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{{infobox medieval text
 
{{infobox medieval text
 
<!----------Name---------->
 
<!----------Name---------->
| name                  = Liber de Arte Dimicatoria
+
| name                  = ''Liber de Arte Dimicatoria''
| alternative title(s)  = [[title::Book on the Art of Fencing]]
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| alternative title(s)  = "[[title::Book on the Art of Fencing]]"
 
<!----------Image---------->
 
<!----------Image---------->
 
| imageleft            = File:MS I.33 31v.jpg
 
| imageleft            = File:MS I.33 31v.jpg
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| authenticity          =  
 
| authenticity          =  
 
| series                =  
 
| series                =  
| manuscript(s)        =  
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| manuscript(s)        = {{plainlist
 +
| [[Berlin Picture Book (Libr.Pict.A.83)|Libr.Pict.A.83]] (1512)
 +
| [[Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)|Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.4]] (1540s)
 +
| [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Cgm 3712]] (1556)
 +
}}
 
| MS class 1            =  
 
| MS class 1            =  
 
| MS class 2            =  
 
| MS class 2            =  
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| MS class 6            =  
 
| MS class 6            =  
 
| MS class 7            =  
 
| MS class 7            =  
| principal manuscript(s)= [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS I.33]] (1320s)
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| principal manuscript(s)= [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS .33]] (1320s)
 
| first printed edition = Forgeng, 2003
 
| first printed edition = Forgeng, 2003
 
| wiktenauer compilation by= [[Michael Chidester]]
 
| wiktenauer compilation by= [[Michael Chidester]]
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}}
 
}}
 
{{under construction}}
 
{{under construction}}
The '''''Liber de Arte Dimicatoria ''''' is a [[nationality::German]] [[fencing manual]] from the early [[century::14th century]]; it is generally considered to be anonymous, though the name Ludger ("Lutegerus") appears prominently on the first folio and may be the name of the author or scribe. The illustrations and monastic origin of the principal manuscript, [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS I.33]] (or FECHT 1), suggest that it was created by a member of the clergy (perhaps a priest or monk).
+
'''''Liber de Arte Dimicatoria ''''' is a [[nationality::German]] [[fencing manual]] from the early [[century::14th century]]; it is generally considered to be anonymous, though the name Ludger ("Lutegerus") appears prominently on the first folio and may be the name of the author or scribe. The illustrations and monastic origin of the principal manuscript, [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS .33]] (or FECHT 1), suggest that it was created by a member of the clergy (perhaps a priest or monk).
  
The treatise is fully illustrated, and consists of both mnemonic verses and longer explanations in Medieval Latin with strong vernacular influences. (The format of verse and gloss may indicate that the priest was recording a yet older tradition.) It treats unarmored fencing with [[sword and buckler]]; the intriguing fact that the fencers depicted are a priest and a student (and on the last two pages, a priest and a woman identified as St. Walpurga), seems to suggest that this was a middle class or priestly art rather than one of the knightly class. Repeatedly, the text makes mention of the pupils (''scolaris'' or ''discipulus'') of the priest, as well as youths (''iuvenis'') and clients (''clientulum'').
+
The treatise is fully illustrated, and the text includes both short mnemonic verses and longer explanations in a Medieval Latin with strong vernacular influences. (The format of verse and gloss may indicate that the author was recording a yet older tradition.) It treats unarmored fencing with [[sword and buckler]]; the intriguing fact that the fencers depicted are a priest and a student (and on the last two pages, a priest and a woman), seems to suggest that this was a middle class or priestly art rather than one of the knightly class. Repeatedly, the text makes mention of the pupils (''scolaris'' or ''discipulus'') of the priest, as well as youths (''iuvenis'') and clients (''clientulum'').
  
The principal manuscript in its present form consists of five quires, of which all but the first are incomplete; at least eight leaves are believed to be missing (assuming it started with complete quires of four bifolia each).<ref name="Hester">Hester (2012).</ref> The precise contents of these missing leaves are unknown, but it is possible that they were a source for the thirty [[Anonymous sword and buckler images|uncaptioned sword and buckler plays]] which appear in the [[Berlin Sketchbook (Libr.Pict.A.83)|Libri Picture A 83]], the [[Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)|Codex I.6.2º.4]], and the [[Lienhart Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cgm 3712)|Cgm 3712]] (see below); alternatively, these may originate from another manuscript within the same tradition. The anonymous plays seem in turn to have been the main source for [[Paulus Hector Mair]]'s treatment of rapier and buckler, which he captioned with his own interpretations; since Mayr's connection to this tradition seems limited to being a late commentator, his text is not included below.
+
The apparent identification of the priest as Ludger and the woman as Walpurga may suggest an allegorical aspect to the artwork, as both names belong to Medieval saints who were popular in Germany.
 +
 
 +
The principal manuscript in its present form consists of five quires, of which all but the first are incomplete; at least eight leaves are believed to be missing (assuming it started with complete quires of four bifolia each).<ref name="Hester">Hester (2012).</ref> The precise contents of these missing leaves are unknown, but it is possible that they were a source for the thirty [[Anonymous sword and buckler images|uncaptioned sword and buckler plays]] which appear in the [[Berlin Picture Book (Libr.Pict.A.83)|Libr.Pict.A.83]], the [[Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)|Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.4]], and the [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Cgm 3712]] (see below); alternatively, these may originate from another manuscript within the same tradition. The anonymous plays seem in turn to have been the main source for [[Paulus Hector Mair]]'s treatment of rapier and buckler, which he captioned with his own interpretations; since Mayr's connection to this tradition seems limited to being a late commentator, his text is not included below.
  
 
== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
Scans of [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS I.33]] are licensed under the terms of the [https://royalarmouries.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Non-Commercial-Licence.pdf Royal Armouries Non-Commercial Licence].
+
Scans of [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS .33]] are licensed under the terms of the [https://royalarmouries.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Non-Commercial-Licence.pdf Royal Armouries Non-Commercial Licence].
  
 
Folia 1r-3v have been conceptually restored by artist [[Mariana López Rodríguez]]; unmodified versions can be viewed on the Royal Armouries website.
 
Folia 1r-3v have been conceptually restored by artist [[Mariana López Rodríguez]]; unmodified versions can be viewed on the Royal Armouries website.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
   | title = Sword and buckler
+
   | title = Sword and Buckler
 
   | width = 90em
 
   | width = 90em
 
}}
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images</p>
+
! <p>Images<br/>from the [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|Leeds]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
! <p>Transcription{{edit index|Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
+
! <p>Leeds Transcription{{edit index|Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)}}<br/>by [[Dieter Bachmann]]</p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS I.33 01r.png|300px|center|Folio 1r]]
+
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS I.33 01r.png|400px|center|Folio 1r]]
 
| <p>[1] ''Stygian Pluto dares not attempt what a rogue monk and a treacherous hag dare do.''<ref>The introductory verse is added on the top margin of the page in a 15th-century hand. The distichon was apparently added in the 15th century, when the manuscript was still kept in a monastery library. It seems to express a disparaging view of “armed clerics” and clearly also refers to the depiction of a female fencer on the last folium. This verse is attested in print in the 16th century, and there attributed to Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II, 1405–64), as follows:
 
| <p>[1] ''Stygian Pluto dares not attempt what a rogue monk and a treacherous hag dare do.''<ref>The introductory verse is added on the top margin of the page in a 15th-century hand. The distichon was apparently added in the 15th century, when the manuscript was still kept in a monastery library. It seems to express a disparaging view of “armed clerics” and clearly also refers to the depiction of a female fencer on the last folium. This verse is attested in print in the 16th century, and there attributed to Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II, 1405–64), as follows:
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 01v.png|300px|center|Folio 1v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 01v.png|400px|center|Folio 1v]]
 
| <p>[5] Note that the whole core of the art of fencing consists in this final guard which is called ''langort'', because in it, all actions of the guards or the sword terminate, i.e. they end in it and not in the others, therefore consider it more than the the above-mentioned first one.</p>
 
| <p>[5] Note that the whole core of the art of fencing consists in this final guard which is called ''langort'', because in it, all actions of the guards or the sword terminate, i.e. they end in it and not in the others, therefore consider it more than the the above-mentioned first one.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 01v.jpg|1|lbl=1v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 01v.jpg|1|lbl=1v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="5" | [[File:MS I.33 02r.png|300px|center|Folio 2r]]
+
| rowspan="5" | [[File:MS I.33 02r.png|400px|center|Folio 2r]]
 
| <p>[7] '''(+)''' Note, here is contained the first guard, viz. the one under the arm, and the siege is ''halbschilt''. And I give the sensible counsel that the one under the arm should not execute any strike, as recommends ''de Alkersleiben'',<ref>Gunterrodt (1579) read this name as ''Albenslaiben'' recognising it as the name of the “ancient stem and most famous family” (''vetustissima prosapia et clarissima familia'') of Alvensleben. Ukert, on the other hand, reads ''Alkersleiben''. Both Gunterrodt and Ukert recognised the word as a personal name (while a reading ''albersleiben'' is due to Forgeng, who identified the word as a fencing term, a “proto-Liechtenauerian” version of Alber). ''Alkersleiben'' is clearly more consistent with the manuscript, and Gunterrodt's reading should perhaps be considered an emendation, inserting the more familiar name of Alvensleben, a prominent noble family of Brandenburg in Gunterrodt's time (which also had held extensive possessions already in the 1300s). For Gunterrodt, it was obvious that the author of the manuscript must have been a nobleman who had retired to a monastery in his old age, and he took his reading as a confirmation of the association with nobility without positively identifying the name as referencing the manual's author.<p>However, reading ''de Alkersleiben'' (with Ukert) we have a reference to the Thuringian village of Alkersleben (recorded in the 13th century as ''Alkesleibin''), at the time of merely local importance as the site of a manor and a deanery. Alkersleben is some 200 km to the north of the parts of Franconia affected by the Second Margravian War, the presumed area of production of our manuscript. Ukert interprets both ''Lutegerus'' and ''de Alkersleiben'' as the names of “common fencers” (''generales dimicatores'', “gemeine Fechtmeister”). This depends entirely on the context we give to the occurrence of the names, in the case of ''de Alkersleiben'':  ''Non ducat aliquam plagam quod probat de Alkersleiben'' “He should not deliver any strike, as recommended by ''de Alkersleiben''” – are we to understand that this is a counsel against the recommendation to “deliver a strike” attributed to a notable “common fencer” known as ''de Alkersleiben'', or are we much rather to understand that the counsel not to deliver a strike is attributed to the highly profi cient fencer known by this name, which would amount to nothing less than yet another reference by the author to himself in the third person? If we are ready to interpret ''Lutegerus'' in this way, I see no obstacle to adopt the same position here, which would give us an author ''Clericus Lutegerus de Alkersleiben'', or, in German, ''Pfaffe Luitger von Alkersleben''. Incidentially, the term ''nucken'' happens to be more consistent with a Thuringian rather than a Franconian origin of whoever is responsible for coining it.</p></ref> for the reason that he cannot reach the upper part; if [he should aim] lower, it would be pernicious to [his] head. But the besieger by entering could invade him at any time if he omits what is being held, as is written below.</p>
 
| <p>[7] '''(+)''' Note, here is contained the first guard, viz. the one under the arm, and the siege is ''halbschilt''. And I give the sensible counsel that the one under the arm should not execute any strike, as recommends ''de Alkersleiben'',<ref>Gunterrodt (1579) read this name as ''Albenslaiben'' recognising it as the name of the “ancient stem and most famous family” (''vetustissima prosapia et clarissima familia'') of Alvensleben. Ukert, on the other hand, reads ''Alkersleiben''. Both Gunterrodt and Ukert recognised the word as a personal name (while a reading ''albersleiben'' is due to Forgeng, who identified the word as a fencing term, a “proto-Liechtenauerian” version of Alber). ''Alkersleiben'' is clearly more consistent with the manuscript, and Gunterrodt's reading should perhaps be considered an emendation, inserting the more familiar name of Alvensleben, a prominent noble family of Brandenburg in Gunterrodt's time (which also had held extensive possessions already in the 1300s). For Gunterrodt, it was obvious that the author of the manuscript must have been a nobleman who had retired to a monastery in his old age, and he took his reading as a confirmation of the association with nobility without positively identifying the name as referencing the manual's author.<p>However, reading ''de Alkersleiben'' (with Ukert) we have a reference to the Thuringian village of Alkersleben (recorded in the 13th century as ''Alkesleibin''), at the time of merely local importance as the site of a manor and a deanery. Alkersleben is some 200 km to the north of the parts of Franconia affected by the Second Margravian War, the presumed area of production of our manuscript. Ukert interprets both ''Lutegerus'' and ''de Alkersleiben'' as the names of “common fencers” (''generales dimicatores'', “gemeine Fechtmeister”). This depends entirely on the context we give to the occurrence of the names, in the case of ''de Alkersleiben'':  ''Non ducat aliquam plagam quod probat de Alkersleiben'' “He should not deliver any strike, as recommended by ''de Alkersleiben''” – are we to understand that this is a counsel against the recommendation to “deliver a strike” attributed to a notable “common fencer” known as ''de Alkersleiben'', or are we much rather to understand that the counsel not to deliver a strike is attributed to the highly profi cient fencer known by this name, which would amount to nothing less than yet another reference by the author to himself in the third person? If we are ready to interpret ''Lutegerus'' in this way, I see no obstacle to adopt the same position here, which would give us an author ''Clericus Lutegerus de Alkersleiben'', or, in German, ''Pfaffe Luitger von Alkersleben''. Incidentially, the term ''nucken'' happens to be more consistent with a Thuringian rather than a Franconian origin of whoever is responsible for coining it.</p></ref> for the reason that he cannot reach the upper part; if [he should aim] lower, it would be pernicious to [his] head. But the besieger by entering could invade him at any time if he omits what is being held, as is written below.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 02r.jpg|1|lbl=2r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 02r.jpg|1|lbl=2r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="6" | [[File:MS I.33 02v.png|300px|center]]
+
| rowspan="6" | [[File:MS I.33 02v.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[12] Note that the scholar here binds and applies pressure so that he gets to perform a ''schiltslac'' as [in the image] below. But he should take care that what is to be done on the  
 
| <p>[12] Note that the scholar here binds and applies pressure so that he gets to perform a ''schiltslac'' as [in the image] below. But he should take care that what is to be done on the  
 
part of the priest [because] after the bind, the priest will be the first to act. Note also that the priest can do nothing other than a ''schiltslac'' or embracing with the left hand the arms of the priest, i.e. sword and shield.</p>
 
part of the priest [because] after the bind, the priest will be the first to act. Note also that the priest can do nothing other than a ''schiltslac'' or embracing with the left hand the arms of the priest, i.e. sword and shield.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 03r.png|300px|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 03r.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[18] '''(+)''' Note that the first guard is resumed here, due to certain actions from the first section, i.e. of the first guard of which was treated before, but all that belongs here you find in the first page, up to the sword-change.</p>
 
| <p>[18] '''(+)''' Note that the first guard is resumed here, due to certain actions from the first section, i.e. of the first guard of which was treated before, but all that belongs here you find in the first page, up to the sword-change.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 03r.jpg|1|lbl=3r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 03r.jpg|1|lbl=3r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS I.33 03v.png|300px|center]]
+
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS I.33 03v.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[20] Here is a bind on the part of the scholar, and all other things which were treated above, until the sword-change below.<ref>The first three images of the second play are equivalent to the first play. This is made explicit in the text, the sword-change in the following image being shown as a counter to the overbind. But note the explicit depiction of step with the left foot forward for the overbind (based on the position of the rear foot), a detail absent from the equivalent situation as shown in 2v.</ref></p>
 
| <p>[20] Here is a bind on the part of the scholar, and all other things which were treated above, until the sword-change below.<ref>The first three images of the second play are equivalent to the first play. This is made explicit in the text, the sword-change in the following image being shown as a counter to the overbind. But note the explicit depiction of step with the left foot forward for the overbind (based on the position of the rear foot), a detail absent from the equivalent situation as shown in 2v.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 03v.jpg|1|lbl=3v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 03v.jpg|1|lbl=3v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 04r.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 04r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[24] Here the priest should take care not to delay with the sword in the slightest, lest out of this delay an action should arise which is called wrestling, but out of caution he must immediately re-establish the bind.<ref>The paragraph is centered on the page above the image, perhaps added as an afterthought as the scribe realised that the description intended for this image has already been given on the previous page. This image is unique in the book, and CS point out correctly a mistake on the part of the illustrator, who has given the priest two left hands.</ref></p>
 
| <p>[24] Here the priest should take care not to delay with the sword in the slightest, lest out of this delay an action should arise which is called wrestling, but out of caution he must immediately re-establish the bind.<ref>The paragraph is centered on the page above the image, perhaps added as an afterthought as the scribe realised that the description intended for this image has already been given on the previous page. This image is unique in the book, and CS point out correctly a mistake on the part of the illustrator, who has given the priest two left hands.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 04r.jpg|1|lbl=4r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 04r.jpg|1|lbl=4r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS I.33 04v.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| rowspan="4" | [[File:MS I.33 04v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[26] Here the priest binds above the scholar's siege, and immediately there follow all the preceding things, which you had before, although granted, two images you did not yet see, they follow below, where he catches sword and shield.</p>
 
| <p>[26] Here the priest binds above the scholar's siege, and immediately there follow all the preceding things, which you had before, although granted, two images you did not yet see, they follow below, where he catches sword and shield.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 04v.jpg|1|lbl=4v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 04v.jpg|1|lbl=4v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 05r.jpg|300px|center]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 05r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[30] Here the priest defends against what the scholar does above.</p>
 
| <p>[30] Here the priest defends against what the scholar does above.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 05r.jpg|1|lbl=5r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 05r.jpg|1|lbl=5r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 05v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 5v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 05v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 5v]]
 
| <p>[32] Here the scholar has omitted [all actions], as he did not bind; the scholar enters straight [away],<ref>''prossus'' for ''prorsus'' or ''prosus'' “straight ahead, directly, truly”; even though the literal meaning of the adverb is “straight ahead”, the intended meaning is not necessarily spatial but rather temporal, i.e. the priest enters “straight away” as the scholar omits the bind, but not necessarily in a straight line.</ref> and not without merit, because whenever the one assuming the guard omits that which he has to do, the besieger has to enter as [shown] here.</p>
 
| <p>[32] Here the scholar has omitted [all actions], as he did not bind; the scholar enters straight [away],<ref>''prossus'' for ''prorsus'' or ''prosus'' “straight ahead, directly, truly”; even though the literal meaning of the adverb is “straight ahead”, the intended meaning is not necessarily spatial but rather temporal, i.e. the priest enters “straight away” as the scholar omits the bind, but not necessarily in a straight line.</ref> and not without merit, because whenever the one assuming the guard omits that which he has to do, the besieger has to enter as [shown] here.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 05v.jpg|1|lbl=5v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 05v.jpg|1|lbl=5v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 06r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 6r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 06r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 6r]]
 
| <p>[34] Above, the priest besieges the scholar; here, the scholar performs the same action as the priest, but the besieger is the first to enter if the scholar omits [further action], as below. Moreover, he should take care lest the other might reach the head, as he can [do that].<ref>The text has a stray ''lu'', the beginning of the word ''ludem'', amended to ''actum'' on the fly (because ''ludus'' “game” is used for a sequence of techniques, while ''actus'' refers to a single tempo, in this case the assumption of ''krucke''). The addition of ''scholaris'' as the subject of ''obmittit'' is in the later hand B.</ref><ref>The technique described is an example of ''Fühlen'' in the bind, the priest may thrust to the belly in the (strong) bind, but the scholar has the opportunity to release the bind and strike to the head, scoring an easy double-hit. As soon as the attacker feels he is losing the bind, he has to interrupt the attack and perform the counter shown in the next image.</ref></p>
 
| <p>[34] Above, the priest besieges the scholar; here, the scholar performs the same action as the priest, but the besieger is the first to enter if the scholar omits [further action], as below. Moreover, he should take care lest the other might reach the head, as he can [do that].<ref>The text has a stray ''lu'', the beginning of the word ''ludem'', amended to ''actum'' on the fly (because ''ludus'' “game” is used for a sequence of techniques, while ''actus'' refers to a single tempo, in this case the assumption of ''krucke''). The addition of ''scholaris'' as the subject of ''obmittit'' is in the later hand B.</ref><ref>The technique described is an example of ''Fühlen'' in the bind, the priest may thrust to the belly in the (strong) bind, but the scholar has the opportunity to release the bind and strike to the head, scoring an easy double-hit. As soon as the attacker feels he is losing the bind, he has to interrupt the attack and perform the counter shown in the next image.</ref></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 06r.jpg|1|lbl=6r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 06r.jpg|1|lbl=6r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 06v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 6v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 06v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 6v]]
 
| <p>[36]<ref>The top image is without text (and without lineation). It shows a counter against the double-hit discussed under the previous image. The counter is worth closer scrutiny, as it does not recur (but compare the counter on 19v as conceptually related).</ref> '''(+)''' Here once again the first guard, viz. the one under the arm, is re-assumed, which is besieged with a certain counter that is called ''langort'', and it is a siege of the common fencers, and the counters to this siege on the part of the one in the guard are the binds below and above.</p>
 
| <p>[36]<ref>The top image is without text (and without lineation). It shows a counter against the double-hit discussed under the previous image. The counter is worth closer scrutiny, as it does not recur (but compare the counter on 19v as conceptually related).</ref> '''(+)''' Here once again the first guard, viz. the one under the arm, is re-assumed, which is besieged with a certain counter that is called ''langort'', and it is a siege of the common fencers, and the counters to this siege on the part of the one in the guard are the binds below and above.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 06v.jpg|1|lbl=6v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 06v.jpg|1|lbl=6v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 07r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 7r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 07r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 7r]]
 
| <p>[38] Here will follow the game of the first guard, that is, of the binder and the bound.</p>
 
| <p>[38] Here will follow the game of the first guard, that is, of the binder and the bound.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 07r.jpg|1|lbl=7r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 07r.jpg|1|lbl=7r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 07v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 7v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 07v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 7v]]
 
| <p>[41] '''(+)''' The first guard and the siege of the common [fencers]<ref>i.e. ''langort''</ref> as above, but the game is varied at the end of the play.</p>
 
| <p>[41] '''(+)''' The first guard and the siege of the common [fencers]<ref>i.e. ''langort''</ref> as above, but the game is varied at the end of the play.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 07v.jpg|1|lbl=7v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 07v.jpg|1|lbl=7v}}
Line 282: Line 288:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS I.33 08r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 8r]]
+
| [[File:MS I.33 08r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 8r]]
 
| <p>[43] Here is the change of the sword in lower position.<ref>The text is written between the two images, on the right side (the side of the fencer performing the technique). There is no  
 
| <p>[43] Here is the change of the sword in lower position.<ref>The text is written between the two images, on the right side (the side of the fencer performing the technique). There is no  
 
other text (or lineation) on the page. The prior image (the underbind) is closely reproduced in the top image, the only difference in posture being the scholar's having moved his shield to his left hand side. It thus shows the same situation as the top of 7r (with the role of the two fencers reversed), i.e. the overbind, but in this case, the ''Vor'' is held not by the fencer in the overbind, but by the fencer in the underbind, who next performs sword-change, so that the sequence on 8r becomes a repetition of 3v.</ref></p>
 
other text (or lineation) on the page. The prior image (the underbind) is closely reproduced in the top image, the only difference in posture being the scholar's having moved his shield to his left hand side. It thus shows the same situation as the top of 7r (with the role of the two fencers reversed), i.e. the overbind, but in this case, the ''Vor'' is held not by the fencer in the overbind, but by the fencer in the underbind, who next performs sword-change, so that the sequence on 8r becomes a repetition of 3v.</ref></p>
Line 288: Line 294:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 08v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 8v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 08v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 8v]]
 
| <p>[44] '''(+)''' First guard is resumed here, and it is besieged with the first [siege], that is ''halpschilt'', and you will have all of the things [treated] before.<ref>This “play” on the final page of the first quire has no new material, but it is important as the only instance of the frequently used action of “falling under” being shown from the reverse perspective, showing the hands of the fencer in halpschilt. The variant ''possessio'' for ''obsessio'' here occurs for the last time (otherwise only as possessor on 4r, and in the late addition on 2r).</ref></p>
 
| <p>[44] '''(+)''' First guard is resumed here, and it is besieged with the first [siege], that is ''halpschilt'', and you will have all of the things [treated] before.<ref>This “play” on the final page of the first quire has no new material, but it is important as the only instance of the frequently used action of “falling under” being shown from the reverse perspective, showing the hands of the fencer in halpschilt. The variant ''possessio'' for ''obsessio'' here occurs for the last time (otherwise only as possessor on 4r, and in the late addition on 2r).</ref></p>
 
|  {{section|Page:MS I.33 08v.jpg|1|lbl=8v}}
 
|  {{section|Page:MS I.33 08v.jpg|1|lbl=8v}}
Line 302: Line 308:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 09r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 9r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 09r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 9r]]
 
| <p>[46] '''(+)''' It can be seen how here is taught in which way the second ward may be displaced. And I say the second ward, because the third ward which is given to the left shoulder, does not differ much from the second. But here we speak of the second ward, which is given to the right shoulder. And from the same ward, the displacer executes the displacement called ''schutzen'', because every ward has its protection (which is the meaning of ''schutzen'').</p>
 
| <p>[46] '''(+)''' It can be seen how here is taught in which way the second ward may be displaced. And I say the second ward, because the third ward which is given to the left shoulder, does not differ much from the second. But here we speak of the second ward, which is given to the right shoulder. And from the same ward, the displacer executes the displacement called ''schutzen'', because every ward has its protection (which is the meaning of ''schutzen'').</p>
 
|  {{section|Page:MS I.33 09r.jpg|1|lbl=9r}}
 
|  {{section|Page:MS I.33 09r.jpg|1|lbl=9r}}
Line 311: Line 317:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 09v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 9v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 09v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 9v]]
 
| <p>[48] Here the pupil, instructed by the priest, executes an action that is called ''durchtritt''.<ref>''durchtritt'': a step to the side seems intended; for the (preferable) action depicted, we would expect 'to the left', so dexteram may be taking the opponent's view.</ref> He might get an opportunity far a strike to the left, as it is done by general fencers, or to the right, as it is done by the priest and his youths. To counter these two possibilities, the priest may, with the sword under the arm, reach the bare hands of him who executes the abovementioned strikes, although this counter is not depicted in the example image.</p>
 
| <p>[48] Here the pupil, instructed by the priest, executes an action that is called ''durchtritt''.<ref>''durchtritt'': a step to the side seems intended; for the (preferable) action depicted, we would expect 'to the left', so dexteram may be taking the opponent's view.</ref> He might get an opportunity far a strike to the left, as it is done by general fencers, or to the right, as it is done by the priest and his youths. To counter these two possibilities, the priest may, with the sword under the arm, reach the bare hands of him who executes the abovementioned strikes, although this counter is not depicted in the example image.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 09v.jpg|1|lbl=9v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 09v.jpg|1|lbl=9v}}
Line 320: Line 326:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 10r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 10r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 10r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 10r]]
 
| <p>[50] Here, as the priest is in the act of binding from above, he teaches the pupil, what may be done against this, namely ''stichslac'', which he generally recommends, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[50] Here, as the priest is in the act of binding from above, he teaches the pupil, what may be done against this, namely ''stichslac'', which he generally recommends, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 10r.jpg|1|lbl=10r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 10r.jpg|1|lbl=10r}}
Line 329: Line 335:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 10v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 10v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 10v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 10v]]
 
| <p>[52] Here, the priest obits to bind or being bound, and this as an example for his students, so that these may learn what is to be done; the pupil attacks and executes an action put here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[52] Here, the priest obits to bind or being bound, and this as an example for his students, so that these may learn what is to be done; the pupil attacks and executes an action put here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 10v.jpg|1|lbl=10v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 10v.jpg|1|lbl=10v}}
Line 338: Line 344:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 11r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 11r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 11r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 11r]]
 
| <p>[54] Note how many ordinary fencers will be seduced by this displacement shown here. They think they can achieve a separation of sword and shield by means of the strike executed here. This is however not the case, because the displacer tarries, which could endanger him, but this [separation] executed is depicted here for all that wish to make use of the counsel of the priest.</p>
 
| <p>[54] Note how many ordinary fencers will be seduced by this displacement shown here. They think they can achieve a separation of sword and shield by means of the strike executed here. This is however not the case, because the displacer tarries, which could endanger him, but this [separation] executed is depicted here for all that wish to make use of the counsel of the priest.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 11r.jpg|1|lbl=11r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 11r.jpg|1|lbl=11r}}
Line 347: Line 353:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 11v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 11v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 11v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 11v]]
 
| <p>[56] '''(+)''' Here the priest re-adopts the first ward, i.e. the one under the arm; some things were omitted which you had not put before, as shown in the example below.</p>
 
| <p>[56] '''(+)''' Here the priest re-adopts the first ward, i.e. the one under the arm; some things were omitted which you had not put before, as shown in the example below.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 11v.jpg|1|lbl=11v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 11v.jpg|1|lbl=11v}}
Line 356: Line 362:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 12r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 12r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 12r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 12r]]
 
| <p>[58] '''(+)''' Here, the priest adopts third ward, which is displaced by the student as shown. The counter to this displacement will be a bind, and I say bind, but only above, and no other as in the example below.</p>
 
| <p>[58] '''(+)''' Here, the priest adopts third ward, which is displaced by the student as shown. The counter to this displacement will be a bind, and I say bind, but only above, and no other as in the example below.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 12r.jpg|1|lbl=12r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 12r.jpg|1|lbl=12r}}
Line 365: Line 371:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 12v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 12v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 12v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 12v]]
 
| <p>[60] From the above bind, the priest teaches his little client to get sword and shield by embracing the arms of his opponent, as shown here.</p>
 
| <p>[60] From the above bind, the priest teaches his little client to get sword and shield by embracing the arms of his opponent, as shown here.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 12v.jpg|1|lbl=12v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 12v.jpg|1|lbl=12v}}
Line 374: Line 380:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 13r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 13r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 13r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 13r]]
 
| <p>[62] Here the priest teaches his little client, who executes a displacement, and he teaches him to enter if a bind is omitted.</p>
 
| <p>[62] Here the priest teaches his little client, who executes a displacement, and he teaches him to enter if a bind is omitted.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 13r.jpg|1|lbl=13r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 13r.jpg|1|lbl=13r}}
Line 383: Line 389:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS I.33 13v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 13v]]
+
| [[File:MS I.33 13v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 13v]]
 
| <p>[64] Note that all actions of the first ward, viz. under the arm, are here, up to the next sign of the cross.</p>
 
| <p>[64] Note that all actions of the first ward, viz. under the arm, are here, up to the next sign of the cross.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 13v.jpg|1|lbl=13v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 13v.jpg|1|lbl=13v}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS I.33 14r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 14r]]
+
| [[File:MS I.33 14r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 14r]]
 
| <p>[65] '''(+)''' Here the third ward is re-adopted, which will be displaced by ''langort'', which all common fencers execute, and the counter to this displacement are two binds, one on the right above the sword, the other on the left.</p>
 
| <p>[65] '''(+)''' Here the third ward is re-adopted, which will be displaced by ''langort'', which all common fencers execute, and the counter to this displacement are two binds, one on the right above the sword, the other on the left.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 14r.jpg|1|lbl=14r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 14r.jpg|1|lbl=14r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 14v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 14v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 14v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 14v]]
 
| <p>[66] Verse:</p>
 
| <p>[66] Verse:</p>
  
Line 407: Line 413:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 15r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 15r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 15r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 15r]]
 
| <p>[68] '''(+)''' Here the priest re-adopts the fourth ward; the displacement of this fourth ward will be the first ward, and this as an example to his pupils, as here shown in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[68] '''(+)''' Here the priest re-adopts the fourth ward; the displacement of this fourth ward will be the first ward, and this as an example to his pupils, as here shown in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 15r.jpg|1|lbl=15r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 15r.jpg|1|lbl=15r}}
Line 416: Line 422:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS I.33 15v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 15v]]
+
| [[File:MS I.33 15v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 15v]]
 
| <p>[No text]</p>
 
| <p>[No text]</p>
 
| {{paget|Ms I33 fol|15v|jpg|blk=1}}
 
| {{paget|Ms I33 fol|15v|jpg|blk=1}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:MS I.33 16r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 16r]]
+
| [[File:MS I.33 16r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 16r]]
 
| <p>[70] '''(+)''' Here the first ward is re-adopted, viz. under the arm, and its displacement will be ''langort'', and it is common and of limited value, and note that he who adopts the ward has three possibilities: firstly, he may bind right, above the sword; secondly, he may left, below the sword; thirdly, he may grip the sword with his hand, as shown below in the next example.</p>
 
| <p>[70] '''(+)''' Here the first ward is re-adopted, viz. under the arm, and its displacement will be ''langort'', and it is common and of limited value, and note that he who adopts the ward has three possibilities: firstly, he may bind right, above the sword; secondly, he may left, below the sword; thirdly, he may grip the sword with his hand, as shown below in the next example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 16r.jpg|1|lbl=16r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 16r.jpg|1|lbl=16r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 16v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 16v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 16v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 16v]]
 
| <p>[71] Here the priest grips - i.e. he teaches to grip - the displacer's sword. And note that the sword of said displacer may not be freed except by means of a ''schiltslac'', where the priest's hand is struck with the shield, as below in the next example.</p>
 
| <p>[71] Here the priest grips - i.e. he teaches to grip - the displacer's sword. And note that the sword of said displacer may not be freed except by means of a ''schiltslac'', where the priest's hand is struck with the shield, as below in the next example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 16v.jpg|1|lbl=16v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 16v.jpg|1|lbl=16v}}
Line 438: Line 444:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 17r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 17r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 17r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 17r]]
 
| <p>[73] '''(+)''' Here the priest adopts the sixth ward, which is given to the breast. And note, it is solely this stab that must be executed which is executed from the fifth ward, up to the next sign of the cross.</p>
 
| <p>[73] '''(+)''' Here the priest adopts the sixth ward, which is given to the breast. And note, it is solely this stab that must be executed which is executed from the fifth ward, up to the next sign of the cross.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 17r.jpg|1|lbl=17r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 17r.jpg|1|lbl=17r}}
Line 447: Line 453:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 17v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 17v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 17v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 17v]]
 
| <p>[75] Here the pupil by binding resists and deflects this stab of the priest's <del>in the next</del> above in the next example thus.</p>
 
| <p>[75] Here the pupil by binding resists and deflects this stab of the priest's <del>in the next</del> above in the next example thus.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 17v.jpg|1|lbl=17v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 17v.jpg|1|lbl=17v}}
Line 456: Line 462:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 18r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 18r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 18r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 18r]]
 
| <p>[77] It is to be seen how the pupil was the first to bind above the priest's sword in the preceding example. Here, the priest approaches and erects his sword and shield for the protection of the head.</p>
 
| <p>[77] It is to be seen how the pupil was the first to bind above the priest's sword in the preceding example. Here, the priest approaches and erects his sword and shield for the protection of the head.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 18r.jpg|1|lbl=18r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 18r.jpg|1|lbl=18r}}
Line 465: Line 471:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 18v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 18v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 18v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 18v]]
 
| <p>[79] Here the bound, i.e. the one below, grips sword and shield of the one above.</p>
 
| <p>[79] Here the bound, i.e. the one below, grips sword and shield of the one above.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 18v.jpg|1|lbl=18v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 18v.jpg|1|lbl=18v}}
Line 474: Line 480:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 19r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 19r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 19r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 19r]]
 
| <p>[81] Above the priest was grabbed by the pupil and forced to grapple, which the priest may prevent as shown in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[81] Above the priest was grabbed by the pupil and forced to grapple, which the priest may prevent as shown in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 19r.jpg|1|lbl=19r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 19r.jpg|1|lbl=19r}}
Line 483: Line 489:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 19v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 19v]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 19v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 19v]]
 
| <p>[83] After the example above, in the following the priest is bound from below, but the pupil may reach the priest's head, because his sword was higher, and note, in all binds from below, one should guard the head, lest it be hit as here.</p>
 
| <p>[83] After the example above, in the following the priest is bound from below, but the pupil may reach the priest's head, because his sword was higher, and note, in all binds from below, one should guard the head, lest it be hit as here.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 19v.jpg|1|lbl=19v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 19v.jpg|1|lbl=19v}}
Line 498: Line 504:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 20r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 20r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 20r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 20r]]
 
| <p>[86] '''(+)''' Here the final ward is again adopted, which is called ''langort'', and here the priest is adopting it. But the pupil executes one of the four binds, viz. above the sword, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[86] '''(+)''' Here the final ward is again adopted, which is called ''langort'', and here the priest is adopting it. But the pupil executes one of the four binds, viz. above the sword, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 20r.jpg|1|lbl=20r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 20r.jpg|1|lbl=20r}}
Line 507: Line 513:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 20v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 20v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 20v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 20v]]
 
| <p>[88] '''(+)''' Here the final ward is adopted, viz. ''langort'', by the pupil. Above this ward, the priest binds with one of the four binds, viz. above the sword and to the right. And note that whenever there is a bind, the bound may flee from the binder to wherever he likes, to the left or to the right. Thence you may diligently see that if he flees, you will follow him, as in the verse: The bound flees to the side, I try to follow.</p>
 
| <p>[88] '''(+)''' Here the final ward is adopted, viz. ''langort'', by the pupil. Above this ward, the priest binds with one of the four binds, viz. above the sword and to the right. And note that whenever there is a bind, the bound may flee from the binder to wherever he likes, to the left or to the right. Thence you may diligently see that if he flees, you will follow him, as in the verse: The bound flees to the side, I try to follow.</p>
  
Line 518: Line 524:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 21r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 21r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 21r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 21r]]
 
| <p>[90] '''(+)''' Note that this is a different ward, viz. upper ''langort'' which is adopted here by the priest as an example to his pupils, and he instructs his pupil to execute this action, viz. to position himself as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[90] '''(+)''' Note that this is a different ward, viz. upper ''langort'' which is adopted here by the priest as an example to his pupils, and he instructs his pupil to execute this action, viz. to position himself as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 21r.jpg|1|lbl=21r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 21r.jpg|1|lbl=21r}}
Line 527: Line 533:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 21v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 21v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 21v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 21v]]
 
| <p>[92] After above the priest had bound, here the pupil wants to hit the priest in another way, and note that as the priest thinks that he could enter a bind, the pupil hits this same priest's arms. Note also that he not only hits the arms, but the power of this blow lies in the stab, which may also be executed here.</p>
 
| <p>[92] After above the priest had bound, here the pupil wants to hit the priest in another way, and note that as the priest thinks that he could enter a bind, the pupil hits this same priest's arms. Note also that he not only hits the arms, but the power of this blow lies in the stab, which may also be executed here.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 21v.jpg|1|lbl=21v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 21v.jpg|1|lbl=21v}}
Line 536: Line 542:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 22r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 22r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 22r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 22r]]
 
| <p>[94] '''(+)''' Here a common ward is adopted, which is called ''vidilpoge'',<ref>''vidilpoge'' = "fiddle-bow".</ref> executed by the priest. The pupil counters it positioning himself as shown here in the images.</p>
 
| <p>[94] '''(+)''' Here a common ward is adopted, which is called ''vidilpoge'',<ref>''vidilpoge'' = "fiddle-bow".</ref> executed by the priest. The pupil counters it positioning himself as shown here in the images.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 22r.jpg|1|lbl=22r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 22r.jpg|1|lbl=22r}}
Line 545: Line 551:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 22v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 22v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 22v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 22v]]
 
| <p>[96] '''(+)''' Here the same ward is re-adopted, viz. ''vidilpoge'', executed by the priest, the pupil acting as above.</p>
 
| <p>[96] '''(+)''' Here the same ward is re-adopted, viz. ''vidilpoge'', executed by the priest, the pupil acting as above.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 22v.jpg|1|lbl=22v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 22v.jpg|1|lbl=22v}}
Line 554: Line 560:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 23r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 23r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 23r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 23r]]
 
| <p>[98] From this bind the priest does a ''schiltslac'' as treated often above, from abovementioned binds.</p>
 
| <p>[98] From this bind the priest does a ''schiltslac'' as treated often above, from abovementioned binds.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 23r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 23r.jpg|1|lbl=23r}}
Line 563: Line 569:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 23v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 23v]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 23v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 23v]]
 
| <p>[100] '''(+)''' Here, the priest adopts his special ward, viz. ''langort'', which is displaced by the pupil, whose displacement will be ''halpschilt'', as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[100] '''(+)''' Here, the priest adopts his special ward, viz. ''langort'', which is displaced by the pupil, whose displacement will be ''halpschilt'', as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 23v.jpg|1|lbl=23v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 23v.jpg|1|lbl=23v}}
Line 578: Line 584:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 24r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 24r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 24r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 24r]]
 
| <p>[103] After the priest above positioned himself to the scholar, the scholar here binds and steps, intending to do which follows, because you had many forms above, it is not necessary to give more examples. Therefore the verse, "the binder and the bound" etc.</p>
 
| <p>[103] After the priest above positioned himself to the scholar, the scholar here binds and steps, intending to do which follows, because you had many forms above, it is not necessary to give more examples. Therefore the verse, "the binder and the bound" etc.</p>
  
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 24v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 24v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 24v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 24v]]
 
| <p>[105] '''(+)''' Here the special ward of the priest's is re-adopted, which is called ''langort'', as seen above, and again the pupil displaces it with ''haloschilt'', as above, but other examples follow, as shown below.</p>
 
| <p>[105] '''(+)''' Here the special ward of the priest's is re-adopted, which is called ''langort'', as seen above, and again the pupil displaces it with ''haloschilt'', as above, but other examples follow, as shown below.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 24v.jpg|1|lbl=24v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 24v.jpg|1|lbl=24v}}
Line 598: Line 604:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 25r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 25r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 25r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 25r]]
 
| <p>[107] It is to be noted, that the pupil is here dealing a common strike, which all common fencers are wont to deal from the position just treated, namely when binder and bound are engaged and the binder who is above goes to the head and omits a ''schiltslac'', from which follows a strike, and the priest enters, as here.</p>
 
| <p>[107] It is to be noted, that the pupil is here dealing a common strike, which all common fencers are wont to deal from the position just treated, namely when binder and bound are engaged and the binder who is above goes to the head and omits a ''schiltslac'', from which follows a strike, and the priest enters, as here.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 25r.jpg|1|lbl=25r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 25r.jpg|1|lbl=25r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 25v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 25v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 25v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 25v]]
 
| <p>[109] Here, the priest executes the abovementioned stab, because the pupil, who has displaced in the previous example, omits all actions, because, had he bound, he would have been ?under-bound, as in the following example.</p>
 
| <p>[109] Here, the priest executes the abovementioned stab, because the pupil, who has displaced in the previous example, omits all actions, because, had he bound, he would have been ?under-bound, as in the following example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 25v.jpg|1|lbl=25v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 25v.jpg|1|lbl=25v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 26r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 26r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 26r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 26r]]
 
| <p>[111] {{red|Binder and bound are adverse and irate;<br/>The bound flees to the side, I try to follow.}}</p>
 
| <p>[111] {{red|Binder and bound are adverse and irate;<br/>The bound flees to the side, I try to follow.}}</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 26r.jpg|1|lbl=26r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 26r.jpg|1|lbl=26r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 26v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 26v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 26v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 26v]]
 
| <p>[113] After the priest has been displaced above, the pupil does here ''schutzen'', while the priest is executing a bind, as shown here.</p>
 
| <p>[113] After the priest has been displaced above, the pupil does here ''schutzen'', while the priest is executing a bind, as shown here.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 26v.jpg|1|lbl=26v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 26v.jpg|1|lbl=26v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 27r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 27r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 27r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 27r]]
 
| <p>[115] '''(+)''' Here again the fifth ward is assumed, and it is displaced by the special ward of the priest that is called ''langort'', as shown in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[115] '''(+)''' Here again the fifth ward is assumed, and it is displaced by the special ward of the priest that is called ''langort'', as shown in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 27r.jpg|1|lbl=27r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 27r.jpg|1|lbl=27r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 27v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 27v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 27v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 27v]]
 
| <p>[117] '''(+)''' Here the fifth ward is displaced, its displacement being ''halbschilt''. And note, that the one executing the ward may do only two things: Firstly, he can execute a stab, secondly, he can execute a strike to divide shield and sword.</p>
 
| <p>[117] '''(+)''' Here the fifth ward is displaced, its displacement being ''halbschilt''. And note, that the one executing the ward may do only two things: Firstly, he can execute a stab, secondly, he can execute a strike to divide shield and sword.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 27v.jpg|1|lbl=27v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 27v.jpg|1|lbl=27v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 28r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 28r]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 28r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 28r]]
 
| <p>[119] After the above stab executed by the pupil, here the priest defending does schutzen and gets the opportunity for a strike which is a general rule in the art of the priest.</p>
 
| <p>[119] After the above stab executed by the pupil, here the priest defending does schutzen and gets the opportunity for a strike which is a general rule in the art of the priest.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 28r.jpg|1|lbl=28r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 28r.jpg|1|lbl=28r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 28v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 28v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 28v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 28v]]
 
| <p>[122] Here the pupil executes a ''stich'', because the priest omits his defense, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[122] Here the pupil executes a ''stich'', because the priest omits his defense, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 28v.jpg|1|lbl=28v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 28v.jpg|1|lbl=28v}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 29r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 29r]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS I.33 29r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 29r]]
 
| <p>[124] First, as above in the third example of the pictures, the same stab is executed by the pupil, and this stab is deflected by the priest, by means of a ''schiltslac'', as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[124] First, as above in the third example of the pictures, the same stab is executed by the pupil, and this stab is deflected by the priest, by means of a ''schiltslac'', as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 29r.jpg|1|lbl=29r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 29r.jpg|1|lbl=29r}}
Line 692: Line 698:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 29v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 29v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 29v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 29v]]
 
| <p>[127] Here the pupil completes his stab, the priest omitting all actions.</p>
 
| <p>[127] Here the pupil completes his stab, the priest omitting all actions.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 29v.jpg|1|lbl=29v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 29v.jpg|1|lbl=29v}}
Line 701: Line 707:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 30r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 30r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 30r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 30r]]
 
| <p>[129] '''(+)''' It is to be seen that here the fourth ward is again assumed, and the displacement to this fourth ward is the special ''langort'' of the priest. But the displacer should see that the one assuming the ward does not execute a strike, as it would be dangerous to tarry; therefore he should execute schuzin, and finally not omit a stab.</p>
 
| <p>[129] '''(+)''' It is to be seen that here the fourth ward is again assumed, and the displacement to this fourth ward is the special ''langort'' of the priest. But the displacer should see that the one assuming the ward does not execute a strike, as it would be dangerous to tarry; therefore he should execute schuzin, and finally not omit a stab.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 30r.jpg|1|lbl=30r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 30r.jpg|1|lbl=30r}}
Line 710: Line 716:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 30v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 30v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 30v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 30v]]
 
| <p>[131] Here will be the bindings that were treated often above, whence the verse "the binder and the bound are contrary and enraged" etc.</p>
 
| <p>[131] Here will be the bindings that were treated often above, whence the verse "the binder and the bound are contrary and enraged" etc.</p>
  
Line 721: Line 727:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 31r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 31r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 31r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 31r]]
 
| <p>[133] It is to be seen that the priest deflects the above strike delivered by the pupil in this way, as the pupil's sword has been below, and as he was about to deliver the strike, moving his sword, the priest has the opportunity for a strike before the pupil could put his sword to its use, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| <p>[133] It is to be seen that the priest deflects the above strike delivered by the pupil in this way, as the pupil's sword has been below, and as he was about to deliver the strike, moving his sword, the priest has the opportunity for a strike before the pupil could put his sword to its use, as shown here in the example.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 31r.jpg|1|lbl=31r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 31r.jpg|1|lbl=31r}}
Line 730: Line 736:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 31v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 31v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 31v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 31v]]
 
| <p>[135] Above, both the one assuming the ward and the one displacing it were referred to; and because the pupil, who was the displacer, will be quicker, he executes what he should, namely first ''schuzin'', as here, and in the next example below a stab, because the priest is omitting all actions. Thus, the one entering first will be the first to do damage to his opponent.<ref name="dampnum"/></p>
 
| <p>[135] Above, both the one assuming the ward and the one displacing it were referred to; and because the pupil, who was the displacer, will be quicker, he executes what he should, namely first ''schuzin'', as here, and in the next example below a stab, because the priest is omitting all actions. Thus, the one entering first will be the first to do damage to his opponent.<ref name="dampnum"/></p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 31v.jpg|1|lbl=31v}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 31v.jpg|1|lbl=31v}}
Line 739: Line 745:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 32r.jpg|300px|center|Folio 32r]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 32r.jpg|400px|center|Folio 32r]]
 
| <p>[137] '''(+)''' It is to be seen, that the first ward is reassumed, i.e. the one below the arm, the replacement to which is the special second ward of the priest on the right shoulder, and take note, that the one assuming the ward will ''schuzin'' without delay, otherwise his opponent will execute ''halbschilt'' which would be disastrous for the one assuming the ward. And from here will be generated all the things related to the first ward that were treated in the first quire.</p>
 
| <p>[137] '''(+)''' It is to be seen, that the first ward is reassumed, i.e. the one below the arm, the replacement to which is the special second ward of the priest on the right shoulder, and take note, that the one assuming the ward will ''schuzin'' without delay, otherwise his opponent will execute ''halbschilt'' which would be disastrous for the one assuming the ward. And from here will be generated all the things related to the first ward that were treated in the first quire.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 32r.jpg|1|lbl=32r}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS I.33 32r.jpg|1|lbl=32r}}
Line 748: Line 754:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 32v.jpg|300px|center|Folio 32v]]
+
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS I.33 32v.jpg|400px|center|Folio 32v]]
 
| <p>[139] Here will be bindings, above and below, as they occur often, thence the verse "binder and bound" etc.</p>
 
| <p>[139] Here will be bindings, above and below, as they occur often, thence the verse "binder and bound" etc.</p>
  
Line 770: Line 776:
 
{| class="master"
 
{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Images<br/>from the [[Berlin Sketchbook (Libr.Pict.A.83)|Berlin Version]] (ca. 1512)</p>
+
! <p>Images<br/>from the [[Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6..4)|Augsburg]] and [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Munich]]</p>
! <p>Images<br/>from the [[Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)|Augsburg Version]] (1545)</p>
+
! <p>No text<br/></p>
! <p>Images<br/>from the [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Munich Version]] (1556)</p>
+
! <p>Transcription<br/></p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 36r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 14r.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 14r.png|400px|center]]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 196v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_396]]
+
|
 +
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 36r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 14v.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 14v.png|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 34v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Cgm 3712 197r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Cgm 3712 197r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_397]]
+
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 197v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 197v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_398]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 198r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 198r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_399]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 34r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Cgm 3712 198v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Cgm 3712 198v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_400]]
+
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 34v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Cgm 3712 199r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Cgm 3712 199r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_401]]
+
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 33r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Cgm 3712 199v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Cgm 3712 199v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_402]]
+
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|
 
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 15v.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 15v.png|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 35r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 15r.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 15r.png|400px|center]]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 200r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_403]]
+
|
 +
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 200v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 200v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_404]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 201r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 201r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_405]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 34r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Cgm 3712 201v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Cgm 3712 201v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_406]]
+
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 33v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Cgm 3712 202r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Cgm 3712 202r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_407]]
+
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 33r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| [[File:Cgm 3712 202v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Cgm 3712 202v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_408]]
+
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| [[File:Libr.Pict.A.83 33v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 40r.png|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Cod.I.6.2º.4 40r.png|400px|center]]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 203r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_409]]
+
|
 +
| [No text]
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 203v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 203v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_410]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 204r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 204r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_411]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 204v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 204v.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_417]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| [[File:Cgm 3712 205r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
|  
 
|  
|
+
| [No text]
| [[File:Cgm 3712 205r.jpg|400px|center|link=http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_413]]
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
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| [[File:Cgm 3712 205v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
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<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
 
<section begin="sourcebox"/>{{sourcebox header}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
  | work        = [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS I.33]] Images
+
  | work        = [[Walpurgis Fechtbuch (MS I.33)|MS .33]] Images
 
  | authors    = [[Royal Armouries]]
 
  | authors    = [[Royal Armouries]]
 
  | source link =  
 
  | source link =  
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}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
  | work        = [[Berlin Sketchbook (Libr.Pict.A.83)|Libr.Pict.A.83]] Images
+
  | work        = [[Berlin Picture Book (Libr.Pict.A.83)|Libr.Pict.A.83]] Images
 
  | authors    = [[Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin]]
 
  | authors    = [[Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin]]
 
  | source link = http://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/dms/werkansicht/?PPN=PPN614064619&DMDID=DMDLOG_0000
 
  | source link = http://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/dms/werkansicht/?PPN=PPN614064619&DMDID=DMDLOG_0000
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}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
  | work        = [[Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)|Cod.I.6.2º.4]] Images
+
  | work        = [[Jörg Breu Draftbook (Cod.I.6.2º.4)|Cod..6.2º.4]] Images
 
  | authors    = [[Universitätsbibliothek Augsburg]]
 
  | authors    = [[Universitätsbibliothek Augsburg]]
 
  | source link = http://www.nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:384-uba002004-0
 
  | source link = http://www.nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:384-uba002004-0
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  | work        = [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Cgm 3712]] Images
 
  | work        = [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Cgm 3712]] Images
 
  | authors    = [[Bayerische Staatsbibliothek]]
 
  | authors    = [[Bayerische Staatsbibliothek]]
  | source link = http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00043228/image_1
+
  | source link = http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/bsb00107024/image_1
 
  | source title= Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
 
  | source title= Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
 
  | license    = permission
 
  | license    = permission
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* Binard, Fanny and Jaquet, Daniel. "Investigation on the collation of the first Fight book (Leeds, Royal Armouries, Ms I.33)". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(1): 3-21. 2016. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2016-0001}}.
 
* Binard, Fanny and Jaquet, Daniel. "Investigation on the collation of the first Fight book (Leeds, Royal Armouries, Ms I.33)". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(1): 3-21. 2016. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2016-0001}}.
 
* Cinato, Franck and Surprenant, André (in French). ''Le Livre de l'art du Combat: Liber de arte dimicatoria. Édition critique du Royal Armouries MS. I.33, collection Sources d'Histoire Médiévale nº39.'' Paris: CNRS Editions, 2009. ISBN 978-2-271-06757-9
 
* Cinato, Franck and Surprenant, André (in French). ''Le Livre de l'art du Combat: Liber de arte dimicatoria. Édition critique du Royal Armouries MS. I.33, collection Sources d'Histoire Médiévale nº39.'' Paris: CNRS Editions, 2009. ISBN 978-2-271-06757-9
* Dawson, Timothy. "The Walpurgis Fechtbuch: An Inheritance of Constantinople?" ''Arms & Armour'' '''6'''(1):79-92. April 2009. {{doi|10.1179/174962609X417536}}
+
* Dawson, Timothy. "The Walpurgis Fechtbuch: An Inheritance of Constantinople?" ''Arms & Armour'' '''6'''(1): 79-92. April 2009. {{doi|10.1179/174962609X417536}}
* [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng|Forgeng, Jeffrey L.]] ''[http://illuminatedfightbook.co.uk/ The Illuminated Fightbook Royal Armouries Manuscript I.33]''. Extraordinary Editions, 2012.
+
* Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''4'''(2): 69-90. 2016. {{doi|10.36950/apd-2016-014}}
* [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng|Forgeng, Jeffrey L.]] ''The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship: A Facsimile & Translation of Europe's Oldest Personal Combat Treatise, Royal Armouries MS I.33 (Royal Armouries Monograph)''. [[Chivalry Bookshelf]], 2003. ISBN 1-891448-38-2
+
* [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng|Forgeng, Jeffrey L.]] ''The Illuminated Fightbook Royal Armouries Manuscript I.33''. Extraordinary Editions, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9573046-0-4
*:* [http://www.wpi.edu/~jforgeng/I.33_Corrigenda.pdf Corrigenda for Forgeng (2003)]
+
* [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng|Forgeng, Jeffrey L.]] ''The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship: A Facsimile & Translation of Europe's Oldest Personal Combat Treatise, Royal Armouries MS I.33 (Royal Armouries Monograph)''. [[Chivalry Bookshelf]], 2003. ISBN 1-891448-38-2 ([http://www.wpi.edu/~jforgeng/I.33_Corrigenda.pdf Corrigenda])
 
* [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng|Forgeng, Jeffrey L.]] ''The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship: Royal Armouries MS I.33''. [[Royal Armouries]], 2018. ISBN 978-0948092855
 
* [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng|Forgeng, Jeffrey L.]] ''The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship: Royal Armouries MS I.33''. [[Royal Armouries]], 2018. ISBN 978-0948092855
* Gräf, Julia. "Fighting in women’s clothes: The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33". ''Acta Periodica Duellatorum'' '''5'''(2):47-71. December 2017. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2017-0008}}.
+
* Gräf, Julia. "Fighting in women’s clothes: The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33". ''Acta Periodica Duellatorum'' '''5'''(2): 47-71. December 2017. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2017-0008}}.
* Hester, James. "A Few Leaves Short of a Quire: Is the ‘Tower Fechtbuch’ Incomplete?" ''Arms & Armour'' '''9'''(1):20-25. April 2012. {{doi|10.1179/1741612411Z.0000000003}}
+
* Hester, James. "A Few Leaves Short of a Quire: Is the ‘Tower Fechtbuch’ Incomplete?" ''Arms & Armour'' '''9'''(1): 20-25. April 2012. {{doi|10.1179/1741612411Z.0000000003}}
* Hester, James. "Home-Grown Fighting: A Response to the Argument for a Byzantine Influence on MS I.33". ''Arms & Armour'' '''9'''(1):76-84. April 2012. {{doi|10.1179/1741612411Z.0000000008}}
+
* Hester, James. "Home-Grown Fighting: A Response to the Argument for a Byzantine Influence on MS I.33". ''Arms & Armour'' '''9'''(1): 76-84. April 2012. {{doi|10.1179/1741612411Z.0000000008}}
* Kellett, Rachel E. "Royal Armouries MS I.33: The Judicial Combat and the Art of Fencing in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth- Century German Literature". ''Oxford German Studies'' '''41'''(1):32-56. April 2012. {{doi|10.1179/0078719112Z.0000000003}}
+
* Kellett, Rachel E. "Royal Armouries MS I.33: The Judicial Combat and the Art of Fencing in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth- Century German Literature". ''Oxford German Studies'' '''41'''(1): 32-56. April 2012. {{doi|10.1179/0078719112Z.0000000003}}
 
* [[Andrea Morini|Morini, Andrea]] and Rudilosso, Riccardo (in Italian). ''Manoscritto I.33''. Rome: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, 2012.
 
* [[Andrea Morini|Morini, Andrea]] and Rudilosso, Riccardo (in Italian). ''Manoscritto I.33''. Rome: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, 2012.
  

Latest revision as of 19:58, 27 July 2021

Liber de Arte Dimicatoria
"Book on the Art of Fencing"

MS I.33 31v.jpg
MS I.33 32r.jpg
ff 31v-32r, including St. Walpurga in her ward
Also Known as
  • Walpurgis Fechtbuch
  • "The Tower Fechtbuch"
Author(s) Unknown
Ascribed to Clericus Lutegerus
Illustrated by Unknown (up to 17 artists)
Date early 14th century
Genre Fencing manual
Language Medieval Latin
State of Existence One substantial but incomplete manuscript
exists, along with several fragments which
may be related
Principal
Manuscript(s)
MS Ⅰ.33 (1320s)
Manuscript(s)
First Printed
English Edition
Forgeng, 2003
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Liber de Arte Dimicatoria is a German fencing manual from the early 14th century; it is generally considered to be anonymous, though the name Ludger ("Lutegerus") appears prominently on the first folio and may be the name of the author or scribe. The illustrations and monastic origin of the principal manuscript, MS Ⅰ.33 (or FECHT 1), suggest that it was created by a member of the clergy (perhaps a priest or monk).

The treatise is fully illustrated, and the text includes both short mnemonic verses and longer explanations in a Medieval Latin with strong vernacular influences. (The format of verse and gloss may indicate that the author was recording a yet older tradition.) It treats unarmored fencing with sword and buckler; the intriguing fact that the fencers depicted are a priest and a student (and on the last two pages, a priest and a woman), seems to suggest that this was a middle class or priestly art rather than one of the knightly class. Repeatedly, the text makes mention of the pupils (scolaris or discipulus) of the priest, as well as youths (iuvenis) and clients (clientulum).

The apparent identification of the priest as Ludger and the woman as Walpurga may suggest an allegorical aspect to the artwork, as both names belong to Medieval saints who were popular in Germany.

The principal manuscript in its present form consists of five quires, of which all but the first are incomplete; at least eight leaves are believed to be missing (assuming it started with complete quires of four bifolia each).[1] The precise contents of these missing leaves are unknown, but it is possible that they were a source for the thirty uncaptioned sword and buckler plays which appear in the Libr.Pict.A.83, the Cod. Ⅰ.6.2º.4, and the Cgm 3712 (see below); alternatively, these may originate from another manuscript within the same tradition. The anonymous plays seem in turn to have been the main source for Paulus Hector Mair's treatment of rapier and buckler, which he captioned with his own interpretations; since Mayr's connection to this tradition seems limited to being a late commentator, his text is not included below.

Treatise

Scans of MS Ⅰ.33 are licensed under the terms of the Royal Armouries Non-Commercial Licence.

Folia 1r-3v have been conceptually restored by artist Mariana López Rodríguez; unmodified versions can be viewed on the Royal Armouries website.

Additional Resources

  • Binard, Fanny and Jaquet, Daniel. "Investigation on the collation of the first Fight book (Leeds, Royal Armouries, Ms I.33)". Acta Periodica Duellatorum 4(1): 3-21. 2016. doi:10.1515/apd-2016-0001.
  • Cinato, Franck and Surprenant, André (in French). Le Livre de l'art du Combat: Liber de arte dimicatoria. Édition critique du Royal Armouries MS. I.33, collection Sources d'Histoire Médiévale nº39. Paris: CNRS Editions, 2009. ISBN 978-2-271-06757-9
  • Dawson, Timothy. "The Walpurgis Fechtbuch: An Inheritance of Constantinople?" Arms & Armour 6(1): 79-92. April 2009. doi:10.1179/174962609X417536
  • Deacon, Jacob Henry. "Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence". Acta Periodica Duellatorum 4(2): 69-90. 2016. doi:10.36950/apd-2016-014
  • Forgeng, Jeffrey L. The Illuminated Fightbook Royal Armouries Manuscript I.33. Extraordinary Editions, 2012. ISBN 978-0-9573046-0-4
  • Forgeng, Jeffrey L. The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship: A Facsimile & Translation of Europe's Oldest Personal Combat Treatise, Royal Armouries MS I.33 (Royal Armouries Monograph). Chivalry Bookshelf, 2003. ISBN 1-891448-38-2 (Corrigenda)
  • Forgeng, Jeffrey L. The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship: Royal Armouries MS I.33. Royal Armouries, 2018. ISBN 978-0948092855
  • Gräf, Julia. "Fighting in women’s clothes: The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33". Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5(2): 47-71. December 2017. doi:10.1515/apd-2017-0008.
  • Hester, James. "A Few Leaves Short of a Quire: Is the ‘Tower Fechtbuch’ Incomplete?" Arms & Armour 9(1): 20-25. April 2012. doi:10.1179/1741612411Z.0000000003
  • Hester, James. "Home-Grown Fighting: A Response to the Argument for a Byzantine Influence on MS I.33". Arms & Armour 9(1): 76-84. April 2012. doi:10.1179/1741612411Z.0000000008
  • Kellett, Rachel E. "Royal Armouries MS I.33: The Judicial Combat and the Art of Fencing in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth- Century German Literature". Oxford German Studies 41(1): 32-56. April 2012. doi:10.1179/0078719112Z.0000000003
  • Morini, Andrea and Rudilosso, Riccardo (in Italian). Manoscritto I.33. Rome: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, 2012.

References

  1. Hester (2012).
  2. The introductory verse is added on the top margin of the page in a 15th-century hand. The distichon was apparently added in the 15th century, when the manuscript was still kept in a monastery library. It seems to express a disparaging view of “armed clerics” and clearly also refers to the depiction of a female fencer on the last folium. This verse is attested in print in the 16th century, and there attributed to Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II, 1405–64), as follows:
    • Andreas Gärtner, Proverbialia dicteria (1574): “Non audet Stygius Pluto tentare, quod audet Eff renis monachus plenaque fraudis anus” (cited after Wilhelm Binder, Novus Thesaurus Adagiorum Latinorum, 1861 who off ers the German paraphrase “Wo der Teufel nicht selbst hin will, schickt er entweder einen Pfaff en, oder ein altes Weib.”)
    • Holinshed's Chronicles (1577): “Æneas Sylvius (and before him many more driving upon the like argument) dooth saie in this distichon: Non audet Stygius Pluto tentare, quod audent / Eff rænis monachus, plenaque fraudis illa. Meaning Mulier, a woman.”
    A longer variant is given by Richard Gough, Human Nature Displayed in the History of Myddle (1824): “I remember what Eneas Sylvius said: Non audet Stygius Pluto tentare, quod audet / Eff renis monachus, plenaque fraudis anus. / Vix adfert Stygius Pluto tot damna quot audet / Credo bibax ebrius, plenaque fraudis anus. Not Stygian Pluto ever durst pursue, What a rogue monk, and treacherous hag can do. The Stygian fi end can scarce such mischief do man, as This drunken cobler and dissembling woman has.” I have not been able to locate the verse in Aeneas Sylvius' works directly; in any case, the presence of the verse (with dolis for fraudis) in a 15th-century hand in our manuscript (more or less conteporary with Aeneas Sylvius, and certainly predating any printed edition of his works) would seem to suggest that he is not its original author.
  3. Gunterrodt: Tres quae praecedunt, reliquae tantum fugientes.
  4. It is suggestive that the author (if we accept the instructor in the verses and in the manual as the same person) is called cler[ic]us “the cleric” (or “the clerk”) three times in these verses, but never in the text; conversely, the text consistently calls him sacerdos, and never clericus (Middle Latin use of clerus for clericus is noted in Du Cange's Glossarium). It is almost as if he had composed the verses as a mnenomic orally at an earlier time, before envisaging the project of creating this manual, when he was younger and not yet ordained as a priest. Latin clericus renders MHG pfaffe, which may could to either a priest, a deacon or a member of the minor orders. Note that it is not unusual to find the designation pfaffe associated with fencing masters of the late medieval tradition, so Hanko Döbringer (still in the 14th century) and Hans Lecküchner (in the later 15th century).

    The interpretation of the name Lutegerus in the verse on fol. 1v depends on the interpretation of the verse of which it forms a part. This verse is very difficult to interpret in a number of ways. In fact, nothing about it is entirely clear to me.

  5. Are we to understand that the seven guards are the same as the “seven parts”, and of these three “precede” (or “go forward” as antonym to fugiunt?) and the remaining (i.e. four) “flee” or “go backward” in some way? CS translate Il y en a trois qui avancent, tandis que les autres replient. But “reply” isn't really what a custodia does, the system has the separate term obsessio just for that, and there is nothing in the subsequent material that would somehow suggest that some of the guards have a function of replying or reacting to the others. It is also anyone's guess how the guards are to be grouped. One reasonable assumption would be the the first four, shown on 1r, as opposed to the final three, shown on 1v. There is, in fact, a conceptual difference between the groups, guards 1-4 as described in the manual initiate a strike, while 5 and 6 initiate a thrust, and 7 is a special case, inviting a bind instead of posing a direct threat.

    Now, the verse goes on to say “these seven (parts, guards) are done by the common fencers”, followed by “the cleric holds the opposite, and Luitger holds the middle”. This may be interpreted in a number of ways. It is important to note that neither medium nor oppositum is used in any technical sense anywhere in the manual outside of this verse.

    CS have Le clerc est a l'opposé et Luitger à mi-chemin “the cleric is opposite, and Luitger is at halfway”, i.e. they here treat “the cleric” as a different person from Luitger. In the reading of Ukert, Lutegerus is a reference by name to a notable “common fencer”, so that the cleric holding “the opposite” would presumably be preferable to the “common fencer” Luitger who holds merely “the middle”.

    It does seem more probable to me, however, that the entire line refers to a single person, clerus Lutegerus, who holds “both the opposite and the middle” and that this statement, as a whole, contrasts with the “common fencers” mentioned in the preceding line. Note that this would mean that the author here employs hyperbaton (the separation of the two associated nominatives), in apparent aspiration to a “poetic” mode of speech entirely absent from the rest of the “verses”.

    I am unsure whether the terms oppositum and medium should be interpreted in a figurative way, as it were “he is in possession of the counter and the means”, or in a strictly spatial sense, as it were “he holds against (his opponent)” and at the same time “he holds or occupies the center” between the fencers. This latter interpretation strikes me as a useful description of the “conflict of binder and bound” referenced throughout the manual, but it must be admitted that a discussion in the terms used in the verse is not repeated anywhere in the following text. It nevertheless remains my preferred reading, against both CS and Ukert, that “clerus Lutegerus” here refers to a single person, and most likely the manual's author himself (compare the discussion of de Alkersleiben below).

  6. Gunterrodt (1579) read this name as Albenslaiben recognising it as the name of the “ancient stem and most famous family” (vetustissima prosapia et clarissima familia) of Alvensleben. Ukert, on the other hand, reads Alkersleiben. Both Gunterrodt and Ukert recognised the word as a personal name (while a reading albersleiben is due to Forgeng, who identified the word as a fencing term, a “proto-Liechtenauerian” version of Alber). Alkersleiben is clearly more consistent with the manuscript, and Gunterrodt's reading should perhaps be considered an emendation, inserting the more familiar name of Alvensleben, a prominent noble family of Brandenburg in Gunterrodt's time (which also had held extensive possessions already in the 1300s). For Gunterrodt, it was obvious that the author of the manuscript must have been a nobleman who had retired to a monastery in his old age, and he took his reading as a confirmation of the association with nobility without positively identifying the name as referencing the manual's author.

    However, reading de Alkersleiben (with Ukert) we have a reference to the Thuringian village of Alkersleben (recorded in the 13th century as Alkesleibin), at the time of merely local importance as the site of a manor and a deanery. Alkersleben is some 200 km to the north of the parts of Franconia affected by the Second Margravian War, the presumed area of production of our manuscript. Ukert interprets both Lutegerus and de Alkersleiben as the names of “common fencers” (generales dimicatores, “gemeine Fechtmeister”). This depends entirely on the context we give to the occurrence of the names, in the case of de Alkersleiben: Non ducat aliquam plagam quod probat de Alkersleiben “He should not deliver any strike, as recommended by de Alkersleiben” – are we to understand that this is a counsel against the recommendation to “deliver a strike” attributed to a notable “common fencer” known as de Alkersleiben, or are we much rather to understand that the counsel not to deliver a strike is attributed to the highly profi cient fencer known by this name, which would amount to nothing less than yet another reference by the author to himself in the third person? If we are ready to interpret Lutegerus in this way, I see no obstacle to adopt the same position here, which would give us an author Clericus Lutegerus de Alkersleiben, or, in German, Pfaffe Luitger von Alkersleben. Incidentially, the term nucken happens to be more consistent with a Thuringian rather than a Franconian origin of whoever is responsible for coining it.

  7. CS praise this image as “one of the most beautiful aesthetic successes” of the codex. The postures are drawn very carefully, including an indication that each fencer has the right foot forward, a detail that will not be evident in later figures. The final (and let's face it, rather awkward) paragraph is in hand B and alludes to changed dynamics that arise if first guard is answered with first guard.
  8. This is written vertically on the right margin. The image is damaged, but it is the first of dozen identical images illustrating “overbind” (see §11). This image is also the first instance of a “change of perspective” (i.e. the position of fencers is inverted; this is done on purpose in order to show the hand position of the fencer).
  9. i.e. Showing the schiltslac.
  10. The verse is written between the two images on the left side (the side of the fencer performing the technique).
  11. The first three images of the second play are equivalent to the first play. This is made explicit in the text, the sword-change in the following image being shown as a counter to the overbind. But note the explicit depiction of step with the left foot forward for the overbind (based on the position of the rear foot), a detail absent from the equivalent situation as shown in 2v.
  12. The two paragraphs are arranged on the left and on the right, referring to the scholar and the priest, respectively. The image shows the situation after the sword-change (mutatio gladii); the scholar is instructed to counter this with a stich, but this isn't pursued further. This is presumably the action depicted in 10r, where it is, however, referred to as stichslac. The play here instead continues with the action of nucken performed by the priest immediately after the sword-change. The last part of the second paragraph is already in reference to the following image on the next page, i.e. the one depicting the priest's nucken. The word is written nucken in prose, but then nukcen in the verse: is this a simple error, or is the creation of an apparent rhyme with schutzen significant?
  13. The paragraph is centered on the page above the image, perhaps added as an afterthought as the scribe realised that the description intended for this image has already been given on the previous page. This image is unique in the book, and CS point out correctly a mistake on the part of the illustrator, who has given the priest two left hands.
  14. The second paragraph is written on the right margin. The krucke is introduced as an alternative reaction to first guard (other than halbschilt), and advertised as a speciality of the priest's system. This position at the same time covers the right side (threatened by first guard) and threatens a thrust to the opponent's sword side. CS interpret the image as reflecting the fencers maintaining eye contact under the shield. I do not think this is the case: Krucke should be performed with a step to the right, and eye-contact is maintained in a line passing left of the shield.
  15. The first occurrence of the ligans-ligati verse, written on the left margin; note that the verse is grammatically dubious, you would expect ligans ligatusque or something similar. The text is distracted from the play at hand to give general advice on the bind, but 5v below can be seen as immediately following the establishment of the bind here.
  16. prossus for prorsus or prosus “straight ahead, directly, truly”; even though the literal meaning of the adverb is “straight ahead”, the intended meaning is not necessarily spatial but rather temporal, i.e. the priest enters “straight away” as the scholar omits the bind, but not necessarily in a straight line.
  17. The short gloss is written without the initial usually used for new sections, and squeezed between the feet of the fencers in the above image.
  18. The text has a stray lu, the beginning of the word ludem, amended to actum on the fly (because ludus “game” is used for a sequence of techniques, while actus refers to a single tempo, in this case the assumption of krucke). The addition of scholaris as the subject of obmittit is in the later hand B.
  19. The technique described is an example of Fühlen in the bind, the priest may thrust to the belly in the (strong) bind, but the scholar has the opportunity to release the bind and strike to the head, scoring an easy double-hit. As soon as the attacker feels he is losing the bind, he has to interrupt the attack and perform the counter shown in the next image.
  20. The top image is without text (and without lineation). It shows a counter against the double-hit discussed under the previous image. The counter is worth closer scrutiny, as it does not recur (but compare the counter on 19v as conceptually related).
  21. This page once again shows the overbind-schiltslac sequence; there is a change of perspective from the previous. The lower image has lineation but no text. On the bottom of the page, Johann Herbart (Herwart) of Würzburg, who acquired the manuscript in the 1550s, has left his name.
  22. i.e. langort
  23. The text has been re-traced in darker ink, according to CS by hand C (but closely following the original ductus of hand A).
  24. This is a rare instance of an actively established underbind (followed immediately by a sword-change), the only other example of this being 19r.
  25. The text is written between the two images, on the right side (the side of the fencer performing the technique). There is no other text (or lineation) on the page. The prior image (the underbind) is closely reproduced in the top image, the only difference in posture being the scholar's having moved his shield to his left hand side. It thus shows the same situation as the top of 7r (with the role of the two fencers reversed), i.e. the overbind, but in this case, the Vor is held not by the fencer in the overbind, but by the fencer in the underbind, who next performs sword-change, so that the sequence on 8r becomes a repetition of 3v.
  26. This “play” on the final page of the first quire has no new material, but it is important as the only instance of the frequently used action of “falling under” being shown from the reverse perspective, showing the hands of the fencer in halpschilt. The variant possessio for obsessio here occurs for the last time (otherwise only as possessor on 4r, and in the late addition on 2r).
  27. The verse is written between the two images, on the right side (the side of the fencer performing the technique).
  28. recipere plagam: to execute (not to receive) a blow. Probably intended as 'receive the opportunity to strike'.
  29. durchtritt: a step to the side seems intended; for the (preferable) action depicted, we would expect 'to the left', so dexteram may be taking the opponent's view.
  30. 30.0 30.1 dampnum for damnum
  31. vidilpoge = "fiddle-bow".
  32. fingitur for figitur; fuit vicium pictoris: Here is evidence that the author is not identical with the draftsman.
  33. Concerning the name of the woman fencer: The name walprgis as written directly above the word sac'dos (below which are five dots forming a line). It is not entirely clear, whether Walpurgis is meant to replace sacerdos or if it is an addition (in which case it would be genitive of Walpurga). But since in the picture, the woman is executing the schiltslac, and because the woman is said to have been ready first (parata), she must be called (in the nominative) Walpurgis.