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Pol Hausbuch (MS 3227a)/18r - 40r

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Complete Translation Complete translation
by Thomas Stoeppler

Transcription
by Dierk Hagedorn

This is the general preface of the bare-fencing on foot. Mark this well.

1 Young knight learn
 to love god. Furthermore honor women,
2 Thus cultivate your honor.
 Practice knight-craft and learn
3 Art that decorates you
 and in wars serves well.
4 Wrestling's good grips,
 Glaive, spear, sword and messer,
5 Manfully brandish
 and in other hands ruin.
6 Hew therein and charge there,
 rushing on, joining or driving out.
7 Those maturing in this wisdom,
 this one sees praising.
8 Thereupon you hold,
 all things have length and measure.
i And whatever you wish to conduct,
 shall stay in the realm of good reason.
ii In earnest or in play,
 have a joyous spirit with moderation
iii So that you may pay attention
 and consider with a good spirit
iv Whatever you shall command
 and whip up against him.
v Because a good spirit with authority
 someone's rebuke timid.
vi Thereafter, orient yourself.
 Give no advantage with anything.
vii Avoid imprudence.
 Do not step in front of four or six
viii With your overconfidence.
 Be modest, that is good for you.
ix It is a brave man
 that dares to confront his equal.
x It is not shameful
 to flee four or six at hand.

This is the general lore of the sword

9 If you wish to examine[2] the art.
 Go left and right with hewing.
10 And left with right
 is what you strongly desire to fence.
11 Whoever chases-after hews,
 they allow themselves to hardly enjoy the art.
12 Hew nearby whatever you wish,
 No change comes on your shield.
xi Do not hew to the sword.
 Rather, Constantly watch the openings.
13 To the head, to the body,
 Do not omit the fleshwounds.
14 With the entire body fence
 whatever you desire to conduct strongly.
15 Hear what is bad for that:
 Do not fence from above left if you are right.
16 And if you are left,
 in the right, you are severely hindered.
xii So always prefer to fence
 from above left downwards.
17 Before, after, the two things
 are the one origin of all art.
18 Weak and strong,
 Within, with that mark the word.
19 So you may learn
 to defend yourself with art and work.
20 If you terrify easily,
 never learn any fencing.
xii Audacity and swiftness,
 prudence, astuteness and ingenuity,
xiv Acumen, concealment,
 measure, obscuration, scouting
xv And skill will fencing have
 and carry a joyous spirit.

General gloss hereafter.[3]

First of all, note and know that the point of the sword is the center, the middle and the core of the sword from which all applications go and come back into it. So are the hangings and the windings are the affixing and the revolving of the center and of the core. From them, quite a few good plays of fencing also come. And are invented and conceived so that a fencer, who begins to hew or thrust directly to the point, may not reasonably hit every time; yet they can hit someone with those same plays hewing, stabbing or cutting; with treading off and towards; and with stepping-around or springing. And if one mislaid or mis-extended the point of his sword with shooting or with carrying-through[4] then he may realign and bring-in and shorten it again with winding or treading-off,[5] in such a way that he again comes into the certain[6] plays and principles of fencing. From them, he may bring hews, stabs, or cuts. For according to Liechtenauer's art, the hews, stabs and cuts come from all applications and principles of the art of the sword, as one will hear hereafter how one play and principle comes from the other. And as it goes from one to the other, if the one will be warded, then the other hits and has gone-forward.[7]

[18v] Das ist eyne gemeyne lere des swertes

wW|Iltu kunst schawen ·
sich link gen vnd recht mete hawen ·
|Vnd link mit rechten
is das du stark gerest fechten ·
|Wer noch get hewen ·
der darf sich kunst kleyne frewen ·
|haw nu was du wilt ·
keyn wechsler kawm an dich schild/
|Haw nicht czu~ swerte /
zonder / stets der bloße warte /
|Czu koppe czu leibe ·
dy czecken do nicht vormeide /
|Mit ganczem leiben ·
ficht was du stark gerest treiben /
|Höer was do slecht ist ·
ficht nicht oben link zo du recht pist /
|Vnd ob du link pist ·
ym rechten auch sere hinkest /
|So vicht io liber ·
von oben rechtlinkischen nider /
|Vor · |noch · dy czwey dink ·
syn allen kunsten eyn orsprink /
|Swach · vnde · |sterke ·
|Indes · das wort mete merke /
|So machstu lere~ ·
mit / vnd erb / kunst vnd erbeit dich weren /
|Irschrikstu gerne ·
key~ fechte~ nym~er lerne /
|Kunheit vnd rischeit ·
vorsichtikeit list vnd |klugheit/
†† |Vornu~ft verborge~heit /
moße bevorbetrachtu~ge / hobsheit /fetikeit /
|Wil fechten haben ·
vnd frölichs gemüte tragen

Glosa gn°alis hui9 seq°r / | |Von allererste~ merke vnd wisse / das der ort des swertes ist das czentru~ vnd das mittel vnd der kern des swertes |aus deme alle gefechte gen / vnd weder / yn in komen · |So sint dy hengen / vnd dy winden / synt dy anhenge vnd dy vmlewfe des czentru~s vnd des kerns [19r] aus den auch / gar vil guter stöcke des fechtens komen / |vnd sint dorvm fvnden vnd irdocht / das eyn fechter / der da gleich czum orte czu hewt ader sticht / nicht wol allemal treffen mak / das  der mit den selben stöcken / hawende stechende ader sneydende / mit abe / vnd czutreten / vnd mit vm~eschreiten ader springen eynen treffen mag / |vnd ab eyner syn ort des swertes / mit schißen ader mit voltreten / vorlewst ader vorlengt / |zo mag her in mit wi~den ader abetreten / weder / irlengen vnd / ynbrengen vnd körczen / alzo das her weder yn gewisse stöcke vnd gesetze kü~pt des fechtens / aus den her hewe stiche ader snete brengen mag / |wen noch lychtnaw°s ku~st / zo komen aus allen gefechte~ vnd gesetze des f der ku~st des swertes / hewe stiche vnd snete / |als mã wirt hernoch hören / |wy eyn stöcke vnd gesetze aus dem andñ ku~pt / vnd wy sich eyns aus de~ andern macht / ab eyns wirt geweret / das daz ander treffe vnd vorgank habe

Secondly, you should learn that there is nothing about the sword that has been invented for without reason and that a fencer should make use of the Ort, of both edges, the hilt and the pommel. Each of these has its own special methods in the art of fencing. And how to practice this, you will see and hear later.

| |Czu dem andñ mal merke vnd wisse / daz keyn dink an dem sw°te / vm~e züst fu~den vnd irdocht ist / |zvnder eyn fechter / den ort / beide sneiden gehilcze klos / vnd als das am swerte ist / nuetczen sal / noch dem [19v] als itzlieichs syn sönderleichs gesetze hat yn der ku~st des fechtens / noch dem als dy Vebunge hat vnd finder / als du itzlichs besvnder hernoch wirst sehen vnd hören /

Also know and learn, by the verse beginning with "If you want to show art etc" it is meant that an artful fencer should place his left foot in front and strike from the right side directly to the man, and with threatening strikes just as long as he sees where he may hit him and reach him with his stepping. And when he says "if you intend to fence strongly" so he says that you should fence upwards from the left side with the whole body and with all strength, to the head or to the body wherever he may hit. And never strike to the sword but just work like would not have a weapon or if you don´t see it, and should not avoid Zeckrühr or taps, and permanently be in motion, work and contact, so the opponent may not come to strikes.

Also he means that one should not follow or step right after the strikes but always a little sideways and in a slope around, so that he gets to his flank. There he will get him much easier with any method compared to confronting him directly. Whatever he strikes to thrusts at his opponent, it will not be defended by any Durchwechsel or other techniques, if the strikes or thrusts are directed at the man and at the openings, to the head or to the body, with stepping around or other footwork.

Also know and learn when he speaks: "Vor Nach those two.. etc" there he means the five words, Vor Nach Schwach Stark Indes and within these words lies all art of Master Liechtenauer and these are the basic foundation and the core of all fencing on foot or mounted, with armour and without.

By the word "Vor" he means that every good fencer should always gain the Vorschlag, may he hit or miss. And when Liechtenauer says "Strike and hurry to the man, rush in may it hit or miss". This means, as soon he approaches his adversary by stepping or running, he should instantly attack as soon as he is sure he could reach him with either a step or a jump. Then he must attack to his head or to his body, without any fear to the opening which he can hit best. So he should gain the Vorschlag, and it is not important, if it directly hurts the adversary or not. He must also be sure with the correct measure of his steps, so that he may not step too short or too long.

If he now hits with the Vorschlag, so instantly follow through with the hit. However, if he defends the Vorschlag so that he turns aside or leads off the attack, be it a strike or a thrust, away from the intended opening with his sword, you should now, with the swords are still being in contact, feel or be aware whether he is soft or hard, weak or strong at the sword.

If he now feels how the adversary acts in his fencing, if he is strong or hard, in the very moment he realizes this he should, while the adversary is still protecting himself, become soft and weak and in the case of the adversary being weak, vice versa. To make sure that one cannot come to strikes, he should instantly execute the Nachschlag, that means that he attacks again while the other is still protecting himself from the Vorschlag, be it with a strike or a thrust. So he can employ different techniques for hurrying or rushing towards his openings and thus he is permanently in motion and very close to him and this should make him so irritated and confused that he is only busy protecting himself and cannot come to his own strikes. If one has to defend himself or has to be aware of the strikes which are directed against him, he is in much greater danger than the one who strikes at him, because he either can defend or be hit. And this makes it very difficult for him to gain the opportunity for his own strikes. So Liechtenauer says: I tell you truthfully, no one defends without danger, if you understood this, he will not come to strikes.

If these five words, which this teaching and all other fencing is based upon, are not adhered, then this is the reason why a brave peasant often defeats a master by winning the Vorschlag.

|Mit deme worte · |Vor · meynt her das eyn itzlicher gut° fechter / sal alle mal den vorslag haben vnd gewiñen / [her treffe ader vele / |als lichnawer / spricht / |Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar / rawsche hin trif ader la va] |weñe her czu / eyme gehet ader lewft / als balde als her nur siet / das her in mit eynem schrete / ader mit eynem sprunge dirreichen mag / wo her deñe indert in blos siet / do sal her hin varn / mit frewden / czu koppe ader czu leibe / künlich an alle vorchte wo her in am gewisten gehabñ mag / alzo das her ia den vorslag gewiñe / is tu ieme wol ader we · |vnd sal auch mit dem / in syne~ schreten gewisse sein / vnd sal dy haben recht zam gemessen / das her nicht czu korcz ader czu lank schreite / |wen her nü den vorslag / tuet / trift her zo volge her dem treffen vaste / noch · |weret · her aber |iener den vorslag alzo das her im den vorslag / is sy haw ader stich mit syme swerte / abeweiset vnd leitet / |Dy weile her deñe ieme noch / an syme swerte ist / mit deme als her wirt abe geweist / von der blößen / der her geremet / hat / zo sal her gar eben fülen vnd merken [20v] ab iener in syme abeleiten vnd schützen der hewe ader stiche / an syme swerte / weich ader herte / swach ader stark / sey / |Ist deñe das her nü wol fület / wy iener in syme geferte ist / |Is das iener stark vnd herte ist / |Indes / das hers nü genczlich merkt vnd fület / zo sal her ader |Indes ader vnderdez das sich iener zo schützt / weich vnd swach dirweder syn / |vnd in dem selben / e den / das iener czu keyme slage kome / zo sal her deñe den nochslag tuen / |das ist / das her czu haut / dy weile sich iener schützt vnd sich des vorslags weret / is sy haw ader stich zo sal her ander gefechte vnd stöcke hervörsüchen / mit den her aber czu synen blößen hurt vnd rawschet / alzo dis her vm~ermer in bewegunge vnd in berürunge sy · |das her ienen als irre / vnd berawbet mache / das iener mit syme schützen vnd weren / alzo vil czu schaffen habe / das her / der schützer / czu syner slege / keyne kome~ mag / |wen eyner der sich sal schützen / vnd der slege warnemen / der ist alle mal in grösser var / deñe der /· der da slet of in / |deñe her mus ia dy slege were~ / ader mus sich laen treffen / daz her selber mülich / czu slage mag kome~ / |Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° |Ich sage vorware · sich schutzt key~ mã ane vare / |Hastu vornome~ · czu slage mag her kleyne kome~ / |Tustu and°s noch de~ fünff wörtern / of dy dese rede gar get / vnd alles fechten |Dorvm slet oft/ey~ bawer ey~ meist° wen her küne ist vnd de~ vorslag / gewiñet / noch deser lere /

Now it has been said before that that Liechtenauer expresses he should bravely and without fear rush in with a good Vorschlag or the first strike to the head or body may he hit or miss, so that he strikes him just as stunning and frightening him so he does not know what he can do against him. Also it has been said that he should strike the Nachschlag before he recovers or might come to his own strikes. this also means this you should work in a manner that he is permanently busy with protecting and defending.

And if he defends against the Vorschlag, he instantly comes to the Nachschlag while the adversary is still defending for example, by rushing in with the pommel or transitioning into the Zwerchhau, which are generally good. He can generally transition into the Zwerch position, so he may use other technique which he may begin before the adversary can execute his own attack. And you will hear how you generate one technique from the other, if you follow this advice. That is he should execute with one thought and just as with one strike if possible the Vorschlag and the Nachschlag, quickly in succession.

It may happen that one has to defend the adversary´s Vorschlag. So he would defend it by getting at his sword – and if he is a little slow or indecisive so he would want to stay at the sword and use the winden and feel if the adversary wants to pull back from the bind or not.

If one moves off, now that they were just bound at the sword, and the points are facing against each other to the openings, the skilled fencer has followed directly with the point, before the adversary can recover from his pulling-off, thereby executing a good thrust to the chest or anywhere where he could hit him best. And this is the method that the opponent cannot leave the bind unharmed, because with this following he gets nearer by thrusting the point forward at the sword, following the principle of the nearest and shortest target.

And if the opponent tries to attack newly with long strikes or thrusts after pulling off, he may always gain the Nachschlag or a thrust rather than with the first strike. Liechtenauer means this by the word "nach"; if one has struck the Vorschlag so he should move in and without break strike the Nachschlag (in the same movement) and thus he should be permanently in movement and in contact, constantly using one technique after the other. So, if the first one fails, the second, the third or the fourth my hit not letting the opponent come to strikes because no one will ever have any significant advantage in fencing, except him who works according to this teaching and these five words.

|Auch möchte is wol dar czu kome~ / ab ien° de~ vorslag weret / |zo müste her in were~ mit dem sw°te / vnd alzo müste her dese~ io an sy~ sw°t kome~ / |vnd we~ deñe ien° eczwas trege vnd las were / |zo möchte deser deñe an dem sw°te bleybe~ / |vnd sal deñe czu hãt wi~den / |vnd sal gar ebñ merke~ vnd fulen / ab sich ien° wil abeczihe~ võ dem sw°te / ader nicht / [21v] irhole~ mag mit syme abeczihe~ · |zo hat im deser czu hant / mit syme orte noch gevolget / mit eyne~ gute~ stiche czu der brost / ader söst vorne czu wo her in am schireste~ vnd neheste~ getreffe~ mag / |alzo das im ien° mit nichte / ane schade~ von dem sw°te mag kome~ / |we~ deser hat io / czu hãt mit syme nochvolge~ / neher czu ieme / mit dem als her syne~ ort / vor / an dem sw°te gestalt hat key~ ieme / noch de~ aller neheste~ vnd körczste~ / |we~ das ien° mit syme abeczihe~ / of / ey~ news solde hewe ader stiche / |weit vm~e / dar bre~ge~ / |alzo mag io deser alle mal · e czu dem nochslage ader stiche kome~ / e deñe ien° czu dem ersten / |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° mit dem worte / noch / |we~ eyn° im de~ vorslag hat getan / |zo sal her czu hant an vnderloz / of der selben vart den nochslag / tue~ / |vnd sal vm~erm° in bewegu~ge / |vnd in rüru~ge syn / vnd vm°mer ey~s noch dem and°n treibñ / |ab ym das erste vele / |dacz daz ander das dritte |ader daz vierde treffe / |vnd io iene~ nicht lasse czu ky~me slage kome~ / |Wen keyn / mag grosser vorteil of fechte~ habñ / den der nach der lere / deser fünff / wörter tuet /

Now if it happens that the opponent does stay at the sword after he displaced, and now it comes that he also stays at the sword – not having done the Nachschlag yet – so he shall wind and stand at the sword, and he should note and feel if the adversary is weak or strong at the sword.

And if he now feels that the opponent is strong, hard and rigid at the sword and only plans to press into him with his sword, so he should become weak and soft and completely give up his strength against the opponent. And thus he should let go of the opponent´s sword, so it may whip and move off with the pressure. And now he can slide and pull off his sword quickly and then go for the opponents openings quickly and nimbly, to the head or to the body, with strikes, thrusts and cuts, wherever he may hit surest and most direct.

Because the harder the opponent presses with the sword, the more far his sword is flung aside when he suddenly becomes soft and lets the sword slide off. So the opponent will be left open so that he can touch or hit as he wishes before the opponent may recover and come to his own strike or thrust.

|Ist deñe das deser merkt vnd fület / das iener stark herte vnd veste an dem sw°te ist / vnd dese~ / nü mey~t syn sw°t hin dringe~ · |zo sal deser deñe swach vnd weich dirweder syn / |vnd sal syñ sterke weiche~ vnd stat gebñ / |vnd sal im syn sw°t / hin lasse~ preln vnd wer varn / mit sy~ dringe~ daz her tuet / |vnd deser sal deñe syn sw°t snelle [22r] lassen abegleiten · |vnd abeczihñ / balde vnd risch · |vnd sal snelle dar varn key~ synen blosse~ / czu koppe ader czu leibe / |wo / mit hewe~ stiche~ vnd snete~ / wo her nür / am neheste~ vnd schireste~ mag czu kome~ / |wen e herter vnd e sürer ien° dringt vnd druckt mit syme sw°te / |vnd deser deñe swach vnd weich dirwed° ist · |vnd syn sw°t lest abegleite~ / vnd im alzo weicht / e verrer vnd e weit° deñe ieme sy~n sw°t wek prelt · |das her deñe gar blos wirt / |vnd das in deñe deser noch wonsche mag treffen vnd rüren / e deñe her sich selber / key~s haws ader stichs irholen mag /

If the opponent now is weak and soft at the sword and he feels and notices this, so he should be strong and hard at the sword and should rush in quickly forcefully at the sword, directly and frontal to the next best accessible opening. Just like as a string would be attached to the point which would pull and turn his point to the nearest opening, as to achieve the thrust.

Now if the opponent is strong and defends the thrust and displaces it by becoming strong at the sword, so that the opponent presses into the sword again, so again he should become weak and soft and let his sword slide off. And in this evading he should seek the openings quickly with strikes thrusts or cuts, as he wishes. And this is what Liechtenauer means with the words "soft and hard".

And this concept is from the auctoritas when Aristoteles says in the book Peyarmenias: "Oppositions shine more clearly if placed next to each other then directly opposing them (conflicting) Weak against strong, hard against weak and vice versa." If it should be only strong against strong, the stronger will always win. That is the reason why Liechtenauers fencing ist real and correct art, so that a weak man can win with his art and wits in the same manner a strong man can do with his strength and it would be no art otherwise.

|Is das her stark wirt weder an dem sw°te / vnd desem syn sw°t abeweiset vnd den stich weret / |also das her dese~ sy~ sw°t vaste hin dringt · |zo sal deser aber swach vnd weich dirweder w°den / |vnd sal sy~ sw°t lasse~ abegleite~ / |vnd im weichen / |vnd syne blosse~ rischlichen süche~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader mit snete~ |wy her nür mag · |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° / mit dese~ wörter / weich vnd herte / |vnd das get of dy aucto’i-[22v] tas / |als aristotyles spricht in lib° pyarmenias |Oppo~ita iuxta se po~ita · m~g~ elucescu~t / |vel / oppo~ita opposit~ cui aut° / |Swach weder stark / herte weder weich / et eqt° / |Deñe solde stark weder stark syn / |zo gesigt allemal der sterker / ·|dorvm get lichtnawer fechte~ noch recht° vnd worhaftiger ku~st dar / |das ey~ swacher mit syn° ku~st vnd list / als schire gesigt / mit /als ey~ starker mit syn° sterke / |worvm were and°s ku~st /

Because of this fencing teaches the feeling well as Liechtenauer says: "Learn the feeling, Indes is a word that cuts" because if you are at the sword with someone, and you are now skilled at feeling whether your opponent is weak or strong at the sword, Indes or while you are in the bind, you may very well observe and plan what you should do against him. And according to this teaching and art, he may not pull off from the sword without being hurt, because Liechtenauer says: Strike that he is confused when he pulls off.

Now, according to this teaching you understand well that you should try to gain the Vorschlag and as soon as you execute it, so do in one rush instantly and without break the Nachschlag, and that can also be the second, third or fourth strike or thrust. So your opponent may not come to strikes. If you now bind with him so be skilled at the feeling and do as it has been written before, because this is the foundation of fencing so that you are permanently in motion and never pause or hesitate. And if it now comes to the feeling, so also do what is written before.[10]

And what you begin to do, always have measure and control. When you have won the Vorschlag so don´t do it too fast or too committed as you will be unable to recover yourself to do the Nachschlag. That is why Liechtenauer says: "Be ready for this, all things needs measure and control". And this also remember when doing steps and also before all other techniques and principles of fencing.

This is the text where he explains the five strikes and other techniques of fencing

[21]

[23]

[24]

[25]

[26]

Learn five strikes
from the right hand against the weapons
Wrath strike, Bent strike, transversal
strike, Squinting strike with vertex strike
Fool defends,
adheres, overeaching defeats strikes
Changing through, pulling,
running through, cutting off, pressing the hands
Hang, wind to the openings,
strike, catch, swipe, thrust repeatedly

[23r] Das ist der / text / in deme her neñet / dy fünff / hewe vnd andere stöcke des fecht°

FVnf hewe lere
von der rechten hant were dy were /
Cornhaw • krump • twere •
hat schiler mit scheitelere /
Alber vorsatzt •
nochreist • öberlawft hewe letzt /
Durchwechselt • czukt •
durchlawft / abesneit • hende drukt /
Henge • wind mit blößen /
slag vach • strich • stich mit stößen /:~

This is about the Zornhau (wrath strike)

[27]

[28]

[29]

[30]

[31]

[32]

[33]

[34]

[35]

[xvi]

[xvii]

[xviii]

[xix]

[xx]

[xxi]

[xxii]

[xxiii]

Whoever strikes at you from above,
the point of the Zornhau endangers him.
If he sees it,
take it up and off without danger
hold against him,
wind, and thrust. If he sees it, strike him low.
Remember this,
Strikes, thrusts and guards, weak or strong.
Indes, Vor und Nach,
take your time and analyze the Krieg.[11]
Whoever takes the Krieg too high,
he will be hit below.
In all windings
learn how to find Strikes thrusts and cuts.
Also you should feel spontaneously
if it has to be a strike, a cut or a thrust.
In all binds learn to pull and jerk
against the masters if you wish to fool them.
Never attack his sword,
always strike the openings
To the head, to the body,
never forget the tick.[12]
 
 
Learn
to turn the Ort (point) to the openings.
The one who swings strikes around and wide,
will usually be defeated
With Strikes and thrusts
aim for the nearest and closest.
Also you should step
to his right side.
 
 

Comment Here learn and know that Liechtenauer strikes an Oberhau (Strike from above) from his shoulder which is called the Zornhau. For someone who is angered and wrathful, no other strike comes as ready as the Zornhau, because this Oberhau strikes from the shoulder to the opponent, and this is why Liechtenauer says: If someone strikes an Oberhau against you, you should strike the Zornhau against him so that your point thrusts forward quickly. If he now defends against your point, pull the sword up and off from his blade and move to the other side of his sword. If he also defends against this, be strong against the sword and wind the point in for the thrust. If he defends this thrust, so take the sword away and strike low to his legs.

So constantly do one after the other thus he may not come to strikes. And always have the already mentioned words, Vor and Nach Indes Schwach Stark and strikes thrusts and cuts, in your mind and never forget these in fencing.

Furthermore, you should not hurry too much in the Krieg because if you aim above and miss so you will hit below. And how you execute one after the other, according to real art with special strikes thrusts and cuts you will hear later.

And you should not strike at someone's sword but directly to him, to the head or to the body wherever you wish.

Das ist von deme Czornhawe etc

DEr dir oberhawet /
czornhaw ort deme drewet /
Wirt her is gewar /
nym is oben ab / ane vaer /
Pis sterker / weder
wint / stich / siet her is / nym is neder /
Das eben merke •
hewe • stiche • leger weich ader herte /
Indes vnd • vornoch /
ane hurt deme krige sey nicht goch /
wes der krig remet /
oben / neden wirt her beschemet /
In allen winden •
hewe • stiche • snete • lere finden /
Auch saltu mete
prüfen hewe stiche ader snete /
In allen treffen /
den meistern wiltu sie effen /
Haw nicht czum swerte /
zonder stets der blößen warte /
Czu koppe czu leibe /
wiltu an schaden bleyben /
du trefts ader ader velest •
zo trachte das du der blossen remest
In aller lere /
den ort / keyn den blößen kere /
Wer weite vm~e hewet /
d° w°t oft sere bescheme[t]
Off das aller neste /
bre~ge hewe stiche dar gew[?]
Vnd salt auch io schreite~ /
eyme czu der rechte~ seiten /
[?] ader iagens
[?] begyñen

/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das lichtnaw° / ey~ öberhaw slecht von der achsel / heisset den czornhaw / Den eyn wen eym itzlichem in syme gry~me vnd czorne [23v] zo ist im keyn haw als bereit / als der selbe aberhaw slecht von der achsel / czum mañe / Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / We~ dir eyner czu hewt / mit eym obirhaw / zo salt du key~ im weder hawe~ de~ czornhaw / alzo das du mit dyme ort vaste key~ im schisset / wert her dir dyn ort / zo czewch balde oben ab / vnd var czu der and°n syte~ dar / syns sw°ts / wert her dir daz aber / zo bis harte vnd stark im sw°te / vnd wind / vnd stich balde vnd ku~lich / w°t her dir de~ / stich / zo smeis vnd haw balde vnde~ czu / wo du trifft / czu~ beyne~ / alzo das du vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibest / das ien° nicht czu slage kome / Vnd dy vorgesproche~ wörter / vor / noch / Indes / swach / stark / vnd hewe / stiche vnd snete / der saltu czu male wol gedenken / vnd mit nichte vorgessen in deme gefechte / Auch saltu nicht sere eylen mit deme krige / den ab dir ey~s velet obñ / des du remest / zo triffestu vnden als du wirst höre~ wy sich eyns aus dem and°n macht / noch rechtvertiger kunst / besu~der hewe stiche snete / Vnd salt nicht czu eyns sw°te hawe~ / zonder czu im selber / czu koppe vnd czu leibe / wo eyn° mag etc

Alternatively, you may understand the first verse as if you strike a wrath strike from above, the adversary is being endangered by the point of the wrath strike. Auch mag mã vorneme~ / das der erste v°se mochte alzo stehen / wem du öberhewest czornhaw / deme drewt der ort / des czornhaws etc
Now follow this teaching and stay permanently in motion, if you hit or miss, so that one cannot comes to strikes, and always step sideways off with your strikes.

Also know that there are only two strikes all others are based upon. And these are the Oberhau (strike from above) and the Unterhau (strike from below) from both sides, which are the main strikes and the foundation if all other strikes. And these again are based on the point of the sword which is the core and the centre of all other techniques as it has been written before,

And from the same strikes come the four displacements from both sides, with these you break and defeat all strikes thrusts or guards and these also lead to the hangings which can be very well be used for artful techniques as you will hear later.

And however you fence, always turn the point against the face or the chest of the adversary, so he has always to watch out that you do not move prior to him. (the next sentence is unfinished)

Nür tu noch deser lere / vnd bis vm~erm° i~ / motu / du treffest ad° nicht / daz ien° nicht czu slage kome vnd schret io wol besytz aus / mit den hewen / Auch wisse das nur czwene hewe seyn aus den alle ander hewe wy dy komen wy dy vm~er genãt möge~ werdn / das [24r] das ist der öberhaw / vnd der vnderhaw / von beiden seiten / dy sint dy hawpt hewe vnd gru~t aller ander hewe / wy wol dy selbñ vrsachlich vnd gru~tlich / auch kome~ aus dem orte des sw°tes / der do ist der kern vnd das czentru~ aller and° stocke / als das wol vor ist geschrebn vnd aus den selbe~ hewe~ kome~ dy vier vorsetcze~ von beiden seite~ / mt den mã alle hewe vnd stiche ader leger / letzt vnd bricht / vnd aus den man auch yn dy vier he~ge~ ku~pt / aus den mã wol ku~st treibñ mag / als mã hernoch wirt horen / Vnd wy ey~ mã nur ficht / zo sal io allemal den ort key~ eyns gesichte / ader brust keren / zo mus sich iener alleczeit besorgen das her icht e kome we~ her / wen her io neher czu im hat we~ ien° /
And if it happened, that the adversary got the Vorschlag (first strike) so he should be well practiced and quick with the Abwenden (turning-off) and as soon as he has turned off the (attacks of) the adversary, he should move quickly as soon as possible, and his point should always aim for the chest as you will hear now. And the point should, as soon as he comes at the adversaries sword, be always within a half Elle (roughly 30 cm) of either chest or face. Also he should be well aware if he can move in boldly for the next opening.

And he should never move too far around so that the adversary cannot come forward before him, which will surely happen if the adversary comes forwards and is not hesitating, slow or moves too far.[13]

Vnd ab is alzo queme / das ien° den vorslag gewuñe / zo sal deser sicher vnd gewis / vnd snelle seyn mit dem wende~ / vnd als bald als her im gewendet hat / zo sal her czu hant czuvaren rich risch vnd balde / vnd syn ort sal allemal iens brust begeren vnd sich keyn der kere~ vnd stellen / als du hernoch wirst bas hore~ / Vnd der ort / als bald her eyme an das sw°t ku~pt / mt dem sw°te / der sal allemal kawme vem eyne halbe ele / verre / von iens brust ader gesichte seyn / vnd des gar wol war nemen ab h° yndert dar kome~ möchte / vnd io of das neste / vnd nicht weit vem / das ien° icht e queme wen deser / ab sich deser icht lasse~ vnd züme~ würde / vnd czu trege wer / ad° czu weit wolde dar kome~ vnd czu v°re vem /
This is about the four openings

[36]

[37]

Know the four openings,
target these and you will hit for sure.
Go for them,
do not bother about hitting or missing.

Comment Here learn that Liechtenauer would part a man in four parts, just as he would draw a line down from the vertex on his body to the groin.

And an other line horizontally along the girdle on the body, and so there are four quarters, one right and left above the girdle, and also below the girdle and these are the four openings of which each has its own technique which never go for the sword, but always to the openings.

[25r] Das ist von den vier blössen etc etc

VIer blößen wisse /
remen zo slestu gewisse /
An alle var /
an zweifel wy her gebar

/ Glosa / Hie merke / daz lichtnaw° / der teilt eyn menschen yn vier teil / recht zam das her eym von der scheitel / eyn strich vorne gleich neder machte an sym leybe / bis her neder czwische~ syne beyne / Vnd de~ and°n strich by der görtel dy czwere öber de~ / leib / zo werde~ vier vierteil ey~ rechtes vnd ey~ links öber der görtel / vnd alzo auch vnd° der gortel / das sint dy vier bloße~ / der hat itzlichs syñ sonder gefechte / der reme vnd nu~mer keyns swertes / zonder der bloßen

About the four openings, how to break them

[38]

[39]

[40]

[41]

If you want to defeat him
and hit the openings with art,
Duplieren against the upper opening
and Mutieren against the lower one.
I tell you truthfully,
no man can defend safely.
If you have understood it,
he may not come to strikes.

Von den vier blössen / wy man dy bricht

WIltu dich rechen /
vier blössen ku~stlichen brechen /
Oben duplire
do neden rechte~ mutire /
Ich sage vorware /
sich schötzt keyn man ane vare /
Hastu vornomen /
czu slage mag her kleyne komen ~

This is about the Krumphau

[42]

[43]

[44]

[45]

[46]

[47]

[48]

Krump quickly
and throw the Ort on his hands.
The Krumphau with correct steps
defends against many strikes
Strike the Krump to the flat
of the skilled fencer, this will weaken him.
As soon as the swords hit high above,
strike to the man, this will be honored.
Never strike the Krump too short
otherwise your Opponent can change through.
Against a man who feints a lot,
use the Krump and confuse him in the Krieg
So he may not know
where he can be without danger.

Comment Here learn and know that the Krumphau is an Oberhau which is done in a bent manner with a good step to one side.

This is why Liechtenauer says whoever wants to execute this strike, should step well to the right side while striking and shall throw or thrust the point over the hilt of the adversary onto his hands. And he should strike with the flat if he hits the blade and should stay strong against the sword and press forcefully. From there he may see what he can do best, in the most direct and surest manner, be it with strikes, thrusts or cuts. And he should not strike too short and should not forget the changing-through if it is appropriate.

Das ist von deme krumphawe / etc

KRump auf / behende /
wirf deynen ort auf dy hende /
krump wer wol setczet •
mit schreten vil hewe letczet /
Haw kru~p czu~ flechen •
den meistern wiltu sie swechen /
Wen is klitzt oben /
stant abe das wil ich loben /
Krump nicht kurcz hawe •
durchwechsel do mete schawe /
Kru~p wer dich irret •
der edele krig den vor virret /
Das her nicht vorwar •
weis wo her sye ane var

/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das der kru~phaw / ist eyn oberhaw der do mit eyme guten ausschrete / krum~es dar / get / zam noch eyner seiten / Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / der den selben haw wol wil fure~ / der sal wol beseicz aus schreite~ czu der rechte~ hant / dañe her den haw bre~gt / vnd sal synen ort / werfen / ader schißen / ieme ober syn gehilcze of / dy hende / vnd sal czu ienesmit syner flechen hawen / wen her deñe trift / dy fleche~[i]enes [sw]ert / zo sal her stark dor of bleiben / vnd vaste drucken / vnd sal sehen / was her deñe am endlichste~ vnd geradste~ / dar bre~ge~ mag / mit hewen stichen ader sneten / vnd sal mit nichte czu korcz hawe~ / vnd sal des durchwechsels nicht vorgessen / ab sichs gepürt /

One strike is called the Fehler (feint) and comes from the Krumphau and yet it is written after the Zwerchhau (where the mark is set) and it should be placed before the Zwerchhau. And this is done from below in a bent curve over the hilt, in the same manner as the Krumphau which comes down from above. [26v] Eyn / haw / heist der veller / vnd ku~pt aus dem kru~phaw / vnd der stet geschrebe~ noch deme twerhawe / do dy hant ist geschrebñ / vnd der sal vör deme therhawe sten / vnd der get von vnden dar krum~es vnd schiks / eyme ober deme gehilcze yn / mit ort schissen/ Recht zam der kru~phaw von obñ neder /

[53]

[54]

[55]

[56]

[57]

[xxiv]

[xxv]

The Zwerch Fehler (feint) misleads
and hits below
The Verkehrer (inverse strike) forces
the running through so you can wrestle.
Take the elbow,
leap into his balance to throw him down.
Double the Fehler (feint),
if he binds execute the old cut.[14]
Double instantly,
step to the left do not be slow.
Because all fencing
requires speed
and also bravery
caution and wits.

[27r] Veller wer füret •
von vnden noch wonch wonsche her ri rüret /
Vorkerer twinget /
durchlawfer auch mete ringet /
den ellenbogen /
gewis nym / sprink yn den wogen /
Veller czwefache •
trift man den snet mete mache /
Czwefaches vorpas •
schreit yn link vnd weze nicht las /
wen alles vechte~
wil rischeit habñ von rechte /
Dorczu auch kunheit •
vorsichtikeit list vnde klugheit

This is about the Zwerchhau (transversal strike)

[49]

[50]

[51]

[52]

The Zwerch defends
what comes from Tag[15]
Use the Zwerch with strength
and remember its work.
Zwerch strike to the Ochs[16]
then to the Pflug[17] works well.
If you want to Zwerch correctly,
jump to hit the head.

Comment Here learn and know that of all fencing techniques with the sword, there is no strike that is as fair, forceful, perfected and good as the Zwerchhau. And this strike is done just horizontal to both sides with both edges, the back and front edge, to all openings above and below. It also defends against any strikes from "vom Tag" which are all strikes from high above or anything that comes down from above, and this all is defended with the Zwerchhau.

If one wishes to execute these well, the sword should be thrown horizontally before the head to whichever side he wishes, just as he would intend to get into the hanging or winding positions, save the edge being oriented horizontally and the flat vertically.

And with these Zwerchhau (crossing strikes) it is easy to get at the sword of the adversary. And as soon this has happened, it is difficult for the adversary get away and will be struck at both sides by the Zwerchhau.

And wherever one wants to aim for with the Zwerchhau, to whichever side above or below, always the sword is held with the inverted hand and with the hilt high in front of the head so that he is well secured and covered. And he should bring the Zwerchau with some strength.

Das ist von deme Twerehawe / etc

Twere benym~et •
was von dem tage dar küm~et /
Twere mit der sterke /
deyn arbeit do mete merke /
Twere czu dem pfluge •
czu den ochsen herte gefuge /
Was sich wol tweret
mit sprü~gen dem hew geferet

[27v] / Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse / das of dem ganczen / sw°te / keyn haw / als redlich / zo heftik zo vertik vnd zo gut ist als der twerhaw / Vnd der get dar / zam dy twer / czu beyden seiten mit beiden sneiden / der hindern vnd der vörd°n / czu allen blossen / vnden vnde oben / Vnd alles das von dem tage dar ku~pt / das sint dy öb°n hewe / ader was söst von obe~ neder gehet / das bricht vnd / weret eyner / mit den twer hewen / der dy wol kan dar bre~gen / ader das sw°t wol vörwirft / dy twer vor / das hawpt / czu weler seiten her wil / recht zam her in dy ob°n henge~ ader winden wolle kome~ / Nür das eyner in den twerhewe~ / dy flechen des sw°tes / eyne oben ader of / dy ander vnden ader neder kert / vnd dy sneiden / czu den syten / dy twer / eyne / czu der rechte~ / vnd eyne czu der linken / seiten / Vnd mit den selbe~ twerhewe~ / ist gar gut eyme an das sw°t czu kome~ / vnd wen den eyner eyme an das sw°t ku~pt / wy das nür dar kome~ ist / zo mag ien° mülich von im kome~ / her wirt von desem geslage~ czu beiden seiten mit den twerhewe~ / den wy her eynen twerhaw nür dar bre~gt / czu weler seite~ is ist / vnden ader oben / zo get im io das sw°t obñ / mit dem gehilcze / mit vorworfner / hant / vor deme hewpte / das her io wol bewart vnd bedekt ist / Vnd eyner sal dy twerhewe / eczwas mit / sterke dar bre~ge~ /

And if someone has to fight for his life he should see to it that he gains the Vorschlag (first strike) with a good Zwerchhau, as in the teaching written above . When approaching the adversary, as soon as he sees he could reach him with a step or a leap, he should strike with the Zwerchhau from his upper right side, with the back edge directly to the head. And he should let the point shoot and should well lean so that that the point is directed, and turn or sling around the adversaries sword just like a leather strap, because if one can do the Zwerch in combination with a good step outwards or a leap, an adversary will find it very difficult to defend or turn aside.

And if he gained the Vorschlag with the Zwerchhau and hits or misses to one side, he should immediately, in one motion and without pause do the Nachschlag with the Zwerchhau to the other side with the front edge, before the adversary recovers from the strike, as it has already been taught.

And one should Zwerch to both sides and to Ochs and Pflug, which is to the upper and lower openings, going from one side to the other, high and low, permanently without hesitation, so that he is always in motion and does not let the adversary come to strikes. And again, if he does a Zwerchhau, he should lean and hold the sword inverted in front of his head, so that he remains well-covered.

Vnd wen eyner vem syne~ hals sölde fechten So solde her schaffen / mit her der vorgeschrebñ [28r] lere / das her mit eyme gute~ twerhawe den vorslag / gewuñe / wen her mit eyme czu gi~ge als balde als her irkente / das her ienen dir reichen mochte/ mit eyne~ schrete ader spronge das her deñe dar placzte / mit eyme twerhaw obñ von der rechte~ seiten / mit der hindern sneidñ ieme gleich obñ czu hawpte czu / vnd sal den ort lassen schiessen / vnd sal gar wol tweren das sich der ort wol lenke / vnd winde / ader gorte vm iens hawpt / zam eyn rime / we deñe wen eyner wol tweret / mit eyme gute~ ausschrete ader spronge / zo mag sichs ien° mülich schutze~ / ader abewe~de~ / Vnd we~ her deñe den vorslag alzo gewi~t mt de~ twerhaw her treffe / czu der eyne~ seyte~ / her treffe ader vele / zo sal her deñe als balde in eyme rawsche im~ediate an vnd°loz / den nochslag gewiñen / mit dem twerhaw czu der and°n seiten / mit der vörd°n sneiden / e den sich ien° key~s slags ader ichsichcz irhole / noch d° vorgeschrebe~ lere / Vnd sal deñe twern czu beiden seite~ / czu~ ochsen vnd czu~ pfluge / das ist / czu den ob°n blössen vnd czu den vnd°n / von eyner seite~ of dy ander / vnden vnd obñ / vm~erm° / an vnderloz / alzo das her vm°mer in motu sey vnd iene~ nicht losse czu slage kome~ / vnd als oft / als her eyne~ twerhaw tuet obñ ad° vndñ / zo sal her io wol twere~ / vnd das sw°t obñ dy twer / wol vor syn hawpt / werfen / das her wol bedekt sey /
This is regarding the Squinting strike (squinting strike)

[58]

[59]

[60]

[61]

[62]

[xxvi]

[xxvii]

The squinting strikes defends
against a peasants strikes or thrusts.
And whoever threatens with a change through,
the squinting strike will take him out.
Look, if he shortens himself,
the changing through defeats him.
Squint to the point
and cut the neck without fear.
And squint to the head
if you wish to cut his hands.
Squint at the right side,
if you wish to fence well.
I praise the Squinting strike,
if he does not come too silently.

Comment Here learn and know that a Shielhau is a strike from above from the right side with back edge of the sword, which is also called the left side. And this strike moves just as a squint-eyed person to the left side while stepping off to the right, with inverted sword and hand.

And this strike breaks all strikes of a Buffalo – which means peasant – that come downwards from above, as most peasants usually do.

The Zwerchhau breaks the same strikes as it has been written before. And whoever threatens with a change-through will be ashamed by the Schielhau and one should well strike long enough with the strike and shoot in the point quickly, so that the adversary will be stopped in his changing through. And one should squint with the point, to the neck bravely without fear.[18]

[28v] Das ist von deme schilhawe : ~

SChiler in bricht •
was püffel nü slet ader sticht /
wer wechsel drawet •
schiler dor aus in berawbet /
Schil kürczt her dich an •
das durchwechsel das sigt ym an /
Schil czu dem orte •
vnd nym den hals ane vorchte /
Schil in dem öbern •
hawpte hende wiltu bedöbern /
Schil ken dem rechten /
is daz du wol gerest vechte~ /
den schilhaw ich preize •
ku~pt her dar nicht czu leiz[e]

/ Glosa / Hie merke vnd wisse das eyn kru~phawschilhaw / ist eyn öberhaw von der / rechten seiten / mit der hindern sneiden des sw°tes / dy die linke seite ist genãt / vnd get recht zam schilende ader schiks dar / czu eyner zeite~ aus geschreten / czu der rechten / mit vorwantem sw°te / vnd vorworfner hant / Vnd der selbe haw der bricht als das püffel / das ist ey~ pawer / mag geslaen / von obñ neder als sie phleken czu tuen / Recht zam der twerhaw auch das selbe bricht / als vor ist geschreben / Vnd wer mit durchwechsel drewt / der wirt mit dem schilhaw beschemet / Vnd eyn° sal wol schilhawe~ vnd lank genuk / vnd den ort vaste schissen / anders her wirt gehindert / mit / durchwechsel / Vnd / eyner sal / wol schiln mit dem orte / czu dem halse ku~lich ane vorchte / Vnd

Where you see blades
being drawn by both
you should steady yourself
and your steps and remember
Before, after the two things,
gauge and with skill leap off
Follow all hits
from the strong if you intend to fool them,
If he defends, so pull,
thrust, he defends so move to him.
learn to artfully execute
the windings and hangings.
And sense the attacks
be they soft or hard.
 
 
If he attacks with long and far steps,
the thrust defeats him.
If he defends with hard strikes
you hit without fear.
Strike and hurry forward,
rush in to him whether you hit or miss
Never strike to the sword,
always wait for the openings
If you hit or miss,
always aim for the openings
With both hands learn
to bring the point to his eyes
Fence with sense
and try to gain the Vorschlag
May he hit or miss,
move in with the Nachschlag
to both sides,
step to his right side
So you may safely
begin fencing or wrestling.

[29v] Wo man von scheidñ /
sw°t czucken siet von in beiden /
Do sal mã sterken /
vnd dy schrete ebñ mete merken /
Vor / noch / dy czwey dink /
prüfe / vnd mt lere abe sprink /
Volge allen treffen /
den starken / wiltu sy effen /
Wert her so czucke /
stich / wert her / io czu ym rücke /
Dy winden / vnd hengen /
lere kunstlichen dar brengen /
Vnd prüfe dy ferte /
ab sy sint weich aber herte /
Ab her deñe stark vicht
zo bistu ku~stlich bericht /
Vnd greiffet her weite ader lenge an /
das schissen gesigt im an /
Mit synem slaen / harte
schützt her sich • triff ane forchte /
Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar /
rawsche hin / trif ader la varn /
Haw nicht czum sw°te /
zonder stetzs der blössen warte /
Du treffest ader velest /
zo trachte das du der blössen remest /
Mit beiden henden /
czu~ oge~ ort lere bre~gen /
fficht io mt syñen /
vnd allemal den vorslag gewyñe /
her treffe ader vele /
mit dem nochslage czu hant reme /
Czu~ beiden seiten /
czu der rechten / seitemit im schreite /
So magstu mit gewyñe /
fechtens ader ringens begynnen /[19]

This is about the Scheitelhau (Vertex strike)

[63]

[64]

[65]

[66]

[67]

[xxviii]

The Scheitler
endangers the face
And with its turning
the chest.
The Kron[20]
defends against the Scheitler
Cut through the Kron
so it is already broken
Press the swipes
and move off with cuts
I praise the Scheitelhau,
if he does not come too silently.

[30r] Das ist von deme scheitelhawe etc ~

DEr scheitelere •
deyn antlitz ist ym gefere /
Mit seinem karen •
der broste vaste gewaren /
Was von ym kümet •
dy crone das abe nym~et /
Sneyt durch dy krone •
zo brichstu sie harte schone /
Dy striche drücke •
mit sneten sie abe rücke /
Den scheitelhaw ich preize /
kü~pt her dar / nicht czu leize /

Liechtenauer holds only these four guards that come from the upper and lower hangings, and from these one can fence safely. [32r] lichtnawer helt nur eczwas võ den vier leger dorv~me das sy aus den ober vnd vnder henge~ gehñ doraus mã schire mag gechte bre~gen etc[21]
This is about the four Leger (Guards)

[68]

[69]

Four guards alone,
keep these and forget the others.
Ochs Pflug Alber
and vom Tag should not be unknown to you.

Comment Here he (Liechtenauer) mentions the four guards (Leger or Hut), which he considers useful. But first of all, one should not lie in these for too long, because Liechtenauer has a proverb: "Who lies there, is dead and who moves is still alive." And this relates to the guards – a man should rather move with fencing attacks and techniques than waiting in the guards, which he may use to leave the Schanze (duelling yard)

The first guard is the Pflug (Plough) when someone puts the point in the ground in front of himself or to the sides. If you do this after the Absetzen (parrying) then it is called differently: namely Schrankhut or the gate.

The second guard Ochs (Ox) is the upper hanging from the shoulder

Alber (fool) breaks, what is being struck or thrust. And with hangings break swipes, the travelling after should follows instantly.

The third guard fool, is the low hanging with which you can break all strikes and thrusts if you know to do it correctly.

The fourth guard, from Tag (high guard) is also the long point. Who practices it with extended arms cannot be hit with strikes or thrusts. It may also hit the hanging over the head.

Also know, that all guards are broken with strikes, by courageously striking, so he must move up and defend. That is why Liechtenauer does not hold the guards in high regard but prefers to let his students try to gain the Vorschlag.

Das ist von den vier leger / etc ~

VIer leger alleyne •
do von halt vnd flewg dy gemeyne /
Ochse • pflug • alber •
vom tage nicht sy dir vemmer

/ Glosa etc / Hie nent her vier leger ader vier hute~ / do võ etzwas czu halde~ ist / Doch vor allen sache~ / zo sal ey~ mã io nicht czu / lãge doryñe lege~ / We~ lichtnaw° hat eyn sölch sprichwort / wer do leit der ist tot / wer sich rüret der lebt noch / vnd das get of dy leger das sich ey~n mã sal liber rure~ mit gefechten de~ das her / der hute~ wart / mit dem her vorslosse~ möcht dy schancze / Dy erste hute / pflug is / dy / we~ eyn° de~ ort vor sich of dy erde legt ader czu der seiten / noch dem abesetze~ / das heyssen and° / dy schranckhute / ad° dy pforte / Dy and° hute ochse / ist das oberhenge~ / von der achsel Alber io bricht / was man hewt ader sticht / Mit hengen streiche / nochreizen setze gleiche Dy dritte hute / alber / ist das vnderhenge~ / mit der mã alle hewe~ vnd stiche / bricht / wer dy recht füret / Dy vierde hute / vom tage / ist der lange ort / wer den wol furet mit gestragtem arme~ / den mag mã nicht mit hewe~ / noch mit stiche~ wol treffen / Is mag auch wol heissen / das henge~ ober dem hawpte Auch wisse / das man alle leger vnd hute~ bricht mit hewen / mit deme / daz mã eyme ku~lich czu hewt / zo mus io eyn° of varn vnd sich schutze~ / Dorvem helt lichtnaw° nicht vil von den legern ader hute~ / zu~der her schaft lib° daz sich eyn° besorge vor im / mit dem das her den vorslag gewi~t ut ptuit[22]]

This is about the four displacements

[70]

[71]

[72]

[73]

[74]

[xxix]

[xxx]

There are four displacements
that also open the guards.
Beware the displacements,
if they happen, you have to work hard.
If you have been displaced
and how it could happen
Listen to my advice,
swipe off and strike back quickly
Set the point onto four openings
and stay on it, learn this if you wish to end.
Who displaces well
can defend against many strikes
because with the displacements
you get quickly into the hangings.

Comment Here learn that there are four displacements to both sides, one high and one low, and these break or open all guards. And how you lead away or defends against strikes thrusts or cuts from above or below this may be called displacing (versetzen). And if you have been displaced however this may have happened, so move off with the sword quickly and strike quickly again while you move in towards him.

Now if it happens that you displace or turn off a strike or thrust, so you should move in and follow at his sword so that he cannot move away. And then you can do as you wish – the more you hesitate the more you will receive damage.

Also you should wind well and aim for his chest with the point, so he has to worry.

Also a good fencer should well learn to bind at his sword and this can be done with the displacements, because these come from the four strikes, Oberhau (strike from above) and Unterhau (strike from below) from both sides and these move into the four hangings.

If one defends from above or below he should move in and get into the hangings, and should see to it that he turns away or leads off all strikes and thrusts with the front edge as it is done with all displacements.

[32v] Das it von vier vorsetczen

VIer sint vorsetczen •
dy dy leger auch sere letczen /
Vorsetczen hüt dich •
geschiet das auch sere müt dich /
Ab dir vorsatzt ist •
vnd wy das dar komen ist /
Höre was ich rate •
streich abe • haw snel mete drate /
Setzt an vier enden •
bleib droffe kere wiltu enden /
wer wol vorsetczit /
der vechte vil hewe letczit /
wen yn dy hengen /
ku~pstu mt vorsetcze~ behe~de /

/ Glosa / Hie merke / das vier vorsetczen sint / czu beiden / seiten / czu itlich° seiten / eyn obers / vnd eyns venders / vnd dy letcze~ ader brechñ / alle hute~ ader leger / vnd wy du von obñ / ader von vnde~ / eyme / hewe stiche ader snete / mit deyme sw°te abeleitest / ader abweisest / das mag wol heissen vorsetcze~ / Vnd ab dir vorsatz w°t wy das dar ku~pt / zo czewch rislich abe • vnd haw snelle mete czu / yn eyme hurte / Ist deñe das du eyme vorsetzt / ader abewe~dest eyn haw ader stich / zo saltu / czu hant czu trete~ vnd nochvolge~ am sw°te das dir ien° icht abeczihe / vnd salt deñe tue~ was du magst / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest zo nym~estu schaden / Auch saltu wol we~de~ / vnd allemal dey~ ort keren key~s ey~s brust / zo mus h° sich besorgen / Auch sal ey~ guter fechter / wol lerne~ / eyme an das swert kome~ kome~ / vnd das mag / her wol tue~ / mt den vorsetcze~ / wen dy kome~ aus den vier hewe~ / võ itzlicher seite~ / ey~ öb°haw vnd ey~ venderhaw / vnd gen yn dy vier henge~ we~ als bald als eyn° vorsetzt võ vnde~ / ader von obñ / zo sal her czu hãt yn dy he~gen komen • Vnd als her mt der vörd°n sneiden / alle hewe vnd stiche / abewe~dt / als ist es mt den vorsetczen /

This is from the Nachreissen (adhering)

[75]

[76]

[77]

[78]

[79]

[xxxi]

[xxxii]

[xxxiii]

[xxxiv]

Learn the Nachreissen twice
and cut into the weapons
Two outside takings
and begin with your work
Test the attacks
if they are soft or hard
Learn the feeling
Indes, the word, cuts sharply
Nachreissen twice
and do the old cut
Follow all binding
of the strong if you wish to fool them
Always learn
to turn the point against the face
use the whole body
with the Nachreissen and keep the point on line
Also learn to do
the Nachreissen quickly so you may well end.

[33r] Das ist von nochreisen etc etc

NOchreisen lere •
czwefach s ader sneit in dy were /
Czwey ewsere myñe •
der erbeit dornoch begyñe /
Vnd prüff dy ferte •
ab sye sint weich ader herte /
Das fülen lere •
Indes • das wort sneidet sere /
Reisen czwefache •
den alden snet mete mache /
Volge allen treffen •
den starken wiltu sy effen /
In aller lere /
den ort key~ ey~s gesichte kere /
Mit gãczem leibe /
nochreize / deyn ort io da pleibe /
lere auch behende /
reize~ / zo magstu wol enden

This is about the Überlaufen (overreaching), fencer observe this!

[80]

[81]

[82]

[xxxv]

[xxxvi]

Who aims below
will be hit above with your overreaching
If the swords bind high
so be strong and I will praise that
Do your work
or double press
Those who try to force you down,
overreach them and strike hard again
Overreach from both sides
and remember the edges.

[33v] Das ist von öberlawfen / ffechter sich czu /

WEr vnden remet •
öberlawf den / der wirt beschemet /
Wen is klitzt oben •
so sterke das ger ich loben /
Deyn erbeit mache •
ader herte drücke czwefache /
Wer dich drükt neder •
öberlawf in • slach sere weder /
Von beiden seite~
öberlawf vnd merke dy sneiden /

This is from Absetzen (setting aside), this learn well

[83]

[84]

[85]

[xxxvii]

Learn to artfully defeat strikes and thrusts
with the Absetzen
So that who thrusts you,
his point is broken and yours does hit
Hit from both sides
if you step correctly
Learn to turn
the point against one's face.

[34r] Das ist von abesetczen / das lere wol ~

LEre abesetczen •
hewe stiche kü~stlichen letczen /
Wer auf dich sticht •
dyn ort trift vnd seynen bricht /
Von payden seyten •
trif allemal wiltu schreiten /
In aller lere /
dey~ ort key~ ey~s gesichte kere /

This is from the Durchwechsel (changing through)

[86]

[87]

[xxxviii]

[xxxix]

Learn the changing through
from both sides and deliver a good thrust
The changing through will find
an opening in anyone who binds you.
As soon as you have changed through,
strike thrust or wind strongly
Do not strike the sword,
if he does it to you, do not let him wait for your changing-through.

Comment Here learn that the changing-through goes from both sides down and up again and is very direct, if done quickly. If you now wish to change through from your right downwards, so strike an Oberhau directly at him. Aim for the little hole or window above and behind his hilt and shoot the point to his left opening. So that you may hit between the blade and the hilt; if you hit, you have won.

If he now defends against this by turning aside your point and pushes against your blade, so let your point sink down from the same side and move it around under his sword to the other side. And this should not be done wide around but as close to his sword as possible. And then move your point quickly in above his hilt, with a good and perfect thrust. And if you feel you hit, so follow well through (with your thrust). And you should do the same from the other side, low or high, as you do it on this side. Whoever binds you, so move at his sword against him and he defends, so change through as before, or wind and feel his technique if it is soft or hard. Then seek strikes thrusts and cuts against the openings.

[34v] Das ist vom durchwechsel / etc etc

DVrchwechsel lere •
von payden seyten stich mete sere /
Wer auf dich bindet •
durchwechsel in schire vindet /
Wen du durchwechselt hast /
slach stich / ader winde nicht laz /
Haw nicht czu~ sw°te /
durchwechsel • do mete warte


/ Glosa / :~ Hie merke / das durchwechsel gar gerade czugehet / czu beiden seiten / von oben neder / vnd von vnden of / wer is and°s rischlich treibet / Wiltu nu / czu der rechten hant / von oben neder durchwechseln / zo haw eyn öberhaw gleich czu ym / alzo das du dynen ort schüst / ym czu seyner linken seiten öber dem gehilcze yn / alzo das du das selbe löchel vnd fensterleyn / io gerade treffest / czwischen der sneide~ vnd deme gehilcze / triftz du / zo hastu geseget / gesigt / wert her dir das / mit deme das her dyn ort abe / weist vnd hin drückt / mit seyme sw°te / So la dyn ort sinken von der selben seiten vnder seyme swerte hervem / czu der and°n seiten / nicht weit vem / zonder vnden an sym sw°te / zo du neste magst / vnd da var ym gar rischlich / öber dem gehilcze yn / mit eyme guten volkomen stiche / vnd wen du fülest das du trifts / zo volge wol noch Vnd alz du võ eyner seite~ tust / vnde~ ad° oben / zo tu võ der and°n / Vnd wer mit dir anbindet / zo rawsche an sym sw°te hin keyn seyner blöße / mit dym orte / w°t her zo durchwechsel / also vor / ader wind vnd füle sein geferte / ab is sey weich ader herte / dornoch süch hewe stiche / ad° snete / key~ de~ blößen /

This is from the Zucken (pulling) fencer learn this

[88]

[89]

[90]

[xl]

Step close in bindings,
the Zucken will well find (him open)
Pull and should he hit, pull more,
create your work and wind, this will hurt him.
Zuck in all meetings with the masters
if you wish to fool them
Pull off from the sword
and consider your techniques.

[35r] Das ist vom Czücken / ffecht° merke /

TRit nü in bünde •
das czücken gibt gute fünde /
Czük / trift her / czucke/me •
erbeit her / wind / das tut im we /
Czük alle treffen •
den meist°n wiltu sye effen /
Czuk/ab vom swerte /
vnd gedenke io deyner ferte / durchlawf /

This is from the running-through, now see:

[91]

[92]

[xli]

Run through and let your pommel hang,
grab if you intend to wrestle
Who ever presses with strength against you,
remember the running through
Run through and ram him,
invert your hand if he grabs after the pommel.

[35v] Das ist von durchlawfen / nü sich

DVrchlawf loz hangen •
mit dem knawf / greif wiltu rangen /
Wer kegen der sterke /
durchlawfir do mete merke /
Durchlawf / vnd stos /
vorkere / greift her noch dem klos /

This is about Abschneiden (cutting off)

[93]

[94]

[xlii]

[xliii]

[xliv]

[xlv]

Cut off the hands
from below from both sides
There are four cuts,
two low and two high.
Against the Zwerch,
cut well to avoid damage
Do not cut too soon,
observe your chances carefully
You may well cut all crossings,
just avoid the Nachreissen (adhering)
If you wish to remain uninjured,
do not stand but move with the cutting.

[36r] Das ist von abesneiden etc etc ~

SNeit abe dy herten /
von vnden in beiden ferten /
Vier sint der snete /
czwene vnden • czwene oben mete /
Czwir wer wol sneidet /
den schaden her g°ne meidet /
Sneit nicht in vreize /
betrachte~ io vor dy reize /
du magst wol sneiden •
alle krewtz / nür reisen vormeiden /
wiltu ane schade~ bleibe~ /
zo bis nicht gee mt de~ / sneide~

This is about Hände drücken (pressing the hands)

[95]

[xlvi]

[xlvii]

[xlviii]

[xlix]

[l]

Turn your edge
to flat for pressing the hands
The second is turning aside,
one is winding and the third is hanging
If you wish to despair
the fencers, press with pushing
and quickly cut
over the hands
Also take off the cuts
and strike to the head
Whoever presses hands
without damage protects his fingers

Also know, as soon as you defend a strike or a thrust with the turning-aside, so you should step sideways and move quickly to him; the slower you are the more damage you sustain.

[36v] Das ist von hende drücken/ etc etc

DEyn sneide wende /
czum flechen drücke dy hende /
Eyn anders / ist wenden •
eyns winden / das dritten hengen /
Wiltu mache~ vordrossen /
dy vechter / zo drucke mit stössen /
Ober dy hende /
hewstu hewet man snete behe~de /
Czewch och dy~ snete /
obe~ aus öber de~ hewpte /
Wer he~de drückit /
ane schade~ / vor fi~ger czückit /

Auch wisse / als bald / als du mt dem we~de~ / eyme ey~ haw ader stich / abe we~dest / zo saltu czu hãt czu trete~ / vnd rischlich dar varn czu eyme / wy leichte du dich last vnd zümest / zo ny~stu schaden

Also know and learn that you turn aside all strikes and thrusts with the front edge of the sword, from its middle to the hilt. And the closer to the hilt a strike or a cut comes on the front edge which you have used to turn aside, the slower and stronger you can defend. This is because the closer you bind at the hilt, the stronger you can defend and the closer to the point the weaker you are. Now whoever wants to be a good fencer should firstly learn to turn-aside well, because by turning aside well he can get into the winding from which he can practice all art and grace of fencing. Auch merke vnd wisse / das man mit der vördern sneiden des swertes / vom mittel der selben sneiden / bis czu deme gehilcze / alle hewe ad° stiche abewendet / Vnd e neher eyme / eyn haw ader stich czu syme gehilcze ku~pt / of der selben sneiden / mit deme als her im gewendet hat dy selbe vörder sneide / e bas / vnd e kreftiger / her dy selben hewe ader stiche / abewenden mag / Weñe e neher czum gehilcze e sterker vnd e / mechtiger / Vnd e neher/czum orte / e quesw [?] e swecher vnd e krenkher / Dorvem wer eyn guter fechter wil seyn / der sal vör allen dingen lernen wol abewenden / Wen mit dem das her wol abewendet ku~pt her czu hant yn dy winden / aus den her wol ku~st vnd höbscheit mag treibe~ dez gefechtez /
The front edge at the sword is called the true edge and all strikes or thrusts are ruined by the turning-aside. Dy vörder sneyde / am sw°te heist dy rechte sneide / vnd alle hewe ad° stiche sint vorterbe~ mt de~ we~de~
This is from the Hängen (hanging), fencer learn this

[96]

[97]

[98]

[99]

[100]

[101]

[xlvi]

[xlvii]

[xlviii]

[xlix]

[l]

[li]

[lii]

[liii]

[liv]

[lv]

Two hangings
from one side from the ground
in all techniques
strikes thrusts cuts guards soft or hard
Do the Sprechfenster (speaking window)
stand happily and observe him
Strike that he falters
when he pulls off from you
I tell you truthfully
no one defends without danger
Have you understood this,
he may not come to strikes
Be it that you stay
at the sword so you can do
strikes thrusts and cuts,
learn the feeling
without all hesitation,
and you should not flee from the sword
because a masters fencing
is rightfully at the sword
those who bind you
will be forced with the Krieg
The noble winding
may also find him open
With strikes with thrusts
with cuts you find him defenceless
In all windings
you should learn to find strikes thrusts and cuts
the noble hanging
cannot be without the hanging
because from the hanging
you should practice the winding.

Comment: here learn and know that there are two hangings each side, one Unterhängen (lower hanging) and one Oberhängen (upper hanging) with which you can get at his sword well, because these come from the Oberhau and Unterhau (high strike and low strike). If it now happens that you bind with your opponent on purpose or without so you should well stay at the sword and use the winding. So you can stand happily with relaxed mind and without fear at the sword and see, notice and wait for what he tries to do next; and what his plan is he intends to execute. And the standing at the sword is called the Sprechfenser (speaking window) by Liechtenauer. If you now stand at the sword with him, you should notice and feel his technique, be it soft or hard. And according to this you should act, as it has been written before. Now if he pulls off from the sword before you could begin your technique, so you should follow with him and beat strike or thrust him whatever you can bring surest, before he can do anything himself before you. You can do this because by staying at the sword and extending yourself your (point) moves nearer to him. If someone pulls off because he has to recover from a strike he just executes, then follow in with the point. If he instead stays at the sword you have to gauge and notice whether he his soft or hard at the sword.

If he is soft and weak, you should quickly and bravely proceed and hurry at him with the strength of your sword and force his sword aside with pressure, seeking his openings, to the head or the body wherever you may get at.

If he is hard and strong at the sword and intends to force you aside strongly, you should be soft and weak against his strength, and yield to his strength and forward pressure, thus evading with your sword. And with this evading as his sword swings about, as it has been written before, and now as this happens and while he is recovering from that and thus cannot execute strikes or thrusts, you should attack his openings, with strikes thrusts or cuts, wherever you may hit him best. According to the teaching you should do this quickly bravely and fast so that your adversary cannot come to strikes. As Liechtenauer says: I tell you truthfully, no man defends without danger, if you have understood it, he will not come to strikes. And by this he means that the adversary will not be able to safely defend if you act according to this teaching. As soon as you have done the first strike the adversary has to defend against it or has to take the hit. When you do the first strike, may you hit or muss, so you should quickly in one rush follow with the Nachschlag before he comes to strike. If you want to do the Vorschlag, you should also do the Nachschlag just with same thought or the same intention if possible. This is why he says: Vor and Nach those two things etc... If you do the Vorschlag, no matter if you hit or miss, you should do the Nachschlag in one rush quickly and fast, so that he cannot under any circumstances to his strikes.

So see to it that in all instances of fencing you act before your opponent and as soon as you move before him and have gained the Vorschlag so do the Nachschlag with moving in. You should never do a Vorschlag if you have not prepared the Nachschlag in your senses and mind as well, so that you are always in constant motion and never you should pause or hesitate. Always do one after the other quickly and fast so that your adversary cannot do any technique. Really, if you do exactly that, then he must be a really good (skilled) man to get away from you without being struck.

Because with this art or advantage it often happens that a peasant or anyone untrained defeats a skilled master by gaining the Vorschlag and rushing in quickly. Because it is easily missed that Indes hits him and also defeats and humiliates him. Because one that observes the strikes and waits for the defense is in greater danger than the one who strikes him and thus wins the Vorschlag. So always be that you are the first in all instances of fencing that you get to ones right side, there you are safer than your adversary.

[37r] Das ist von hengen / ffecht° daz lere / ~

Czwey hengen werden /
aus eyner hant von der erden /
In allen geferten /
hewe stiche leger weich ader herte /
Sprechfenster mache /
stant frölich sich syne sache /
Sch Slach das her snabe /
wer vor dir zich czewt abe /
Ich sage vor ware /
sich schützt keyn man ane vare /
Hastu vornome~ /
czu slage mag her kleyne komen /
Is das du bleibest
am swerte da mete auch treibest /
Hewe stiche ader snete /
das fülen merke mete /
An alles vorczhczihen /
vom swerte du auch nicht salt flien /
wen meister gefechte /
ist am swerte von rechte /
wer an dich bindet /
der krik mit im sere ringet /
Das edle winden /
kan in auch schire vinden /
Mit hewen mit stichen
mit sneten vindest in werlichen /
In allen winden
hewe stiche snete saltu vinden /
Das edle hengen /
wil nicht syn an dy windñ
wen aus den henge~ /
saltu dy wi~den bre~gen /

/ Glosa / etc Hie merke vnd wisse das czu itzlicher seiten sint czwey hengen / Eyn vnderhengen / vnd eyn öbirhengen / mit den du eyme wol an das swert magst komen / wen dy kome~ aus den öb°hewe~ vnd vnderhewen / Wen das nu geschiet / das du mit eyme an bindest / ader wy du süst mit im an das swert kömps zo salt du an dem swerte bleybñ vnd salt vnd salt winden • vnd salt alzo mit im gar [37v] frölichen / mit gutem mute / vnd künlichen an alle vorchte / an dem sw°te stehen / Vnd salt gar ebñ sehen / merken vnd warten was her wolle tuen / ader was syne sache sey / der her key~ dir pflegen wölle / Vnd daz stehen / alzo an deme swerte / das heisset lichtnaw° eyn sprechvanster / Vnd wen du nü mit im alzo an dem sw°te stehst / zo salt du gar ebñ merken vnd fülen syne geferte / ab sie sint weich aber herte / dornoch salt du dich deñe richte~ als vor ofte gesproche~ ist / Ist / das her sich vör allen sachen / e deñe du noch ichsicht begyñest / abe czewt von deme sw°te / zo salt du czu hant noch volgen vnd salt in slaen hawe~ ader steche~ was du am schiresten magst dar bre~gen / e den her czu keyn°leye dinge kome / weñe du hast io neher czu im mit dem das du am sw°te blibest / vnd dyn ort key~ im reckest / we~ iener mit syme abe czihen / den e her sich ey~s slags erholt dir dar brengt / zo var czu hãt dar mt dy~ orte/ Bleibt her aber mit dir an dem sw°te / zo prüfe / io vnd merke / ab her sy weich aber herte an dem swerte / Ist das her ist / weich vnd swach / zo saltu rischlichen vnd künlichen volvaren vnd dar hurten / mit dyner sterke / vnd salt / im syn swert hin dringen vnd drücken / vnd süche~ syne bloßen / czu koppe ader czu leibe / wo du nür czu magst komen / Ist iener deñe herte vnd stark an deme sw°te / vnd meynt dich vaste hin dringen vnd stossen / zo saltu deñe weich vnd swach seyn / keyn syner sterke / vnd salt syner sterke vnd syme dringen mit dynen sw°te entwychen [38r] vnd yn dem weiche~ als im syn sw°t im hin prelt vnd wischt / als vor auch von deme geschrebñ ist / In deme ad° dy weile als das im geschit / e deñe her sichs weder irholen mag / dar her czu keyme slage ader stiche kome / Zo saltu selber syner blössen war neme~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader sneten / wo du in am schireste~ gehabñ magst / noch der vorgeschrebñ lere / risch / künlich vnd snelle das io iener mit nichte czu slage kome Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° / ich sag vorwar • sich schutzt key~ man ane var / Hastu vornomen / czu slage mag er kleyne kome~ / Do mitt meynt her / das sich keyn° mag ane var ader ane schaden schutcze~ / Is das du tust noch der geschrebñ lere / Ab du im den vorslag gewyñest vnd tust den mus io iener were~ / ad° mus sich lasse slaen / wen du deñe den vorslag tust / du trefst ader velest / zo saltu rischlich vnd in eyme rawsche den nochslag tue~ / e deñe iener czu keyme slage kome / Deñe wen du den vorslag wilt tue~ / zo saltu recht / zã yn eyme gedanke vnd mute den nochslag auch tue~ / recht zam du sy mit ey~nander wellest tue~ / we~ is möglich were / Dorvm spricht her / vor • noch / dy cwey dink etc ~ den tust du den vorslag / du treffest / ader velest / zo tu io / in eyme rawsche / risch vnd snelle den nochslag / das iener mit nichte [38v] czu slage kome / vnd alzo saltu schaffen das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens io e komest deñe iener / vnd als balde als du e kum~est deñe ien° / vnd den vorslag gewiñest / zo tu czu hãt den nochslag / Wen du salt key~ vorslag tue~ / du habst io / de~ nochslag auch mete ym synne vnd ym mute / also dastu vm~mer in motu seist / vnd mit nichte feyerst ader last / zonder vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibst / risch vnd snelle das iener czu keyne~ dingen moge kome~ / Vorwar tustu / das / zo mus her gar eyn guter syn der ungeslage~ von dir kum~t / Weñe mt der selben ku~st / ader mt dem vorteil das / ku~pt is oft / das ey~ pawer ader eyn ungelarter eyn gute~ meist° / slet / mt deme • das her den vorslag tuet / vnd künlich dar hurt / den wy leiche ist das obersehñ / das in/deß trift vnd in alzo beschemet vnd slet / deñe eyn° der der slege war nym~et / vnd des schütcze~s wil warten / der ist io in grosser var / deñe ien° der do of in slet / vnd den vorslag gewyñet / Dorvm~e schaffe / das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens der erste bist / vnd io eyme of dy linkerechte / seiten komest / do bist du wol aller dinge sicher deñe ien° /

[108]

[106]

[107]

[105]

[lvi]

[lvii]

From both sides
learn eight windings with the according steps
And each
of those has three techniques
So there are twenty
four windings, count them one by one
Fencer this observe
and correctly understand the windings
And learn to use them well
so you may hit the four openings
Because every opening
has six sure ways to be hit.

Comment: Here learn that the winden are the real art and the base of all fencing with the sword and from these all other techniques and methods come from. And one rarely is a good fencer without the windings. Just as the Leychmeister disdain them and say that fencing from the winding is weak and they call it from the shortened sword because that they are done simple and stupid. And they mean that these are fenced from the long sword which is done with outstretched arms and extended sword and also aggressively with all strength of the body only by pressing themselves forward.

And this is painful to watch! If one stretches just as running after a rabbit this is not the way, neither the windings nor Liechtenauers art, because there is no strength against (the opposing strength)! Whoever does it differently should prefer strength.

[39v] VOn beiden seiten /
ler acht wi~den mit schreite~ /
Vnd io ir eyne /
der wi~de~ mt drey~ stöcke~ meyne /
So synt ir czwenczik •
vnd vier / czele sy enczik /
ffechter das achte /
vnd dy winden rechte betrachte /
Vnd lere sy wol fure~ /
zo magst du dy vier blößen rüre~ /
Wen itzliche blösse /
hat sechs ruren gewisse /

[40r] / Glosa / :• Hie merke / das dy winden / sint dy rechte kunst / vnd gru~tfeste alles fechten / des sw°tes / aus den alle ander gefechte vnd stöcke kome~ / vnd is mag mülich eyn guter fechter /syn / ane dy winden / Wy wol etzliche leychmeistere • dy vornichte~ / vnd spreche~ is sy gar swach was aus den winden ku~pt / vnd neñen is / aus dem korcze~ sw°te / dorvm~e das sy slecht vnd ey~veldik dar gen / vnd meyne~ das sy / aus dem lange~ sw°te gefochte~ / was dar get / mt gestracke~ arme~ / vnd mt gestrakte~ swerte / vnd was gar veyntlich vnd stark von alle~ krefte~ des leybes dar get / nur durch wol stehens wille / vnd das is grawsam an czu sehñ ist / we~ sich eyn° alzo strekt / recht zam her eyne~ hazen wolle irlawfen / vnd daz ist alles nicht / weder dy winden vnd weder lichtnaw°s kunst / wen do ist keyne sterke weder / deñe worvm~e wer anders ku~st / solde allemal dy sterke vörczihen /

  1. Remainder is blacked out.
  2. alt: behold, peer-into, witness, probe, observe, perceive, inspect, investigate, realize, comprehend. alt: show, present, embody, illuminate
  3. latin
  4. lit: tread-full. completing a step or completing the course of a thing.
  5. alt: giving-way, stepping-off. to give something up. to let something go.
  6. alt: safe, sure
  7. alt: has success
  8. Text gives "deñe her"; correct order based on markings is given here.
  9. Word is almost illegible.
  10. Alternative interpretation: keep your blade on top of his.
  11. Thrust exchange from the bind.
  12. Striking the wrist and arms.
  13. vorreben?
  14. Cut to the hands and then cut the throat.
  15. from above; the high guard
  16. upper opening
  17. lower opening
  18. The comment ends here and remains unfinished.
  19. Most of the verses on this page are associated with armored fencing in other treatises.
  20. crown displacement technique
  21. This paragraph is above the script level. Unlike other places where there are definitely forgotten passages originally marked with a caret, such is missing here. Thus, it can be conjectured that this is a later addition or comment.
  22. latin: ut potuit. "as [they] are able" This is underlined and not stricken.