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Sigmund ain Ringeck/Stephen Cheney 2020
1. Hunt from your chest to his right hand
2. Turn around with the horse / pull his right hand with your left
3. With brushing, takes saddle rim / or weapon
4. Plant high, swing, go through, or break sword
5. The compelling, goes before all hits, hewing, stabbing
6. Grip at the strong with both hands
7. Here one begins to search for the tasset hew
8. Turn the right hand to him, set your point to his face
9. Defend against the stab, turn to it, catch his right hand in the left
10. Press firmly, shove from the reins and search for his knife
11. Search for the opening, arms, leather, glove, under the eyes
12. With empty hand, learn to sweep against all weapons
13. The sheep hold defends against all holds, wrestle under eyes
14. At the length, turn around, so the horse hurries back
15. In the near, catch the hand, invert his face, there is the nape
16. Catch the weapon, in the length, when riding against
17. Hunt to the right hand, with your art
18. If you hunt left, fall upon the sword’s pommel, bash under eyes
19. Plant the point against the face
20. Compel against all hits, which always will be
21. The strength in the wielding, correctly arrange yourself in it
22. This is now the spear, run it to the other encounters under eyes
23. The unnamed hold takes weapon or fells him
24. If one hunts you from both sides, turn around left, so he comes right
25. Take the knife, and think about holding
26. Grip over whoever attacks you, or do to him when riding against
Here begins Master Johannes Liechtenauer’s mounted fencing, which he has allowed to be written with obscure and disguised words, which is interpreted and glossed here in this book, so that any fencer may well hear it, if he can otherwise fence.
This is the text
|1||Direct your spear|
Against riding, make useless
Gloss: Note, this is when you have a lance, and another also has one, and wants to ride together with you, you shall therefore know to arrange yourself with your lance so that, with it, you divert his and hit him with the stab, and he does not hit you, and you shall know to drive the plays with the lance from two guards, which will be named to you hereafter.
The 21st figure speaks about this: The strength in the wielding, etc.
This is the text about the play from the first guard
|2||If it recommends|
Your end to him, unbuckle
Gloss: Note, this is the play from the first guard: When you ride together with him, hold your lance under the arm to the stab, and when it comes to the meeting, do as if it is too heavy for you, and let it sink with the point low forward against your left side. If he then rides upon you with a stab, raise up your lance upwards with strength at his, so you hit him, and he does not hit you, because his lance goes away next to the side.
The first figure speaks about this: Hunt from the chest, etc.
This is the play from the second guard
Note, when you ride together with him, hold your lance with both hands in the middle in front of you athwart on the saddle bow. If he then rides upon you with a stab, then strike his lance away with the front part of your lance onto your right side from you, and wind your lance with it under your right arm, so you hit him and he does not hit you.
The 17th figure speaks about this: Hunt to the, etc.
This is the text
|3||Hew in, don’t draw|
From scabbard jolt to him left
|4||Grip to his right|
So you catch him without fencing
Gloss: This is if both fail with the lance while riding, let yours fall from your hand, and draw neither sword nor knife, and ride to him, and turn yourself with your left side to his right, and drive the wrestles described hereafter:
Item: When you come with the left side at his right, if he then grips at you with the right hand forward and wants to wrestle, grip his right arm forward by the hand with your right, and drive the unnamed hold, or the secret.
Item: Or, if he has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, grip his right elbow with the left hand, and shove him from you with it, and raise his right foot with your left foot, so he falls.
Or, when you have gripped his right elbow with the left hand, grip his sword pommel with the right, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.
Here note another
This is if you may not come to his right side with the left side, hold yourself with the right at his right. If he then grips to you with wrestling, drive the sheep hold, or the sun showing.
Item: When you come with your right side at his right, if he then has drawn his sword and rises with it and wants to strike, then move with your right arm down from above outwards over his right, and press the arm to the right side, and ride forward, so you take his sword, or rise with the right arm from inwards over his right, and press the arm forward to your chest, and ride forward, so you again take his sword.
The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand…
Item: Grip his right hand with your left and jolt it in front of your chest, and turn your horse from him, so he falls.
Item: Or, grip his right elbow with the right hand, and raise his right foot with your right foot, so he must fall.
The second figure speaks about this: Turn around with the horse, etc.
This is the text
|5||The lance stabbing, fencing|
Learn to break moderately without hurry
Gloss: When someone rides upon you with a lance, you shall quite moderately ride against him, and with hurrying with the horse, so you may make all of his ridings upon you worthless with the previously written plays.
Or, when you hurry or run, you can’t come to the art or to the play, and are similarly insecure on the horse.
The 22nd figure speaks about this: This is now the spear, run, etc.
This is the text about the tasset hew
|6||If it converts itself|
So that sword will be dealt against sword
|7||Correctly grasp the strong|
You search and note the tasset hew
Gloss: This is if you both have come from the lance, and shall fence with swords, lay your sword on the left arm in the guard, and ride directly to him under eyes to his right side. If he then hews an over hew upon you, rise with the sword and parry the hew strongly with the long edge, and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and rises high, hew with the long edge to the left hand, or to the reins, and if the horse tricks you, then hew him to the right leg in the running away.
The 7th figure speaks about this: Here begins, etc.
This is the text
|8||Learn to compel well strong|
All hits without danger, distress him with it
|9||Plant without danger|
Whoever brushes, hang to his hair
Gloss: Note, that is, that you always shall bind on artfully with the sword, be it with hews or with stabs, and don’t withdraw yourself from the sword, and force him with the point to the plays written hereafter.
The 20th figure speaks about this: Compel against, etc.
Item: Assess if you may plant to him with the sword. If he parries onto his left side and rides to you, rise with the pommel from below, through his sword, around his neck, and come with the left to the pommel to help, and jolt him to you onto the side.
The 6th figure speaks about this: Grip at with both hands, etc.
Item: When he parries your hew, move with your crossguard under [his] jawbone, and grip him with the left hand by the helmet, and pull to yourself with it, and shove from you with the crossguard, so he falls.
Item: If he parries your hew or stab, and hurries to you, grip his right hand with the left, and with the right, set your point into his face.
The 8th figure speaks about this: Turn the right hand to him, etc.
The 4th figure speaks about this: Plant high, swing, etc.
This is the text
|10||If you want to touch|
Long hunting, that severely hurts
|11||Whoever wards that|
So wind that, also hurts
|12||If he will continue it|
Catch reins, and let the bit guard
Gloss: Hold your sword next to your right leg in the guard, and ride to him as such, and stab him to the face with long outstretched arm. If he parries the stab, rise with the right hand and wind at the sword, and remain with the point in front of his face.
The 4th speaks about this: Plant high, etc.
Item: If he then parries with the sword and hurries to you, rise with your hand inwards over his right arm, and grip your reins with left inverted hand under his arm, therefore you engulf his hand with the reins.
The 10th figure speaks: Press firm, etc.
Here note the set-asides with the sword on horseback
Note, when you ride to the man, and have your sword in a guard, note to which side he hews to you. If he hews to you from above to your left side, wind also onto your left side against his hew. Or, if he hews to you to your right side, wind also onto your right, so that your thumb always comes under, and with the parry, always set the point into his face, and drive this out against the lance also as such.
The 19th figure speaks about this: Plant the point, etc.
Item: When he parries your hew, if he then remains by you as such, move with the pommel outside over top of his right hand, and shove the hand in front of you with the crossguard to your saddle bow, and with your left, grip his sword’s pommel, and ride forward, so you take his sword.
This is the text
|13||Think about the opening|
Search for knife, don’t ward pommel
Gloss: This is when you shall fence with someone in armor, you shall, before all cases, know to which side you may best defeat him.
Item: That is, under the face, or under the armpit, or outwards on the hand in the glove, or inwards into the hand of the palm, and in all joints of the armor at arms and at legs, and search for all the openings with stabs, and not with strikes.
And if you may not quite work with the sword, when you come too near to him, work with the dagger, and if you may not come to your dagger, then assess if you may take his, and work with it to the opening.
The 11th figure speaks: Search for the opening, arm, leather, etc.
This is the text
|14||Learn two sweeps|
With empty hand against the weapons
Gloss: That is, that you, before all cases, shall know and learn to take, how you shall work with free hand on horseback, and most importantly with the wrestling. Therefore, you shall address the reins as such, so that you may shift from one hand to the other, and therefore search for your advantage with it, and that is the greatest art on horseback.
The 12th figure speaks about this: With empty hand, learn, etc.
This is the text about the sheep hold
|15||The sheep hold teaches|
Whoever turns themselves wrestling to you
|16||As under eyes|
Grip him correctly with striking
Gloss: This is the best wrestling of one on horseback, drive it as follows: When you want to wrestle, ride equally to the man under eyes to his right side, and engage him with wrestling. If he then attacks against you, grip his right arm forward by the hand with your left inverted hand, and jolt it under your chest, and move over it with your right arm, and grip the saddle bow with it, and ride forward, so he must fall.
The 13th figure speaks about this: The sheep hold wards…
This is the text about wrestling
|17||Whoever attacks you|
Against riding, he will be joined
|18||Hanging to the earth|
Over grip him correctly with conduct
Gloss: That is, when you ride together with someone, if he then comes with his right side to yours, and falls with the right arm forward into your neck, move also around his as such, and move with the left hand behind around him, and come with it to your right to help, and jolt him to you onto the side, or strike your right arm above over his right, and throw him with the sheep hold.
Item: When you ride together with someone, if he then comes with his left side to your right, and if he falls with the left hand behind around your neck, rise with the right arm behind you strong over his left, and come with the left hand to the right hand to help, and press his left arm to him tight behind into your nape. If he then swerves with the arm, grip his left hand with the left, and drive the unnamed hold, or the forbidden hold.
Item: Or, if he grips behind around with the left hand and wants to wrestle, strike with the right arm outwards strong down from above into the joint of his left arm, and ride forward.
The 26th figure: Over grip, etc.
This is the text about a lesson
|19||To both sides|
You learn all ridings against him
Gloss: That is, to whichever side you come to the man, you shall hold yourself near to him, and drive the art as follows: If you come upon him with your right side, drive the previous plays, which pertain to the right side. Or, if you come upon him with the left side, drive also what pertains to the left side, so he may not come to his plays.
This is the text to the left side
|20||If you want to ride|
Horse runs to the other side
|21||Compel the strong|
Plant with it, distress
|22||In weapon which is valuable to you|
Wide sword, catch, carry, near the hand hate
Gloss: That is, if you want to ride to someone to his left side, you shall also bind on strong with the sword, be it with hewing or with stabbing, and always aim for the openings with the point, as you have done to the right side. With it, you force him to the plays which pertain to the left side, because there are several plays which one drives to the left side, which one cannot drive to the right.
The fifth figure speaks about this: The compelling, going before all, etc.
Item: That is, when you ride to him to the left side, hew in an over hew strong. If he then also hews in strong and wants to plant to you, you shall parry him while he is far from you with the sword. Or, if he comes near to you, grip his right hand with your left.
The 16th figure speaks: Catch the weapon, etc.
This is the text about a lesson
|23||Or turn around|
Rested, defended to hunting
|24||With all arts|
He hunts, he sends as is good
Gloss: That is, if your horse carries you away in front of him, so that you can drive no play upon him, turn yourself to him to the side, there you may best drive the advantage.
The 14th figure speaks about this: In the length, turn around, etc.
This is the text
|25||If you pass|
And go left against your will
|26||Touch upon your sword|
And wrestle, strike, not firmly
Gloss: That is, if your horse tricks you, or how that happened, that you must ride to his left side against your will, lay your sword upon the left arm. If he then hews to the head, rise with the sword, and parry with the long edge. If you then come near to him with the parry, then move with the left arm over his right hand, and press it firmly as such into your left side, and bash him with the pommel under the face.
The 18th figure speaks about this: If you hunt left, fall upon it, etc.
Or, when you press his right arm into his left side, and ride away next to him, you take his sword. You may also catch with the reins into the hand with the move-over if you want.
Item: When you parry his over hew as is written before, hew in a free over hew above to the head.
Item: When you have your sword on the left arm in the guard, if one then rides upon you with a lance to your left side, rise well with the pommel and let the blade hang to the left side, and set aside his lance with it as such, and hew to his head, or plant to him. Or, if he rides to you with the lance to your right side, sweep straight up with the sword to his lance, and wind into the over hanging, and plant to him.
This is the text
|27||Hunt one to the right|
Half turn around, ward fencing
|28||Catching with arm|
So may no harm near you
Gloss: That is, if you become forced to flee, and you were armed, and have nothing but a sword, and then one plants with the lance behind to your right side, turn yourself out of the stab against him upon your left side, and turn yourself with the sword against his lance, and plant to him. Or, if he plants to you behind to your left side, turn yourself onto your right against him, and wind with the sword as before, and plant to him.
The 24th figure speaks about this: If one hunts you from both sides, etc.
Item: While you flee, you shall also know to nimbly turn yourself around in the saddle from one side to the other, and stab behind you, and set-aside sword and lance to both sides.
Note a nimbleness with the lance
When you are hunted, and have a lance, if someone hunts towards you, and also has one, hold your lance with the right hand on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is nearly behind at you, raise the lance over the head upon your left shoulder, and let your point remain behind you, and turn yourself against him upon your left side, and strike your lance with it under the arm, so you come equally with him under the eyes.
This is the text
|29||The knife taking|
Learn to hold without shame
Gloss: Here note, how [you] shall take his sword or his knife or the dagger: Ride to his right side, and search for the opening, however you may, with hew or with stab. If he parries and comes near to you, grab his right arm behind his right hand with your left inverted hand, and jolt it in front of you, and hold him firmly by it, and bend your left arm outwards at the handle of his sword, so he must drop his sword. And when you hold him by the arm as such, you may strike him with the sword, or throw him with the sheep hold.
The 25th figure speaks about this: The knife taking, etc.
This is about the unnamed hold
Turn the strong, they stab
Destroyed without any reach
Gloss: Note, this is the unnamed hold: When you come to him with the left side, if he then has drawn his weapon and wants to strike you, or grabs you with the right hand in front with wrestling, grab his right arm with your right hand in front by the hand, and jolt it under your chest, and lie yourself upon it with the body, and ride forward, so you break his arm.
Item: If you don’t want to break the arm, when you have jolted him in front of your chest, grab his right elbow with your left hand, and shove him from you with it, and grab his sword by the pommel with your right hand, and jolt to you with it, so you take his sword.
The 23rd figure speaks about this: The unnamed hold, etc.
This is the text about the sun showing
|32||If you want to grapple|
You shall not allow riding next to you
|33||The sun showing|
If you want to bend the left arm
|34||The front head touches|
Against after press very firmly
|35||So that he sinks himself|
And rarely lengthens again on
Gloss: Note, this is the best wrestling of one on horseback. When you ride together with him, if you then come with your right side to his right, hold yourself near to him, and grip behind around him with your left hand, and grab him with it by his left arm, and pull it tight around to you, and with your right hand, grip him below at his jawbone, and shove it firmly at you, upwards up, against his left side, so you turn his face against the sun. With it, you win his momentum, so that he may not hold himself.
Item: Or, if you come with the left side to his right, grab him as before, and throw him behind you onto your left side, and that wrestle is called the sun showing.
The 15th figure speaks about this: In the after, catch the hand, etc.
|36||Whoever aims that|
Grip over, then he will be shamed
|37||Press arm to head|
The grip has often robbed saddle
Gloss: Here note, this is the break against the sun showing. If someone comes with his right side to your right and wants to throw you with the sun showing, note when he grabs you with the right hand at the jawbone, then strike the right arm over his right, and jolt it firmly to your chest, and lie yourself upon it with the body, and ride forwards, so you throw him, or throw him with the sheep hold.
Item: If he comes with his left side to your right and grabs with his left hand behind around you towards your left arm, rise from below backward over his left arm and press him tight behind in the nape. If he then weasels away with the arm, grab his left hand with the left hand, and throw him with the unnamed hold.
The fourth figure speaks about this: Whoever wards the stab, catch to him, etc.
|38||Yet if you want to moderate yourself|
Of the catching, light letting go from you
|39||Then lead wrestling|
Caught without laces
Gloss: Note, this is called the secret wrestle, if you want to make it common, and allow to be evidently seen, drive it as follows: Ride with your left side at his right. If he grips you in front with wrestling, with your right hand, grip his right arm in front by the hand, and jolt it forward, and with the left hand, grip his right elbow, and shove it upwards, and shove his right arm above over the left arm with the right hand, and raise his right arm upwards as such with the left arm. Therefore you have caught him and bound without any bind, and drive this to both sides.
|40||Note the before-hold|
It continually breaks his strength
Gloss: That is, you shall always come before, sooner than he, with the grappling and wrestling which you have heard, and most importantly with the four chief wrestles, with which you let him come to no plays, that is the sheep hold, the unnamed hold, the sun showing, and the secret hold, and of the catches with the reins, you shall not forget with, and when you can do the wrestles well, no one may throw you hard from the horse without harm.
- Original: “streyffen”, modernized “streifen”, to brush, streak, graze, lightly touch.
- Original: “undter augen”, this phrase appears numerous times throughout the text, is likely some kind of idiom or turn of phrase, but not sure exactly what it means.
- Original: “iren”, formal “you”, rather than the informal (dein-) which is almost always used. Could also be “their”.
- Original: “ableyttest,” - “ableiten,” literally to lead away, also to derive, deduce, divert, drain, deflect, channel off.
- “Zu dem treffen,” could be in the sense of the two fencers meeting each other, or one lance connecting to the other, or a lance landing a hit. Context indicates that it is the first for this one.
- “Schaff griff,” the translation “sheep hold” is not conclusive, it may also refer to a type of water carrier that is held in a similar way to the hold. It may also be related to how one would carry a sheep when shearing or otherwise.
- Original: “sytigklich,” or “sittiglich,” at the time meant “moderately” in the sense of slowly or not too fast, modern “sittlich” means morally or ethically.
- Original: “taschn haw.” A “tasset” is a piece of armor that covers the side of the thigh. It is possible that the last part of this hew aims for a gap in the armor on the back of the leg. This translation is not conclusive.
- Original: “auß,” however the Dresden version says “vff” here, and “aus” does not make sense.
- “Zawm,” - “zaum,” literally “bridle,” context continually indicates that they are talking about the reins.
- Original: “ob dich das roß vertrueg,” literally “if the horse make a fool out of you.” Likely means something like if the horse moves in a way that you don’t expect, or if the horse runs away while you’re trying to do something.
- Original: “schütten”.
- Original: “gehultz,” could be modernized to “hilt,” which is a term that could mean multiple parts of the sword today, but they are talking about the crossguard.
- “Stoss,” could also mean push, strike, or bash.
- “Twer,” also often translated as thwart, cross, crosswise.
- The verb is missing in this sentence, in the Dresden version “heng” (hang) is used here.
- “Verschlingst” - “verschlingen,” to devour, engulf, scarf, etc.
- Unclear, could be “when he hews in to you, parry…” Unclear because “hawt” is used instead of “haw,” also the construction of the sentence is not typical. The Dresden version is much clearer that you are the one hewing in and he is parrying.
- “Zu vor auß,” in the sense of bringing something to the forefront.
- Engages - “greyff… an,” (angreiffen), attacks - “velt… an” (anfallen), these words have roughly the same meaning. You are both engaging in wrestling against each other.
- “Aliud,” Latin.
- Likely an error intending “your,” as it is in the previous passage.
- “Gewappent,” - “gewappnet,” wearing armor.
- “Jagen,” to hunt, seems to mean when someone is riding behind another, rather than “gleich” (equally) or “zusammen” (together), when both riders ride toward one another.
- “Muß er das swert fallñ lassñ,” literally “he must let the sword fall.”
- Original: “dich massen,” to measure or moderate yourself, different original word from “moderately” early in the text, which was translated from “sittiglich.”
- Original: “schünre,” translated as “schnüre,” meaning “laces” or “cords.”
- “vier haubt ringñ”