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Lew/Cory Winslow LS 2016

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Master Liechtenauer's Art

1 Young knight learn
 To have love for God; honor women and maidens,
2 So waxes your learning,
 And learn
3 things that adorn you
 And in wars sorely court.
4 Wrestle well, grappler.
 Lance, sword, and messer
5 Manfully handle,
 And in others’ hands ruin.
6 Hew therein and hit there,
 Let hang, and let drive,
7 So that your wisdom one
 May masterfully prize.

Here begins a good common lesson of the long sword, yet such a very good secret art is locked therein.

9 If you will show art,
 Go yourself left, right with hewing,
10 And left with right,
 If you most strongly will fence.

The first lesson of the long sword is that before all things, you shall rightly learn the hews so that you will otherwise fence strongly, and undertake that thus: when you stand with the left foot fore and hew from the right side, then the hew is false and incorrect (since the right side remains there behind), and thereby the hew[1] becomes too short and may not have its correct going to the right side, etc.

Or, if you stand with the right foot fore and hew from the left side, if you then do not follow after with the left foot, then the hew is but false. Therefore, mark when you hew from the right side that you always follow after with the right foot;[2] the same do also likewise when you hew from the left side. So put your body in the correct balance, and thus the hews become long and correctly hewn, etc.

11 Whoever goes after hewing,
 He deserves little joy in his art.

This is when you come to the man with the pre-fencing: then you shall not stand still with your sword and wait after his hews until he hews to you. Know that all fencers who look there on another’s hews and will do nothing other than parry, they deserve little joy in their art since they become sorely struck thereby, etc.

12 Hew near what you will;
 No change comes on your shield.
13 To the head, to the body,
 Do not shun the strikes.
14 With the entire body,
 Fight so that you most strongly drive.

Undertake that thus: When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, whatever you then wish to fence, you shall drive it with the entire strength of your body, and hew in therewith, near to his head. Therewith you force him so that he must parry, and come to no Changing-through when you come near to him with the point. If he comes then with the parrying strongly on your sword,[3] then give him a touch on his left arm and step backwards therewith before he comes in.

15 Hear what is bad there:
 Fight not left if you are right,
16 And if you are left,
 In the fencing[4] you also sorely limp.

This is a good lesson and touches upon a left-hander and a right-hander. And know how you shall hew so that one does not win the Weak of your sword with the first hew, and undertake that thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, if you are then right and will strongly fence, then hew the first hew with purpose (not from the left side). Then he is weak and may not hold against when you bind strongly on him; but[5] if you hew from the right side, then you may well strongly hold against him and work on the sword whatever you wish.

Likewise, if you are left-handed, then also hew the first hew not from the right side; hew respectively from the left side, since it is rightly quite wild and again tame, to drive art from the left side. Likewise is it also a left-hander from the right side, etc.

17 Before and After, these two things
 Are a well-spring to all art.
18 Weak and Strong;
 "Meanwhile"—mark with that word,
19 So you may learn
 Working and defending with art.
20 If you frighten easily
 Learn no fencing[6] evermore.

This is that you shall, before all things, correctly undertake and understand the two things: that is, the Before and the After, and Weak and Strong, and the word "Meanwhile". When you rightly undertake and understand these things, from them comes the entire foundation of all the Art of Fencing. And going forward, do not forget the word "Meanwhile" in all techniques that you drive; thus you may well be a good Master of the Sword and may well teach princes and lords, that they may be best in play and in earnest with the correct Art of the Sword, etc.

Item, when you come ere with the hew (or such), so that he must parry you, then quickly work Meanwhile ahead of yourself with other techniques with the sword (or such), and let him come to no further work, etc.

Item, when he comes ere with the hew, then you must parry that and then quickly work Meanwhile with parrying with the sword (or such), so you take the Before with the After. That is called Before and After, etc.

Item, now you shall, before all things, know the Weak and Strong of the sword; undertake it thus: from the hilt on to the middle is the Strong, and from the middle on to the point is the Weak. And how you shall work after the Weak and with the Strong, you will find all that written hereafter, etc.

21 Learn five hews
 From the right hand against the weapons.
22 Then we praise
 Your Arts, to teach well.

Mark, there are Five hidden Hews. Whoever can break them with correct art, without injury, becomes praised by[7] other masters, and shall become rewarded more inexpensively in his art than another. And how you shall hew the Hews with three techniques, you will find all that described hereafter, etc.

23 Wrath hew, Crooked,[8] Thwart,[9]
Have Squinter with Parter.
24 Fool, Forfends,
 Travelling-after, Over-running, Off-setting,
25 Changing-through, Pull,
 Run-through, Slice-off, Press hands,
26 Hang, Wind,with openings,
 Blows, grasp, strike, stab with thrusting.

Mark, here become named to you the correct Chief-Techniques of the Art of the Sword, as each are called with their names, so that you can further undertake and understand them.

Mark, of the first, the Five Hews.

The first is called the Wrath-hew.
The second the Crooked-hew.
The third the Thwart-hew.
The fourth the Squinting-hew.
The fifth the Parter-hew.

Item: Now mark thereafter the techniques:

The first are the Four Guards.
The second, the Four Forfendings.
The third, the Travelling-after.
The fourth, Over-running.
The fifth, the Setting-off.
The sixth, the Changing-through.
The seventh, the Pulling.
The eighth, the Running-through.
The ninth, the Slicing-off.
The tenth, the Hand Pressing.
The eleventh, they are the Hangings.
The twelfth, they are the Windings.

Thus are the hews and the techniques seventeen[10]. You will find them likewise described hereafter, one after another, and also that which you shall fence therefrom, etc.

Here begins the Art of the Long Sword, firstly the Wrath-hew, etc.

The Wrath-hew with its techniques

27 Whoever Over-hews you,
 Threaten [him] with the Wrath-hew point.
28 If he becomes aware,
 Take-off above without danger.

Item,[11] the Wrath-hew breaks all Over-hews with the point, and yet it is nothing more than a simple peasant strike,[12] and drive that thus: when he hews above from the right side to the head, then wrathfully hew with him also (without any parrying), likewise from above from your right side,[13] above onto his sword, and let the point shoot in straight ahead of you to the face or the breast. If he then becomes aware of the point and parries with strength, then with your sword on his sword’s blade, tear off from his sword up above over yourself, and hew in to the other side, on his sword’s blade, again in to the head. That is called taking-off above, etc.

Another

Item, when you will make the Wrath Hew, then you may strike with the right hand and with the left hand behind, well up in, and thereafter make the point down below (with the inverted hand) and go through.

Item, you may also do the taking-off to him not further upwards than onto his point, tearing up with your sword; strike in again Meanwhile to the head.

Item, a counter against the taking-off

When he takes-off above and hews to your head on your right side, then wind your sword with your short edge on his a little, and strike Meanwhile with the long edge to his head.

Item, another counter

Meanwhile as he takes-off, then step aside from the strike and work in to the nearest opening with the hew.

Another

Item, when you have struck with the inverted hand from the Wrath-hew, and he drives up and parries you, then drive thus through with your inverted hand on his right side on his belly, and wind in the right elbow over his and your sword, and hold fast so you have locked him, or jerk with your right side on your left and tear strongly behind you, so you take his sword and your point goes into his face.

29 Be stronger against
 Wind, stab, if he sees, then take it down.

This is when[14] you hew in wrathfully with him: if he then holds strongly against [you] with the sword, if you do not wish to take off above then be strong against [him], and drive up with the arms to your right side and Wind the short edge on his sword, and stab him above into his face. If he becomes aware of the stab and drives up and parries, then remain standing thus in the Winding and set the point on him below, etc.

Item, so you have wound thus on your right side, and he has parried your stab: then wind a little again on your left, and set in your point also down in his breast. If he then parries the point, then pull your sword onto yourself and strike in again to his head. If he then parries, so take off above (or take other work therefrom).

Another

Item, when you have taken off above, and he has thus parried you and stabbed with you once more, then drive well up with the arms, and Wind in the short edge on the Weak of his blade and stab in to his face, or Wind on his blade in the Weak (on your right side) and stab in but to his face. You may also make both winds from one another and thrust with the point.

30 This even mark,
 Hew, Stab, Leaguer, Soft or Hard,
31 Meanwhile, Before and After,
 And guard that your War is not rushed.

This is a lesson: when he binds on your sword (with a hew or with a[15] stab), then you shall not be too rushed with the War (that is, with the Winding) before you mark very precisely if, when his sword clashes or binds on the other, it is Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you find this, then Wind Meanwhile and work with the War, after the Soft and after the Hard,[16] to the nearest opening. And you have learned previously that which are called the Before and the After, etc.

32 Whoever enters the War above,
 He becomes ashamed below.

Know that the Winding, and the work therefrom to the Four Openings with the point, that same is called the War; drive it thus: when you hew in with the Wrath-hew, as quickly as he then parries, then drive up with the arms, and Wind in the point on his sword above into the upper openings of his left side. If he then sets the upper stab off, then remain thus standing with the Winding and let the point sink down under you to the lower opening on his left side.[17] If he then follows after your sword with the parrying, then seek the lower opening of his right side with your point. If he then follows further with the parrying, then drive up with the sword on the left side and hang the point above into the upper opening of his right side, and thus he becomes ashamed with the War below and above (if you correctly drive in), etc.

33 In all Winding,
 Learn to find Hew, Stab, and Slice.
34 Also you shall, with
 Proofing, Hew, Stab, or Slice.
35 In all hits
 You will trick the masters.

Know that you shall be entirely ready with all Windings on the sword, since each Winding has three particular techniques: that is, a Hew, a Stab, and a Slice. And when you Wind on the sword, then you shall well proof and mark that you do not drive the incorrect techniques that pertain in the Winding thus: that you do not Hew when you should Stab, and do not Slice when you should Hew, and also not Stab when you should Slice. And you shall so drive that when the man parries your one, you hit with the other,[18] and thus shall you always find the correct technique with which to drive rightly pertaining techniques in all hits and all Windings of the sword, if you will trick and deceive the other masters when they are set against you. And how you will Wind on the sword, and how you shall drive, that you will find in the last technique of the Epitome, which says “Who well Hangs”,[19] etc.

Item, when you will make a hew and a stab and a slice, then do him thus: hew the Wrath-hew boldly in from your right side; wind in the point Meanwhile on his left side and stab into his face on his left side. Meanwhile step with your left foot on his right, and slice in with the long edge over both his arms.

36 Four openings know,
 Aim[20] so you strike wisely,
37 Without any fear,
 Without confusion for how he acts.

That is when you come[13] to the man with the pre-fencing, if you will then wisely fence, then you shall namely not hew in to the sword, since you should aim for the Four Openings. These are [one] the right side, the other the left, of the half over the girdle of the man. The other two openings, these are the left and the right side of the half under the girdle.[21] Take the same openings Before and hew then boldly to [them], and regard not whatever he fences against you. If he then parries, then work in the parrying quickly to the nearest opening. Thus wait out the body and not the sword, etc.

38 If you will reckon
 To masterfully break Four Openings,
39 Double above,
 Mutate correctly below.
40 I say to you truthfully,[22]
No man protects himself without danger.
41 If you have understood this,
 To strikes may he seldom come.

This is when one earnestly hews in at you: if you will then reckon to break the openings on him with artfulness, so that he must let you strike without thinking, then drive the Doubling against the Strong of the sword[23] and the Mutating against the Weak. So I say to you truthfully that he cannot guard himself before strikes, and may therefore not come to strikes, etc.

Item, drive the Doubling thus: When he hews to you from his right shoulder, then likewise hew also from your right with him, strongly above in to the head. If he then parries the hew with strength, then drive up quickly with the arms and thrust your pommel under your right arm with your left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed arms) behind his sword’s blade on the head, etc.

Item. Or if you have bound on his sword with the long edge from your left side, then drive quickly up with the arms and remain standing at the sword, and strike in behind his sword’s blade with the short edge on the head.

Item, the Mutating to the right side. When you hew in strongly above from your right shoulder and you bind with the long edge on his sword, then drive up quickly with the arms and remain thus standing at the sword;[24] if he parries and is Soft in the sword, then Wind the short edge on his sword on your left side, and drive up well with the arms and hang the point above over his sword, and drive the arms[25] therewith and stab in to the other opening, etc.

Item, the Mutating to the left side. Or if you hew in from the left side with the long edge bound[20] on his sword, then drive up with the arms and remain with the same edge standing on the sword, and wind yet the short edge over his sword, and drive well up with the arms, and hang the point in above over his sword, and drive there well with the arms, and stab him to the lower opening of his left side.[26] Thus you may drive the two techniques from all hewing hereafter as you find the Weak and Strong of the sword, etc.

The Crooked-hew with its techniques

42 Crooked on nimbly,
 Throw the point on the hands.
43 Whoever sets well Crooked
 With steps injures many hews.

Know that the Crooked-hew is one of the Four Forfendings against the Four Guards.[27] When therewith one Wars [against] the Ox and also the Over- and the Under-hew,[28] then drive thus: when you come to the man[29] with the the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you and holds his sword before the head in the guard of the Ox on his left side, then set your left foot before [you] and hold your sword on your[30] right shoulder in the guard, and from the guard, spring with the right foot well on the right side, and strike him over his hands with the long edge (with crossed arms), etc.

Another

Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your[31] left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew[32] with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.

Item, position yourself thus with the Barrier-guard to your left side: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your[33] right foot forward and hold your sword with the point near your left side on the earth with crossed hands, so that the short edge on the sword is above, and give an opening with the right side. If he then hews you to the opening, then step well with the left foot from the hew on your left side, and strike him with the step with the short edge[34] over his hands, etc.

44 Hew Crooked to the flat,
 If you will weaken the masters.
45 When it clashes above,
 Then stand off, that will I praise.

Mark, this technique you shall drive against the masters from the bind of the swords,[35] and mark it thus: when you come to the man[36] with the pre-fencing, then lay your sword to your right side in the Barrier-guard, or hold it on your nearest shoulder. If he then hews above to your opening, then hew strongly with the long edge (with crossed arms) against his hew, and as quickly as the swords clash together, then wind Meanwhile with the sword against your left side and drive up with the arms, and stab in to the upper opening. Or, if you will not stab him, then mark as quickly as it clashes, [and] then hew him Meanwhile with the short edge to the head and to the body, etc.

46 Crooked not, hew short;
 Show changing-through therewith.

This is a counter against the guard of the Ox, drive it thus: when you come[37] to the man with the pre-fencing, if he then stands in the guard and holds his sword on his left side before the head, then throw your sword on your right shoulder[38] and do as if you will bind on his sword with the Crooked-hew, and hew short and change through below therewith, and shoot the point long in to the other side to the opening, so he must parry. Therewith you come to strikes (and to other work with the sword).

Also, you may make this technique when he hews to you with an Over-hew from his right shoulder.

47 Who errs you Crooked,
 The Noble War strays him
48 [So] that he does not know truthfully
Where he is without danger.

Mark, when you drive the Crooked-hew then you must always give an opening therewith, and that means thus: when you hew in with the Crooked-hew from your right side (or bind on his sword), you are meanwhile open with the left side. Thus, if he is then clever and will hew you from the sword to the opening, and will make you astray with agility; then remain with your sword on his and follow after his hew thereon, and wind the point in Meanwhile to the face, and work in further with the War to the openings, so he truthfully does not know whatever end he should guard or protect[39] himself on before your hews or before your[40] stabs.

The Thwart-hew with its techniques

49 Thwart takes
 What comes From the Day.

Mark, the Thwart-hew breaks the guard From the Day (and all hews that come hewn down From the Day above), and drive the Thwart-hew thus: when you go with the pre-fencing to the man, if he then stands against you and holds his sword with arms up-stretched over himself (high over his[41] head in the guard) and waits on you, then mark when you come near to him. Then set your[42] left foot forward and hold your sword with the flat on your right shoulder. If he then steps to you and threatens to strike you, then come Before [him] and spring with the right foot well on your right side, and in the spring, turn your sword with the hilt before your head (so that your thumb comes below), and strike him with the short edge to the left side of his head, etc.

Item, when he comes ere [you] with the Over-hew, then step with your right foot on his left and strike to him with the Thwart-hew in the Strong of his blade, so his hew is parried; Meanwhile, thrust the pommel on your right side with your left hand, up near you, so you strike him on the left ear. Or, you may Double while you have Thwarted him on his Strong. Or, if he is thus so Strong that you may come to naught, then thrust his sword away with the hilt, and strike around on your right side and seek the other opening.

Item, but if he comes Before with the hew ere you do, then spring with the right foot with the previously-described parrying from the hew, well on your right side, and strike him with the Thwart (as is previously stated).

Item, a counter against upper and lower Thwart strikes.

When one has bound in on your[43] sword with an Over-hew and strikes the Thwart around above or below, then remain with the hilt before your head and always turn your sword and stab in with your point to the nearest opening. So it goes from both sides.

Item, when one binds on you with a free Over-hew and hews the lower Thwart-hew to your right side, then remain standing thus and lay in the short edge on his neck.

50 Thwart with the Strong;
 Mark your work therewith.

Mark, this is when you hew to him with the Thwart, which you shall do with strength. If he then parries, then drive up with the Strong of your sword after the Weak of his sword.[44] You then seize his Weak with the Strong, [and] then work with the Mutating in over his sword to the lower opening, or above to the neck. If you cannot come to there, then work from the Doubling behind his sword (with the strike to the head), etc.

Item,[13] if he is too strong for you with the parrying (so that you may not come to the technique), then thrust his sword away with the hilt and strike him with the Thwart to the other side. Or if he will run in on you, then take the Slice under his arms, etc.

Item, when you will make the Thwart-hew on his left side, then do not hit, and strike nimbly on his right side. If he then strikes to your right, then slice Meanwhile strongly into his hands, in the wrist of his right hand. That goes to both sides.

51 Thwart to the Plow,
 To the Ox, hard joined.
52 Whatever you Thwart well,
 With springing endanger the head.

Mark, you have heard before how the Ox and the Plow are named two Leaguers or two Guards, so here they are called the[20] Four Openings. The Ox, that is the upper two openings on the right and left side of the head. So is the Plow the lower two openings, also the right and the left side, of the lower half of the girdle of the man. And you shall strike these openings with the Thwart in the pre-fencing, seeking all four.


Item,[45] here mark the Thwart strike to the Four Openings, etc.

Item, when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you in the guard From the Day, then spring with the right foot against him (well on your right side), and strike him above with the Thwart to the Ox on his left side with full art. If he parries you,[20] then strike[46] him quickly below to the Plow on his right side, and then quickly drive the Thwart-strike further, always one to the Ox, the other to the Plow, crosswise from one side to the other, to the head and to the body,[47] etc.

Item, you shall also remember that you shall always spring-out widely on a side with each Thwart-strike, so that you may hit[48] him to the head therewith, and meanwhile see that you are well-guarded above with the hilt before your head.

53 Failer misleads.
 From below it hits as you wish.

Mark, the Failer is a technique that becomes planned by the fencer and therewith hits as he wishes, and strikes those that like to parry and those that hew to the sword and not to the openings of the body.

Another

Item, drive the Failer thus, when you come to the man[49] with the pre-fencing, then hew the Under-hews from both sides. If you then come on him with an Under-hew from your right side, then shoot in[20] the point therewith long in to the breast, so he must parry. Then spring quickly with the left foot on his right side, and do as if you will strike him thereto, but pull the hew and strike quickly around again to the left side with the Thwart. Or,[50] if you come before the left side with the Under-hew on him, then shoot in the point yet long, and drive the driving as it stands before in the nearest description, etc.

54 Inverter forces
 Running-through, also with wrestling.
55 The elbow take knowingly,
 Spring in his balance.

Mark, you shall covertly bring the Inverter[51] in the pre-fencing, when you force the man therewith so that you may Run-through him and correctly grasp him with wrestling.

Item, drive the Inverter thus: When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, and have gone the half,[52] then go the other half further to him, each[53] with the left foot before, and hew a free Under-hew from the right side in accordance with each step forward,[54] according to the left foot, and with the hew, so Invert (or[55] turn the long edge of[56] the sword always above). And as quickly as you bind him on his sword therewith, then hang the point in above Meanwhile and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and drives high up with the arms, then Run-through him. Or, if he remains low with the hands in the parrying, then grip his right elbow with the left hand, and hold fast, and spring with the left foot in front of his right, and thrust him thus thereover.

Item, and how[57] when you shall Run-through, that you will find hereafter described in the technique that speaks "Run-though, let hang with the pommel if you will wrestle."[58]

56 Failer twofold.
 If it hits, then make with the Slice.
57 Twofold further,
 Step in left and be not lax.

Mark, this is called the Twofold Failer, and drive[59] it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you,[60] then spring against him with the right foot well out on your right side, and do as if you will hew him with a free Thwart strike to his left side to the[61] head, but pull the hew, and spring with the left foot well around him to his right side, and strike him with the Thwart to his[62] head. If he parries you[45] and you hit his sword, then step away to[63] the same side near him, and slice him behind his sword's blade with the short edge, with the Doubling in the mouth. Or fall in with the sword over both arms and slice.[64] Drive that to both sides. You may also likewise drive the Failer from the Over-hew as from the Thwart strike, if that is what you wish, etc.[65]

The Squinter-the with its techniques

58 Squinter breaks in
 Whatever Buffalo strikes or stabs.
59 Who threatens to Change,
 Squinter robs him therefrom.

Know that the Squinter is a strange, good, serious[13] technique, when it breaks in with power, with hew and with stab, and goes ahead with inverted sword. Therefore many masters of the sword[66] know nothing to say of the hew. And also [it breaks] the guard that is called the Plow.

Item, drive the Squinter thus: when you come with the pre-fencing to the man, then set your[67] left foot fore and hold your sword on your right shoulder. If he then hews you from above to your head, then turn your sword and spring ahead with the right foot, and hew long against his hew with the short edge, with arms stretched over his sword in[13] to his face or his[13] breast. If he then is thus clever and Fails with the hew and Changes-through below your sword, then remain with long arms with the point before his face so he may not harm you, nor come through below, etc.

Item, another technique:

When you stand against him and hold your sword on your right shoulder, if he then stands against you in the guard of the Plow and threatens to stab you below, then hew him[13] long from the Squinter, with the short edge in above, and shoot in the point to his face or breast, so he may not reach you below with the stab, etc.

Another item

When you stand against and have your sword on your right shoulder, if he stands then against you in the guard of the Plow and threatens to stab you below, then turn your hew in with the short edge, long in above, so he may not reach you below with the stab.[68]

60 Squint that he is short on you,
 Changing-through defeats him.

This is a lesson, that when you go ahead with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with your face or see if he fights you short, and the shortening of the sword is undertaken thus: when he does not lengthen the arms with his[69] hew, then he is shortened. If you lie in the guard Fool,[70] if he will fall thereon with the sword, so is he[20] but shortened. If he fights against you from the Ox or from the Plow, that is also short, and all Windings before the man, they are all short,[71] and such fencers shall you then Change-through. Therewith you compel them that they must parry, so then[13] you may freely hew and work with the sword, and also with wrestling, etc.

Item, another lesson

When you go to him with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with the face if he fights short against you. You shall thus discern if, when he hews, he does not stretch the arms before himself long from him with the hew, then is his sword shortened. And [against] all fencers that so fight short,[72] Change-through freely then from hews and from stabs with the Longpoint, therewith you beset them on the sword so that they must let you[73] come to bind on[74] them and allow you to strike.

61 Squint to the point,
 Take the neck without fear.

Mark, this is a technique against the Longpoint with a betrayal of the face, drive it thus: when you come to the man[75] with the pre-fencing, if he then stands and holds his[76] point against your face or breast,[77] then hold your sword on your right shoulder and squint with the face to the point, and do as if you will hew in thereto, and hew strongly with the Squinter (with the short edge on his sword), and shoot in the point long therewith to the neck with a step forward of your right foot, etc.

62 Squint to the upper
 Head, if you will ruin the hands.

Item, when he stands against you in the Longpoint, if you will then strike over his hands, then squint in to his face and to his head and do as if you will strike him thereupon, but strike him then with the Squinter, with the point on his hands, etc.

56 Failer twofold
 Hit one then slice with might
57 Twofold it further
 Step in left and be not lax
[78]

This is how you shall drive the failer twofold to both sides. And undertake that thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on your[79] the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you, then spring against him[50] well out with the right foot on your[80] right side, and do as if you[81] will hew a free Over-hew to his left side to his head. If he drives then before with the parrying, then pull the hew again up and spring quickly with the left foot well around the man to his right side, and in the spring but do as if you will strike to the right side,[82] and fore-pull and spring again with the right foot around him on his left side and strike to the same side freely with one. Meanwhile, if he will attack after the opening, then fall in with the long edge in the arms with the edge[83] and press from you.

And you shall know to drive from both sides, and that may you drive from the Thwart strike.

The Parter with its techniques

63 The Parter,
 With its turn,
64 Is, to the face
 And the breast, quite a danger.
65 Whatever comes from him,
 The Crown takes that off.
66 Slice through the Crown,
 So you yet break it.
67 Press the strike.
 With Slicing you pull-off.

Know that the Parter breaks the guard Fool, and is very dangerous to the face and the breast with its turn, etc.

Item, drive the Parter thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he[84] lies in the guard Fool, then set the left foot forward and hold your sword with outstretched arms high over your head in the guard From the Day, and spring to him with the right foot, and hew with the long edge strongly down from above, and remain high with the arms and sink in the point below you to his face or breast. If he then parries with the Crown (that the point and the hilt[85] on his sword both stand over him thus), and drives up therewith and thrusts your point over you,[86] then turn your sword under through his Crown with the edge in his arm, and Press so the Crown is again broken, and with the Pressing take the edge and pull yourself off therewith, and step near to him when he again parries.[87]

Item, when you will make the Parter-hew on someone, then may you allow the long point to go through him, under his hands, to his face (on his right side and stretched in long).

The Four Leaguers follow hereafter

68 Four Leaguers alone
 Therefrom you hold, and[88] curse the common.
69 Ox, Plow, Fool,
 From the Day, are not unpleasant to you.

Mark, these Four Leaguers, they are the Four Guards that you shall fence from. The first guard is called the Ox, etc.

Of the Oxen

Position yourself in the Ox thus: stand with the left foot in front and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front[89] of the head, so that the short edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against the face, etc.

Item, position yourself on the left side in the Ox thus: stand with the right foot before and hold your sword on your left side with the hilt in front of the head, so that the long edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against his face. And[11] that is the Ox from both sides.

Of the Plow

Item, the second guard is called the Plow. Position yourself with[13] it thus: set the left foot fore and hold your sword under you with crossed hands on your right side, with the pommel near your right hip, so that the short edge is above and the point stands before you against the face of the man, etc.

Item, on the left side position yourself in the Plow thus: set the right foot fore and hold your sword under you near your left side, on your left hip, so that the long edge is turned above and the point stands upwards against the face of the man.

Of the Fool

Item, the third guard is called the[45] Fool. And position yourself with[13] it thus: set the left foot in front and hold your sword before you with stretched arms, with the point on the earth and so that the short edge is above, etc.

Of the guard From the Roof

Item, the fourth guard is called From the Day. Position yourself with it thus: set the left foot in front and hold your sword high over your head with outstretched arms, and turn the long edge in front, and let the point hang backward a little, and stand thus in the guard, etc.

Of the Four Forfendings

70 Four are the Forfendings
 That sorely injure the Leaguers.
71 Guard yourself before parrying,
 If it happens, it hurts you more.

Mark, you have heard before of the Four Guards, so you shall now know that there are the Four Forfendings with which you shall break the Four Guards. Know that no parrying pertains thereto since four hews break the Four Guards.

Item,[90] the first is the Crooked-hew, which breaks the guard of the Ox.

Item,[90] the second, that is the Thwart-hew, which breaks the guard From the Day.

Item,[90] the third, that[13] is the Squinter-hew, which breaks the guard of the Plow.

Item,[90] the fourth is the Part-hew, which breaks the guard that is called the[45] Fool.

And how shall drive the correct technique of the four hews against the guards, you will find that described before in the hews. Therefore guard yourself before parrying against the guards, if you will not become oppressed by others with strikes, etc.

72 If you are parried,
 Mark how that comes there.
73 Hear what I teach:
 Wrench off quickly with threat.

Mark, this is[91] when he has parried you and will not draw off from the sword, and he means to let you come to no technique: then do as if you will draw off from the sword, and pull your sword [to] you to half the blade, and drive the sword quickly up therewith and hew him quickly with the short edge, or with the Doubling, to the head.

Item, another.

When he has parried you, then wrench up over you with your sword on his sword's blade, against his point (as if you will take off above). Then remain on the sword and hew him simply on the blade, in[73] against his head, etc.

The Setting-on

74 Set on four ends.
 Remain thereon, if you will end.

Know that the Setting-on is an earnest technique, since it goes to the nearest of the Four Openings and driving it pertains to when you will give a quick end with the sword.

Item, drive the Setting-on thus: When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then lie with the sword in the guard of the Ox or the Plow. If he will then hew you from above or stab to you from his right side, then come before with the Forfending, shoot in the long point to the nearest opening of his left side, and see of you may Set-on him, etc.

Item, or if he then hews in from above from[73] his left side, then come before with the Forfending and shoot in the point long in to the nearest standing opening of his right side, etc.

Item, or if he hews to you up from below from his right side, then shoot in the point long in to the nearest opening of his left side, etc.


Item, or if he hews to you up from below from his left side, then shoot the point long in to the[92] lower opening of his right side, and see the Setting-on therewith always. If he becomes aware of the shooting in and parries, then remain with the sword on his, and work quickly[93] to the nearest opening, etc.

Item. You shall also know as soon as you both come together in the onset, and as soon as he lifts up his sword and will strike-around, you shall immediately fall into the point and thrust to the nearest opening. But if he will not go with the sword, then you yourself shall go with your sword, and as soon as (or every time as) you end a strike, fall Meanwhile into the point every time. If you can execute the setting-on correctly, then he must balance or shift himself hard. It must allow you a wound.

The Traveling-after

75 Learn traveling-after twofold
 Or slice in the weapon.
76 Two Outer Conducts,
 The work thereafter begins.
77 And test the driving
 If they are Soft or Hard.

Item, mark the Travelings-after are many and[94] multiple, and pertain to driving with great prudence against the fencers that fence from free long hews,[95] and otherwise do not hold[96] the right Art of the Sword, etc.

Item, the first technique from the Traveling-after

Drive it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot forward and stand in the guard From the Day, and see well even that which he fences against you. If he then hews in[13] long from his right shoulder, then do not parry him, and wait so that he does not reach you with the hew. Then mark while his sword goes below you against the earth, [and] then spring to him[97] with the right foot, and hew him above in to the opening of his right side ere[73] he comes up again. So he is struck, etc.

Item, another technique.[98]

When he forehews at you and you hew after him, if he then drives quickly up with the sword[99] and parries, then remain strongly with the long edge on his sword. If he then lifts upwards with the sword, then spring with the left foot well behind his right, and strike him with the Thwart (or such) to the right side of his head, and work quickly around to his left side with the Doubling (or such with other techniques) thereafter, if you find he is Hard or Soft[100] on the sword. And that is the Outer Conduct, etc.

Item, yet another technique.

When he forehews in front of you and you hew after him, if you then bind on his sword against[13] his left side, and he then strikes quickly around with the weapon[101] from the parrying to your right side, then come in Meanwhile ahead with the Thwart before, under his sword against his left side [and] on his neck. Or, spring with the left foot on his right side[102] and strike or[103] hew after his hew to the right side. Or, drive the slice in over his arm to the head, etc.

Item, yet a Traveling-after.[98]

When you fight against him from Under-hewing or from Slashing, or you lie against him in the guard Fool, if he then falls with the sword on yours ere you then come up,[104] then remain thus below on the sword, and lift upwards. If he will then hew you from the parrying or Wind-in on[105] the sword, then let him not come off from the[106] sword, and follow after him thereon, and work therewith to the nearest opening.

Another

Item, mark, you shall Travel-after him from all guards and from all hews as quickly as you can, when he forehews in front of you or opens himself with the sword.

78 The Feeling learn;
 The word[107] "Meanwhile", that slices sorely.

Know that, on[108] the sword, the Feeling[109] and the word "Meanwhile" are the greatest Art. And whoever is a Master of the Sword, or wants to be, and[13] he cannot Feel and cannot undertake[110] the word "Meanwhile", so is he not a Master, [rather] he is a Buffalo of the Sword. Therefore you shall, before all things, learn the word "Meanwhile" and the Feeling well.

Item,[106] mark[111] the Feeling thus: When you come with him to the pre-fencing, and one binds the other on the sword, then Meanwhile, as the swords clash together, you shall Feel with the hand if he has bound on Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you Feel[112] Soft or Hard, then think on the word "Meanwhile", that is, that you shall work quickly with the sword in the Feeling, so he becomes struck ere[113] you are.

Item, now you shall know that Feeling and the word "Meanwhile" may not be one without the other, and undertake that thus: when you bind him[13] on his sword, then you must Feel Soft or Hard with the word "Meanwhile". And when you Feel, then you must yet work Meanwhile. Thus are they always by one another, since the word "Meanwhile" is in all techniques.

Mark[114] that thus:

Meanwhile Doubles,
Meanwhile Mutates,
Meanwhile Changes-through,
Meanwhile Runs-through,
Meanwhile takes the Slice,
Meanwhile wrestles with,
Meanwhile[115] takes the sword.[116]
Meanwhile does whatever your heart desires.

"Meanwhile" is a sharp word by which all masters become sliced, and they do not know or understand the word "Meanwhile" from previously, etc.

79 Travel-after twofold.
 Make with the Old Slice.

This is that you shall drive the Traveling-after to both sides, and also[13] bring the slice therein, and undertake that thus: when he forehews in front of you, be it from the right side or from the left side,[117] then hew in cheerfully after the opening. If he then drives up and binds you below on the sword, then mark as quickly as one sword on the other clashes, then fall in Meanwhile with the long edge in his arm, and press with the edge downwards, or slice him after the mouth, etc.

The Over-running

80 Whoever overcomes,[118]
 Over-run, then he becomes ashamed.
81 When it clashes above,
 So strengthen, that do I[50] praise.
82 Make your work,
 Or press twofold.

This is how you shall Over-run him when one fights to you from[13] below; undertake that thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he then hews below to you, do not parry that, but mark when his Under-hew goes against you, then hew him from your right shoulder long from above and shoot in the point long to his face or to[20] the breast, and set on him so that he cannot reach you below. And if he then drives up from below and parries, then remain with the long edge strong on the sword, and work quickly to the nearest opening, etc.

Item, mark when you have bound[119] him strongly on his sword, if he then strikes from the parrying around[120] you to the other side, then bind him[50] yet with the long edge strongly on his[121] sword, above to the head, and work to the openings as before. Drive that to both sides, etc.

The Setting-off

83 Learn Setting-off.
 Hew, stab, artfully injure.
84 Whoever stabs on you,
 Your thrust hits and his breaks.
85 From both sides,
 Hit all, if you will step.

Item, mark when you come to him with the pre-fencing: if he then stands against you as if he will stab, then set your left foot forward and lay yourself against him in the Plow to your right side, and give an opening with your left.[122] If he then stabs to the opening, then Wind with your sword on your left side against his stab, the short edge on his sword, and set it off therewith, that[13] your point remains thus[20] standing against him, and step to him with[20] the right foot and stab him Meanwhile to the face or to[106] the breast, etc.

Item, another technique.

When you stand to your right side in the Plow, if he then hews above to your left side[11] to the opening, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew therewith on your left side, the hilt before the[123] head in the Ox, and step ahead with[73] the right foot therewith, and stab in to the face or the[13] breast. And also drive the technique from the Plow on the left side, etc.

Item, you may also drive the Setting-off from Over-hewing and from Under-hewing. When you lie high with the sword and will make the Over-hew, in the hew Wind on your right side in the Ox, then set off hews or stabs to your left side, again in the Ox. Meanwhile stab him always to the face or Double, or make whatever you will. That goes too from both sides.

Item, if you then lie in the Change-hew, then turn your sword in the Plow and set off the hew or stab. Meanwhile work nimbly to the nearest opening with all driving. That goes from both sides.

Of the Changing-through

86 Learn changing-through
 From both sides, sorely with stabs.
87 Whoever binds on you,
 Change-through him; closely slice or find.

Item,[11] know the Changing-throughs are many and multiple, and you may drive them from all hews against the fencers that hew there to[124] the sword, and not to the openings of the man. And you shall learn very well to drive them with prudence, so that one does not Set-on you while you Change-through him.

Item, drive the Changing-through thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then hew in long above[13] to the head. If he then hews[125] against your sword and not to your body, then let your point whisk through[126] below with the hew, before he binds you[13] on the sword, and stab him to the other side. If he then becomes aware of the stab, and quickly drives with the sword after the stab with parrying, then Change-though yet [again] to the other side, and drive then always when he drives after your sword with the parrying to both sides, etc.

Item, yet a Changing-through.

When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set your[127] left foot forward and hold the Long Point against his face. If he then hews you from above or below to the sword, and wants to strike that away or bind[128] thereon, let the point sink underneath and stab to the other side, and do that against all hews, etc.

Item, this technique mark very evenly.

When he has parried you (or has otherwise bound on your sword), if he then holds his point on your sword [but] not against the opening of your body, and lets it go near on the side beside you, then Change-through under[45] him boldly. Or, if he remains with the point before the face or[13] against the opening, then do not Change-through, and remain on the sword and work therewith to his nearest opening; thus he may not Travel-after or Set-on you.

The Pulling

88 Step close in binding,
 The Pulling gives good findings.
89 Pull, he hits, Pull more,
 He finds work that does him woe.
90 And Pull all hits,
 If you will trick the masters.

Know that the Pulling pertains to driving against the masters that bind strongly with the parrying on the sword, and against those who remain standing on the sword and await whether the one before them will hew or withdraw themselves from the sword. If you will then deceive or trick those same masters, then drive the Pulling against them thus: hew him from the right side, strongly above in to the head. If he drives there and will parry, then Pull your sword upon yourself before when he binds thereon, [and] then stab him to the other side, and do that in all hits of the sword, etc.

Item, another Pulling[129]

When he has bound on your sword, if he then stands against you on the sword and waits if you will withdraw from the sword, then do as if you will Pull, but remain on the sword and Pull your sword on you as far as half the blade, and stab in quickly again into the face or the breast. If you do not then[20] hit him correctly with the stab, then work with the Doubling, or otherwise with other techniques which are best.

The Running-through

91 Run-through, let hang
 With the pommel if you will wrestle.
92 Who is strong against you,
 Run-through, therewith mark.

The wrestling in the long sword

Item,[11] mark[106] the Running-through and the wrestling pertain to driving against the masters that like to run in, and drive it thus: when he parries you and drives high up with the arms therewith,[106] and runs in on you and will overwhelm you with strength above, then drive up with the arms and hold your sword over your head (with the left hand by the pommel), and let the blade hang low behind [you], over[130] your back, and run with the head through the arm against[13] his right[131][73] side, and spring with the right foot behind his right, and with the spring, drive in with the right arm against[13] his left side, well around the body, and grasp him thus on your right hip, and throw him down before you on his head, etc.

Item, another wrestling.

When he runs in on you with arms stretched up, and you against him, then Run-through him with the head to his[132] right side, and step with your[133] right foot in front before his right, and drive in with the right arm under his right arm,[11] around through behind his body, and sink down a little,[134] and grasp him on the right hip and throw him behind you. You shall drive these two wrestlings to both sides, etc.

Item, yet[13] another wrestling.

When he runs in on you to your right side[13] and is high with the arms, and you also, then hold your sword in your[135] right[13] hand and thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with your left foot in-front before his right, and drive in with the left arm well around behind his[136] body, and sink down a little, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him before you[137] on the face, etc.

Item, yet another[138] wrestling.

When he runs in on you and is high with the arms, and you also, then you shall hold your sword in your right hand and then[11] thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with the left foot behind his right,[139] and drive with the left arm below through before his breast, in his left side, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him behind you. Drive these two wrestlings also to both sides, etc.

Mark, when he runs into you with the[13] sword, and holds his arms low so that you may not[140] run through him, then drive this wrestling as hereafter described.

Item, when he runs in on you with the sword and holds his hands low, then invert your left hand and grip his right therewith (inwardly between both his hands), and jerk[141] it on your left side therewith, and with the right [hand] strike him over the head with the sword. Or, if you will not strike him, then spring with the right foot behind his left and drive in with the right arm in front or behind around the neck, and thus[13] throw him over your right knee, etc.

Item, yet another wrestling.

When he runs in on you with the sword and is low with the hands, then release your left hand ahead from the sword, and with the right drive in[13] with the pommel outside over his right hand, and press down therewith, and grasp him with the left hand by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and press him thus over.

Item, another wrestling.

When he runs in on you at the sword,[142] then invert your left hand and drive over his right arm therewith, and grip therewith his sword between both hands by the handle, and jerk on your left side. Thus you take his sword.

Item, yet another wrestling.

When he runs in on you with the sword, then let your sword fall, and invert your right hand and grip his right[143] outwardly therewith, and with the left hand[144] grasp him by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and thrust his right hand over your left with the right arm,[145] and lift him upwards therewith. Thus he is locked, and you may thus break the arm or[146] throw [him] before you over the left leg.

The Slicing-off

93 Slice off the hard ones
 From below in both drivings.

That is a counter against the over-binding[147] of your sword, drive that thus. When you fight to him from Under-hews, or from the Strife Hewing, or you lie against him in the guard that is called the[50] Fool, if he falls then with the sword on yours before you then come up with the sword; then remain below on the sword and lift with the short edge fast upwards. If he then presses down fast, then slash below behind[13] you with the sword on his sword's blade, off from his sword, and hew on the sword again quickly into his face, etc.

Item, another.[148]

When you fight to his body[149] with Under-hewing, or lie in the guard Fool, if he then[11] falls with the sword on yours near by the hilt so that his point goes out to your[150] right side, then drive quickly up with the pommel over his sword, and strike him with the long edge to the head. Or, if he binds on your sword to[151] your left side, then drive agilely up with the pommel over his sword and strike him with the short edge to the head. And that is called the Snapping or the Speeding, etc.

94 Four are the Slices,
 Two below, with two above.

Item,[11] mark the Four Slices. The first are the two Overs that pertain to driving against the fencers that like striking around to the other side from the parrying or from the bind of the swords. And counter that[13] before with the slice thus: when he binds on your sword with the parrying or such to your left side, and strikes therewith quickly around with the Thwart[152] or such to your right side, then spring from the hew with the left foot on his[153] right side and fall in with the long edge above over both arms, and press with the slice from you. You shall drive that from both sides, always when he strikes around from the parrying, etc.

Item, the two Under-slices pertain to driving against the fencers that run in with arms stretched up, and drive them thus: When he binds you on your sword, be it with parrying or such, if he then drives high up with the arms and runs in on you to your[154] left side, then turn your sword so that your thumb comes below, with the long edge under his hilt in his arm, and press upward with the slice.

Or, if he runs in on you with arms stretched up to your right side, then turn your sword so that your thumb comes below, with the short edge under his hilt in his arms, and press upwards with the slice. Those are the Four Slices, etc.



95 Turn your edge,
 To escape, press your hands.

That is how you shall change from the Under-slices to the Over-slices, mark that thus. When he runs in on you to your left side with arms stretched up, then turn your sword with the long edge under his hilt in his arms, and press upwards fast, and step therewith on his right side, and Wind through below with the pommel, and come with the sword not[155] from his arms, and turn the sword from[156] the Under-slice to the Over, over his arms with the long edge, etc.

Item, if he runs in to your right side with arms stretched up, then turn your[157] sword with the short edge under his hilt in his arms and press fast upwards, and step on his left side, and with this let your pommel go through below, and turn the sword with the long edge over his arms in the slice, and press from you, etc.

Of the Hangings

96 Two Hanging come
 from one hand from the earth.
97 In all driving
 Hew, stab, Leaguer, Soft or Hard.

Know the Two Hangings from the earth, that is the Plow from both sides, therein you shall also have the Feeling in hewing, and[11] in[106] stabbing, and in the binds of the swords, if he is Soft or Hard therein, etc.

Also you shall know that you shall therefrom drive the Four Windings, and from each single Winding[73][158] particularly a hew, a stab, and a slice, as from the upper Hangings.[73]

Item, the Hanging mark also thus. When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then lay yourself in the Plow or in the Change-hew, be they whatever side is well, then hang your sword’s pommel against the earth and thrust in up from below from the hanging to the face. If he then thrusts the point over you with parrying, then remain thus on the sword and drive up with the pommel and hang in the point above in to the face, and in the two hews you shall always drive with hews, stabs, or slices.

Of the Speaking-Window

98 Speaking-Window make.
 Stand joyfully, see his manner.
99 Who Pulls off before you,
 Strike him quickly so that he snaps.
100 I say truthfully,
 No man protects himself without danger.
101 If you have understood,
 He may not come to strikes.

Item,[11] mark, you have heard before how you shall position yourself before the man with the sword in the Four Guards. So you shall now know that the Speaking-Window is a guard wherein you may stand well, and the guard is the Long Point, that is the noblest and the[106] best ward with the sword. Who can fence correctly therefrom forces the man therewith so that he must allow striking without thinking, and may therefore not well come to strikes, etc.

Item, make the Speaking-Window thus: when you go to the man with the pre-fencing with whatever hew you then come on him, be it an Over or[50] an Under-hew,[159] then let the point always shoot-in long from the arms with the hew, to the face or the[11] breast. Therewith you force him so that he must parry or bind on, and when he has bound-on thus, then remain strong with the long edge on the sword, and stand freely and see his manner; what he will fence further. If he pulls backwards from the sword, then follow after him with your[160] point to the face or the[13] breast. Or, if he strikes from the bind around to the other side, then slice him strongly over the arms, and work in[73] above to the head. Or, if he will not pull off nor strike around, then work with the Doubling or such with other techniques thereafter, as you find if he is Strong or Weak on the sword, etc.

Item, then shall you [make] the Speaking-window, which are two guards from the Long Point, one on the sword, and the other before the man ere when you bind him on his sword or the swords clash together. And it is yet the same, not more than one guard.

Item, I say truthfully that the Long Point is the noblest[11] [and] best[106] ward on the sword, when therewith you compel the man that he must let you strike, and therefore to no strikes may come. Wherefore you shall drive the point in to the man with all hews, to the breast or to the face, and further therefrom drive stab and strike, etc...

Item, mark that is also[11] called a Speaking-Window when you are[13] come close[13] to the man with the pre-fencing. Then set the left foot before, and hold the point long from the arms against the face or the breast ere when you bind him on the sword, and stand joyfully and see what he will fence against you. If he then hews in above, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew in the Ox, and stab him to the face. Or, if he hews to the sword and not to the body, then Change-through[161] bravely and stab in to the other side. Or, if he runs in and is high with the arms, then drive the Under-slice; or if he is low with the arms, then await the wrestling. Thus you may drive all techniques from the arms, whichever is best, etc.

The conclusion of the new[162] epitome

102 Who drives well, and breaks well,
 And finally well accounts,
103 And breaks particularly
 Each of the Three Wounders,
104 Who correctly hangs well,
 And brings therewith Winding,
105 And the eight Windings
 With correct weighing considers.
106 And you each
 The Windings triple, I mean,[163]
107 So they are[164] Twenty-
 And-four pieces only.
108 From both sides
 Learn eight Windings with steps,
109 And prove the driving,
 Not more than Soft or Hard.

This is a lesson and admonition of the Art of the Sword that you therein shall very well judge and meditate on,[165] so that you quickly drive bravely, and correctly drive the counters against his techniques. Thus you shall particularly[13] drive the Three Wounders in each counter, which become explained hereafter. Also you shall know that the Four Hangings are two below and two above: the upper is the Ox, the lower is the Plow, to both sides. And from the Four Hangings you shall bring Eight Windings, and the same Eight Windings[166] you shall thus further[11] contemplate and rightly weigh, so that you shall particularly drive a hew, a stab, and[11] a slice from each Winding. These are the previously described Four Windings, etc.

Item, here[13] mark how you shall drive the Eight Windings from the Four Hangings. The first Over-Hanging has two Windings, drive that thus. When you come to the man[167] with the pre-fencing, then stand on your right side in the Ox. If he then hews in[20] above in to your left side, then Wind against his hew,[168] the short edge on his sword, yet in Ox, and stab him above in to the face. That is the[73] Winding-in. If he sets the stab off to[169] his left side, then remain on the sword, and Wind again on your right side in the Ox, the long edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. That is one[170] Hanging from your right side with two Windings on his sword.

Another

Item, drive the two Over-Hangings yet with two Windings[171] thus. When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then stand on your left side in the Ox. If he then hews above in to your right side, then Wind the long edge on his sword against his hew and stab him above to the face. That is but one Winding. If he sets the stab off against your[172] right side, then remain on the sword and Wind again on your left side in the Ox, the short (?) edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. This is the second[173] Over-Hanging from the[174] left side, yet with two Windings on his sword, etc.

Item, Now you shall know that from the two Under Hangings, that is the Plow from both sides, you shall also drive Four Windings with all your drivings, as from the Overs. These are the Eight Windings. And as often as you Wind, then think in each single Wind particularly on the hew, and[13] on the[175] stab, and on the slice. Thus twenty-four come from the Eight Windings, and from whatever Winding, and against whatever technique, and against whatever hew you shall drive the hew, or the[73] stab, or the slice. You find all that described before in the techniques,[176] etc.

  1. "the hew" omitted from the Salzburg.
  2. S. "right-side foot".
  3. Mair: "If he comes then onto your sword with the strong".
  4. Liechtenauer's verse has in der rechten, "on the right", here, but it has been changed in all copies except the Salzburg and the Rostock.
  5. A. "or"
  6. S. "art or fencing".
  7. S., R. "before"
  8. S. "crooked hew"
  9. S. "thwart hew"
  10. Mair: "twelve"
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 Word omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.
  12. S. "peasant hew".
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 13.20 13.21 13.22 13.23 13.24 13.25 13.26 13.27 13.28 13.29 13.30 13.31 13.32 13.33 13.34 13.35 13.36 13.37 Word omitted from the Salzburg.
  14. Mair: "This is a lesson on when".
  15. "with a" omitted from Rostock.
  16. Mair adds "not", making it "after the Soft and not after the Hard".
  17. "The lower opening" is omitted in Mair, shortening it to "to the left side".
  18. "And you shall... with the other" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of also soltu das.
  19. Couplet 104, part of the group 102-109.
  20. 20.00 20.01 20.02 20.03 20.04 20.05 20.06 20.07 20.08 20.09 20.10 Word omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.
  21. "of the man… of the girdle" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of der gürttell.
  22.  "To you truthfully" effaced from the Augsburg by damage to the page.
  23. "of the sword" omitted from the Salzburg.
  24. "and you bind with… standing on the sword" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.
  25. "with the arms… and drive" omitted from the Rostock. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of den armen.
  26. "And wind yet… and stab him" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.
  27. Here Salzburg segues into Sigmund ain Ringeck's gloss of the same verse describing how the Crooked hew is used as a counter-cut: "This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands, and execute the play thus: When he cuts from your right side with the over- or under-cut, spring away from the cut with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him with outstretched arms with the [point] upon his hands."
  28. Literally "boar" (eber) in Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair, probably due to a scribal error from über. Rostock further changes this to alber.
  29. A. "him"
  30. A., M. "the"
  31. A, M: "the
  32. "the hew" omitted in Mair.
  33. A., M., R. "the"
  34. "with the short edge" omitted from the Salzburg.
  35. S. "bind of the sword hews".
  36. A., R. "him".
  37. A., M., S. "go"
  38. "the head, then throw your sword on" omitted from Mair. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from dem to dein.
  39. Augsburg and Mair just have "protect".
  40. "before your" omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.
  41. A., M., R. "your"
  42. A., M., R. "the"
  43. Lit. "his".
  44. "after the Weak of his sword" omitted from Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of Schwerts.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 Word omitted from the Augsburg, Rostock, and Mair.
  46. Salzburg and Rostock double "schlag".
  47. "and to the body" omitted from the Salzburg.
  48. A. treffen, S. griffen.
  49. A., M., R. "him"
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 50.5 Word omitted from the Rostock.
  51. M. "you shall bring the Inverter with extended arms".
  52. A., S., R. "when you are gone half to him with the pre-fencing"
  53. A., M., R. "each and every"
  54. Mair has "from the right side, in accordance with the right side, in accordance with each step forward", which is probably scribal error of duplication, where the scribe repeated a line of text.
  55. A., M. "and"
  56. A. "on"
  57. A., M. "when"
  58. Couplet 91.
  59. S. has vier oder trieb, which should perhaps be read as fahr oder treib, "drive or drive".
  60. Scribal error in S. and R., replacing "even to you" with "above".
  61. S. "to his"
  62. A. "to the"
  63. M. "with"
  64. "and slice" omitted from the Salzburg.
  65. "if that is what you wish" omitted from the Salzburg.
  66. "of the sword" omitted in Mair.
  67. A., R. "the"
  68. "with the stab" omitted from the Rostock.
  69. A., M., R. "the"
  70. A., M., R. aber: "yet"; this seems to be a misspelling of alber.
  71. "and all Windings... are all short" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of kurtz vnd.
  72. "that so fight short" omitted from Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping from fechtern to fechten.
  73. 73.00 73.01 73.02 73.03 73.04 73.05 73.06 73.07 73.08 73.09 73.10 Word omitted from Mair.
  74. A., M. anwind: "wind on".
  75. A., M., R. "him".
  76. S. "your"
  77. R. "the breast".
  78. These verses are glossed previously, as the Rostock indicates (see the next note), but with a significantly different play.
  79. A., M., R. "the"
  80. R. "his"
  81. "as if you" omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.
  82. Rostock ends here with the statement (written in Latin) "Previously in the chapter Vom Feler", which is odd because this is the exact point when the text ceases to bear any resemblance to the earlier version in that chapter.
  83. "in the arms with the edge" omitted from Mair and the Rostock. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from schneiden to schnitt.
  84. S. "he then".
  85. S. "the one hilt".
  86. S. "thrusts your point up".
  87. Clause omitted from the Augsburg, Mair, and the Rostock.
  88. Word omitted in the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair.
  89. Augsburg doubles the phrase "and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front". This is probably a scribal error in which the scribe's eye jumped to the wrong line.
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 Word omitted from the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair.
  91. "this is" omitted in the Augsburg, the Rostock, and the Mair.
  92. M. "his"
  93. A. "quickly there".
  94. "many and" omitted in Mair; Augsburg omits "many" and just says "are and multiple".
  95. "that fence from free long hews" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of fechten.
  96. "do not hold" omitted from the Salzburg.
  97. "to him" omitted from the Salzburg and Mair. Rostock just has "to".
  98. 98.0 98.1 Title is repeated in Mair.
  99. M. "if he the drives his sword quickly upward".
  100. M. "Soft or Hard".
  101. A. zwer: "thwart".
  102. "on his neck... on his right side" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping from to the second instance of seiten.
  103. "Strike or" omitted from the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Rostock.
  104. S., R. "ere when you come up"
  105. S. "to"
  106. 106.0 106.1 106.2 106.3 106.4 106.5 106.6 106.7 Word omitted from the Augsburg and Mair.
  107. "The word" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.
  108. A., R. "in"
  109. Salzburg doubles "the feeling".
  110. "Feel and cannot undertake" omitted from the Salzburg. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from one instance of nicht to the next.
  111. S. "work".
  112. S., R. entphindest: "perceive".
  113. S., R. "ere when".
  114. M. "undertake"
  115. Word doubled in the Salzburg.
  116. S. "word".
  117. S. "right or left side".
  118. S. "Whoever aims below", which matches the standard Recital. R. "whoever winds below", which might represent an intermediate change between these two readings.
  119. S. bindest gebünde~.
  120. M. "under"
  121. S. "his"
  122. M. "left side"
  123. S. "his"
  124. S. "after".
  125. R. "hews you"
  126. S., R. "change through"
  127. S. "the"
  128. S., R. "wind".
  129. S. "Technique".
  130. R. "on"
  131. Word doubled in the Augsburg.
  132. S. "your"
  133. A., R. "the"
  134. "down a little" omitted from the Salzburg.
  135. A., M., R. "the"
  136. A., S., R. "the"
  137. "before you" omitted from the Salzburg.
  138. S., R. "a"
  139. M. "rightful"
  140. Word doubled in Mair.
  141. S. dring.
  142. "at the sword" omitted from the Salzburg.
  143. M. "rightful"
  144. Word omitted from the Augsburg, the Salzburg, and the Rostock.
  145. "and thrust... the right" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of siner rechte~.
  146. R. "but"
  147. S., M., R. "over-winding"
  148. S., R. "Another wrestling".
  149. A., M. "him".
  150. A. "his"; M. "the".
  151. M. "on"
  152. S. "weapon".
  153. S. "your".
  154. M. "with his"
  155. A. "with".
  156. S. "on"
  157. S. "his".
  158. "and from each single Winding" omitted from the Salzburg. This is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of winden.
  159. S. "be it Over-/Under-hew".
  160. A., S., R. "the"
  161. R. "change"
  162. R. "correct"
  163. "I mean" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.
  164. "So they are" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair.
  165. S., R. "meditate and judge"
  166. "and the same Eight Windings" omitted from Mair. This is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of winden.
  167. A., M., R. "him".
  168. M. "against his hew oppositely"
  169. S., R. "against".
  170. S., R. "the one"
  171. M. "hangings"
  172. A. "his".
  173. M. "another"
  174. S., R. "your".
  175. "on the" omitted from Mair.
  176. "in the techniques" omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.