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Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)

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Florius de Arte Luctandi
MS Latin 11269, Bibliothèque nationale de France
Paris, France

MS Latin 11269 Cover 2.jpg
MS Latin 11269 Ir.jpg
Title page, folio Ir
Date ca. 1410s or 20s
Language(s) Renaissance Latin
Author(s) Fiore de'i Liberi
Translator Unknown
Scribe(s) Unknown
Illustrator(s) Unknown
Material Parchment, with a pasteboard
leather cover
Size 44 folia (195 mm × 255 mm)
Format Double-sided; two illustrations
per side, with text above
Script Semigothic
  • Ken Mondschein (2008)
  • Fabrice Cognot (2008)
External data Library catalog entry
Treatise scans

Florius de Arte Luctandi ("The Flower of Battle", MS Latin 11269) is an Italian fencing manual translated from a treatise authored by Fiore de'i Liberi and probably created in the 1410s or 20s.[1] The original currently rests in the holdings of the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris, France. MS Latin 11269 is written in a semigothic script on parchment in a pasteboard leather binding; the illustrations are inked and painted, with gold leafing on the crowns and garters. This manuscript is generally referred to as either the Florius or the Paris.

Any preface MS Latin 11269 once possessed is missing from the current form of the manuscript, and its current title was added much later in a 17th century hand. It consists of 44 folios with two pairings per page, and is the only copy of Fiore's treatise whose illustrations are fully painted. Unlike the other versions of his work, this manuscript is written entirely in Latin.

Determining the derivation of this manuscript is difficult. Its descriptions are cast in couplets and quatrains that closely resemble those of the Pisani Dossi version (FLPD), though often in a jumbled and semi-coherent fashion. The sequence is comparable to that of the Morgan version (FLM), beginning with mounted fighting and ending with wrestling on foot. The illustrations, though painted, often resemble those of the Getty version (FLG). Finally, in terms of content it contains plays otherwise unique to each of the other three manuscripts.


The known provenance of the MS Latin 11269 is:[2]

  • Written in the early 15th century, probably after the completion of Flos Duellatorum in 1409.
  • 1467 - Possibly the Ms. 75 in the catalog of the Biblioteca Estense, in which case the description at the time was "Book on fighting called Florius friuiolen, teaching the form of fencing actions in the duel, cursive lettering, small format, illustrated in many ways on many different pages with letters above the figures, with a white eagle and two crests depicted over the first page, covered in white sheepskin with bosses and one clasp. The number of pages written and unwritten are 58".[3]
  • ca. 1635 – rebound by a master papermaker who worked at the Puy-moyen mill for Sieur Janssen.
  • before 1712 – in the Pontchartrain library, owned by Louis Phélypeaux de Pontchartrain (1643-1727). Donated to the Bibliothèque du Roi, where it was labeled Florius de Art Luctandi.
  • 1712-present – held by the Bibliothèque du Roi/Bibliothèque nationale de France.


1v The Seven Swords by Fiore de'i Liberi
2r - 5v Mounted fencing by Fiore de'i Liberi
6r - 6v Spear vs. cavalry by Fiore de'i Liberi
6v - 8v Spear by Fiore de'i Liberi
8v - 10r Axe in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi
10r - 12r Sword in one hand by Fiore de'i Liberi
12v - 15v,
26r - 30v
Sword in two hands by Fiore de'i Liberi
16r - 19v Sword in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi
20r - 20v Sword vs. dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi
21r - 25v,
31r - 38r,
43r - 44r
Dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi
38v - 42v Grappling by Fiore de'i Liberi
44r Closing


Front Cover
MS Latin 11269 Cover 1.jpg
Inside Cover
MS Latin 11269 Cover 2.jpg
Folio Ⅰr
MS Latin 11269 Ir.jpg
Folio Ⅰv
MS Latin 11269 Iv.jpg
Folio 1r
MS Latin 11269 01r.jpg
Folio 1v
MS Latin 11269 01v.jpg
Folio 2r
MS Latin 11269 02r.jpg
Folio 2v
MS Latin 11269 02v.jpg
Folio 3r
MS Latin 11269 03r.jpg
Folio 3v
MS Latin 11269 03v.jpg
Folio 4r
MS Latin 11269 04r.jpg
Folio 4v
MS Latin 11269 04v.jpg
Folio 5r
MS Latin 11269 05r.jpg
Folio 5v
MS Latin 11269 05v.jpg
Folio 6r
MS Latin 11269 06r.jpg
Folio 6v
MS Latin 11269 06v.jpg
Folio 7r
MS Latin 11269 07r.jpg
Folio 7v
MS Latin 11269 07v.jpg
Folio 8r
MS Latin 11269 08r.jpg
Folio 8v
MS Latin 11269 08v.jpg
Folio 9r
MS Latin 11269 09r.jpg
Folio 9v
MS Latin 11269 09v.jpg
Folio 10r
MS Latin 11269 10r.jpg
Folio 10v
MS Latin 11269 10v.jpg
Folio 11r
MS Latin 11269 11r.jpg
Folio 11v
MS Latin 11269 11v.jpg
Folio 12r
MS Latin 11269 12r.jpg
Folio 12v
MS Latin 11269 12v.jpg
Folio 13r
MS Latin 11269 13r.jpg
Folio 13v
MS Latin 11269 13v.jpg
Folio 14r
MS Latin 11269 14r.jpg
Folio 14v
MS Latin 11269 14v.jpg
Folio 15r
MS Latin 11269 15r.jpg
Folio 15v
MS Latin 11269 15v.jpg
Folio 16r
MS Latin 11269 16r.jpg
Folio 16v
MS Latin 11269 16v.jpg
Folio 17r
MS Latin 11269 17r.jpg
Folio 17v
MS Latin 11269 17v.jpg
Folio 18r
MS Latin 11269 18r.jpg
Folio 18v
MS Latin 11269 18v.jpg
Folio 19r
MS Latin 11269 19r.jpg
Folio 19v
MS Latin 11269 19v.jpg
Folio 20r
MS Latin 11269 20r.jpg
Folio 20v
MS Latin 11269 20v.jpg
Folio 21r
MS Latin 11269 21r.jpg
Folio 21v
MS Latin 11269 21v.jpg
Folio 22r
MS Latin 11269 22r.jpg
Folio 22v
MS Latin 11269 22v.jpg
Folio 23r
MS Latin 11269 23r.jpg
Folio 23v
MS Latin 11269 23v.jpg
Folio 24r
MS Latin 11269 24r.jpg
Folio 24v
MS Latin 11269 24v.jpg
Folio 25r
MS Latin 11269 25r.jpg
Folio 25v
MS Latin 11269 25v.jpg
Folio 26r
MS Latin 11269 26r.jpg
Folio 26v
MS Latin 11269 26v.jpg
Folio 27r
MS Latin 11269 27r.jpg
Folio 27v
MS Latin 11269 27v.jpg
Folio 28r
MS Latin 11269 28r.jpg
Folio 28v
MS Latin 11269 28v.jpg
Folio 29r
MS Latin 11269 29r.jpg
Folio 29v
MS Latin 11269 29v.jpg
Folio 30r
MS Latin 11269 30r.jpg
Folio 30v
MS Latin 11269 30v.jpg
Folio 31r
MS Latin 11269 31r.jpg
Folio 31v
MS Latin 11269 31v.jpg
Folio 32r
MS Latin 11269 32r.jpg
Folio 32v
MS Latin 11269 32v.jpg
Folio 33r
MS Latin 11269 33r.jpg
Folio 33v
MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg
Folio 34r
MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg
Folio 34v
MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg
Folio 35r
MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg
Folio 35v
MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg
Folio 36r
MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg
Folio 36v
MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg
Folio 37r
MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg
Folio 37v
MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg
Folio 38r
MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg
Folio 38v
MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg
Folio 39r
MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg
Folio 39v
MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg
Folio 40r
MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg
Folio 40v
MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg
Folio 41r
MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg
Folio 41v
MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg
Folio 42r
MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg
Folio 42v
MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg
Folio 43r
MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg
Folio 43v
MS Latin 11269 43v.jpg
Folio 44r
MS Latin 11269 44r.jpg
Folio 44v
MS Latin 11269 44v.jpg
Folio Ⅱr
MS Latin 11269 45r.jpg
Folio Ⅱv
MS Latin 11269 45v.jpg
Inside Cover
MS Latin 11269 Cover 3.jpg
Back Cover
MS Latin 11269 Cover 4.jpg

Additional Resources

The following is a list of publications containing scans, transcriptions, and translations relevant to this article, as well as published peer-reviewed research.


  1. Based on dating the art and costume, and the apparent statement on folio 44r that Fiore was still alive when it was completed.
  2. Easton, Matt. Fiore dei Liberi - Fior di Battaglia - Flos Duellatorum. Schola Gladiatoria. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  3. Liber Bellicosus verat. Florius friuiolen. docens for. Actorum dimicandi in duello Litteris cursivis in membranis forma parva figuratus diversis modis in plurimis et diversis cartis cum litteris super figuris cum Aquilla alba et duobus cimerijs pictis super prima carta Cohopert. montanina alba cum Brochis et uno azullo. Cart. inter scriptas et non scriptas. 58. Quoted from Giulio Bertoni. La Biblioteca Estense e la coltura ferrarese ai tempi del Duca I (1471-1505). Loescher, 1903.

Copyright and License Summary

For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.

Work Author(s) Source License
Images Bibliothèque nationale de France Gallica
Public Domain.png
Transcription Kendra Brown and Rebecca Garber Index:Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)