Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)
|Pisani Dossi MS, Pisani Dossi Collection|
|Date||10 February 1409|
|Place of origin||Milan, Italy|
|Author(s)||Fiore de'i Liberi|
|Illustrated by||Altichiero da Zevio (?)|
|Dedicated to||Niccolò III Marquis d'Este|
|Material||Parchment, in a cardboard |
|Format||Double-sided; four illustrations |
per side, with text above
Flos Duellatorum ("The Flower of Battle", Pisani Dossi MS) is a contemporary copy of an Italian fencing manual authored by Fiore de'i Liberi and dated 10 February 1409. The original was long believed to have been lost during World War II, but it is now known that it remained in the collection of the Pisani Dossi family in Italy. Novati described the Pisani Dossi MS as an unbound collection of leaves, covered in a cardboard folder with a marbled paper cover. This manuscript is often referred to as the Novati (for the facsimile) or Pisani Dossi (for the original).
Like the MS Ludwig XV 13, it is dedicated to Niccolò III, Marquis d'Este. It consists of approximately 35 leaves and includes two different prefaces, one in Renaissance Latin and a second in Middle Italian. The body of the text includes four to six illustrations per page, with gold leafing on the crowns and garters, each with only a brief couplet or quatrain in a neat Humanist hand to caption it. The artwork is reminiscent of the work of Altichiero da Zevio, but given the timeline it would more likely be the work of an artist influenced by him.
The Pisani Dossi MS was published in facsimile by Francesco Novati in 1902, making it the only version of Fiore de'i Liberi's manual whose images are considered public domain. However, it is unclear how accurate this facsimile is, as evidence suggests that Novati may have hired an artist to create a tracing of the original manuscript rather than reproducing it directly. While this method of producing facsimiles generally resulted in copies that were virtually indistinguishable from the originals, certain divergences from the other extant versions of the treatise could be explained by efforts on the part of the artist to reconstruct damaged portions of the original.
The known provenance of the Pisani Dossi MS is:
- Completed by Fiore de'i Liberi on 10 February, 1409. Though it was dedicated to Niccolò III d'Este, there is no evidence that it ever passed into his library.
- before 1663 – belonged to Schier de' Prevosti da Valbregaglia, passed into the library of the Sacchi da Bucinigo family (purchased before 1902, Carlo Alberto Pisani Dossi).
- before 1902-present – owned by the Pisani Dossi family.
As the foliation of the manuscript is not known, the carta numeration from Novati's facsimile will be used instead.
|2a||Latin Preface by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|2a - 2b||Italian Preface by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|3a - 5b||Grappling by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|5b||Baton by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|6a - 12b||Dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|12b - 13a||Four strikes of the sword by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|13a - 14b||Sword in one hand by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|15a - 16b||Spear by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|16b||Seven Swords diagram by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|17a - 24b||Sword in two hands by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|25a - 26b||Sword in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|27a - 28a, 36a||Axe in armor by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|29a - 33b, 34b||Mounted fencing by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|34a||Spear vs. cavalry by Fiore de'i Liberi|
|35a - 36a||Sword vs. dagger by Fiore de'i Liberi|
These images are sourced from Francesco Novati's 1902 facsimile of the manuscript. The manuscript itself is in the private collection of the Pisani Dossi family in Italy, but is not available for study.
- dei Liberi, Fiore; Rubboli, Marco; Cesari, Luca. Flos Duellatorum. Manuale di Arte del Combattimento del XV secolo. Rome: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, 2002. ISBN 88-8474-023-1
- Novati, Francesco. Flos Duellatorum, Il Fior di Battaglia di Maestro Fiore dei Liberi da Premariacco. Bergamo: 1902.
- Rapisardi, Giovani. Fiore de' Liberi Flos Duellatorum - in armis, sine armis equester et pedesta. Gladitoria Press, 1998.
- Zanutto, D. Luigi. Fiore di Premariacco ed I Ludi e Le Feste Marziali e Civili in Friuli. Udine: D. Del Bianco, 1907.
- It does not match the descriptions of any of the fencing manuscripts in the d'Este library in the 15th century.
- Internally dated on carta 2a
- dei Liberi's Pisani-Dosi Located. Sword Forum International. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Novati, pp 29-30.
- Lost Kal - Found in Plain Sight!. Sword Forum International. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Easton, Matt. "Fiore dei Liberi - Fior di Battaglia - Flos Duellatorum". Schola Gladiatoria. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
Copyright and License Summary
For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.
|Images||Francesco Novati||Flos Dvellatorvm in Armis, sine Armis, Eqvester, Pedester|
|Transcription||Francesco Novati||Index:Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|