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User:Kendra Brown/Latin Lew/Complete English smoothed

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This is a "smoothed English" translation/version of the complete text of the Lew gloss as present in Paulus Hector Mair's manuscript (Dresden) copy. These are transcluded from the main User:Kendra Brown/Latin Lew pages, which also have close translations and notes, and have the German Zettel verses inserted into the gloss sequence.

This page mostly uses Kendra and Rebecca's "Sandbox" format, where each unit of text is broken onto separate numbered lines by phrases.

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81 v

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82 r

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82 v

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83 r

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83 v

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84 r

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84 v

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85 r

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86 r

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87r

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88r

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89r

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90r

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91 r

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91v

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92 r

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92 v

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93 r

a draft

  • The action of casting the swords over
  • If anyone approaches you using strikes from below, conduct yourself in opposition in this way in order to use the mentioned action.
  • When you have come near to your opponent, and they strike against you from below, first refuse to take out their forward attack, then observe carefully when their low strike draws near to you, and strike an extended strike from the right arm,
  • then drive your opponent forward with the longer point in their face or chest, and come into contact with them, and if you keep the sword in the intended place your opponent will be unable to seize you below.
  • If your opponent raises the sword away, from below to the stated place, and would take out your forward attack, keep the long edge of your sword connected firmly to your opponent's sword, then quickly fight against their nearest opening.
  • To that point you must have noticed, if you strongly contacted their sword, and they try to strike you out of the fortification on the other side.
  • Then you wound their head using the long edge, and work equally on both sides against the opening and also the earlier [antecedent ?head?].

b draft

  • The gesture and use of shifting
  • If you want to practice like this, advance toward your opponent, and they will arrange themself as if they want to prick;
  • place your left foot forward, and compose yourself against your opponent who stands in the plow.
  • from your right side you should expose an opening and your left side to your opponent,
  • and therefore they will attempt to stab the opening.
  • turn the sword aside into your left side against their sword, and join your short edge to their sword,
  • and shift your opponent's forward attack while still extending the point against them,
  • the right foot [already] having been joined behind the left, then you should dig at their face or chest.

c draft

  • Another form of going before/surpassing
  • If you stand in the posture of the Plow from the right side, and your opponent attempts to strike the opening on the left side from above,
  • Lift your sword, then turn it back against their strike in the left side with the sword hilt in front of your face as in the form of the Ox,
  • join the second foot to the right, then prick your opponent's face or the chest, and do this from the Plow away from the left side.


93 v

a draft

  • About the change-about, or the Use of the sending across
  • The state of different changing-abouts and [how] they are used, against gladiators from all strikes and against [those] who strike more strongly against swords than [against] openings.
  • In order to discreetly learn more about them while YOU use the change over, the enemy will strive after you with the point.

b draft

  • Practice the changing-about like this.
  • When you advance toward your opponent, strike extended against his head using seeking after, and if they strike in opposition and seek after the sword and not the body, then send the point across below, before your opponent touches your sword, and prick against the other side.
  • and if your opponent notices, and attempts to shift the forward attack, then send the sword across again while turning to the other side, and employ this gesture as often as your opponent meets your sword on both sides to support themself.

c draft

  • Another form of the same.
  • WHEN you first move toward your opponent, set your left foot in front, and turn the longer point against their face,
  • and if they have sought to strike your sword above or below, and try to shake it [the sword] out, then prick using the point inclined down and against the other side, and practice this against all strikes.

d draft

  • Also observe this: when your opponent takes out the forward attack, or contacts your sword in the first exchange, and if they turn the point of their sword so it isn't threatening an opening on your body, and they extend to the side but gain nothing, then courageously pierce the sword through:
  • If you have kept your sword in front of your face, or the openings have been turned, then you should not send across, but adhere to the sword, then work against the closest opening, and know that once you have done so, your opponent cannot threaten you, nor can they join the point to your openings.


94 r

a

  • drawing back the swords
  • Practice this method against Athletic masters,
  • [and] any kind of stronger ones who add a defense at the same time in the flashing and clashing of swords,
  • And also against those who don't hold back waiting for the binding of swords,
  • [depending on] whether these people wish to direct the longer strike of the adversary, or set the sword aside,
  • If you wish to deceive those masters, use the sword like this by drawing back:
  • strike fiercely from the right side against your opponent's head, and if they attempt to shift the forward attack, draw the sword back until it touches him, then prick the other side, and use this technique one contact at a time.

b

  • Another technique from the preceding, for when your opponent has touched your sword.
  • If your opponent hesitates, looking in the collision of swords for you to not draw your sword back;
  • YOU shall pretend to draw back your sword, yet remain on the sword, and when the sword is withdrawn to the midpoint on the blade,
  • suddenly prick your opponent's face or chest near the sword, or if you don't land that, then use doublings, whatever seems best to you while doing it.


94 v

a

  • Running through, and about wrestling.
  • Use this technique against opponents who run in and wrestle to avoid wounds and strikes
  • Practice this other method for them.
  • When your opponent shifts your attack, and wants to attack (with?) arms high and conquer you with upper body strength,
  • raise your arms quickly, and lift the node of the sword above your head with your left hand,
  • then draw your sword tightly and incline it through the back, and thrust your head through under his arms toward the side,
  • then advance your right foot and place it behind their right, and leap into them,
  • so that you encircle the body of the opponent from the left side with your right arm,[^4]
  • and you can throw them with your right hip so they land on their head.

b

  • Another method of wrestling.
  • If your opponent ran in with arms lifted, and you did too, then run through using your head in the direction of his right side.
  • put the right foot in front of the right [foot] of your opponent, and your right arm under their extended right arm in the same way.
  • put [your arms] around the opponent's flanks and sink yourself downward some, then haul them onto the right hip, you will cast your opponent off backwards.
  • Practice this wrestling on both sides.

c

  • Another form besides.
  • When your opponent runs in toward your right side, with lifted arms, you should arrange yourself thusly: hold your sword with your right [hand], and drive their arm away,
  • then leap forward and put your left foot in front of your opponent's right foot,
  • and put your arms around their loins from the left, then sink yourself a little, and throw into the left hip, laying the opponent low on their face.


95 r

a

  • Another
  • When your opponent runs in with raised arms, and you also stand in this way and hold the sword in your right hand;
  • If they move their arm, place your left foot behind their right, and stretch the your left arm before their chest while seizing the left side,
  • and if you place your left [hip] in[to] their hip, you throw them back.
  • You can do this wrestling technique on both sides.

b

  • On the other hand, if your opponent runs in with a sword and drops their arms, you are not able to run through; you should use this next technique.

c

  • If your opponent runs in with their sword high, but their hands somewhat low,
  • you should shift the left [hand] from the sword, seize their right hand on the inside between their other hand,[^3]
  • thence turn back into their left side, and by holding your sword with your right hand strike the head.
  • But if you don't want to strike, then leap forward and place your right foot behind the opponent's left, and your right arm in front of their neck (or behind if you have enveloped them), and strike them down using your right knee.

d draft

  • Another
  • When your opponent runs in with a sword, with low hands, shift your left hand off your sword as before, and use your right hand to move the pommel outward over your opponent's right hand, and also press down;
  • from there if you seize the opponent's right elbow with your left hand and leap forward with left foot, then place [your left foot] in front of the enemy's right foot, and press your opponent down using the same.

e draft

  • Another
  • While your opponent runs in, YOU should discard the sword; seize their right with your changed/inverted right,
  • then seize the opponent's elbow with your left hand.
  •        [something something] left foot, using your left arm, set their right arm in front, then lift their right arm
  • and your opponent will be blockaded;
  • from there, you can shatter their upper arm, or throw them on their face with your left foot.


95 v

a

  • Gesture of slicing off
  • This gesture shifts the wrappings from above away from your sword, and it is necessary to handle it thusly.
  • Either athletically use the strikes from below against the enemy, or arrange yourself in the guard we call Popular/Poplar.
  • If HE places his sword over yours before you lift it, stay under and in contact with his sword, then strongly raise up using the short edge, and when HE presses down, shift your sword stealthily/sneakily back away from his, and quickly wound the face above next to the opponent's sword.

b

  • ANOTHER FORM
  • Use this in the approach when making a strike from below toward the enemy, or when standing in the Popular/Poplar guard.
  • When HE strikes your sword near the hilt so that it (his sword) aims toward your right, quickly lift the pommel over his sword, then send the long edge forward, and thus you injure the head of the opponent.
  • But if he strikes your sword from the left side, quickly lift the pommel above the sword of the enemy as before,[^4] then batter his head violently using the short edge.

c

  • Regarding the four slices
  • Use two slices above against Athletes who flourish the sword from safety, or from binds of the swords, and they often strike against the other side,
  • Use the slice to prevent that:
  • If your opponent attempts an interception, or some other contact of the swords from the left side, and then a sudden transverse or another strike to the right side,
  • then take evasive action from the strike, and jump with the left foot to the right side of the adversary,
  • and you place the long edge of the sword on top of both arms of the adversary,
  • and you should press back using a slice, and do this on both sides, as often as he switches.

d

  • Use the two lower slices against fighters who run in with their arms high in this way:
  • as often as your opponent strikes your sword during their first approach, lifting one arm, and runs in to the left side,
  • change your sword so that the thumb stands below, and the long edge is below your opponent's hilt, reaching as far as their other arm;
  • from there stretch toward (them) using a high slice, or if they run in against your right with arms raised, shift the sword backward so that the thumb is underneath, [and] the short edge is below your opponent's hilt, touching the arm, and if you lift up, you can use this condition.


96 r

a

  • A method for changing and shaping high cutting-ins from out of below
  • learn it thoroughly in this way:
  • If the adversary runs in against the left side with raised arms,
  • then turn the long edge of your sword under the hilt arranged in the arm of the opponent, and fiercely stretch upward, then advance toward his right side.
  • meanwhile after turning the pommel below you should not shift the sword away from the arms of the adversary,
  • then after turning the sword back out of the lower cutting into the upper [cutting], and letting the long edge through over his arm,
  • and you have used this gesture correctly.

b

  • But if the enemy attacks/runs in towards the right side with arms lifted in this way,
  • then you place the sword under below his sword hilt, after turning the edge of the sword back into the arm, and lift firmly.
  • While you lift, transfer the pommel below and move toward the left side of the adversary.
  • In so doing, turn the long edge from where it was to the top of the enemy's arms, as in a slice, and you can drive the enemy back.

c

  • REGARDING THE TWO ANGLES of throwing the sword upward
  • It's important to note that THESE angles are not different in any way from the Plow on both sides, and you must observe:
    • whether the adversary holds their sword strongly or loosely,
    • during blows and also stabs,
    • also during the first flashing movement of the sword.
  • And also know to practice the four wrappings, and out of those you can form any single strike, puncture, or cutting-in from above.


96 v

a

  • REGARDING THE WIDE-OPEN WINDOW
  • As noted above, it's important to compose yourself athletically in this way, once you have held the sword in the four previously mentioned guards.
  • You should understand that the posture where we begin is the safest guard to stand in, and also this guard is the point of the long edge, specifically the best and noblest part of the sword.
  • If anyone practices these Athletics properly, they will round up their adversaries in order to wound the reluctant ones.

b

As an alternative, form the wide open window this way: If you moved forward into the enemy’s view, properly directing your sword in any strike, either from above or below, and [finishing] in long point from this strike[^9] with the arms equally extended, you would immediately after strike at/against the face or breast of the enemy and in this condition, press HIM hard in the attack [so that] he will have defended himself,

Or, if he were to hit your sword in the first approach:

therefore, if he were to do THAT, [then] the long edge of your sword would stick fiercely to his sword and and in the meantime, you would diligently observe with the strong and unwearied mind, which gesture the adversary wants to practice:

If the enemy were to withdraw from your sword, YOU following with the sword, seek his face or breast

If, on the contrary, he truly attempts to hit your other side [second of two] from the first flashing approach, then strongly cut the adversary’s arm and work diligently against his head.

Indeed, if the adversary neither withdraws from your sword nor strikes the other side, then use doublings or another [strike] from whichever gesture is like that which you perceive him to hold his sword strongly or weakly.

c draft

  • The longest long point of all is the best posture, and drives your opponent is driven in that direction,
  • if you threaten, so that they can't use any techniques,
  • which is why you should employ it in (regard to) all strikes against their face or chest,
  • and then form various further/extended postures.

d draft

  • And also the wide-open window is addressed on this point:
  • When you first come into view of your opponent, place your left foot in front, and stretch the long point against your opponent's face or chest with extended arms, [stretching] until you contact his sword, and you should be able to strike anyone that way, or figure out which gesture they would have used against you.
  • When they strike above, and the sword has been lifted, you should turn against their thrust in(to) the Ox posture, and prick their face.
  • But if, however, they desire to strike only to the sword, disregarding the body, bravely change-about and prick the other side;
  • but if, however, they run in with raised arms, you should use a low cutting-in, and if they send that away, you can wrestle;
  • in this way, you can overthrow anyone by the arms using this technique, however seems best to you.


97r

a

You should practice those individual conditions, so that you can practice them quickly, and you could wisely move back whatever is used against you in every attack by the adversary.

Also, if you recall there to be four origins of angles: two above and also two below. The ones above are called Ox, and Plow below on both sides. Eight wrappings are formed from the four aforesaid angles, and you should observe them diligently in order that you bring out in particular one strike, one puncture, and one cutting into from any wrapping.


b

Now, you should truly perceive, how you can form 8 wrappings from 4 angles.

The first [angle] has two wrappings; therefore you should exercise these using the following method. When you step toward the enemy, your sword being directed for Athletics, you should assume the Ox stance on the right side, and if HE attacks your left side from above, then you should twist your sword into the path of his blow, so that you apply the short edge of your sword to his blade in the position of the Ox, and do not hesitate to prick him in the face. And THIS gesture is called wrapping.

However, if the adversary tries to shift the forward attack from the left side, you should keep your sword bound to his sword and you should then twist the sword backwards on your right side into the Ox, such that the long edge will touch his sword. Dig above and backwards at the opponent’s face. And THIS is an angled posture from the right side, and the two wrappings have been used on the opponent’s sword.


c

Practice the second angle of the sword[^16] like this, with two additions. If you have advanced on the adversary, take an Ox position on the left side, and if the opponent strikes above on your right, then apply the long edge of your sword to his and prick his face above, and THIS condition is the wrapping.

But if, on the other hand, he drives your puncture back against his right side, you should keep your sword clinging to his, then twist your sword back on the left side into the Ox position so that the short edge is applied to the sword of the adversary, and from this position, you prick the face of the enemy above, and THAT is the second case of angling the sword from the left side.

The two wrappings have both been used in turn on the sword of the enemy.

d

As has been observed above, you should practice four wrappings from the two lower, inclined positions, a.k.a. the Plow on both sides, and you should recall on top of that, that all of these gestures [wrappings and forward angles involving the Plow] are arrived at from an initial strike from above, and from these positions, you can freely angle and wrap. Therefore, as often as is proper, whenever you want to use wrappings, always be mindful of the strike, puncture, and incision so that you can make use of the gestures mentioned above.