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Paulus Hector Mair/Armored fencing

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Source Images

Images
from the Dresden and Munich Versions

Draft Translation Draft translation
by Per Magnus Haaland

Dresden II Transcription (1540s) [edit]

Vienna II Transcription [German] (1550s) [edit]

Vienna II Transcription [Latin] (1550s) [edit]

Munich II Transcription (1540s) [edit]

Draftbook Transcription (1540s) [edit]
by Michael Chidester

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Useful and necessary teaching and information about armour combat

The combatant's prayer for victory to God Almighty

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[1] Instruction on how both combatants shall engage each other

Thus the two armoured fighters enter the arena or enclosure to fight. Both combatants are for the most part armed with a spear, a sword, and a dagger, and they fight the whole time on life and death, until one is so exhausted he can no longer fend for his life. If one of them is so weak that he is no longer able to fight, he must give up all his property to the victor, and the victor can either accept, or take the life of his opponent. When engaging into battle, they call to the Lord. If you are standing with your left foot forward, holding your spear in your left hand held straight out with the point upward and the back end on the ground, your sword by your left side and your right hand on the hilt, and if your opponent then is standing in armour before you in the same manner, and you are then standing with your left foot forward, holding your spear in the middle with your right hand, you raise your arm above your head so that the point is directed toward your opponent and your sword rests on your left shoulder with your left hand on the hilt, then make sure to throw or twist the spear into his face or left armpit. Of your opponent comes at you thus, then hold your spear upright in front of you, and in this manner you will parry his attack to your left, and if you at the same time move to the side, you have defended yourself from your opponent's thrust.

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[2] Another technique with the spear

Put your left foot forward and hold your spear in the middle of the shaft with your left hand and the arm stretched out over your head, your sword in your right hand over your chest with the tip pointing upward, and thrust the spear into the opponent's chest. If he does this to you, and you are standing with your left foot forward holding your spear before you in the middle of the shaft with both hands, then raise the spear and remove his thrust to your right. Then step forward with your right foot arms raised and thrust to his face. If he tries to do this to you, you parry his thrust to your left with the left arm. Grab hold of his spear with the left hand thrust him with the sword into his face or armpit. This will cause your opponent to let go of his spear.

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[3] One more technique as the previous

Step forward with your left foot and hold your spear in the left hand and the sword drawn, and thrust with the spear at your opponent's face or chest. If your opponent attacks you in the same manner, and you are standing with your left foot forward, you remove his thrust with the spear from right to left. When you have parried this way, you let go of the spear and grab hold with the left hand in the middle of the sword and try to thrust him into the chest or armpit. If your opponent on the other hand attacks you thus, then step forward with your right foot and place it by his left and remove his thrust with the spear from right to left, and thus you have parried his thrust.

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[4] Another technique with the spear

Step forward with your left foot and hold the spear with the right hand in the middle with the point straight upward, and your sword in the left hand by your left hip. If your opponent is then standing in armour before you, with right leg forward, sword and spear held together with both hands over his forward leg, and his left hand on the hilt by the hip, then you hold the spear in the middle with your right hand, raise it over your head and thrust the tip into the visor of your opponent. If he attacks you thus, then you step forward with the left foot and raise sword and spear from left to right and remove his thrust to your right side. Then you let go of the spear and thrust him into the visor with the sword. If your opponent thrusts at your visor in the same manner, you step back with your left leg and grab the hilt with your right hand and your left on the middle of the blade, step forward again with the left foot, raise the sword and turn away his point with your forward point you your right, and thrust twice to his head.

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[5] First upper and lower guard

Do the lower guard as follows: stand with your left foot forward and hold the sword with left hand on the middle of the blade and the right hand on the hilt over your right leg. Then raise the sword to a winding, and direct a thrust to your opponent's right hand. If he does this, then you direct your tip on the inside over the right arm. Should your opponent do this, and you are standing in the upper guard and with the left foot forward, you move your hilt from below and turn it in over your opponent's left arm, grab hold with your right hand above in his hilt and move both swords together. If he holds your sword in the same manner, then let go of the hilt with your right hand and grab hold of the tip of your sword, step back with the left foot and away from the opponent.

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[6] The two side guards on right and left side

Do this device as follows: step forward with the left foot and hold your sword in front over your left leg with the point towards the opponent. Then, step forward with the right foot, raise the sword and direct the pommel towards your opponent's face. If you are then standing with your right foot forward, and see your opponent moving his pommel towards you, you press down with the middle of the sword and turn in your pommel with the right hand from underneath on the inside of his right arm. Then you step with the left foot behind his right and lay the sword against his neck. If he should do the same to you, then raise the pommel with the right hand over your head and step back with the right foot, and you will turn away from him in the previous guard.

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[7] Third guard on both sides

In this guard you do as follows: stand with your left foot forward and hold your sword to your right with the point downward. Then step forward with your right foot and raise the pommel towards your opponent's face. Then, you move the sword in with the left hand between both his arms and lay the long edge against the opponent's neck. If he does this to you, and you are standing with your right foot forward, you turn your sword up outside his left elbow and put the pommel against his neck. Should the opponent do this, however, and tries to throw you over, you raise the sword forcefully and direct it over both his arms with the short edge, and enter into said guard.

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[8] A lower onset as shown below

In this battle you do as follows: stand with your left foot forward and hold the sword with left and above your left knee and the tip pointing toward the ground. If he then stands before you with right foot forward and tries to thrust into your forward left foot, then step forward with the right foot and remove his attack by the cross of the sword and turn in the pommel into his face. If he tries to do the same to you, then pull him to the right with the cross on his right hand, and you will take his strength away. Then you strike with the pommel into his face. If he were about to do the same to you then parry the strike between both arms in the middle of the sword and thrust your point into his right side. Should he parry this with his forward point, then step back and hit your pommel into his head and back away from him.

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[9] Winding in the sword from both right sides

When you engage your opponent and draw near him in battle, put your left foot forward and hold the sword so that the pommel lies against your left leg and the left hand is held on the middle of the blade, and direct the point into your opponent's face. If you stand with left foot forward, holding the sword with the pommel against your chest on your right side you aim with the point towards the opponent, grab hold with the left hand in the middle of the blade and remove his sword to your right. Then you step forward with your right foot and turn the pommel into his face. If he tries to do this to you, then parry between both your hands, step back with the left foot and thrust him in the neck with the point and strike him in the right leg with the cross and the pommel, and back away from him.

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[10] Lower onset against an upper shooting in with the arm

In this device you do as follows: step forward with your right foot towards your opponent, and hold the sword with the point directed to the ground, and from there you thrust him in the front of his left foot past his right leg. If you are standing with your right foot forward and he thrusts at your left foot, then move your right arm over his right arm, and remove his thrust in the middle the sword you your right, and then you raise the sword and put the pommel behind his neck and pull to you. If he uses the same technique, you put your cross against his right arm from underneath. Then you change grip on the sword, that is you put your left hand where you hold with your right hand and take hold of the middle of the blad with the right hand. Then you step forward with the left foot and push your opponent away from you thus. If you are thrust back like this, you step back with the right foot and thrust him in the right elbow with your point.

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[11] A death blow against a lower onset

In this device you do as follows: step forward with your left foot and hold your sword outstretched before you with the left hand on the pommel, and thrust the opponent in his forward right foot. If the opponent does this to you, you grab hold of the tip of the sword with your right hand and hit him in the head as hard as you can with the pommel. If he attacks you in the same manner, then you step forward with the right foot, raise the sword, grab hold with in the middle of the blade with your left hand and parry between both your hands. Then you turn the cross to your right and strike him swiftly with the pommel in his face. If he tries to parry your attack, you turn in the point of your sword and thrust in the same place, turn the pommel around and take two steps back and away from the opponent.

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[12] A pull followed by a throw

In this battle you do thus: step forward with your left foot and hold your pommel on your right side, with your left hand on the middle of blade and thrust your opponent in the groin. If your opponent tries to do the same to you, and you are standing with your left foot forward, you parry with the point of your sword and turn the pommel into the opponent's left elbow, and press him down on your left side. If he does this, on the other hand, you let go of the sword, take his dagger, and pull him towards you. Then if you take his dagger that you have twisted out of the opponent's hands (sic), put it around his neck, put your left hand under your arm, grab hold of the tip of the dagger and pull towards you, you will throw the opponent on his back with his own dagger.

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[13] A death blow against an onset

In this device you do as follows: stand with your left foot forward and hold your sword outstretched towards your opponent with the left hand on the point. Let go of the hilt with the right hand and move it to the left and strike a death blow to the opponent's head with the cross and pommel. If your opponent tries to do this against you, and you are standing with your left foot forward, left hand on the middle of the blade and the pommel against your left leg, then thrust him in the left elbow with the point. Then you step forward with the right foot and raise the sword and you have averted his strike. If he does the same thing to you, you step back with the left foot and take hold of the hilt again with your right hand, and parry the opponent's thrust on the middle of the blade between your hands, and thrust him swiftly in his forward foot.

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[14] An onset with a turn of the pommel

In this device you put your left foot forward when stepping in before your opponent, and hold sword with the pommel by the left leg and the left hand in the middle of the blade, and from here, you thrust him in the left hand. If he tries to do the same, and you are standing with your right foot forward, also with the left hand on the middle of the middle of the blade and the pommel facing the opponent, then you put the pommel over his right arm, lift the sword up and counter his thrust thus. Then you insert pommel in between his both arms and punch it hard into his chest or neck. If he does the same thing, you raise your pommel and turn it over the right arm, and set on the point of your sword in front by his right arm, and push up. That way you have averted his attack. Then, let go of the hilt with the right hand and join it to support your left, step back with the left foot and strike him in the head with the pommel.

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[15] A throw with a turn of the pommel

If you want to perform this device, then do as follows: stand with left foot forward and hold the sword out raised before your face, grab hold with the left hand in the hilt and the right hand in the point. Then you move the pommel in under your opponent's arm and punch it into his right side. After that, you move your sword behind your back with the right hand on the shoulder, and raise up your left hand, and you have executed this technique correctly. If your opponent does this, however, and is about to step into your right side, you place the right foot on the outside behind his left, grab hold with the left hand on the hilt and the right hand in the middle of the blade, and if you then turn in the sword over his left arm and the middle of his sword, you will reach his throat, and if you then press down with the left hand and pull the right hand above to your right, you will force the opponent to fall backwards.

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[16] A thrust to the groin against a turning of the sword

Step forward with the left foot and hold the sword outstretched above your head, with the point pointing down, right hand on the hilt and left hand in the middle of the blade, and from this position you thrust your opponent in the groin. If he attacks you in this manner, while you are standing with your right foot forward, right hand on the hilt and the left in the middle of the blade, you parry his thrust, and punch in hard in the chest with the pommel. Then you turn the pommel over his left arm, step in with the left foot between his both legs pull the pommel to you, and raise the left hand. If he tries to do the same to you, you let go with the left hand and you will get away from his attack. Then you pull back the left foot, place the left hand in the middle of the blade again and thrust him in the face with the point.

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[17] A low death strike against a parry

Perform this device thus: step forward with the left foot and hold the pommel to your right, and the left hand on the middle of the blade, point directed toward the opponent. If your opponent is also standing with left foot forward, and thrusts at you in the same manner, you let go of the hilt with the right hand, and place it by your left for support, step forward with the right foot and strike him hard in his forward left leg. If he strikes at you in the same manner, you move your sword to your left and place it by your left leg, and parry his strike thus. Then you raise the sword step forward with the right foot and punch the pommel into his face. If he tries to do the same, step back quickly with the right foot, grab hold again of the hilt with your right hand, parry, and step back.

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[18] A thrust to the chest against an onset

When you come together, you and your opponent, step forward with the left foot, and hold the sword with the pommel before your face, the hilt in your right hand, your left on the middle of the blade, and thrust your opponent in the face from above. If he does this, on the other hand, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with the pommel on your right side of the chest and your left hand on the middle of the blade, you place the sword over both his arms and move to the right, and avert his thrust. Then you step forward with the right foot and strike him in the face with the pommel. If he does the same to you, you step back with the left foot and parry his attack between both hands in the middle of the blade. Then you thrust the point into his face and move away from him.

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[19] An onset against a parry

If you wish to be victorious in this fight, you do thus: step forward with your left foot and hold the hilt over your head and the left hand in the middle of the blade, and thrust from above at your opponent's chest. If your opponent does this, however, and you are standing with your right foot forward, you parry with the cross to your right and punch him in the face with the pommel from below.[1] If he does the same to you, you move his strike down with the sword between both your hands. Then you move the sword to the left under his right arm and place the pommel over his sword by his right hand and pull him to your right. Moreover, should he do the same, you turn your pommel and hilt over his sword between both his arms, and press down, that way you will punch the point into the head of the opponent. Then you turn the sword around and move away from him.

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[20] A low and a high onset with the sword

If you wish to win over your opponent in this battle, then step forward with your left foot, and hold the sword outstretched before you with the point toward the ground, the right hand on the cross and the left on the pommel, and from here you thrust your opponent with the point in his forward left leg/foot.[2] If you then are standing with your left leg forward, and your opponent comes at you in said manner, you let go of your sword with your left hand and grab hold of the middle of [his] blade, and avert his thrust thus. Thereafter you thrust him in the neck with the point of your sword. If he does the same, however, you parry his thrust with the hilt between both your hands, then you twist the sword out of his hand and strike him in the head with the sword. Of your opponent grabs his sword with his left hand again and parries high between both hands, you grab hold of your blade with your left hand and punch the pommel into his face and step back away from him.

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[21] Two point turns

Do thus in this battle: step forward toward your opponent with your left foot and hold your sword outstretched before your face with the left hand on the middle of the blade and thrust at your opponent's right hand just by the sword. If you are standing with your right foot forward and he thrusts at you in the same manner, then thrust at his face at the same time as he thrusts at you, and press down to your left and you have averted his point turn. Then, step forward with your right foot and hit him in the face with the pommel. If he does this to you, then step forward with the right foot toward him and parry on the blade. Then you let go of the hilt with the right hand, grab hold in the middle of the blade to support the left, take a step back with the right foot, and strike him in the head with hilt and pommel, and thus you have moved away from him.

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[22] Two onsets from both sides

When entering before your opponent, step forward with your left foot and hold the sword with the hilt over the chest to your right and the left hand on the middle of the blade, and from here you thrust the point into the opponent's left arm. If you are then standing with your left foot forward and he attacks you this way, then you parry on the blade and direct your tip over his left arm and thrust him in the chest. If he parries on his sword, you step forward with your right foot and hit him with the pommel on the inside of his left elbow. If he does this, you parry on the blade between your hands, move the pommel outside his sword and hit him in the chest. If he defends himself in this manner, you step back with your left foot and grab hold with the hilt with both hands and hit him in the head with the lower part of the sword as hard as you can.

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[23] A pull and a throw

In this device you step up with your right foot forward and hold your sword to your right with the left hand on the middle of the blade. Continue forward with the left foot and thrust at your opponent's face with the point. If he does thus, and you are standing with your right foot forward as well, the right hand holding the pommel pointed at his face and the left on the middle of the blade on your left side, then you step forward with the left foot, raise the sword and parry his thrust thus between both your hand. Then you step forward with your right foot and put the pommel around his neck and pull him you your right, as you at the same time lift your right leg, and you will throw him on his right(sic) side.

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[24] An onset with a pull from both sides

In said device you do thus: step forward with your left foot and hold the sword with your right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade. Then you thrust at your opponent's groin from below with the point of your sword. If your opponent does this to you, and you are standing with your right foot forward, you parry his thrust with your blade, and then you step forward with your left foot and push your sword over his left arm so that the hilt ends up behind his neck on his left side and the point is facing down. Then you push him away from you with the sword lying against his chest step back with the left foot and thrust him in the neck with the point, whereas you then take two steps back.

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[25] Taking hold of both swords/A disarm as shown below

The following device is performed thus: step forward with your left foot toward the opponent, and hold the hilt of your sword with your right hand and the left hand on the middle of the blade. Then you continue forward with your right foot and thrust him in the face or chest. If your opponent does this, however, and you are standing with your right foot forward, you parry with the front part of the sword, gather together his point and your hilt with the right hand and grab hold in the middle of both blades with your left hand and turn to the ground to your right. If he tries to do the same, i.e. he has taken hold of both your swords, you step forward with your left foot and grab hold with the left hand in the middle of his blade and your own, let go with the right hand and take hold of his right elbow, and if you then push him away from you, he will not be able to take your sword.

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[26] A disarm with an onset

Thus you perform this battle: step forward with your left foot and hold the sword with your left hand in the middle of the blade on your left side and the right hand on the hilt. Then you thrust the pommel into the opponent's face. If are then standing with your right foot forward, and he attacks you in the same manner, you parry on the middle of your blade move your right hand to the middle of your blade to support your left, step back with your right foot and strike him in the right elbow with cross and pommel. If he then parries between his both hands, you quickly step forward again with your right foot, let go of with your right hand of the blade, and grab hold of the point of his sword and hold it together with your hilt. If you then move turn the point down to your left, you will twist the sword out of your opponent's hands.

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[27] A thrust to the groin against an onset followed by a throw

Step forward with your right foot toward your opponent, and hold the sword outstretched against the opponent with both hands on the hilt and thrust to his groin with the point. If you are standing with your left leg forward, and he attacks you in the same manner, you raise your pommel against him whilst holding the middle of the blade with your left hand on your right side, and place your blade over his sword and press down, and you have parried his thrust, so that his sword is now between both your legs. Then you step forward with your right and lift the sword over your opponent's head and (lower it down his back so that you hold him) in between your both arms, pull him to you, lift up and throw him on your right side.

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[28] A throw from the open tong hold[3] In this device you do as follows: stand with your left foot forward, and hold the sword on your right side with the right hand on the hilt and the left in the middle of the blade, and thrust with the pommel at your opponent's face. If you are then standing with your right foot forward and the opponent is doing this to you, you grab hold with your left hand in the middle of the blade and the right on the hilt, and parry his thrust to your left. Then you step forward with the left foot and do the same to him. Thereafter you drop the sword and grab hold around his neck with your right hand, and pull him to you on your right side, while kicking his left knee with your right leg you will throw him backwards. If your opponent does this however, reach around his waist with your left hand, step back with your left leg grab hold with your right hand in the opponent's right leg, lift up and throw him out of the open tong hold.

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[29] Another armoured combat technique

When entering before your opponent, step forward with your left foot turn the sword around from right to left and join left and right hand together in the middle of the blade and strike a death blow at the opponent's head. If you are then standing with your right foot forward and he does this to you, you parry his strike between both your hands in the middle of the blade, pull his sword to your left with the cross and punch the pommel into his face. When you have done this, drop the sword grab hold around his neck with your right hand and pull him to you. If he grabs hold of you in this manner and pulls you to him then drop the sword also, and reach over his right leg with the left arm. If he then grabs hold with the left hand in your left elbow and tries to defend himself against you this way, you join your right hand to your left for support and lift up forcefully, then your opponent will be thrown backwards.

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[30] Another as previous

Do as follows in this device: stand with your left foot forward and hold your sword with the left hand on the middle of the blade and the right hand on the hilt resting on your right thigh. Then you step forward with your right foot and thrust at your opponent's face. If you are then standing with your right foot forward and he attacks you in said manner, while you are holding the sword with the right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, you move his thrust to the left between both your hands. Then you step forward with the left foot and punch him in the neck with the pommel. If he does this to you, then let go of the sword, stoop down and grab hold with the left hand on his left leg. If he does that, you reach with your right hand over his back and grab hold of his right side, and with the left hand into his visor, and if you then push down his torso, you will force him to fall.

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[31] A face forward throw

When you both go together you and your opponent, you stand with your left foot forward and hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt and raised behind your head and your left hand on the middle of the blade and the point directed toward the opponent. Then you step forward with the right leg and turn in the pommel from below towards his face or chest. If you are then standing with your left leg forward, holding the sword with your left hand on the middle of the blade, and the right on the hilt, you parry with the blade to your left, between both your hands, then you press down, drop the sword, step forward with your right leg and grab with your right arm around your opponent's neck. If he does this, however, you let go of your sword as well, grab hold with your right hand on his right and pull down hard, and grab hold with your left hand in his pelvic bone and lift. That way you will throw him face forward.

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[32] Another throw in armoured combat

When engaging into battle you and your opponent, you step forward with your right foot, and hold the sword with your right hand on the hilt to your right and your left hand on the middle of the blade with the point directed at the opponent. Then you take a step further with your left foot and turn in the point from above into his face. If you are then standing with your right leg forward and he attacks you in said manner, you move the thrust away with the front end of your sword and turn in the pommel between both his arms and into his face. If he does that, on the other hand, you drop the sword and grab hold around his head with both hands and press down hard. If you are pressed down this way by your opponent, you let go of your sword too, and grab hold of his left leg with your left hand and reach in with your right hand in behind his knee, and lift. That way you will throw him backwards.

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[33] Yet another combat armour device

Do as follows: step forward with your left foot and hold your sword on your left side with the right hand on the hilt and the left in the middle of the blade. Raise the pommel and punch it into the opponent's face. If you are then standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with outstretched arms in front of your chest, pommel raised and point lowered, when he attacks, you then parry between both your hands on the blade. Then you step forward with your right foot and thrust your opponent in the chest with the point. If he does this, you drop the sword, step forward with your right foot grab hold with both arms around his right arm and pull him to you. If he has taken hold of you in said manner and tries to throw you over, you also quickly let go of your sword and grab hold with your left hand in his right elbow, then you push him away this way as you pull with the right arm, and you will throw him on his back.

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[34] Another throw in armoured combat

In this device you stand with your left foot forward, hold the sword with your right hand on your left side with the point directed toward the opponent. Then you join the right hand with your left for support, and strike a death blow with the cross to his head. If you are then standing with your right foot forward, and he tries to strike you in the head as mentioned, you parry with on the blade between your hands, and let go of the sword, step forward with your left foot and place your visor under his chin and reach around his neck and grab onto his right arm with your right hand, and place your left hand on his left elbow. If you then push him away from you as hard as you can, you will force him to fall. If your opponent on the other hand is holding you the same way, while you are falling, put your right leg into his groin and if he then tries to pull your left leg, with the left hand you grab hold with your left hand in his left elbow, and press down hard. That way you will hold your opponent captured, and he cannot get up from the ground.

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[35] A way of getting up after being thrown over

If you both have fallen, and you wish to get the upper hand, as soon as you get up you grab hold of your sword, and if he then tries to take his, you grab hold in the front end of his sword with your left hand and pull it to you. Then you place your sword-point on his chest while you at the same time step forward with your right foot. If he tries to do the same to you, while you are trying to get up with your right foot forward, grab hold of his sword-point with your left hand as well, and thrust him in the groin with your sword. Should he try to thrust you in the groin whilst holding on to your sword, you let go with your left hand and grab hold of your pommel with it, step back with your right foot and twist your sword thus out of your opponent's hand. Then you let go of your hilt with both hands, grip the middle of the blade with both hands, step forward with the right foot and strike him in the head with pommel and cross, and then back away from him.

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[36] Scissor lock

Step forward with your right foot and take hold of your sword with both hands on the hilt and make a long thrust at the opponent's groin. If he attacks you thus, and you too are standing with your right foot forward, you grab hold of the point of his sword with the left hand and thrust your own point into the opponent's chest. If he uses the same technique against you, you too take hold of his point with your left hand and turn to your right with both swords in scissor lock, i.e. joined crosswise over your shoulders, and then you step forward and pull to you. Of he uses the same technique on you, you turn to the right twice, and you have counter the technique and you get your sword back. Then you trust your point into his face and withdraw from him.

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[37] Two point turns from both sides

Do mentioned device as follows: step forward with your left foot and hold your sword on your left side with your left hand on the blade and turn the pommel toward the opponent. Then you turn the point into his face and place it on the left side of his neck. If he does to you, and you are standing with your left foot forward as well, you remove his thrust with the front end of the sword and thrust the point into the right side of the chest. Has he thrust his sword-point into your side you place your right foot in front of his left and pull with the sword on his neck to the left. If he tries to do the same, you place your right foot behind his left lay the edge between your hands in his armpit and push away from you. Then you let go of the hilt with your right hand and move it to your left and hit him in the head with cross and pommel, and back away from him.

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[38] A scissor lock disarm followed by a throw

When engaging into combat you step in with your right foot and hold the sword outstretched before you with both hands on the hilt, and thrust at the opponent's face or chest. If you are then standing with your left foot forward, and the opponent is turning in his point towards you, then hold your sword on your right side with the right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, and thrust at his groin. If he parries, you grab hold of his blade with your left and turn to the right so that both sword end up crosswise on each shoulder. If you then step forward you take his sword. If he is about to steal your sword this way, you dive forward and grab hold in with your left hand on his left kneecap and the right on the same place on his right knee, and pull as you at the same time butt the visor into his back, and you will throw him face forward.

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[39] A turning with an onset

If you desire to win this fight then do as follows: step forward with your right foot and hold the sword up high with the left hand on the middle of the blade and the right on the hilt, and the pommel turned facing your opponent and punch it into his face. If he does this to you, then parry with the blade between your hands, lift up and thrust the point at his face. If he tries to do the same, then parry with the pommel, change grip with the right hand so that the sword lies over your back. Then you turn around to the left and move the pommel over the opponent's sword to the left side of his chest, as you pull with the cross. If he is about to pull you to him as described, you put your left leg in front of the opponent's right and lift up, and at the same time put your sword on the back of his neck or back, and push away from you. That way you will get free from him, and he cannot pull you over.

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[40] A disarm with a strike to the head

In this fight you step forward with your right foot and hold the sword with the right hand on the hilt on your right side the point towards the opponent, and the left hand on the middle of the blade, and thrust at your opponent's forward leg. If you are then standing with your right foot forward and he tries to thrust at you in said manner, and you are holding your sword to your left with the left hand on the middle of the blade and the right on the pommel directed toward the opponent, you move the front end of your sword forward and parry with it, then you let go with your left hand and grab hold on his sword and pull to you, that way you will pull the sword out of his hands, and strike him in the head with the pommel. If he tries to defend himself with his left arm, you pull back the pommel, step back and turn in a thrust in his face with the point of your sword.

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[41] An onset with a falling in

This way you perform this device: take a step forward with your left foot and hold your sword up high over your head with the left hand on the tip and the right on the hilt near the pommel in front of your face. Then you step forward with your right leg and turn the point into the opponent's face. If he does this, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding your sword with the right hand on the hilt on your right side, and the left hand on the middle of the blade outstretched before you, then you parry with the front part of the sword and thrust the opponent in the chest with the point. If the opponent tries to do the same, however, then you let go of you sword and grab hold of his blade with both hands and lift, and at the same time you step back with the left foot, that way you will get out of harm's way and you can take up your sword again.

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[42] A thrust to the groin against a parry

In this device you do as follows: step forward with your left foot toward your opponent, and hold the sword with the hilt held on your right side and the left hand on the middle of the blade. Then you continue forward with your right foot and thrust at your opponent's groin. If your opponent does this to you, and you are standing with your left foot forward as well, holding the sword with the hilt by the chest and left hand on the middle of the blade, point directed up, you move the sword forward and place it on his cross and parry thus. The you step forward with your right foot and strike him in the neck with the pommel. If he strikes with the pommel at your neck, you step back with the right foot and parry on the blade in the middle of your hands, move the right hand to the left and strike him with the pommel and cross in his head, and back away from him.

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[43] An onset against the upper weak point against a parry

This device is performed thus: step forward with the left foot and hold the hilt on the right hand on your right side and the left on the middle of the blade, with the point toward your opponent. If he too steps towards you with his left foot and thrusts from below at your upper weak point, you move his thrust to the left so that your sword lies over his left arm. Then you step forward with your right foot and turn in the pommel from below, lay it on his neck and push away from you hard. Should he parry with the sword, you thrust with the front end in his left elbow. If he does this however, you step back with the left foot and parry on the blade between both hands, take two steps forward and insert the pommel around his neck, pull him to the right, and turn away from him.

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[44] An upper turning in against a parry

Step forward with your left foot when entering before your enemy, and hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, and turn in a thrust against the opponent's visor. If he tries to do the same to you, and you too are standing with your left foot forward, then turn your head, and the thrust will miss. Then you lay your sword from your left against your opponent's sword and shove him away thus. Then, step forward with your right foot and strike him in the left side under his arm. If he does this, however, you step back with your left foot and parry. Then you join your right hand with your left for support on the middle of the blade and strike him hard in the head with the pommel, turn the sword around and move away from him.

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[45] A thrust to the groin against a turn

In said device you do as follows: step forward with the left foot and hold your sword on your right with the right hand on the hilt and the left hand on the middle of the blade, and thrust the opponent in the groin. If your opponent attacks you in this manner, and you are standing with your right foot forward, you parry with the point down, and the pommel up, and turn in the pommel from underneath into his face. If he parries on his right side you step forward with the left foot and let go with the right hand on the hilt and join it with your left on the middle of the blade. Then you strike him in the head with cross and pommel and take two steps away from him.

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[46] A strike with the pommel to the opponent's face along with a hand twist as described here below

In this fight you step forward with your right foot, and hold your sword with your right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade and punch the pommel into the opponent's groin as hard as you can. If he does this to you, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword raised up over your head, you grab hold with your left hand on his pommel and move away the attack thus, and then you strike your own pommel into his face. If he tries to do the same to you, then step back with your right foot, and twist the sword out of his left hand, and thus you have defended yourself from his pommel strike. Then you thrust him with the point into his chest and back away from him.

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[47] A pull with the pommel against a thrust to the groin

When entering before your opponent, do as follows in this device: step forward with your left foot and grab hold with both hands on the hilt on your right side, with the point towards the opponent, and thrust at his groin. If your opponent attacks you thus, and you are standing with your right foot forward, holding your sword with the right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, you lay your sword over his and parry that way, and then you turn the pommel in under his left knee. If you then pull to you and lift up you force him to fall backwards.

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[48] A throw with an onset

If you wish to be victorious in this device, you do as follows: step forward with your right foot, and hold the sword with the pommel raised over your head, and the left hand on the middle of the blade with the point directed at your opponent, and from here you thrust your point at your opponent's chest. If he tries to do the same to you, while you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword outstretched against the opponent with the right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, then parry between your hands on the blade. If he parries in this manner you kick his left knee with your right foot. If he tries to do the same to you, then turn your sword blade in under his knee and lift, that way you will force him to let go of his sword as he falls backwards.

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[49] A throw with an onset

When coming together, step forward with your left foot and hold the sword before you with the hilt in your right hand and the left on the middle of the blade with the tip pointing at the opponent. If you are standing with your right foot forward, holding the sword with the right hand on the hilt and the pommel toward your opponent, and the point behind your left leg and the left hand on the middle of the blade, then step forward with your left foot and thrust him in the face with the point. If he tries to do this, you step forward with your right foot and lay the blade by his cross and hilt and move away his thrust thus, and then you put your pommel in under his left knee. If he does thus however, you let go of your sword and grab hold with your left hand on his right shoulder and push him away from you. Should he try to do this, you raise the hilt up forcefully, and he will fall backwards.

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[50] A strike from above with a throw

In this device you do as follows: step forward with your right foot and hold your sword raised over your head, right hand on the hilt, point toward the opponent, and the left hand on the middle of the blade, strike with your front part of the sword at his head, and then thrust from below in the groin. If you are standing with your left foot forward holding the sword to the right with the right and on the hilt, point toward the ground, and your left hand on the middle of the blade then lift up the sword from here and parry both strike and thrust. Then, step forward with your right foot and punch the pommel into his visor, grab hold of his sword with your left hand on his sword and pull it to you. If your opponent has taken hold of your sword thus, then just let him. Step forward with your left foot and grab hold with both arms around his right leg and lift up. That way he will fall on his back whilst holding both swords.

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[51] Another throw

When engaging your opponent, step forward with your left foot, and hold the sword with your left hand on the hilt, and the right on the middle of the blade, point toward the opponent and thrust at his right elbow. If you are standing with your left foot forward as well, also holding the sword with the left hand on the hilt and the right on the middle of the blade, then step forward with your right foot and parry with the front end of your sword on your right side, and then you strike him in the face with the pommel. If he does this to you, then let go of the blade with the right hand, and grab hold of his right hand and move the thrust away. Then you step forward with your right foot behind his right and lay your sword over his neck from behind, reach around his waist with the right hand and grab hold in his left armpit and pull to you, and you will throw him over your forward right leg.

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[52] An upper and a lower onset

In this device you do as follows: step forward with your right foot and hold the sword with the pommel in front of your right leg. Then you enter the scales position,[4] and hit him in the left knee with your pommel. If you are standing with your left leg forward, and he attacks you thus, while you are holding your sword with the right hand on the hilt by your chest and the left hand on the middle of the blade, then parry with the front end, lay the sword on the opponent's neck, and push away as hard as you can. If he lays his sword on your neck, then step back with your right foot, raise your sword and parry on blade between your hands, and thrust the point into his face. If he then parries with the front end of his sword then move your right hand to your left on the middle of the blade and strike the pommel into his head, and step away from him.

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[53] A pull with a throw

In this device you do thus: step forward with your right foot and hold the hilt of your sword over your left leg, with the left hand on the middle of the blade, and the pommel toward your opponent. Then you continue forward with your left foot and turn the point into his face. If he tries to do the same to you, while you are standing with your right foot forward, then parry with the front end of your sword, step forward with right foot and turn in the pommel into his right side and pull to you. If he does this to you, then you lay the sword over his neck, step out on the outside of both his and pull hard to your left with your sword while it is lying over his neck, whilst lifting your left leg, he will fall over it.

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[54] A pushing in with the hilt on the opponent's sword along with a pull

When entering before each other, step forward with your right foot and hold the sword with the right hand on the hilt in front of your face, and the left hand on the middle of the blade with the point toward the opponent, then you take another step forward with your left foot and thrust him in the groin. If your opponent attacks you in the same manner, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with the point toward him, left hand on the middle of the blade and the right in the hilt, you parry with the front part of the sword, step forward with the right foot and push in the hilt over his sword. Then you grab hold of his sword with your right hand under his left armpit, and join it together with your hilt, and pull you your right. If he does this to you, you let go of the sword with your left hand and grab hold of his right shoulder with it, and push him away as hard as you can, that way your opponent will have to let go of your sword. When you have done this, you strike your opponent in the head with cross and pommel and move away from him.

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[55] An onset with against a parry[5] This device is performed thus: step forward with your left foot and hold your sword with your left hand on the middle of the blade (point) towards the opponent, and the hilt in your right hand and the pommel behind your head on your right side. From this position you thrust your opponent in the neck. If he should do this, and you are then standing with your right foot forward, holding the sword with the hilt in your right hand, with the pommel toward the opponent, and the left on the middle of the blade on your left side, then you step back with your right foot and parry between both your hands on the blade. Then as fast as you can, you step back again, and turn in a thrust with the point over his sword between both his arms. Then you pull to the left and place the pommel on his neck and pull to the right. If he tries to do the same, then let go of the blade with your left hand and grab hold of his right elbow, and grab hold of the hilt with your left, you strike him in the head as hard as you can.

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[56] Two onsets

When you both go together then do as follows: step forward with your left foot and hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt behind your head on your right side, and the left on the middle of the blade, and thus you set the point on your opponent's left arm. If he does the same thing to you, while you are standing with your left foot forward, with your left on the hilt held over your left leg, then parry his thrust with your point, and thrust him in his right armpit. If he uses the same technique against you, then step back with your left foot and parry his thrust between your hands on your left side, let go of the hilt with the right and move it to your left for support and hit him in the head with pommel and cross, and then back away from him.

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[57] A parry against a thrust to the groin

In this combat you do as follows: step forward with your right foot and hold your pommel in your right hand pointed at your opponent, and the left hand on the middle of the blade. If he then steps forward with his left foot, holding the sword with the right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, and tries to thrust you in the groin, then you move your cross over his sword and parry his thrust thus. Then you step forward with your left foot and turn the pommel from below into his face. If he tries to punch you in the face in this manner, then parry with the forward end of the sword and turn the point in over his left arm and thrust it into his chest. Then move away from him as you turn the sword around.

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[58] Another throw

This combat device is performed thus: step forward with your right foot and hold your sword up high with the right hand on the hilt on your right side and the left hand on the middle of the sword, point toward the opponent, and from this position you continue forward with the left foot and turn in the pommel toward the opponent's neck from below. If he does the same to you, and you are standing with your right foot forward, holding your sword with the right hand on the hilt on your right side, and the middle of the blade in your left, point toward the him, then parry his attack with your sword, and step forward with your left foot, drop your sword and grab hold with your left hand in your opponent's right arm, and pull it to you, so that he also is forced to drop his sword, then grab hold with your right in the back of his right knee, and drive the visor of your helmet hard into his right side, as you push above and pull below, that way he will fall backwards.

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[59] Another devices as the previous

In this fight you step forward with your right foot, and hold your sword with your right hand on the hilt on your right side, and the left on the middle of the blade, with the point toward the opponent. Then let go of the hilt with your right hand and join it with your left, and strike him in the head with cross and pommel. If he tries to do the same, while you are standing with your right foot forward, then lift up your sword against him and parry his attack between your hands. Then you throw away your sword, and stoop down into scale position, reach with your right hand into his left side and pull to you. If your opponent is trying to pull you this way, then reach under his left arm with your right hand and grab hold in his left armpit, and then you pull him over your forward foot, and that way you will throw him face forward.

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[60] How to pry open the opponent's visor with his own dagger

When you and your opponent are entering into combat, step with your right foot forward and hold your sword with the left hand on the hilt on your left side and the right on the middle of the blade with the point directed toward the opponent. Then, from this position you thrust your opponent in the groin. If he comes at you in the same manner, while you are standing with your left foot forward, then parry his thrust with your sword on the blade between your hands. After that you turn in your point from below, and press your lower part of your sword over his sword, and punch the pommel hard into the (his) left side. If he uses the same technique against you, then put the sword on the right arm, that way you will counter his strike. Then you let go of the blade with your right hand and put your sword around the back of his neck his left shoulder, and pull him to you, stand with your left foot on the opponent's right, and take his dagger out of the sheath. Then you stab the dagger into his visor, and in the same act of stabbing you may also throw him over.

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[61] Another throwing technique in armoured combat

This way you perform above mentioned fight: step forward with your left foot and hold your sword with the hilt in your right hand with the point towards the opponent, and the left on the middle of the blade on your left side. Then, step forward with your right foot and turn in the point of the sword into the opponent's face. If he does this, on the other hand, and you are standing with your left foot toward him, then parry his thrust with the front end of the sword to your right, step in with the right foot and punch him in the face with the pommel. But if he does the same, then put your left hand on your opponent's right elbow and counter his punch thus. Then you drop your sword and step in with your right foot, draw your dagger and thrust it into the opponent's right armpit. If he uses the same technique against you, then let go of the hilt with your right hand and grab his right hand, and push him away from you, that way you have defended yourself against his attack. Then you drop your sword as well, and draw the dagger with your left hand and thrust at his right armpit. If he comes at you with his dagger in this manner, then drop your dagger and reach around with both arms around his neck over his shoulder, and pull to you as you press down. If he tries to do the same, then quickly drop your dagger as well, and grab hold of the upper part of his left leg with your left hand and reach around in front of his waist, and if you pull to you firmly below and push away to your right side above, you will throw the opponent over your right leg.

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[62] A parry against a death blow

Step forward with your left foot when you engage each other to fight, and hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt behind your head, and the left on the middle of the blade, and the point toward the opponent. Then you let go of the hilt with your right hand and join it with your left, step forward with your left foot and give a death blow to his right side with your cross and pommel. If you are standing with your right foot as well, and he comes at you in this manner, then place your left foot at your opponent's left, and parry his strike between both hands on your right side. Then you turn in your point into the opponent's visor. If your opponent does the same, then quickly take hold of your hilt with the left hand and parry the thrust between your hands on the blade. Then you step forward with the right foot and thrust the point into his neck, and this way you turn the sword twice and step away from your opponent.

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[63] Two break-ins in armoured combat

When you come close to the opponent, then step forward with your left foot and hold the sword with the right hand on the hilt over your head and the left on the middle of the blade, with the point toward the opponent. Then, step forward with your right foot, let go of the hilt with your right hand and join it with your left, break in with the pommel and strike a death blow to the opponent's right shoulder. If he comes at you in the same manner, while you are standing with your right foot forward, then parry his strike on your sword between your hands, continue forward with your left foot, and move your sword over his, and press against him with your chest, and try to break in with the front end of your sword as well, and insert your sword or point on the left side of his neck. If he tries to do the same, then grab hold with your right hand on your opponent's blade, and push away his thrust thus. If he tries to grab your sword then you too grab hold of his sword with your left hand and bend the sword back, and hit him in the right elbow.

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[64] A turning technique together with a way of turning away the opponent

Put your left foot forward in this fight, and hold the sword with the left hand on the hilt, pommel towards the opponent, and the right on the middle of the blade. Then punch the pommel into the opponent's neck. If your opponent tries to do the same, and you are standing with your left foot forward, left hand holding the hilt on your left side, and the right on the middle of the blade, then parry the hit on the sword between your hands, step forward with your right and turn down the sword on the right shoulder under the opponent's right arm, and if you push away out of this position you will turn the opponent around. If he turns you around, then turn to your right, and parry between your hands. Then punch the pommel forcefully into the opponent's visor, and take two steps back from the opponent.

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[65] A parry against a death blow

When entering before your opponent, step forward with your right foot and hold both hands on the middle of the blade, and from here you strike your opponent with the upper part of the sword, i.e. cross and pommel in his right arm. If you are then standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with the hilt in front of your face, point toward the ground, then parry his strike on the blade between your hands. Then you step forward with your right foot and turn in a thrust from below between the opponent's both arms into his visor. If he tries to do the same, you step forward with your left foot and parry his thrust with the front end of the sword and then you turn in a thrust with the point over his left arm and into his neck. If he parries, you step back with the left foot and strike him in the head with cross and pommel.

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[66] A strike to the leg out of guard

Step forward with your left foot, hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt over the chest on your right side, and the left on the blade near the point. Then, with arms raised so that the point is directed at the opponent, execute a thrust at his face or armpit. If he attacks you in the same manner, and you are holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade but nearer to the point, and the point facing down, then lift up the sword and parry his thrust on your left side on the sword between your arms. Then you let go of the hilt with your right and join it with your left for support, and at the same time you step forward with your right foot and strike him with cross and pommel in his forward leg so that the cross ends up behind the back of his knees, and if you then pull to you, you will throw him over. If he has you locked the same way, and tries to pull you over, then as fast as you can, step forward with your right foot, and thrust at his crotch, and he is forced to back away from you.

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[67] A turning in followed by a throw

Put your right foot forward and hold your sword with your right hand on the hilt over your left thigh, and the left on the blade near the point, and the point pointing up. Then you step forward with your left foot and raise your arms with the sword and turn the point toward the opponent, and from this position you thrust at his face. If he attacks you in the same manner, and you are standing with your right foot forward, holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt over your right thigh, and the pommel is facing the opponent, then you grab the middle of the blade with your left hand so that the point is turned backward, and from this position, you thrust him in the face or chest. If he comes at you in the same manner, and you are standing with your right foot forward, holding your sword with the right hand on the hilt over your right thigh, pommel turned toward the opponent, then take hold of the middle of the blade with your left hand so that the point is turning back, and from this position you turn your left hand with the blade over your right, so that the pommel is pointing down, and this way you parry the attack to your right between your hands. Then you step forward with your left and place the foot beside your opponent's left, and turn the sword from your right inside through his both arms, so that the hilt of your sword ends up by his hand, and then you pull down below as hard as you can to your right, and above you push to your right, that way you will twist the opponent's sword out of his hands. If he tries to twist the sword out of your hands, then place your right foot by his left, let go of the hilt with your right hand, step back with your right foot again, and you will avoid the disarm.

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[68] A turning in, from which a throw comes

Having stepped forward with your left foot, holding the sword with the right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, you raise both arms so that the point and your left hand is turned toward the opponent, with the right hand on the hilt behind, and thrust him in the face. If he comes at you in the same manner, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with the right hand on the hilt against your chest on your right side, and your blade in your left with the point toward the opponent, you lift the sword and parry the attack on your left side on the sword between your hands. Then you step forward with your right foot behind the opponent's left leg, and move your sword outside his left arm, and put the hilt that you hold in your right hand on his neck. And if you then press down to the right as hard as you can above, you will throw the opponent on his back over your leg. If he tries to throw you the same way, then quickly pull back your left leg form his right, let go of the sword with your left hand and grab hold on the outside of his elbow and push him away, and you will get out of harm's way.

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[69] A shooting over with the sword out of which a throw comes

Step forward with your left leg, hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt, and the left on the middle, the right resting over your right leg, and the left holding the point directed upward to the opponent, then tip the point down with your left hand and raise the hilt with your right, and thrust your opponent in the groin. If he attacks you thus, and you are standing with your left foot forward, with your right hand on your sword hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, then move the sword to your right side, parry the thrust between your hands on the blade, and as fast as you can place your right foot forward on the outside of his left, and shoot in the sword over is both arms, and press them down to his thighs and pull as hard as you can to your right side, and you will throw him backwards over your left leg. If he wishes to throw you in the same way, then as fast as you can, step back with your left leg, let go of the hilt with your right hand and grab hold of his right hand, and press down with all your might, as you pull your sword to you with the left. That way you will avoid the throw.

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[70] A throw with the sword

Step forward with your right leg, and hold the sword with the hilt with the right hand on the inside over your right leg, so that the pommel faces the opponent, and your left hand on the middle of the blade, with the point turned downward. And if he also steps forward with is right leg, holding his sword with the right hand on the hilt as well, and the left on the middle of the blade, standing in open and raised guard, then place your left foot with straight body behind his right foot, and simultaneously the sword falls down, and you reach down your pommel on the inside behind his knees, and you lift up with all your might, and this way you will throw the opponent on his back. If he wishes to throw you the same way, then quickly place your hilt on the right side in front of his neck, and place the middle of the sword on his right arm. Then you pull to you as hard as you can above, and press down below with your left hand, thus he is forced to fall with you.

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[71] Another throwing technique

Having stepped forward with your left leg, holding your sword over your right leg, the left hand toward the point, and the right hand on the hilt, pommel pointing backward, and he, the opponent, has also stepped forward with his left leg, and you who want to obtain the victory, step forward in scales position with your right leg on the inside of your opponent's left, and then you turn in the pommel behind his knees on the outside, and with your right hand you are holding the hilt with, pull up as hard as you can, and with your left hand that you hold near the point of your sword, press down. If he is trying to throw you over with the same technique, then quickly move your pommel and the hilt under the left arm, and punch the pommel as hard as you can into his left armpit, thus he will remove his left hand above of the sword. Then, if you let go of the hilt with your right hand, and grab hold of his right, and push down forcefully you will avoid the fall.

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[72] A throwing technique from the upper and lower weak points.

In this fight, you step forward with your left foot, hold the hilt with your right hand up high, and the left on the middle of the blade with the point toward the opponent, and from here you thrust the opponent in the face. If he tries to do the same to you, and you are standing with your right foot forward, holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, with the point toward the opponent, then raise your sword and parry the thrust. Then you step forward with your left foot and let go of the sword with your left hand, and move the sword with your right hand behind his both legs, and quickly then grab hold of the sword again with your left and pull to you, as you ram him with the visor, that way you will throw your opponent over. Furthermore, if your opponent does this to you, then throw your sword, and reach in with both arms over his shoulders and in under his armpits and pull to you then the opponent falls with you.

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[73] Yet another throwing technique

When you go together you and your opponent, then do as follows: step forward with your left leg, hold the sword with your right hand on the hilt up high, and the left hand on the middle of the blade, point toward the opponent. Then you let go of the hilt with your right hand and join it to your left for support, and strike him in the head with cross and pommel. If he tries to do this to you, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt on your left side, the left hand on the middle of the blade, and the pommel toward the opponent, then raise your sword and parry his strike on the blade between your both hands. Then you move your sword in under his left armpit, step forward, and push him forward. With this done, you drop your sword, and grab hold with your left hand on his left, and place your right hand on his neck by his left shoulder. If he has dropped his sword as well, and tries to grab hold of your right leg with his right hand, then push him away above, and hold his hand firmly, and this way you will throw him over your right leg on your right side.

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[74] Another as the above

If you want to emerge victorious, then do as follows in this fight: step forward with your left foot and hold the sword with both hands on the hilt over your head, with the pommel toward the opponent. From this position you step forward with your right foot and strike your opponent hard in the head. If he tries to strike you thus, while you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt and raised with the pommel toward the opponent, and the left on the middle of the blade, then parry his strike between both hands on the blade, drop the sword, continue forward with the left foot, and grab hold on the inside of his right leg with your left hand and lift up. If he has dropped his sword and grabbed hold around your thighs, and have them in his left armpit, then reach around his neck with your right arm over his shoulder around his neck and if you then press down above with full force, and simultaneously lift up below, you will throw him face first.

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[75] An onset along with an opening of the hand, which is its counter

When stepping together you and your opponent, then step forward with your right foot and hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt on your right side, and the left on the middle of the blade with the point toward the enemy. From this position continue forward with your left foot and turn in the point in the opponent's visor. If the opponent should try the same against you, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with the right on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, point toward enemy, then parry the thrust with the front end of your sword and thrust him in the chest with the point. If he does the same, then drop your sword and grab hold of his left hand along with the sword with your left hand, and clench hard. Then you pull your dagger with your right hand and stab him in the palm of his left hand, and that way you will open it.

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[76] Another throw

Thus you behave in the following fight: step forward with your right foot and hold your sword with the right hand on the hilt, pommel turning to the ground, left hand on the middle of the blade resting on left thigh. From here you take another step forward with your left foot and turn in the point from below into your opponent's groin. However, if your opponent is trying the same on you, and you are standing with your left forward, hilt in your right hand, point toward the enemy, then parry his thrust with the front end of the sword. Then you take a step forward with your right foot, let go of the sword with your left hand, reach around his neck and grab hold of his chest and pull to you. If your opponent is holding you in the same manner, then drop your sword, and stoop down in to scales position, and grab hold of his left hand with your right, and pull to you as you grab hold of his left leg with your left hand, and if you rise up from this position you will throw your opponent over on your left side.

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[77] Yet another throwing technique

When draw near your opponent, then step forward with your left foot, and hold the sword with the left hand on the hilt resting on your right thigh, the right hand on the middle of the blade and the point toward the ground. Then you step forward with your left foot and thrust the pommel into the opponent's crotch from below. If your opponent does this to you, and you are standing with your right foot forward, with the right hand on the hilt resting on your right thigh, the left hand on the middle of the sword, and the point toward the enemy, then parry his thrust between your both hands to your right, and stab him in the neck. If he tries to do the same, you parry between your hands on the blade, and turn his thrust down to your left. Then you move the sword in behind his right knee and lift up hard, and you will force him off balance and he will fall. If you then press down with your left leg and thrust the cross in his visor, he will fall backwards.

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[78] A thrust to the groin with a death blow

In this device you stand with your right leg forward and hold the sword with the right hand on the hilt facing the enemy pointing downward, the left hand on the middle of the blade on your left side. From here you step forward with your left foot and move the point up front and thrust the opponent in the neck. If he tries to do the same against you, and you are standing with your left foot forward, right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, with the point toward the enemy, you parry his thrust with the front end of the sword to your right, and turn the pommel into his visor. If he tries to do the same, you parry his attack to the right, let go of the blade with the left hand and grab his pommel and bend his sword onto his back. Then you kick him in the groin with the left foot, grab the blade with both hands and deliver a death blow to his head with cross and pommel, so that he falls to the ground half dead.

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[79] A throw with a deadly thrust

In said device you do as follows: place your left leg forward and hold your sword with your right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade with the point toward the enemy. Then you continue forward with your right foot and turn in the pommel from below and punch him in the neck. If he does the same to you, and you are standing with your right foot forward holding the sword with the right hand on the hilt, with the pommel toward the enemy, and the left on the middle of the blade, then step in with your left and parry with the front end of your sword to your left. Then you turn in the point over his right arm and into his visor. If he does the same, then lay your sword between your hands under his left armpit, and place your right foot inside his left. If you then lift up firmly, you will throw him over backwards, and he will have to drop his sword. When this is done, you quickly let go of our sword, and draw your dagger, and drive both your knees into his torso, and press his legs together, so that he cannot get up, and then you stab him in the neck.

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[80] Another throw with a thrust with the dagger

In this above-mentioned fight you do as follows: place your left leg forward, and hold the sword with your right on the hilt resting on your right hip/thigh, and the point pointing down to the ground. Then you step forward with your right leg and turn in the point into the opponent's visor. If he tries to do this to you, as you are standing with your right leg forward, holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt, and the left on the middle of the blade, point toward the opponent, then parry his thrust with the forward end or the sword to your right, and step forward with your left foot and punch the pommel into his visor. If he tries to do the same, then parry his strike on the sword between your hands to your left, then let go of the sword with your left hand, grab hold of his left shoulder and push it from you, that way he will turn around. Then quickly, drop the sword, and grab around his left leg with both hands, and if you pull to you below, as you push above, you will throw forward on his face, and at the same time he should also have to throw away his sword. Then make sure that you pin his body down with both knees, draw your dagger with your right hand and stab it through his neck.

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[81] Another throwing technique

If you wish to be victorious in this fight then you must do as follows: step forward with your left foot and hold the sword with the right hand on the hilt over your right thigh, left hand on the middle of the blade, point toward the enemy. And from this position you step forward with your right leg and turn in a thrust with the point at his visor. If you are standing with your left foot forward, holding your sword point straight at your opponent, then parry his thrust between your hands to your left, place your right foot before his left, drop your sword, and put your right hand in his left armout, and grab hold with your left hand on the inside of his right elbow, as well as you hook your opponent's right leg with your right, and pull to you, as well as push away above, he will fall backwards. If it were to happen that you fall with him, then put your left leg on both his, and then press down, so that he cannot get up from the ground, and thus you have pinned the enemy down.

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[82] A throw with a deadly stab with the dagger

In said fight you behave as follows: step up with your right foot toward your opponent, and hold your sword with your right hand on the hilt and the pommel directed at the opponent, left hand on the middle of the blade. Then you step forward with your left foot and turn in the point into the opponent's groin. If he does this to you, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, point toward the enemy, then lower your sword and parry his thrust to your right. If your thrust is parried in the same manner, then drop your sword, grab hold with your left hand in the opponent's left, lift it up, and ram your chest into his loins so that the opponent's is forced down. Then you draw your dagger, pry open the visor on his helmet and stab it through his head.

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[83] Another technique as the previous

When you step together in this fight you and your opponent, then you must do as follows: take a step forward with your left leg, and hold the sword with the right hand on the hilt and the pommel facing the opponent, and the left hand on the middle of the blade, and the point over the left leg. Then you take another step forward with your right leg, and stab the opponent in the groin with the point. If you are standing with your left foot forward too, holding the sword with your right hand on the hilt toward the opponent, and the left hand on the middle of the blade, raised over your head, then parry his thrust on the blade between your hands and do a double thrust at his visor. If he attacks you in the same manner, then drop your sword, and grab his left elbow with your left hand and push him away, and you have averted his thrusts. Then, however, you grab hold of his waist with your right hand, and pull it away forcefully. That way you will throw the opponent on his face. When this is done, then knee him between his legs and press him down thus. Pull the dagger, pry open his visor and stab him in the neck. When you have thrown him over in this manner, then you take his sword and put it over his back, as is custom in a duel.

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[84] A throw in armoured combat followed by tying up the opponent

When you enter before your opponent, then step forward with your left foot and hold your sword with your right hand on the hilt over your head and the left on the middle of the blade with the point toward the enemy, and from here you step forward with your right foot and strike the opponent in the visor with the pommel. If he attacks you in the same manner, and you are standing with your left foot forward, holding your sword with your right hand on the hilt and the pommel toward the opponent, and the left on the middle of the blade over your right leg, then parry his strike on your blade between your hands, and hit him in the head with the cross or pommel. Then you drop the sword and reach down with both hands around behind the enemy's both legs and pull to you firmly, so that he falls forward. Thereafter you place your legs over your opponent's legs near his groin, and press down hard, so that he cannot get up. Then you take his sword and insert it through his arms and over his back, as well as take the strap, and tie his hands together, which is custom in duels.

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[85] The last device in armour combat where the opponent's life is taken

Thus you perform this device: step forward with your right leg, and hold the hilt of your sword in your right hand and the left on the middle of the blade before your face, pommel pointing down, point up. Then you take another step forward with your left leg and make a double thrust with your point at your opponent's visor. If he tries to attack you in the same manner, and you are standing with your right foot forward, holding your sword with your right on the hilt and the left on the middle of the blade, point toward the enemy, then lift the sword up high and parry his thrust on the blade between your hands, to your left side. Then quickly, drop your sword and put your left hand under his left armpit and shove him away from you, place your right foot outside behind his left grab hold with your right hand in his right leg and pull hard, and he will fall face first. Then you pull the dagger and stab it through the back of his neck. After that you take his sword and place it under his arms and over his back, and tie his arms together with the strap, which is custom and ancient law for the victor in ordeal by combat.

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[86] Afterword

Behold, good gentlemen, here lies the man
who vilely lied about me, and
God knows what falsehoods he of late
accused me for in envy and hate
He betrayed me as he thought he might
bring to my reputation malice and spite.
He wanted to soil my good name
and slander me for evil shame
but God and the virtuous spirit of mine
defended have my life this time
God that gave me courage and power,
so that I was the victor upon this hour,
and won to day in a most honorable way,
For that I thank almighty God in all my days,
Forgive him for his sins O Lord above, you may
He has received his punishment today,
I am only content as here I stand,
defended have my honour with my hand
which is demanded of a man of my station,
who cherishes his name and his reputation.

  1. The text is a bit ambiguous on how this is done, but judging from the picture it seems as the you are already having the pommel on your right side and the strike to the face and the parry is done in the same motion.
  2. In both Latin and German, foot and leg can be the same word.
  3. Tong hold – see wrestling chapter.
  4. One knee on the ground.
  5. "With" is crossed over and replaced with a smaller text "against" in the Latin text. It is most probably "against", as the text reads in the German text.