wind the short edge against their sword and rise sufficiently up with your arms and hang your sword's blade over their sword to the outside and thrust to their lower opening. This works on both sides.

The crooked cut with it's plays

Crook up swiftly Throw the point onto the hands

Gloss. This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands and conduct the play like this: When the opponent cuts at an opening from your right side with either rising or descending cuts, spring away from their cut with your right foot, all the way to their left side, facing them and strike them with crossed arms with the point upon the hands. And also conduct this play against them when they stand against you in the guard of the ox.

Yet another play from the crooked cut Crook. Whoever fully commits Disrupts many cuts with stepping.

Gloss. This is how you shall displace the descending cut with the crooked cut. Conduct the play like this: When the opponent cuts in from above from their right side to the opening, step to their left side with your right foot and fall across their sword in the barrier guard with your point to the ground. Conduct this on both sides. You can also strike them on the head from the displacement.

Yet another play from the crooked cut. Hew crooked to the flats of The masters if you wish to weaken them.

Gloss. This is for when you wish to weaken a master. Conduct the play like this: When the opponent cuts in from their right side, cut crooked against their cut atop their sword with crossed hands.

Yet another play from the crooked cut

 When it sparks above
 So stand aside, that I will laud.

Gloss. This is for when you cut atop the opponent's sword with the crooked cut, strike immediately back up from their sword with your short edge or wind the short edge against their sword during the crooked cut and thrust into their breast

Yet another play from the crooked cut Don't crook, cut short Disengage and with that expose them

Gloss. This is for when the opponent wishes to cut in from above from their right shoulder. So you act as if you will bind against their sword with the crooked cut and shorten and pass through under their sword with your point and wind your hilt over your head to your right side and thrust into their face.

Note how one shall break the crooked cut. Whoever foils you crooked, The noble war confounds them That they do not thruthfully knows Where they are without danger.

Gloss. This is for when you initiate a cut from your right side, from above or below. Then if the opponent cuts crooked onto your sword also from their right side with crossed arms and displaces your cut with it, then remain with the your sword strongly against theirs and shoot the point in long into their breast under their sword.

Another break for the crooked cut Note. When you cut in from above from your right side, then if the opponent cuts crooked with crossed arms atop your sword from their right side as well and with that presses you down to the ground, then wind towards your right side and rise all the way up over your head with your arms and set your point against their breast from above.

Gloss. If they parry this, then remain standing as are you are with your hilt in front of your head and work swiftly with your point from one opening to the other. This is called the noble war. With it you confound the opponent so completely that they do not know where they shall keep away from you with certainty.

The crosswise cut with it's plays

The cross seizes Whatever arrives from the roof

Gloss. Note the crosswise cut breaks all cuts that will have been hewn from above down. Conduct the cut like this:[11]When the opponent cuts in at your head from above, spring away from their cut to their left side with your right foot, facing them and in your springing turn your sword forwards with the hilt high in front of your head such that your thumb comes under and strike them with the short edge to their left side such that you catch their cut in your hilt and hit them in the head.

A play from the crosswise cut

Cross with the strong With that note the work

Gloss. This is how you shall work from the crosswise cut using the strong and do it like this: When you initiate a cut using the crosswise cut, remember that you wind against the strong of their sword with yours.[12] then if the opponent holds it strongly at bay, then from against their sword strike them on their head with crossed arms from behind their sword's edge as is made here or slice them across their mouth with this play.

Yet another play from the crosswise cut Note. When you bind against their sword with the strong of your sword from the crosswise cut, then if the opponent holds it strongly at bay,[13], then shove their sword away from you, down to your right side using your hilt and immediately strike back around with the crosswise cut at their head to their right side.

Yet another play from the crosswise cut Another. When you bind against their sword with the crosswise cut, then if they are weak against the sword, lay the short edge against their neck on their right side and spring behind their left foot with your right and drag them over it with your sword.

Another play Another. When you bind against their sword with the crosswise cut, if they are subsequently weak against the sword, then press their sword down with your crosswise cut and position your short edge out forward against their neck from behind their arms.

[Glasgow]

Here note the break against the upper crosswise cut Note. When you bind the opponent from your right side with a descending cut or otherwise against their sword, then if they strike around to the other side using the crosswise cut, then come forth under their sword against their neck with the crosswise cut as well, as is pictured hereafter next to this, such that they strike themelves the same way with your sword.

Here note the break against the low cross strike Note when you bind against their sword from your right side, then if the opponent strikes from the sword around to the other[14] opening of your right side using the crosswise cut, then remain with your hilt above your head and turn your sword's edge downward against their cut and thrust to their lower opening, as is pictured hereafter next to this.

[Dresden]

How one shall strike with the cross to the four openings Cross to the plow Yoke hard to the ox

Gloss. This is how you shall strike to the four openings in one entry using the crosswise cut. Look at it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, note: when it is suitable, spring toward them and strike them to the lower opening of their left side with the crosswise cut. This is called striking to the plow.

Yet another play from the crosswise cut When you have struck to the lower opening with the crosswise cut, immediately strike up to the other side at their head in from above using the crosswise cut. This is called sriking to the ox and then swiftly strike further, again and again one cross strike to the ox and the another to the plow crosswise from one side to the other and with this make a descending cut in from above at their head and with that withdraw yourself.

Whoever crosses themelves well Threatens the head by springing.

Gloss. This is so that you are to spring sufficiently to the side of the opponent with each and every cross strike so that if you wish to strike them, you can fully connect with their head and be aware that in your springing, you are to be fully covered up above with your hilt in front of your head.

[Glasgow]

This is the text and the gloss of yet another play from the crosswise cut and is called the failer.[15]

Whoever credibly executes the failer They wound according to desire from below

Gloss. Note all fencers that like to parry will be mislead and struck by the failer. Conduct the play like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, act as if you will strike at their head with a free crosswise cut on their left side and snatch your sword away during the cut and strike to the lower opening of their right side using the crosswise cut, as is pictured just after to this. In this way the opponent is triggered and struck below according to desire.

[Dresden]

Yet another play from the crosswise cut and this is called the inverter

The inverter constrains. The one who slips across also wrestles with it. Take the elbow surely Spring into their stance.

Gloss. Note you shall conduct this play like so: When you bind against the opponent's sword with a rising or descending cut, invert your sword such that your thumb comes under and thrust at their face from above. In this way, you constrain them such that they must parry and in their act of parrying, seize their right elbow with your left hand and spring in front of their right foot with your left and shove them over it. Or rush through using the inverter and wrestle as you will find heareafter in the slipping through.

Yet another play from the failer Double the failer If they make contact, make the slice with it

Glossa. Note this is called the double failer. For the reason that one shall conduct a double misdirection in one sortie. Conduct the first like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, spring toward them with your right foot and act as if you will strike at their head with a cross strike to their left side and snatch your strike away hitting their head on their right side.

Yet another play from the failer

Double further Step in left and do not be lazy

Gloss. This is for when you have struck at the opponent's head on their right side with your first misdirection as was just pictured. Then take the slice into their arms from below[16] and immediately strike back around to the right side of their head and with that[17] from crossed arms pass over their sword with the short edge and spring left, that is to your left side and slice them with the long edge through the jaw.

The cockeyed cut with it's plays

The cockeyed cut breaks inside Whatever the buffalo strikes or thrusts Whoever threatens to change, The cockeyed cut robs them of it.

Gloss. Note here that the cockeyed cut is a cut that intrudes into the cuts and thrusts of a buffalo, which acquire dominance with power. Conduct the cut like this: When the opponent cuts in from above from their right side, then you also cut from your right against their cut with upright arms using the short edge into the weak of their sword and strike them on their right shoulder, in this way you strike and parry as one and hit them during the cut. If they disengage, shoot long into their breast during the cut and cut in this way when they stand against you in the guard of the plow or when they will thrust at you from below.

Yet another play from the cockeyed cut

Cock an eye, If they short change you, Disengaging defeats them

Gloss. Note this is a lesson for when you shall cock an eye slyly and quite precisely see whether the opponent fences short against you. You shall recognize it by this: When the opponent initiates a cut and their arms do not extend long with their cut, cut as well and in the cut pass through below their sword with your point and wind your hilt over your head to your right side and stab them in the face as is pictured just below.

[Glasgow]

Another. All fencers, which fence short, be it from the ox or from the plow, and with all windings in front of the opponent, freely disengage them from both your cuts and from your thrusts with the long point. With this you secure them against your sword such that they must allow you to come to work and to strike them.

[Dresden]

Yet another play from the cockeyed cut

Squint to the point And take the neck without fear.

Gloss. Note the cockeyed cut breaks the long point and conduct it like this: When the opponent stands against you and holds their point against your face or breast from extended arms, stand with your left foot forward and with your face, cock an eye slyly at their point and act as if you wish to cut to their point and cut strongly upon their sword with the short edge and with that shoot the point long to their neck with an advance of the right foot.

Yet another play from the cockeyed cut

Squint to the top of the Head if you wish to ruin the hands.

Gloss. Note when the opponent wishes to cut in from above, cock an eye slyly with your face as if you wish to strike their head and cut against their cut with your short edge and strike them upon their hands from against their sword's blade with your point.

The part cut Is a threat to the face

Here note the part cut is a threat to both the face and to the breast. Conduct it like this: When the opponent stands against you in the guard of the fool, cut down from above, extended from the top of your head, with the long edge, and remain high with your arms during the cut and hang in at their face with your point.

[Rostock] This is the part cut with its plays The part cut is a threat to the face, with its turn, the breast is firmly threatened. Gloss. Note the part cut is conducted like this: cut in with your long edge at the opponent's head down from above from your part. If they parry, then hang your point in with your long edge over their hilt and thrust into their face, as is pictured here.

[Glasgow] Another. If the opponent firmly shoves your point upwards with their hilt, then twist your sword with your hilt high in front of your head, such that the thumb comes below and place the point under their hands upon their breast, as is pictured here.

[Rostock] One other play. What comes from them, the crown takes that away, Slice through the crown, so you break the hard beautifully, press the thrust[18], withdraw it with slicing. Gloss. Note when you cut in from above using the part cut, if they parry hard over their head with their hilt, this parry is called the crown, and they rush in on you with it, then take your lower slice under their hands into their arm, and press firmly upward, so that the crown is broken again.

[Dresden] A play from the part cut With their turn Firmly threatens the breast.

Gloss. This is for when you hang your point in at the opponent's face from above using the part cut. Then if the opponent firmly shoves you upward with their hilt in their act of parrying, spin your sword around high in front of your head using your hilt and set the point against their breast from below.

How the crown breaks the part cut Whatever comes from them, The crown takes that away

Gloss. Note when you cut in from above using the part cut, if the opponent parries high above their head with their hilt, this parrying is called the crown and they rush in on you with it.

How the slice breaks the crown.

Slice through the crown So you break the hard beautifully Press the thrust[19] Withdraw it with slicing.

Gloss. Note when the opponent parries the part cut or otherwise another cut with the crown and uses that to rush in, take the slice under their hands into their arm and press firmly upwards, so that the crown is broken again and turn your sword from the lower slice into the upper slice and withdraw yourself with it.

These are the four positions Four positions alone Defend from those and eshew the common Ox, plow, fool From-the-roof are not dispised by you.

Gloss. This is about how you shall not operate from any other position than from these four that will be named here.

The first guard The ox. Send yourself there like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword in front of your head with your hilt next to your right side and let your point hang against the opponent's face.

The second gaurd The plow. Send yourself there like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword over your knee next to your right side with crossed hands such that your point stands against the opponent's face.

The third guard The fool. Send yourself there like this: Stand with the right foot forwards and hold your sword with your point upon the ground with outstretched arms

The fourth guard From-the-roof. Send yourself there like this: Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword by your right shoulder or hold it over your head with outstretched arms and how you shall fence from these guards, you shall find that written in this book.

These are the four parries that disrupt or break the four guards Four are the parries That also severly disrupt the positions. Guard yourself from parrying If it happens by necessity, it hurts you

Gloss. Note you have heard before that you shall fence from the four positions alone. You should simply know that the four parries are the four cuts as well.

[Glasgow] This is the text and the gloss of the four parries that break the four positions Four are the parries That also severely disrupt the positions. Guard yourself from parrying for two reasons If it happens by necessity, it hurts you

Gloss. Note you have heard before that you shall fence solely from the four positions, so you should also now know that the four parries break the four positions and that the four parries are the four cuts.

[Dresden] The first cut is the crooked cut which breaks the guard of the ox.

The second is the crosswise cut which breaks the guard from-the-roof

The third is the cockeyed cut which breaks the guard of the plow.

The fourth is the part cut which breaks the guard, the fool.

And guard yourself from all parries that bad fencers conduct and note whenever the opponent cuts, you cut as well and when they thrust, thrust as well and how you shall cut and thrust, you find that written in the five cuts and in the displacing

A play against an act of parrying

If you are parried And however it has come to this Hear what I advise Wrench off, cut quickly with haste

Gloss. This is for when you have been parried, however it has come to be. So note if someone parries your descending cut, then in that act of parrying, pass in front of their lead hand with your pommel and wrench downwards and during the wrenching, strike them upon the head with your sword.

Yet another play against an act of parrying Note when you execute a rising cut from the right side, then if the opponent falls upon it with their sword so that you cannot come up with yours, swiftly pass over their sword with your pommel and strike at their head with your long edge by snapping or if they fall upon your sword toward your left side, then strike them with the short edge.

Yet another play against parrying.

Lodge against four regions Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish

Gloss. When you cut in from your right shoulder, if you wish to immediately finish with the opponent, then note when they parry, strike quickly around with the crosswise cut and grasp your sword in the middle of your blade with your left hand and set your point into their face or lodge against them at whichever of the four openings you can best get to.

[Glasgow] This is the text and the gloss of yet another one of the plays against the parry.

Lodge against four regions Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish

Gloss. This is for when you cut in from above from your right shoulder. If you wish to quickly finish with the sword, note when the opponent parries, then immediately strike around using the crosswise cut and grasp your sword in the middle of the blade with your left hand during the crash and set the point into their face as is pictured next or lodge against them at whichever of the four openings you can best get to.

[Dresden] Yet another play against parrying

Another. When you set the point into the opponent's face with the half-sword, if they parry that, jab them in their head with your pommel on their other side or spring behind their left foot with your right and pass around the front of their neck with your pommel to over their right shoulder and drag them over your right leg with it.

About pursuing Learn to pursue Double or slice into the weapon

Gloss: This is so that you shall learn fully about Pursuing, because they are dual. Conduct the first: when the opponent wishes to cut in from above, note the moment they draw up their sword for the strike, pursue that with a cut or with a thrust and hit them in the upper opening before the opponent ever returns with their cut or drop into their arms from above with your long edge and press them away from you with it.

[Rostock] This is about pursuing. Learn to pursue Double or slice into the weapon

Gloss. Note this is so that you shall quite fully learn about Pursuing, and conduct it like this: When the opponent wishes to cut in from above, note the moment they draw up their sword for the strike, pursue them with a cut or with a thrust into the opening, before they ever come down with their cut.

[Dresden] Yet another pursuing Another. When the opponent initiates a cut from above, if the opponent allows their sword to go down to the earth with their cut, pursue them with a cut to their head, before they rise up with their sword or if they will thrust at you, note the moment they draw their sword back to themselves for the thrust, then pursue them and thrust them before they ever complete their thrust.

[Rostock] Or if the opponent cuts down from above and allows their sword to go down to the earth with their cut, then pursue them with a descending cut to their head, before they come up with their sword, so that they are stricken.

About the couplings to the outside Two couplings to the outside Your work begins thereafter And gauge the application Whether they are soft or hard

Gloss. Note the two couplings to the ouside are the two racings behind against the sword. Conduct it like this: When the opponent overcommits themselves attacking before you, pursue them. Then if the opponent parries that, stay with your sword against theirs and guage whether they are soft or hard with their application. Then if the opponent lifts your sword upwards with theirs using strength, extend your sword over theirs to the outside and thrust to their lower opening.

The other coupling to the outside Another. When you fence cautiously from the rising cuts or otherwise from the lower applications, then if the opponent lays over you and winds atop your sword before you come up with it, then remain strong below with your sword against theirs. If they turn it and work to your upper opening, then follow with your sword and in their thrust take weak of their sword with your long edge and press down and stab them in the face.

About the feeling and about the word Indes

Learn the feeling Indes, that word cuts sharply Gloss. This is so that you properly learn the feeling and the word Indes and shall understand that these two things belong together and are the greatest arts of fencing

And understand it like this: When one binds someone against their sword, in that, just as the swords spark together, you shall immediately feel, whether they have bound soft or hard. And as soon as you have perceived that, think of the word, Indes. That is, in that same swift perceiving of the soft and of the hard, you shall work to the nearest opening so that they will be struck before they come to thier senses.

Another. You shall think of the word Indes in all bindings of the sword because Indes doubles, Indes mutates, Indes slips through and Indes takes the slice. Indes wrestles. With Indes, take the sword. Indes puts whatever your heart desires into the art. Indes is a sharp word. Consequently, any fencer that knows nothing of this word, becomes cut. And this word, Indes, is also the key with which every art of fencing becomes unlocked.

Pursuing

Pursue twice, If one hits, make the old slice from it.

Gloss. This is for when the opponent overcommits themselves attacking before you, pursue with a cut to their upper opening. Then if they rise up and bind against your sword from below, then note just as soon as one sword clashes against the other, then fall from their sword across their arms with your long edge and in this way press them away from you or slice from the sword through their jaw. Conduct this on both sides.

About overrunning Whoever hunts below Overrun, then they will be shamed. When it clashes above, Strengthen, This I will praise. Make your work Or press hard twice.

Gloss. This is for when the opponent targets the lower openings with a cut or with a thrust in the onset, you shall not parry them, rather await, such that you overrun them with a cut in at the head from above or lodge the point from above, so that they become shamed by you because all descending cuts and all logdings against from above reach over the lower.

Another. How one shall displace cuts and thrusts

Learn to displace. Skillfully disrupt cut, thrust. Whoever thrusts at you Such that your point hits and their's breaks From both sides You will hit every time, if you step.

Gloss. This is so that you shall learn to displace both cuts and thrusts alike with art such that your point hits them and theirs will be deflected and understand it like this: When someone stands against you and holds their sword as if they will thrust from below, setup in turn against the opponent in the guard of the plow from your right side and give yourself an opening with the left. Then if the opponent thrusts into that opening from below, then wind to your left side against their thrust with your sword and step toward them with your right foot, such that your point hits and their's fails to.

Yet another play about displacing Another. When you setup against the opponent in the guard of the plow from your left side, if they cut to your left side's upper opening, then rise up with your sword and wind against their cut up to your left side, such that the hilt is in front of your head and step toward them with your right foot and stab them in the face as is pictured after this.

About Disengaging

Learn to disengage From both sides stabbing sharply with it Whoever binds upon you Disengaging surely finds the them

Gloss. This is so that you shall learn the disengaging well and conduct it like this: When you cut or thrust in in the initiation of fencing, if the opponent will bind against the sword with either a cut or a parry, then let your point go under their sword and rush through and with that, gravely thrust in on the other side, so that you immediately find the opening of the opponent as is pictured here.

[Glasgow] Another. Then if the opponent becomes aware of the thrust and chases it with a parry, then disengage again to the other side.

Another. Another. If you arrive at your opponent, then advance your left foot and hold the long [sic. point] against their face. Then if the opponent cuts at the sword from above or below and wants to strike it away, allow your point to sink downward and stab them in the other opening of the other side and do this against all cuts.

[Dresden] About the yanking back Tread close in binds, So that yanking back gives good opportunities. Suddenly withdraw. If they engage, suddenly withdraw more. Uncover the work that does them harm. Suddenly withdraw in all engagements If you wish to make a fool of the masters

Gloss. This is for when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, cut in strongly from above, from your right shoulder to their head. Then if they bind you against their sword by parrying or otherwise, then in the bind step close to them and suddenly withdraw away your sword up off from theirs and cut in again from above on the other side at their head. If they parry that for a second time, then strike back in again from above on the other side and work swiftly according to the upper openings that may occur to you using doubling and by other plays.

[Glasgow] This is the text and the gloss about yanking back Tread close in binds, So that yanking back gives good opportunities. Suddenly withdraw. If they engage, suddenly withdraw more. If they work, slice so that it does them woe. Suddenly withdraw in all engagements If you wish to make a fool of the masters

Gloss. This is for when you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, cut in strongly from above, from your right shoulder to their head. Then if they bind you against their sword by parrying or otherwise, then in the bind step close to them and suddenly withdraw away your sword up off from theirs and cut in again from above on the other side at their head as it is pictured next to this, and work swiftly to their nearest opening by doubling or otherwise by other plays or act as if you will suddenly withdraw and remain upon the sword and thrust immediately back in against the sword at their face. Then if you do not rightly hit them with your thrust, then work using doubling or otherwise with other plays.

[Dresden] About Slipping through Rush through, let hang Grab with the pommel if you wish to grapple. Whoever strengthens against you, Remember to rush through with it.

Gloss. Note this is for when you or your opponent rushes in on the other. Then if the opponent rises up with their arms and wishes to overwhelm you with strength from above, then rise up with your arms as well and hold your sword over your head with your left hand by the pommel and allow the blade to hang back over your back[20] and rush through under their right arm with your head and spring behind their right foot with your right and during the spring, pass all the way around the front of their body with your right arm and clasp them against your right hip like this and throw them in front of you.

Yet another slipping through Another. When the opponent wishes to overpower you in the onrush with strength from above using their sword, hold your sword by the pommel with the left hand and let the blade hang over your back. Rush through under their right arm with your head and remain in front of their right foot with your right and pass all the way around the back of their body with your right arm and clasp them upon your right hip and throw them behind you.

A wrestling at the sword Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, let go of your sword with your left hand and hold it with your right and shove their sword away from you to your right side using your hilt and spring in front of their right foot with your left and pass all the way back around their body with your left arm and clasp them upon your right hip and throw them in front of you. Though watch that it does not fail you.[21]

Yet another wresting at the sword Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, let your sword go with your left hand and hold it in your right and shove their sword away from you to your right side using the hilt and spring behind their right foot with your left and pass all the way around the front of their body under their breast with your left arm and throw them backward over your foot.

Yet another wresting at the sword Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, let your sword go with your left hand and hold it in your right and pass outside over their right arm using your pommel and using that, suddenly withdraw downwards and seize their right elbow with your left hand and spring in front of their right foot with your left and drag them like this over your foot to your right side.

Yet another wresting at the sword Another. When you or your opponent rushes in on the other, pass over their right arm with your left hand inverted and with it, seize their right arm and with your right arm, press their right arm over your left arm and spring with your right foot behind their right and turn yourself to your left side, away from them, so that you throw them over your right hip

[Glasgow] Note. When one rushes in the other, pass over their right arm with your left and with that seize their right arm with an inverted hand and press their left over your left using your right arm and spring behind their right foot with your right and turn yourself away from them to their left side and throw them over their right hip as is pictured here next to this.

Yet another wresting Another. When someone rushes in inside your sword, etc, let your sword fall and invert your right hand and using that seize outside their right hand and with your left clasp them by their right elbow and spring in front of their right foot with your left and shove their right arm over your left using your right hand and with that, lift it upwards, so that they are locked and therefore you can break their arm or throw them over your leg in front of you.

[Dresden] One other wrestling at the sword Another. When one rushes in the other, invert your left hand and with that, pass over their right arm and with that, seize their sword by the grip between both hands and wrench to your left side, so that you take their sword from them. This will vex them badly.[22]

A sword disarm Another. When the opponent binds against your sword by parrying or otherwise, seize both swords by the blades[23] with your left hand inverted and hold them tightly together and with your right hand pass down through to your left side and with your pommel pass over both their hands and with that wrench to your right side so that both swords stay with you.

About cutting off Cut off the hard ones From below in both paths Four are the slices With two from below, two from above.

Gloss. Note there are four slices. Conduct the first like this: when the opponent rushes in and rises high up with their arms and will overpower you from above with strength toward your left side, twist your sword and drop under their hilt with crossed hands into their arms with your long edge and press upward using the slice or if the opponent rushes in toward your right side, drop[24] into their arms using the short edge and press upwards as before.

Yet another slice Another. When you bind strongly on their sword using a cut or otherwise, then if the opponent allows their sword to bounce away from yours and strikes at your head from above, then hang off your sword with your hilt in front of your head and from below, slice through their arm from below and with your slice, set your point against their breast from below.

Yet another slice Another. Conduct the slice like this: When the opponent binds against your sword on your left side and from your sword, strikes around to your right side using the crosswise cut or otherwise, spring away from their cut with your left foot and fall across both arms from above using your long edge. Conduct this on both sides.

Abount the transformation of the slice

Turn your edges To flatten, press your hands

Gloss. This is for when you in your onrush come into the opponent's arms with the lower slice such that your point goes out toward their right side, then press firmly upwards with your slice and during your pressing, spring to their right side with your left foot and turn your sword up over their arms using your long edge, such that your point goes out toward their left side and with that press their arms away from you.

[Glasgow] This is the text and the gloss about the transformation of the slice

Turn your edge To flatten, press the hands

Gloss. This is for when you in your onrush come into the opponent's arms with the lower slice such that your point goes out toward their right side, then with that press firmly upwards and during the pressing, spring to their right side with your left foot and turn your sword up over their arms using your long edge, such that your point goes out toward their left side. In this way have you transformed the lower slice into the upper. Conduct this on both sides.

[Dresden] About the two hangings

Two hangings emerge From the ground out of each hand In every application Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard

Gloss. Note there are hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up with them and hang your point down in their face from above and in these hangings you shall swiftly conduct all applications [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you perceive in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it.

[Rostock] This is the text and the gloss about the two hangings the sword

Two hangings emerge From the ground out of each hand In every application Cut, Thrust, Position, Soft or Hard

Gloss. Note there are two hangings from each hand and from each side of the ground. Execute them like this: When you bind against the opponent's sword using the lower displacement toward your left side, hang your sword's pommel [down] toward the ground and from that hanging thrust up at their face from below. Then if the opponent shoves your point upward by parrying, then remain like this against their sword and rise up as well and hang your point down from above in their face and in these two hangings you shall swiftly conduct all applications [with] cut, thrust and slice thereafter as you either perceive or recognize in the binding up of the swords whether they are soft or hard with it. These hangings from both sides are the plows from both sides.

[Dresden] About the speaking window

Make the speaking window Stand freely, watch their situation. Strike them so that it snaps. Whoever withdraws themselves before you, I say to you truthfully No one defends themselves without danger If you have understood They cannot come to blows

Gloss. Note this called the speaking window. When the opponent binds against your sword by cutting or parrying, remain strong against their sword using your long edge from extended arms with your point in front of their face and stand freely and suss out their situation, whatever they will conduct against you.

Another. If the opponent strikes around from the sword to your other side with a descending cut, then bind in from above with strength in accordance with their cut[25] using your long edge.

Or if they strike around using the crosswise cut, then drop into their arms using the upper slice.

Or if they suddenly withdraw their sword to themselves and wish to thrust at you from below, then pursue them against their sword and lodge against them from above.

Another. Or if they do not wish to withdraw themselves nor strike around away from the sword, then work against their sword using doubling or otherwise using other plays as you perceive the soft and the hard on the sword thereafter.

hereafter note what is called here, the long point.

Note the moment before you arrive too close to the opponent initiation of fencing, advance your left foot and hold your point long from extended arms against their face or against their breast. Then if the opponent cuts down at your head from above, then wind against their cut with your sword and thrust into their face.

[Glasgow] Here note how you shall stand in the long point and what plays you shall conduct from it.

Note. When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, advance your left foot the moment before they bind against your sword and hold your point long from extended arms against their face or against their breast. Then if the opponent cuts in from above at your head, then wind against their cut with your sword and thrust into their face.

[Dresden] Or if the opponent cuts down at your sword from above or up from below and wishes to knock away your point, then disengage and thrust to the opening on the other side.

Or if they hit your sword with strength with their cut, then let your sword to snap around, so you hit them in the head.

If the opponent rushes in, then conduct the wrestling or the slice. Watch that it does not fail you.[26]

The text about the distillation of the recital

Who fully commands and correctly breaks And makes complete irrefutable judgement And breaks each one individually Into three wounders Who hangs consumately and correctly And carries out windings with it And considers the eight winds With correct judgement And unites them. The windings, I differentiate trebly Thus they are twenty And four counting them individually. From both sides Learn eight windings with steps And gauge these applications Nothing more than soft or hard

Gloss. This is a lesson in which the recital is succinctly tied together for you. It is taught like this so that you will be fully and completely educated and practiced in the art against those you fence with, so that you know how to execute your break against their play, so that you can complete your work from any particular break using the three wounders.

[Glasgow] This is a lesson in which the art of the recital is artfully tied together. You learn it in this manner so that you wil be fully and completely practiced and educated in the art, and as a consequence of this, so that you can swiftly bring to bear any application or play against those you fence with in such a way that you correctly know how to execute your breaks against their plays in such a way that you can complete your work from any particular break using the three wounders.

Another. You shall also properly hang against the sword and from these hangings you shall deliver eight winds and you shall also consider and properly estimate these windings, so that you know which one of the aforementioned trio to execute.

[Dresden] Here note how you shall conduct the hangings and the windings

Look at it like this: There are four bindings of the sword. Two upper and two lower. You shall only execute two specific windings from each binding of the sword.

[Glasgow]

Another. Do it like this: When you come to the opponent with the initiation of fencing, then if the opponent binds against your left side from above, then wind your short edge against their sword and rise sufficiently up with your arms and hang your point in at them from above and thrust into their face. If they parry the thrust with strength, allow your point to hang in from above against their sword and wind to your right side and thrust. These are two windings against one side of the sword.

Or if the opponent binds against your right side from above, also wind your long edge against their sword toward your right side and rise sufficiently up with your arms and hang your point in at them from above and thrust into their face. If they parry the thrust using strength, let your point hang in from above against their sword and wind to your left side and thrust. These are four windings from the two upper bindings from the left and the right sides

[Dresden]

Another. Now you shall know

That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings with all applications as from the upper. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut or slice and one thrust in particular from each winding. And these are called the three wounders. Therefore one can and shall execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, so that with each wounder, you gauge their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play into the winding that is called for. If you do not do this, all windings become a means to be struck.

[Glasgow]

Another. Now you shall know

That you shall also execute four windings from the two lower bindings alongside all applications as from the upper bindings. In this way the upper and lower windings total eight. And remember that you shall execute one cut, one slice, one thrust in particular from each winding. These are called the three wounders. From those one can execute them from the eight windings, arriving at twenty-four. And you shall properly learn to execute the eight windings from both sides, in such a way that you step in with each winding and with that consider their attack in no other way than whether they are soft or hard against your sword. And when you have sensed the two things, execute the play that is called for in that winding. Whenever you do not do this, you will become struck by all windings.

  1. lit: All art has length and measure
  2. Zeck: Tick. (Rostock)Zeckruhr: Insect bites
  3. possibly: `strongly desire to conduct`
  4. wiederhalten: lit. 'hold against'. To withstand, resist
  5. Rostock: 'nider' => 'down'
  6. Rostock: "wind stark..." => "twist strongly"
  7. Rostock garbles Indes with 'Jun ger'
  8. Rostock: "dem krieg"
  9. Rostock: has "arbaiten(to work)" instead of "hurten"
  10. Rostock adds: "der heúe, oder stich, od shnit"
  11. Rostock adds: "Stehe mit dem lincken fûs vor, und halt dein schwert an deiner rechtenn achsel und ..." => "Stand with your left foot forwards and hold your sword by your right shoulder and ..."
  12. Rostock: supplies the missing verb, 'windest'
  13. alternately, wiederhalten: to struggle or resist
  14. Rostock: "unternn" => "lower"
  15. The Rostock title matched the Dresden
  16. omitted in dresden
  17. mit omitted in the glasgow
  18. in pPvD, this is 'strich' not 'stich'. So: "press the strike"
  19. in pPvD, this is 'strich' not 'stich'. So: "press the strike"
  20. Rostock: "and allow the blade to hang down behind you"
  21. this last sentence is highlighted and a drawn hand is pointing to it.
  22. this sentence is underlined
  23. Glasgow adds: in the middle of the blade
  24. Glasgow: traverse
  25. G: against their cut
  26. this last sentence is highlighted.