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Difference between revisions of "Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza"

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| deathdate            = 1600
 
| deathdate            = 1600
 
| deathplace          = Madrid, Spain
 
| deathplace          = Madrid, Spain
| occupation          = {{plainlist | [[Fencing master]]{{#set:occupation=Fencing master}} | [[occupation::Knight]] }}
+
| occupation          = {{plainlist
 +
| [[Fencing master]]{{#set:occupation=Fencing master}}
 +
| [[occupation::Knight]]
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}}
 
| nationality          =  
 
| nationality          =  
 
| ethnicity            =  
 
| ethnicity            =  
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| movement            = [[La Verdadera Destreza]]
 
| movement            = [[La Verdadera Destreza]]
 
| influences          = [[Camillo Agrippa]]
 
| influences          = [[Camillo Agrippa]]
| influenced          = {{plainlist | [[Luis Pacheco de Narváez]] | [[Octavio Ferrara]] | [[Gérard Thibault d'Anvers]] }}
+
| influenced          = {{plainlist
 +
| [[Luis Pacheco de Narváez]]
 +
| [[Octavio Ferrara]]
 +
| [[Gérard Thibault d'Anvers]]
 +
}}
  
 
| genre                = [[Fencing manual]]
 
| genre                = [[Fencing manual]]
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== Treatise ==
 
== Treatise ==
  
{{hidden begin
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{{master begin
| title     = <span style="font-size:130%;">[[Rapier]]</span>
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| title = Rapier
| titlestyle= background:#f2f2f2; border:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:10px; text-align:center; vertical-align:middle; width:60%;
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| width = 90em
| bodystyle = display:block; width:76em;
 
 
}}
 
}}
{| class="wikitable floated master"
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{| class="master"
 
|-  
 
|-  
! id="thin" | <p>Images<br/></p>
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! <p>Images<br/></p>
 
! <p>{{rating|Start}}<br/>by [[Cindy Koepp]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|Start}}<br/>by [[Cindy Koepp]]</p>
 
! <p>Transcription<br/></p>
 
! <p>Transcription<br/></p>
 
  
 
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| [[File:Carranza 2.png|200px|center]]
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| [[File:Carranza 2.png|300px|center]]
 
| '''Book of Jeronimo de Caranza, native of Seville.'''
 
| '''Book of Jeronimo de Caranza, native of Seville.'''
 
'''The treatise of the Philosophy of Arms and of the true Skill and of the aggression and defense of Christianity.'''
 
'''The treatise of the Philosophy of Arms and of the true Skill and of the aggression and defense of Christianity.'''
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| The Third Dialogue gives the Demonstration of the Tricks in General, the Propositions of the First Dialogue, and indicates the Universals of the dagger against the sword with the Judgement of all the Arms.
 
| The Third Dialogue gives the Demonstration of the Tricks in General, the Propositions of the First Dialogue, and indicates the Universals of the dagger against the sword with the Judgement of all the Arms.
 
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| The Fourth Dialogue discusses the Natural Defense and how the Skilled Man learns it, without doing Aggression, nor committing Treachery, nor sure Death; and the Obligation that he has absolved for his friends, and Enemies according to the Right, Natural, Divine, and Positive.
 
| The Fourth Dialogue discusses the Natural Defense and how the Skilled Man learns it, without doing Aggression, nor committing Treachery, nor sure Death; and the Obligation that he has absolved for his friends, and Enemies according to the Right, Natural, Divine, and Positive.
 
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| '''The First Dialogue, which speaks of the true Skill and of the Philosophy and consideration of the parts in General.'''
 
| '''The First Dialogue, which speaks of the true Skill and of the Philosophy and consideration of the parts in General.'''
 
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| '''The occasion of this dialogue.'''
 
| '''The occasion of this dialogue.'''
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| '''The excellence of the place of San Lucar'''
 
| '''The excellence of the place of San Lucar'''
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| '''Painting of the fishing.'''
 
| '''Painting of the fishing.'''
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| '''Picture of outside San Lucar'''
 
| '''Picture of outside San Lucar'''
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| The thicket defends the entrance of the rigorous ray of the Sun. Wearying of this defense gave the Meadows and Gardens, which they make you relax in this place with very gentle and mild entertainment. Discovered at nearly to the end of the view, for the contrary part, the high Mountains of perpetual summit with the skirts and slopes full of Trees. The songs of the Birds sound in all the nearby places with marvelous smoothness and harmony. It occupies us with the deep feelings of all with the view of this marvelous picture and blends with the Study and Style of the natural.
 
| The thicket defends the entrance of the rigorous ray of the Sun. Wearying of this defense gave the Meadows and Gardens, which they make you relax in this place with very gentle and mild entertainment. Discovered at nearly to the end of the view, for the contrary part, the high Mountains of perpetual summit with the skirts and slopes full of Trees. The songs of the Birds sound in all the nearby places with marvelous smoothness and harmony. It occupies us with the deep feelings of all with the view of this marvelous picture and blends with the Study and Style of the natural.
 
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| '''The profession of the speakers'''
 
| '''The profession of the speakers'''
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| And among them the more continuous were Eudemio, who being noble and good, teaches in the humane letters with serious reason and elegant words and with a pleasant manner was to all his friends very gentle.
 
| And among them the more continuous were Eudemio, who being noble and good, teaches in the humane letters with serious reason and elegant words and with a pleasant manner was to all his friends very gentle.
 
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| Next are Polemarcho and Philandro, the first of these which, with a smooth and mild condition and diligence of talent, was very learned in the canonical and civil law.
 
| Next are Polemarcho and Philandro, the first of these which, with a smooth and mild condition and diligence of talent, was very learned in the canonical and civil law.
 
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| More Philandro has given great care to the study of the Philosophy and Medicine. Recovering of the continuing deep melancholy, he is more difficult and more unpleasant in manner although the strength of his talent compensates when it disputes his condition of strength. He appears no rougher than he wants and desires.
 
| More Philandro has given great care to the study of the Philosophy and Medicine. Recovering of the continuing deep melancholy, he is more difficult and more unpleasant in manner although the strength of his talent compensates when it disputes his condition of strength. He appears no rougher than he wants and desires.
 
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| Also there were Charilao and Meliso, diverse in Studies, so that one is well suited to know Charilao, having practice in the Skill. Among those who use the Skill, he has reached some name. The other is Meliso, excellent in all the disciplines. He is most learned in the Mathematics and made distinguished with the grand erudition and varied letters. He has the goodness natural to Mathematics accompanied by a rare talent. He is well accepted by all.
 
| Also there were Charilao and Meliso, diverse in Studies, so that one is well suited to know Charilao, having practice in the Skill. Among those who use the Skill, he has reached some name. The other is Meliso, excellent in all the disciplines. He is most learned in the Mathematics and made distinguished with the grand erudition and varied letters. He has the goodness natural to Mathematics accompanied by a rare talent. He is well accepted by all.
 
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| '''Effects of the imagination'''
 
| '''Effects of the imagination'''
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| Well, they say, Charilao, that the imagination is very strong. With great violence it occupies all the powers of the men, usurping the Elegance and removing from all point the use and ministry of it. Since having such manner, we let loose of the grandeur and majesty of this house. Victory will only reach the gentlemen among you all, since you are as Mount Olympus that does not feel the clouds and has waited quietly and without sound.
 
| Well, they say, Charilao, that the imagination is very strong. With great violence it occupies all the powers of the men, usurping the Elegance and removing from all point the use and ministry of it. Since having such manner, we let loose of the grandeur and majesty of this house. Victory will only reach the gentlemen among you all, since you are as Mount Olympus that does not feel the clouds and has waited quietly and without sound.
 
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| Charilao answers, as if he will remember from some dream. It should not astonish you that I might not have heard because it occupied all my very unhappy memories of things past which I carry with me so strongly that it makes me forget all the present.
 
| Charilao answers, as if he will remember from some dream. It should not astonish you that I might not have heard because it occupied all my very unhappy memories of things past which I carry with me so strongly that it makes me forget all the present.
 
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| To this then Polemarcho says in this manner: Very different is our imagination than what you think Eudemio. Since you are coming so hastily and concerned, I have for my understanding that imagination occupies more in Arms and skill than in other some things.
 
| To this then Polemarcho says in this manner: Very different is our imagination than what you think Eudemio. Since you are coming so hastily and concerned, I have for my understanding that imagination occupies more in Arms and skill than in other some things.
 
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| '''Charilao offends concerning the Skill.'''
 
| '''Charilao offends concerning the Skill.'''
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| '''The skill is generous'''
 
| '''The skill is generous'''
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| '''Effects of the false skill painting a portrait describing vile men'''
 
| '''Effects of the false skill painting a portrait describing vile men'''
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| '''Declamation of the bad Arms for the vile from the author of sacred the Art'''
 
| '''Declamation of the bad Arms for the vile from the author of sacred the Art'''
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| '''The humility and baseness of those who call themselves swordsmen<br>The deceit of the Skill<br>That thing is to know<br>It that is properly vulgar skill<br>The common Skill lacks in the truth'''
 
| '''The humility and baseness of those who call themselves swordsmen<br>The deceit of the Skill<br>That thing is to know<br>It that is properly vulgar skill<br>The common Skill lacks in the truth'''
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| '''The condition of the vulgar the ignorant master says what I provide is bad the customs that divide friendships'''
 
| '''The condition of the vulgar the ignorant master says what I provide is bad the customs that divide friendships'''
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| '''The happiness of the vulgar customs received between the ignorant thinks the ignorant that is offense you that there is other more learned that the portrait to the natural of the coward'''
 
| '''The happiness of the vulgar customs received between the ignorant thinks the ignorant that is offense you that there is other more learned that the portrait to the natural of the coward'''
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| Charilao surrendering it says, since you will not want to finish the beginning to remain unconfused, easily you will be satisfied by your question and with so much truth that you will regret to be its defender. And I think to say more than you ask, because as I discuss it, I will unfold this before your eyes although all these conditions are unwanted. Having all this in our hands, we will leave and continue with the Skill. Moreover, if I can find occasion, we will return to it. Know that these skills have all our happiness and glory, each one for his part; not in true praise of virtue and certain art, but in the a shadow of honor that offers to obscure the body of the vulgar and this is in condemnation of those who know, like those who do not know and praise it on his own and support these conceits and to enlarge them because the wind does not undo them easily. They use worse ends increasing the error by another 600 with a greater mistake and the bestiality of the world by representing it to one that has no other greater skill than he has. He marries it with this false figure. Listen to what I say. He is hasty who thoughtlessly stands his ground although this is more distant from the one Pole to the other. With the other skilled man he kills himself without more basis of reason. He wastes on this so little that he goes in anger looking afterward for the future (such happens) when it is more necessary for honor. He who dares to have none in the world like him appears to be violent. It is great humility to suffer it, or it is great offense to pass lightly for it. In this they discuss our brave and valiant, our quarrelsome rough and disliked when none agree. These who are vile do not stop vomiting disgrace, attempting if they can with the poisonous knife of their tongues to cast a slur on the estimation of those that with fair title possess a good name in virtue. These finally you call our skilled men and the vulgar ignorant of their professions. Such good friend is the opinion, apparent by essential reason, that they call them valiant. But, I agree with Homer. I call it a useless burden of the world.
 
| Charilao surrendering it says, since you will not want to finish the beginning to remain unconfused, easily you will be satisfied by your question and with so much truth that you will regret to be its defender. And I think to say more than you ask, because as I discuss it, I will unfold this before your eyes although all these conditions are unwanted. Having all this in our hands, we will leave and continue with the Skill. Moreover, if I can find occasion, we will return to it. Know that these skills have all our happiness and glory, each one for his part; not in true praise of virtue and certain art, but in the a shadow of honor that offers to obscure the body of the vulgar and this is in condemnation of those who know, like those who do not know and praise it on his own and support these conceits and to enlarge them because the wind does not undo them easily. They use worse ends increasing the error by another 600 with a greater mistake and the bestiality of the world by representing it to one that has no other greater skill than he has. He marries it with this false figure. Listen to what I say. He is hasty who thoughtlessly stands his ground although this is more distant from the one Pole to the other. With the other skilled man he kills himself without more basis of reason. He wastes on this so little that he goes in anger looking afterward for the future (such happens) when it is more necessary for honor. He who dares to have none in the world like him appears to be violent. It is great humility to suffer it, or it is great offense to pass lightly for it. In this they discuss our brave and valiant, our quarrelsome rough and disliked when none agree. These who are vile do not stop vomiting disgrace, attempting if they can with the poisonous knife of their tongues to cast a slur on the estimation of those that with fair title possess a good name in virtue. These finally you call our skilled men and the vulgar ignorant of their professions. Such good friend is the opinion, apparent by essential reason, that they call them valiant. But, I agree with Homer. I call it a useless burden of the world.
 
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| For certain, that comes to this hair says Eudemio. It is my wish to learn Arms well. And for the presumption I have raised, you say more for our life. If it is true that the skilled do not know anything and are such silliness and without agreement such as we know, what do the people see in these men that bring such deceit? Or is that it they leave these to deceive and to ridicule those they esteem later in secret. I want to learn clearly and without doubt who are the deceivers: these praised for being such cowards and lying in how many they speak of, or the people in believing them and praising them?
 
| For certain, that comes to this hair says Eudemio. It is my wish to learn Arms well. And for the presumption I have raised, you say more for our life. If it is true that the skilled do not know anything and are such silliness and without agreement such as we know, what do the people see in these men that bring such deceit? Or is that it they leave these to deceive and to ridicule those they esteem later in secret. I want to learn clearly and without doubt who are the deceivers: these praised for being such cowards and lying in how many they speak of, or the people in believing them and praising them?
 
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| And so Charilao says, the people that praise loss.
 
| And so Charilao says, the people that praise loss.
 
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| '''The false estimation owes not to consent'''
 
| '''The false estimation owes not to consent'''
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| '''Each one owes it to himself to be satisfied of the worthiness of the ones they praise<br>The student loses the belief of the Master if he sees that mistake in his teacher<br>Definition of the offense<br>Occupation of the envious'''
 
| '''Each one owes it to himself to be satisfied of the worthiness of the ones they praise<br>The student loses the belief of the Master if he sees that mistake in his teacher<br>Definition of the offense<br>Occupation of the envious'''
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| '''The skill is in the will of him that wants to say that he knows it'''
 
| '''The skill is in the will of him that wants to say that he knows it'''
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| '''Each one is a friend of his similar.<br>Customs already investigated in the vulgar<br>The ignorant envious: never believe they don't see'''
 
| '''Each one is a friend of his similar.<br>Customs already investigated in the vulgar<br>The ignorant envious: never believe they don't see'''
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| '''Effects of the malice'''
 
| '''Effects of the malice'''
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| More come to know the old Skilled Men
 
| More come to know the old Skilled Men
 
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| Then says Charilao, so you ask us to understand the Arms and to be skilled men.
 
| Then says Charilao, so you ask us to understand the Arms and to be skilled men.
 
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| I call Skilled Men, responds Eudemio, those who know how to do tricks. And to understand the arms as they say. They know to apply a cut with a reverse, a thrust with a two handed blow, a warning with a deceit in all the species of the arms.
 
| I call Skilled Men, responds Eudemio, those who know how to do tricks. And to understand the arms as they say. They know to apply a cut with a reverse, a thrust with a two handed blow, a warning with a deceit in all the species of the arms.
 
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| What significance is this name "skilled men"?  
 
| What significance is this name "skilled men"?  
 
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| '''Conclusion of the skill'''
 
| '''Conclusion of the skill'''
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| In that you see, replies Eudemio. What about those who say they know the practical and not the Theory. The practical is all that they know.  
 
| In that you see, replies Eudemio. What about those who say they know the practical and not the Theory. The practical is all that they know.  
 
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| You know, says Charilao, that they call this a cut, and this a wound because they heard it said.  And also, a reverse because this is in use.  And this a two handed cut, and this a thrust. This is the Theory of the vulgar skills, if you please.  The practical is that, if they want, the cut and reverse and thrust and two handed attack are done and executed on the opponent.  Indeed they resort to objections.  Given the opportunity for that, they can make the wounds and diversions.  If they do not give the opportunity, they remain without having done the same thing.  And so they made certain to do that which they learn with some and not with others because some help with his intent.  Others they understand because they go on to the future.  They base all their Skill in the occasion given by the opponent.  Here they make good use of the Skill that they know to scold (if you can call skill what men do not make good use of nor can make good use of) and the argument is often deceiving that it is not science.  He knows little of the truth because the thing is not Science but a scientific Practice that he knows.
 
| You know, says Charilao, that they call this a cut, and this a wound because they heard it said.  And also, a reverse because this is in use.  And this a two handed cut, and this a thrust. This is the Theory of the vulgar skills, if you please.  The practical is that, if they want, the cut and reverse and thrust and two handed attack are done and executed on the opponent.  Indeed they resort to objections.  Given the opportunity for that, they can make the wounds and diversions.  If they do not give the opportunity, they remain without having done the same thing.  And so they made certain to do that which they learn with some and not with others because some help with his intent.  Others they understand because they go on to the future.  They base all their Skill in the occasion given by the opponent.  Here they make good use of the Skill that they know to scold (if you can call skill what men do not make good use of nor can make good use of) and the argument is often deceiving that it is not science.  He knows little of the truth because the thing is not Science but a scientific Practice that he knows.
 
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| Then Meliso desires to pick up this fight which is so agreeable to the skilled that he makes good use of it.  Occupying the place of Eudemio that very ember said,  You would have us first understand that they do not make good use of the tricks.  Knowing this, what do you say of the practical?  Declare for us then something of the consideration of it.
 
| Then Meliso desires to pick up this fight which is so agreeable to the skilled that he makes good use of it.  Occupying the place of Eudemio that very ember said,  You would have us first understand that they do not make good use of the tricks.  Knowing this, what do you say of the practical?  Declare for us then something of the consideration of it.
 
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| '''The vulgar skill is a disrespectful thing to scold<br>Vanquish the practice of this skill'''
 
| '''The vulgar skill is a disrespectful thing to scold<br>Vanquish the practice of this skill'''
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| You have to know it to be skilled.
 
| You have to know it to be skilled.
 
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| It appears to me, says Eudemio, that knowing the tricks well, they do them although they anger the skilled men.
 
| It appears to me, says Eudemio, that knowing the tricks well, they do them although they anger the skilled men.
 
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| '''Against the skill<br>The tricks deceive those who do not serve the truth'''
 
| '''Against the skill<br>The tricks deceive those who do not serve the truth'''
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| According to this different reason they have to belong, says Eudemio.  They have more to do with it.  In essence, it is the same cut as fencing, and the same thrust and reverse and they move for the same reason and it is the same man that they govern.
 
| According to this different reason they have to belong, says Eudemio.  They have more to do with it.  In essence, it is the same cut as fencing, and the same thrust and reverse and they move for the same reason and it is the same man that they govern.
 
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| Against the skill vulgar <br>Of the particulars no there is science <br>The appearance of the face deceives <br>Against the skill <br>The danger hinders the choice <br>The things that make the skill false <br>The job of fear <br>Against the skill
 
| Against the skill vulgar <br>Of the particulars no there is science <br>The appearance of the face deceives <br>Against the skill <br>The danger hinders the choice <br>The things that make the skill false <br>The job of fear <br>Against the skill
 
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| Truly, says Charilao, neither the cut nor the other kinds of wounds are generally different then.  They can have more or less parts in their movement.  They come here to start it more quickly or more slowly than it requires for the proportion you say now.  So there is no art that considers the particulars because they are infinite and unknowable. The movements by which they achieve the wound in the Skill are cut, reverse, thrust or attacking conversion.  And for each one of these movements there are defenses formed that the common opinion calls contraries. You will concede later that for each one in particular they have their wounds and that in each one of these the body moves in a different manner according to the goals.  They distinguish in each the postures, not having such a beginning as the contrary.  It is not for us to know what Specie of wound is formed against us.  Because of that it is not even.  It cannot be a science.  To follow it by the conjectures of the face deceives more times.  For that manner you do not know what trick or kind of movement you have to apply for the protection and offensive position to the wound the opponent.  It does not have a starting point or comparison that applies.  Thus finally, there are times we do not know the posture of the contrary nor with what kind of wound we have to use to offend and between which has to be the movement you have to apply against what the other does.  He always comes to lose the juncture of the wounds because the danger removes the choice.  Because of this fear, there is no real skill.  So I profess that with all its life.  The sudden intention {17} suffer no delay.  In that place of strength does not carry the science it has to have.  To cause delay and danger, and the danger, fear.  Fear removes the strength and restrains and subjects Spirit and confounds the memory.  Lacking as these parts our Skilled Men will use well the Spirit and Skill, because the place of the skill is the memory.  The one who has the key to the strong reminiscence is the guard.  So this spoiled gentleman prevails and orders it all and what is missing is the skill.  It is very clear since we have seen it many times that in the necessity for what was invented the more skilled man forgets this.  Half of the danger is in abandoning them.  Even in Fencing, in easy time the effects was made true.  The good Pilot, having to be the skilled men, in the turmoil and danger proves his value and knowledge.  Especially in the Art we discuss, difficulty shows virtue.
 
| Truly, says Charilao, neither the cut nor the other kinds of wounds are generally different then.  They can have more or less parts in their movement.  They come here to start it more quickly or more slowly than it requires for the proportion you say now.  So there is no art that considers the particulars because they are infinite and unknowable. The movements by which they achieve the wound in the Skill are cut, reverse, thrust or attacking conversion.  And for each one of these movements there are defenses formed that the common opinion calls contraries. You will concede later that for each one in particular they have their wounds and that in each one of these the body moves in a different manner according to the goals.  They distinguish in each the postures, not having such a beginning as the contrary.  It is not for us to know what Specie of wound is formed against us.  Because of that it is not even.  It cannot be a science.  To follow it by the conjectures of the face deceives more times.  For that manner you do not know what trick or kind of movement you have to apply for the protection and offensive position to the wound the opponent.  It does not have a starting point or comparison that applies.  Thus finally, there are times we do not know the posture of the contrary nor with what kind of wound we have to use to offend and between which has to be the movement you have to apply against what the other does.  He always comes to lose the juncture of the wounds because the danger removes the choice.  Because of this fear, there is no real skill.  So I profess that with all its life.  The sudden intention {17} suffer no delay.  In that place of strength does not carry the science it has to have.  To cause delay and danger, and the danger, fear.  Fear removes the strength and restrains and subjects Spirit and confounds the memory.  Lacking as these parts our Skilled Men will use well the Spirit and Skill, because the place of the skill is the memory.  The one who has the key to the strong reminiscence is the guard.  So this spoiled gentleman prevails and orders it all and what is missing is the skill.  It is very clear since we have seen it many times that in the necessity for what was invented the more skilled man forgets this.  Half of the danger is in abandoning them.  Even in Fencing, in easy time the effects was made true.  The good Pilot, having to be the skilled men, in the turmoil and danger proves his value and knowledge.  Especially in the Art we discuss, difficulty shows virtue.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|  
 
|  
 
| '''In difficulties, the Art is polished'''
 
| '''In difficulties, the Art is polished'''
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|  
 
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|- valign="top"
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|  
 
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| '''Defense for part of the Skill'''
 
| '''Defense for part of the Skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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| '''Against the skill'''
 
| '''Against the skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Strong defense for the part of the skill<br>Against the skill<br>The occupation of the vulgar'''
 
| '''Strong defense for the part of the skill<br>Against the skill<br>The occupation of the vulgar'''
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|  
 
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|- valign="top"
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|  
 
|  
 
| '''Definitions of the vulgar skill'''
 
| '''Definitions of the vulgar skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|  
 
|  
 
| '''Definition of the Skill true'''
 
| '''Definition of the Skill true'''
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|  
 
|  
  
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|  
 
|  
 
| I do not ask for the definition of the vulgar skill, responds Meliso, but the essentials of the true skill.
 
| I do not ask for the definition of the vulgar skill, responds Meliso, but the essentials of the true skill.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| [18]  The skill, says Charilao, is a knowledge and habit that teaches us how to injure and to defend against the contrary.
 
| [18]  The skill, says Charilao, is a knowledge and habit that teaches us how to injure and to defend against the contrary.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The things that teach the true skill'''
 
| '''The things that teach the true skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| For this same reason, Charilao said, I want to prove that it is not science.
 
| For this same reason, Charilao said, I want to prove that it is not science.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| This will, said Meliso, fly with the wings of Icarus to fall in the ocean.
 
| This will, said Meliso, fly with the wings of Icarus to fall in the ocean.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Note against the skill<br>The vulgar skill in the will of the contrary<br>The things that impede the action of the skill'''
 
| '''Note against the skill<br>The vulgar skill in the will of the contrary<br>The things that impede the action of the skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| Concerning the skill, responds Meliso, more tricks give understanding and prompt the memory to satisfactorily apply to the occasion that the contrary will give.
 
| Concerning the skill, responds Meliso, more tricks give understanding and prompt the memory to satisfactorily apply to the occasion that the contrary will give.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Against the vulgar Skill<br>Effects of fear<br>The causes because the vulgar skill does not serve the truth'''
 
| '''Against the vulgar Skill<br>Effects of fear<br>The causes because the vulgar skill does not serve the truth'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Defense of the part of the skill'''
 
| '''Defense of the part of the skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Against the Skill vulgar<br>Of the things that happen not all have to be science<br>Declaration of the proverb<br>Note against the skill'''
 
| '''Against the Skill vulgar<br>Of the things that happen not all have to be science<br>Declaration of the proverb<br>Note against the skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
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|  
 
|  
 
| '''The error of the skilled man.'''
 
| '''The error of the skilled man.'''
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|  
 
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|- valign="top"
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|  
 
|  
 
| '''Against the skill'''
 
| '''Against the skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Defense of the skill<br>The things that compose the wound'''
 
| '''Defense of the skill<br>The things that compose the wound'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|  
 
|  
 
| How do you know, says Charilao, that this truth is in the skill and not in the skilled man?
 
| How do you know, says Charilao, that this truth is in the skill and not in the skilled man?
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The cause is the mistake of the skilled man<br>In this, all strength is in the skill'''
 
| '''The cause is the mistake of the skilled man<br>In this, all strength is in the skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Against the Skill'''
 
| '''Against the Skill'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''How it will invent the Sciences'''
 
| '''How it will invent the Sciences'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Definition of Medicine<br>The things that have to be considered for the Doctor to be right<br>He agrees with us on the occasion<br>The occasion he has will differ<br>Note against the Skill<br>Against the Skill'''
 
| '''Definition of Medicine<br>The things that have to be considered for the Doctor to be right<br>He agrees with us on the occasion<br>The occasion he has will differ<br>Note against the Skill<br>Against the Skill'''
Line 471: Line 476:
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The science is in the things<br>How it finds the truth<br>In that they are deceived by all the things'''
 
| '''The science is in the things<br>How it finds the truth<br>In that they are deceived by all the things'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The knowledge proceeds to what I want and Love<br>The human understanding is a mirror of the real things<br>He finds good and bad in the things'''
 
| '''The knowledge proceeds to what I want and Love<br>The human understanding is a mirror of the real things<br>He finds good and bad in the things'''
Line 483: Line 488:
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''It is true and false in this understanding'''
 
| '''It is true and false in this understanding'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The truth is primarily in God<br>Definition of the truth'''
 
| '''The truth is primarily in God<br>Definition of the truth'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Falsehood is proper to the imagination'''
 
| '''Falsehood is proper to the imagination'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Definition of science<br>The things naturally measure our understanding<br>Each one can be a light in what it knows<br>The thing is true<br>How it deceives the understanding'''
 
| '''Definition of science<br>The things naturally measure our understanding<br>Each one can be a light in what it knows<br>The thing is true<br>How it deceives the understanding'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| And how, Eudemio asks, is it marvelous to others?
 
| And how, Eudemio asks, is it marvelous to others?
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The Authors had no Master<br>The best Master is the mind of each one<br>The office of the sensitive potentials<br>Only the understanding makes reflection in their acts'''
 
| '''The Authors had no Master<br>The best Master is the mind of each one<br>The office of the sensitive potentials<br>Only the understanding makes reflection in their acts'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The object of the understanding<br>How it can deceive the understanding<br>In the things of reason do not admit the authority of the ignorant<br>How it can deceive the understanding<br>Other manners to deceive the understanding'''
 
| '''The object of the understanding<br>How it can deceive the understanding<br>In the things of reason do not admit the authority of the ignorant<br>How it can deceive the understanding<br>Other manners to deceive the understanding'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The understanding is not deceived in knowledge of simple forms<br>The truth cannot be denied'''
 
| '''The understanding is not deceived in knowledge of simple forms<br>The truth cannot be denied'''
Line 530: Line 535:
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The cause of such various opinions between skilled men'''
 
| '''The cause of such various opinions between skilled men'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The parts that divide the opinion<br>The office of the reason<br>Against the skill<br>In that he knows the nature of the skill<br>The experience cleanly removes the truth and undoes the opinion'''
 
| '''The parts that divide the opinion<br>The office of the reason<br>Against the skill<br>In that he knows the nature of the skill<br>The experience cleanly removes the truth and undoes the opinion'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|  
 
|  
 
| It is very good, says Meliso, such I infer that where there are more opinions between the skilled men, major difficulty in the knowledge of the true Skill is implied.  You have demonstrated a level road for all.  Speak more to me about these vulgar ones who always discuss the skill and the brave ones who have so little of it.
 
| It is very good, says Meliso, such I infer that where there are more opinions between the skilled men, major difficulty in the knowledge of the true Skill is implied.  You have demonstrated a level road for all.  Speak more to me about these vulgar ones who always discuss the skill and the brave ones who have so little of it.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''For this reason the cowards want to appear as Skilled Men'''
 
| '''For this reason the cowards want to appear as Skilled Men'''
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|  
 
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The material that composes the trick'''
 
| '''The material that composes the trick'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|  
 
|  
 
| '''The knowledge is acquired with use'''
 
| '''The knowledge is acquired with use'''
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|  
 
|  
  
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|  
 
|  
 
| '''The importance of true application'''
 
| '''The importance of true application'''
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|  
 
|  
  
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Definition of false quickness'''
 
| '''Definition of false quickness'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''True definition of quickness<br>Agreement that the skilled man has knowledge of the ends'''
 
| '''True definition of quickness<br>Agreement that the skilled man has knowledge of the ends'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Knowledge begins with use'''
 
| '''Knowledge begins with use'''
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|  
 
|  
  
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|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Here he says the tricks of first invention<br>Here he treats the tricks of second invention<br>The learned greatly Deceived it<br>The fortune of the doctrine'''
 
| '''Here he says the tricks of first invention<br>Here he treats the tricks of second invention<br>The learned greatly Deceived it<br>The fortune of the doctrine'''
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|  
 
|  
  
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|  
 
|  
 
| What you say is true, responds Eudemio.  They contend more with it than they know.  His intelligence is good.  He honors it by pretending foreign things for his great disguise.
 
| What you say is true, responds Eudemio.  They contend more with it than they know.  His intelligence is good.  He honors it by pretending foreign things for his great disguise.
 
|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''Customs of the ignorant vulgar<br>The antiquity of ignorance<br>The vulgar judge knows and understands less<br>Customs that bring deceit with much apparent valor<br>The vulgar have more imagination than reason'''
 
| '''Customs of the ignorant vulgar<br>The antiquity of ignorance<br>The vulgar judge knows and understands less<br>Customs that bring deceit with much apparent valor<br>The vulgar have more imagination than reason'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
+
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| '''The solution of the doubt is the invention of the truth'''
 
| '''The solution of the doubt is the invention of the truth'''
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|  
 
|  
  
|- valign="top"
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|-  
|  
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| class="noline" |
| '''The basics about the Fabric of the Skill'''
+
| class="noline" | '''The basics about the Fabric of the Skill'''
 
I will be unable, says Charilao, to declare this well because the place is inconvenient for it.  With no small and brief care, I have been able to demonstrate clearly what you ask.  Nor can I purify each point that I will consider.  More because you remain disillusioned with true proof, I will say that it all occurs basically as we have said in the principles of Philosophy and Geometry.  Without them, it cannot have true knowledge of arms.  Considering the skill in the next things, and verifying for a consideration of them many things that they can't verify or prove for no more of them, agree to know these: the Body, the Spirit, the Act, the color, the view, the Touch, the posture, the distance, the strength, the figure, the time, the movement, the quality, the size, the end, the condition, the order, the mode, the Kind, the difference, the knowledge, the weight, the proportion, the measure, the disposition, the cause, the effect, the material, the form, the essence, the intention, and the attention, and the subject.  
 
I will be unable, says Charilao, to declare this well because the place is inconvenient for it.  With no small and brief care, I have been able to demonstrate clearly what you ask.  Nor can I purify each point that I will consider.  More because you remain disillusioned with true proof, I will say that it all occurs basically as we have said in the principles of Philosophy and Geometry.  Without them, it cannot have true knowledge of arms.  Considering the skill in the next things, and verifying for a consideration of them many things that they can't verify or prove for no more of them, agree to know these: the Body, the Spirit, the Act, the color, the view, the Touch, the posture, the distance, the strength, the figure, the time, the movement, the quality, the size, the end, the condition, the order, the mode, the Kind, the difference, the knowledge, the weight, the proportion, the measure, the disposition, the cause, the effect, the material, the form, the essence, the intention, and the attention, and the subject.  
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| authors    = [[Cindy Koepp]]
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| source link = http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/wew/fencing/caranza-t.html
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| source title= Elizabethan Fencing and the Art of Defence
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== Additional Resources ==
 
== Additional Resources ==

Latest revision as of 03:35, 4 June 2020

Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza
Born 1539
Seville, Spain
Died 1600
Madrid, Spain
Occupation
Patron Don Alonso Peréz de Guzmán el Bueno
Movement La Verdadera Destreza
Influences Camillo Agrippa
Influenced
Genres Fencing manual
Language Spanish
Notable work(s) De la Filosofia de las Armas y de su Destreza y la Aggression y Defensa Cristiana (1569)

Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza (Hieronimo de Carança; 1539-1600?) was a 16th century Spanish knight, philosopher, and fencing master. He seems to have been born in Seville, Spain in 1539;[1] his family was noble and he received education in fencing from a young age. As an adult he was named a knight, and later a Commander, of the Ordem do Hábito de Cristo ("the Order of the Habit of Christ"). He served as governor of Sanlucar de Barrameda on behalf of his patron Don Alonso Peréz de Guzmán el Bueno, Duke of Medina Sidonia, and from 1589 to 1594, as the royal governor of Honduras. Upon his return to Spain, he served as Head Master of Arms to the royal court until his death in 1600.[2]

In 1569, Carranza published a detailed fencing manual entitled De la Filosofia de las Armas y de su Destreza y la Aggression y Defensa Cristiana ("On the Philosophy of Arms and its Skill, and Christian Offense and Defense"). Amidst extensive philosophical musings, this manual presented a new system of rapier fencing based on science and geometry which he called la Verdadera Destreza ("The True Skill") in contrast to the esgrima vulgar ("vulgar fencing") taught by other masters.

Carranza is one of the most influential fencing masters in history. As the founder of the Verdadera Destreza, he was honored by later Diestros as El Primer Inventor de La Sciencia de Las Armas ("The First Inventor of the Science of Arms"); he was also immortalized in Spanish poetry and literature and his name became synonymous with skill in fencing. Carranza's treatise was reprinted several times over the following century and his successor, Luis Pacheco de Narváez, succeeded in virtually eliminating the other schools of Iberian fence in favor of Carranza's teachings.

Treatise

Additional Resources

References

  1. Luis Pacheco de Narváez wrote that he was 30 when his treatise was published in 1569.
  2. Martínez, Ramón. Jeronimo de Carranza’s “Philosophy” of Arms. Martinez Academy of Arms. Retrieved 11 November 2011.