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  | [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|MS KK5013]] (1430s)
 
  | [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|MS KK5013]] (1430s)
 
  | [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|MS Germ.Quart.16]] (1440s)
 
  | [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|MS Germ.Quart.16]] (1440s)
  | [[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Cod.Guelf.78.2.Aug.2º]] (1465-1480)
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  | [[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Cod.Guelf.78.2.Aug.2º]] (1465-1480)
 
  | [[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|MS Cl. 23842]] (1490s)
 
  | [[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|MS Cl. 23842]] (1490s)
 
}}
 
}}
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The '''Gladiatoria Group''' is a series of several [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] manuscripts that share the same art style and cover the same material—various types of [[armor]]ed fencing. These are interesting texts in that they seem to be contemporary with the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], but not directly influenced by it. Gladiatoria is thus one of very few glimpses into the characteristics of a potentially independent German martial tradition.
 
The '''Gladiatoria Group''' is a series of several [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] manuscripts that share the same art style and cover the same material—various types of [[armor]]ed fencing. These are interesting texts in that they seem to be contemporary with the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], but not directly influenced by it. Gladiatoria is thus one of very few glimpses into the characteristics of a potentially independent German martial tradition.
  
The core of the Gladiatoria group is a series of plays of [[armored fencing]] following the typical progression of a [[judicial duel]]: beginning with [[spear]]s and small [[shield]]s called ''ecranches'', moving to [[longsword]]s, then employing [[dagger]]s on foot and [[wrestling|on the ground]]. (Traditional dueling would typically begin on horseback before going to foot combat, and the ''ecranche'' is designed for mounted fencing, but Gladiatoria seems to skip that stage entirely.) The diverse manuscripts in the group sometimes describe other kinds of fighting as well, such as the [[sword and buckler]] of the [[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Cod. Guelf 78.2 Aug. 2º]] or the [[longshield]] of the [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|MS Germ. quart. 16]], but these teachings lack some of the common elements of the core Gladiatoria complex and will not be covered on this page. They may be found on the individual manuscript pages.
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The core of the Gladiatoria group is a series of plays of [[armored fencing]] following the typical progression of a [[judicial duel]]: beginning with [[spear]]s and small [[shield]]s called ''ecranches'', moving to [[longsword]]s, then employing [[dagger]]s on foot and [[wrestling|on the ground]]. (Traditional dueling would typically begin on horseback before going to foot combat, and the ''ecranche'' is designed for mounted fencing, but Gladiatoria seems to skip that stage entirely.) The diverse manuscripts in the group sometimes describe other kinds of fighting as well, such as the [[sword and buckler]] of the [[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Cod. Guelf 78.2 Aug. 2º]] or the [[longshield]] of the [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|MS Germ. quart. 16]], but these teachings lack some of the common elements of the core Gladiatoria complex and will not be covered on this page. They may be found on the individual manuscript pages.
  
There are currently five known versions of the Gladiatoria treatise, the [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] (MS U860.F46 1450), the [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna]] (MS KK5013), the [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków]] (MS Germ. quart. 16, the only version with a title page), the [[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel]] (Cod. Guelf 78.2 Aug. 2º), and the [[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris]] (MS Cl. 23842) versions. [[Hans-Peter Hils]] mentions a sixth lost manuscript identified as MS T in his edition of Gladiatoria,<ref>Hils, Hans Peter. "''Gladiatoria'': Über drei Fechthandschriften aus der ersten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts." ''Codici Manuscripti'' 13. Verlag Brüder Hollinek, 1987. pp. 1-54. Print.</ref> but [[Dierk Hagedorn]] has since determined that this is the New Haven (which Hils did not have access to). Aside from these five, there are several other manuscripts that some scholars have ascribed to the group. These include the the [[Cod.11093]] and part C of the [[Codex Wallerstein (Cod.I.6.4º.2)|Codex Wallerstein]] (also known as [[pseudo-Gladiatoria]] for this reason). In each case, there are disqualifying factors that lead us to exclude them from the group, but additional research may reverse these decisions.
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There are currently five known versions of the Gladiatoria treatise, the [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] (MS U860.F46 1450), the [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna]] (MS KK5013), the [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków]] (MS Germ. quart. 16, the only version with a title page), the [[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel]] (Cod. Guelf 78.2 Aug. 2º), and the [[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris]] (MS Cl. 23842) versions. [[Hans-Peter Hils]] mentions a sixth lost manuscript identified as MS T in his edition of Gladiatoria,<ref>Hils, Hans Peter. "''Gladiatoria'': Über drei Fechthandschriften aus der ersten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts." ''Codici Manuscripti'' 13. Verlag Brüder Hollinek, 1987. pp. 1-54. Print.</ref> but [[Dierk Hagedorn]] has since determined that this is the New Haven (which Hils did not have access to). Aside from these five, there are several other manuscripts that some scholars have ascribed to the group. These include the the [[Cod.11093]] and part C of the [[Codex Wallerstein (Cod.I.6.4º.2)|Codex Wallerstein]] (also known as [[pseudo-Gladiatoria]] for this reason). In each case, there are disqualifying factors that lead us to exclude them from the group, but additional research may reverse these decisions.
  
 
While the three oldest texts in the Gladiatoria complex present a fairly identical set of plays, the slightly later Wolfenbüttel version contains significantly more material, primarily in the dagger section. The origin of this additional material is unknown, and the text-less nature of that manuscript makes it difficult to place these plays in any sort of context.
 
While the three oldest texts in the Gladiatoria complex present a fairly identical set of plays, the slightly later Wolfenbüttel version contains significantly more material, primarily in the dagger section. The origin of this additional material is unknown, and the text-less nature of that manuscript makes it difficult to place these plays in any sort of context.
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As the oldest manuscript, the [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] version would normally be used to set the order of plays. However, it has been extensively damaged and disordered during its history (and especially in the 20th century), and its current sequence of plays is the result of guesswork during a recent binding. Since the next two oldest versions, [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna]] and [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków]], are in genral agreement, they will be used to establish the order instead.
 
As the oldest manuscript, the [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] version would normally be used to set the order of plays. However, it has been extensively damaged and disordered during its history (and especially in the 20th century), and its current sequence of plays is the result of guesswork during a recent binding. Since the next two oldest versions, [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna]] and [[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków]], are in genral agreement, they will be used to establish the order instead.
  
To illustrate the different amount of content in each manuscript, the New Haven illustrations are used whenever available. Plays in the Vienna version that are missing from New Haven are illustrated from that source. Illustrations from the Kraków version are only used for plays missing from both older manuscripts (presumably invented after they were created). Due to the fact that [[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel]] and [[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris]] versions appear in mixed anthologies combining multiple sources, plays that are not reflected in at least one other version will not be included below.
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To illustrate the different amount of content in each manuscript, the New Haven illustrations are used whenever available. Plays in the Vienna version that are missing from New Haven are illustrated from that source. Illustrations from the Kraków version are only used for plays missing from both older manuscripts (presumably invented after they were created). Due to the fact that [[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel]] and [[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris]] versions appear in mixed anthologies combining multiple sources, plays that are not reflected in at least one other version will not be included below.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
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! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)}}<br/>by [[Carsten Lorbeer]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)}}<br/>by [[Carsten Lorbeer]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków Transcription]] (1440s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)}}<br/>by [[Kristian&nbsp;Babic]], [[Robert&nbsp;Brunner]], [[Marion&nbsp;Freundl]], [[Alexandra&nbsp;Gießl]], [[Barbara&nbsp;Kappelmayr]], [[Julia&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Carsten&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Andreas&nbsp;Meier]], [[Marita&nbsp;Wiedner]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków Transcription]] (1440s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)}}<br/>by [[Kristian&nbsp;Babic]], [[Robert&nbsp;Brunner]], [[Marion&nbsp;Freundl]], [[Alexandra&nbsp;Gießl]], [[Barbara&nbsp;Kappelmayr]], [[Julia&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Carsten&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Andreas&nbsp;Meier]], [[Marita&nbsp;Wiedner]]</p>
! <p>[[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel Transcription]] (1465-1480){{edit index|Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
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! <p>[[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel Transcription]] (1465-1480){{edit index|Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris Transcription]] (1490s){{edit index|Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>[[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris Transcription]] (1490s){{edit index|Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)}}<br/></p>
  
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! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)}}<br/>by [[Carsten Lorbeer]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)}}<br/>by [[Carsten Lorbeer]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków Transcription]] (1440s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)}}<br/>by [[Kristian&nbsp;Babic]], [[Robert&nbsp;Brunner]], [[Marion&nbsp;Freundl]], [[Alexandra&nbsp;Gießl]], [[Barbara&nbsp;Kappelmayr]], [[Julia&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Carsten&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Andreas&nbsp;Meier]], [[Marita&nbsp;Wiedner]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków Transcription]] (1440s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)}}<br/>by [[Kristian&nbsp;Babic]], [[Robert&nbsp;Brunner]], [[Marion&nbsp;Freundl]], [[Alexandra&nbsp;Gießl]], [[Barbara&nbsp;Kappelmayr]], [[Julia&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Carsten&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Andreas&nbsp;Meier]], [[Marita&nbsp;Wiedner]]</p>
! <p>[[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel Transcription]] (1465-1480){{edit index|Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
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! <p>[[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel Transcription]] (1465-1480){{edit index|Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris Transcription]] (1490s){{edit index|Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>[[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris Transcription]] (1490s){{edit index|Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)}}<br/></p>
 
|-
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 05v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[1] Note that now you have lost spears and shields: Take your sword at the armor-hand and wind it above your head as you have learned; this position leads to all the thrusts and strikes as you well know how to do them. Also, note if he wants to execute the technique against you and thrust from above strongly into your face, then take your sword for the full displacement and strike out his point with strength, and catch with your pommel in between his left hand and the sword and jerk hard towards you--thus you have warded off his thrust.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|05v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|06v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|page:MS Germ.Quart.16|07v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º|041r|png|blk=1}}
 
|
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS Germ.Quart.16 8r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Germ.Quart.16 8r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] Note the beginning of the technique that also derives from the four guards: When you want to do this seriously move your right foot forward and turn your pommel forward towards his face, thus you offer him an opening at your right armpit. If he means to seek or exploit your opening with a strong thrust then strike down with strength with your sword’s point. So you displace his thrust, and grab with the point from the outside in his left hollow of knee like you see it in the next picture. [Continued]</p>
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| <p>[1]<ref>Folio 8 appears to have been added to the Kraków version at the end of its production. It's been moved to the beginning of the sword section because it appears to be intended as an introductory note, inserted between the first and second play because that's as close to the beginning of the section as the layout of the manuscript would allow.</ref> Note the beginning of the technique that also derives from the four guards: When you want to do this seriously move your right foot forward and turn your pommel forward towards his face, thus you offer him an opening at your right armpit. If he means to seek or exploit your opening with a strong thrust then strike down with strength with your sword’s point. So you displace his thrust, and grab with the point from the outside in his left hollow of knee like you see it in the next picture. [Continued]</p>
 
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| [[File:MS Germ.Quart.16 8v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS Germ.Quart.16 8v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[3] [Continued] And pull powerfully towards you so you can throw him on his back as you see it in the picture above. These are the first two techniques deriving from the four guards of the sword that are described before the other sword techniques.</p>
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| <p>[2] [Continued] And pull powerfully towards you so you can throw him on his back as you see it in the picture above. These are the first two techniques deriving from the four guards of the sword that are described before the other sword techniques.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|page:MS Germ.Quart.16|08v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|page:MS Germ.Quart.16|08v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º|069v|png|blk=1}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º|069v|png|blk=1}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 05v.jpg|400px|center]]
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| <p>[3] Note that now you have lost spears and shields: Take your sword at the armor-hand and wind it above your head as you have learned; this position leads to all the thrusts and strikes as you well know how to do them. Also, note if he wants to execute the technique against you and thrust from above strongly into your face, then take your sword for the full displacement and strike out his point with strength, and catch with your pommel in between his left hand and the sword and jerk hard towards you--thus you have warded off his thrust.</p>
 +
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|05v|jpg}}
 +
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|06v|jpg}}
 +
| {{paget|page:MS Germ.Quart.16|07v|jpg}}
 +
| {{paget|Page:Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º|041r|png|blk=1}}
 
|  
 
|  
  
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 13v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 13v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[29] <br/></p>
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| <p>[19] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>Note the seventeenth technique of the sword: When both of you thrust down powerfully towards the body, then grab both swords together into your left hand and drive through with your pommel underneath his right arm and jerk up so that he loses his sword as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>Note the seventeenth technique of the sword: When both of you thrust down powerfully towards the body, then grab both swords together into your left hand and drive through with your pommel underneath his right arm and jerk up so that he loses his sword as you see in the picture above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 25v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 25v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the twenty-seventh technique of the sword: If he come towards you in the Crowding<ref>''Dringen'' = Crowding. This refers to pressing into one's opponent after lodging one's point in the opponent's mail in armored halfsword combat and is the same as Ringeck and von Danzig's Fourth Guard of the halfsword.</ref> and has grabbed your point with his hand then jerk your sword towards you. If he doesn’t allow this then push your pommel into his right side and grab his knee with your left hand and jerk towards you and push his left shoulder with your right hand so you can throw him as you see in the picture above.</p>
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| <p>[30] Note the twenty-seventh technique of the sword: If he come towards you in the Crowding<ref>''Dringen'' = Crowding. This refers to pressing into one's opponent after lodging one's point in the opponent's mail in armored halfsword combat and is the same as Ringeck and von Danzig's Fourth Guard of the halfsword.</ref> and has grabbed your point with his hand then jerk your sword towards you. If he doesn’t allow this then push your pommel into his right side and grab his knee with your left hand and jerk towards you and push his left shoulder with your right hand so you can throw him as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|25v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|25v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|19v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|19v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 15r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 15r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the twenty-eight technique of the sword which is the beginning of the ‘shear’: If he grabbed the point of your sword then throw yourself through in between the swords like you know to do, thus you have placed your sword in front of him and grab his point and thrust with your sword over his arm within his right elbow and lift so that he loses his sword as you see in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[31] Note the twenty-eight technique of the sword which is the beginning of the ‘shear’: If he grabbed the point of your sword then throw yourself through in between the swords like you know to do, thus you have placed your sword in front of him and grab his point and thrust with your sword over his arm within his right elbow and lift so that he loses his sword as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|15r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|15r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|20r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|20r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 15v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 15v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the twenty-ninth technique of the which is the second part of the ‘shear’: If he tries to move himself in between the swords then be aware as soon as he turns his back towards you. Then move both swords crosswise up and hold him tight as you see in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[32] Note the twenty-ninth technique of the which is the second part of the ‘shear’: If he tries to move himself in between the swords then be aware as soon as he turns his back towards you. Then move both swords crosswise up and hold him tight as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|15v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|15v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|20v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|20v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 16r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] This is the counter to the twenty-ninth technique of the sword and in number is the thirtieth technique and the third part of the ‘shear’: If he has thrown both swords over you then release your sword and grab his sword blade with your left hand and grab his hilt with your right hand. Thus you lose your sword and gain his sword as you see in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[33] This is the counter to the twenty-ninth technique of the sword and in number is the thirtieth technique and the third part of the ‘shear’: If he has thrown both swords over you then release your sword and grab his sword blade with your left hand and grab his hilt with your right hand. Thus you lose your sword and gain his sword as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|16r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|16r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|21r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|21r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 16v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 16v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[34] <br/></p>
  
 
<p><br/></p>
 
<p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 17r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 17r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[35] <br/></p>
  
 
<p><br/></p>
 
<p><br/></p>
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 17v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 17v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note this technique which in number is the thirty-third of the sword: When both swords hit each other from outside thrusts to each other’s faces then catch your pommel into the hollow of his left knee from the outside and jerk towards you and push with your left elbow into his chest. Thus you throw him backwards away from you as in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[36] Note this technique which in number is the thirty-third of the sword: When both swords hit each other from outside thrusts to each other’s faces then catch your pommel into the hollow of his left knee from the outside and jerk towards you and push with your left elbow into his chest. Thus you throw him backwards away from you as in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|17v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|17v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|22v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|22v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 18r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 18r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[37] <br/></p>
  
 
<p><br/></p>
 
<p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 18v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 18v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[38] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>Note the thirty-fifth technique of the sword: When he has thrust to your body from the inside then push his point down with your sword and catch the hollow of his left knee with your pommel and jerk towards you. And push with your head under his left shoulder so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>Note the thirty-fifth technique of the sword: When he has thrust to your body from the inside then push his point down with your sword and catch the hollow of his left knee with your pommel and jerk towards you. And push with your head under his left shoulder so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 28r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 28r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[39] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>This is the counter to the thirty-fifth technique and in number is the thirty-sixth: If he tried to throw you backwards then catch your left arm above his neck and under his right shoulder and grab around his left arm at about his elbow with your right hand and place your left foot outside of his left foot and throw him down (towards you) as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>This is the counter to the thirty-fifth technique and in number is the thirty-sixth: If he tried to throw you backwards then catch your left arm above his neck and under his right shoulder and grab around his left arm at about his elbow with your right hand and place your left foot outside of his left foot and throw him down (towards you) as you see in the picture above.</p>
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 28v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 28v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the thirty-seventh technique of the sword, the beginning of the techniques deriving from Crowding at the chest: When both of you have placed your swords for Crowding then pull your sword towards you and be careful to thrust inside his left gauntlet behind the wrist and push him away from you so you force him wherever you want to.</p>
+
| <p>[40] Note the thirty-seventh technique of the sword, the beginning of the techniques deriving from Crowding at the chest: When both of you have placed your swords for Crowding then pull your sword towards you and be careful to thrust inside his left gauntlet behind the wrist and push him away from you so you force him wherever you want to.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|28v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|28v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|24v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|24v|jpg}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 27r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 27r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] When he wants to throw himself against you and thus wants to counter your technique then place your left foot outside his left foot and grab around his chest and under his right shoulder with your left arm and lift his left hand with the point of your sword [inside his gauntlet] quickly so you have stabbed him and thus defeat the counter he intended to apply against your technique as you see in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[41] When he wants to throw himself against you and thus wants to counter your technique then place your left foot outside his left foot and grab around his chest and under his right shoulder with your left arm and lift his left hand with the point of your sword [inside his gauntlet] quickly so you have stabbed him and thus defeat the counter he intended to apply against your technique as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|27r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|27r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|25r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|25r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 27v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 27v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[42] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>Note the thirty-ninth technique of the sword: When he thrusts towards your face from the outside then push his point strongly aside with your sword and place your left foot in between his feet and grab around his body with your left arm and release your sword and grab the back of his left knee from the outside and throw him as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>Note the thirty-ninth technique of the sword: When he thrusts towards your face from the outside then push his point strongly aside with your sword and place your left foot in between his feet and grab around his body with your left arm and release your sword and grab the back of his left knee from the outside and throw him as you see in the picture above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 22r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 22r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[43] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>This is the counter of the thirty-ninth technique and in number is the fortieth: When he tries to grab you jerk your left foot towards you, thus you catch him as he wanted to grab you. Release your sword and reach out for his left thigh and so you can throw him on the ground as you see in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>This is the counter of the thirty-ninth technique and in number is the fortieth: When he tries to grab you jerk your left foot towards you, thus you catch him as he wanted to grab you. Release your sword and reach out for his left thigh and so you can throw him on the ground as you see in the picture above.</p>
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 22v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 22v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the forty-first technique of the sword: When you thrust toward his face from the inside and he tries to displace your thrust, then push his sword down with your point and push with your sword towards his neck and release your left hand from the sword and catch him at his right side around his neck again into your bind. So you have ‘embraced’ him and thrust with your dagger as seen in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[44] Note the forty-first technique of the sword: When you thrust toward his face from the inside and he tries to displace your thrust, then push his sword down with your point and push with your sword towards his neck and release your left hand from the sword and catch him at his right side around his neck again into your bind. So you have ‘embraced’ him and thrust with your dagger as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|22v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|22v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|26v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|26v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 19r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 19r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[45] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>Note the technique: If one has thrust vigorously to the chest and the swords have connected to the outside then lift his point up strongly with your sword and lift your left foot and kick against his knee like in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>Note the technique: If one has thrust vigorously to the chest and the swords have connected to the outside then lift his point up strongly with your sword and lift your left foot and kick against his knee like in the picture above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 19v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 19v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[46] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>This is the counter to the forty-second technique of the sword and is the forty-third in number: If he tries to kick your left leg with his foot then pull that foot back and place your right foot outside of his left foot and catch him with your pommel at the right side of his neck. So you throw him away as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>This is the counter to the forty-second technique of the sword and is the forty-third in number: If he tries to kick your left leg with his foot then pull that foot back and place your right foot outside of his left foot and catch him with your pommel at the right side of his neck. So you throw him away as seen in the picture above.</p>
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 20v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 20v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the technique that is in number the forty-fourth technique of the sword: If you have made him lose all his defense, spear, shield, sword and dagger then strike him with full strength with the pommel of your sword where you know you can hit him hardest so that you can make him fall down.</p>
+
| <p>[47] Note the technique that is in number the forty-fourth technique of the sword: If you have made him lose all his defense, spear, shield, sword and dagger then strike him with full strength with the pommel of your sword where you know you can hit him hardest so that you can make him fall down.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|20v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|20v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|28r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|28r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 28v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 28v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] This is the counter to the forty-fourth technique of the sword and is the forty-fifth in number: If you have lost all your defenses then place your left foot forward and your left arm onto his right arm and catch his strike with both your arms and run into him and grab the back of his knee from the outside with your right hand and grab from outside under his left shoulder with your reversed left hand so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[48] This is the counter to the forty-fourth technique of the sword and is the forty-fifth in number: If you have lost all your defenses then place your left foot forward and your left arm onto his right arm and catch his strike with both your arms and run into him and grab the back of his knee from the outside with your right hand and grab from outside under his left shoulder with your reversed left hand so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|28v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|28v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 20r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 20r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[49] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>Note the technique of the wrestling from the ''wag''<ref>"''Wag''" might be ''Waage'' or scale, which in the [[Codex Wallerstein (Cod.I.6.4º.2)|Wallerstein Codex]] (fol. [[Page:Cod.I.6.4º.2 003r.jpg|3r]]) is used to refer to the Balance Stance of the feet.</ref> and it is the forty-sixth technique of the sword: When both thrust towards the face on the inside then push his point away with strength with your sword and release your right hand from your sword and grab behind his left elbow with it and move your right foot forward behind his left foot and quickly grab around his body with your right arm and throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
<p>Note the technique of the wrestling from the ''wag''<ref>"''Wag''" might be ''Waage'' or scale, which in the [[Codex Wallerstein (Cod.I.6.4º.2)|Wallerstein Codex]] (fol. [[Page:Cod.I.6.4º.2 003r.jpg|3r]]) is used to refer to the Balance Stance of the feet.</ref> and it is the forty-sixth technique of the sword: When both thrust towards the face on the inside then push his point away with strength with your sword and release your right hand from your sword and grab behind his left elbow with it and move your right foot forward behind his left foot and quickly grab around his body with your right arm and throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 21r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 21r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the technique which is the forty-seventh technique of the sword: When both of you have lost their means of defense and grab each other for wrestling and he gets hold of you then try to knock off his arm. If he holds tight and does not let go then glide with your right arm half thumb (???)<ref>Perhaps this refers to the angle of your hand as you reach through?</ref> through and push his elbow inwards and quickly grab his left hand with your left hand so you force him back and place your right foot forward so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[50] Note the technique which is the forty-seventh technique of the sword: When both of you have lost their means of defense and grab each other for wrestling and he gets hold of you then try to knock off his arm. If he holds tight and does not let go then glide with your right arm half thumb (???)<ref>Perhaps this refers to the angle of your hand as you reach through?</ref> through and push his elbow inwards and quickly grab his left hand with your left hand so you force him back and place your right foot forward so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|21r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|21r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|29v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|29v|jpg}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 21v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 21v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the forty-eighth technique of the sword: If he has gotten his sword back then before he notices quickly rush into both his hands. If he throws his left hand forward, hits your chest and doesn’t want you to advance then grab quickly for his left hand with your right hand and step forward and move through his left shoulder with your head and grab around below his body with your left hand so you throw him onto his head as seen in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[51] Note the forty-eighth technique of the sword: If he has gotten his sword back then before he notices quickly rush into both his hands. If he throws his left hand forward, hits your chest and doesn’t want you to advance then grab quickly for his left hand with your right hand and step forward and move through his left shoulder with your head and grab around below his body with your left hand so you throw him onto his head as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|21v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|21v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|30r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|30r|jpg}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 29r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 29r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the forty-ninth technique of the sword: When both grab each other for wrestling, if he tries to grab you with his right hand then push with your left hand against his right arm at about elbow level and place your right foot outside of his right foot and grab with your right arm around his body so you can throw him over your hip as seen in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[52] Note the forty-ninth technique of the sword: When both grab each other for wrestling, if he tries to grab you with his right hand then push with your left hand against his right arm at about elbow level and place your right foot outside of his right foot and grab with your right arm around his body so you can throw him over your hip as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|29r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|29r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|30v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|30v|jpg}}
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| class="noline" | [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 29v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 29v.jpg|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[] This is the fiftieth technique of the sword: When you hold each others’ arms strongly then release your left hand and shove his right arm with it behind the elbow turning inwards and grab with your right arm over his back and grab his right foot from the outside below his knee with your left hand and lift so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[53] This is the fiftieth technique of the sword: When you hold each others’ arms strongly then release your left hand and shove his right arm with it behind the elbow turning inwards and grab with your right arm over his back and grab his right foot from the outside below his knee with your left hand and lift so you can throw him as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|29v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|29v|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|31r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|31r|jpg}}
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! <p>Illustrations<br/>from the [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] and [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna]]</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations<br/>from the [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] and [[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Kraków)}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the Kraków)}}<br/>by [[Jeffrey L. Forgeng]]</p>
! <p>Images<br/></p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B}}<br/>by </p>
 
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)}}<br/>by [[Carsten Lorbeer]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)|Vienna Transcription]] (1430s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS KK5013)}}<br/>by [[Carsten Lorbeer]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków Transcription]] (1440s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)}}<br/>by [[Kristian&nbsp;Babic]], [[Robert&nbsp;Brunner]], [[Marion&nbsp;Freundl]], [[Alexandra&nbsp;Gießl]], [[Barbara&nbsp;Kappelmayr]], [[Julia&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Carsten&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Andreas&nbsp;Meier]], [[Marita&nbsp;Wiedner]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)|Kraków Transcription]] (1440s){{edit index|Gladiatoria (MS Germ.Quart.16)}}<br/>by [[Kristian&nbsp;Babic]], [[Robert&nbsp;Brunner]], [[Marion&nbsp;Freundl]], [[Alexandra&nbsp;Gießl]], [[Barbara&nbsp;Kappelmayr]], [[Julia&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Carsten&nbsp;Lorbeer]], [[Andreas&nbsp;Meier]], [[Marita&nbsp;Wiedner]]</p>
! <p>[[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel Transcription]] (1465-1480){{edit index|Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel Transcription]] (1465-1480){{edit index|Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)}}<br/>by [[Dierk Hagedorn]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris Transcription]] (1490s){{edit index|Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)}}<br/></p>
 
! <p>[[Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)|Paris Transcription]] (1490s){{edit index|Cluny Fechtbuch (Cl. 23842)}}<br/></p>
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 30r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 30r.jpg|400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>[1] </p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|30r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|30r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|31v|jpg|blk=1}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|31v|jpg|blk=1}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 30v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 30v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Here begin six thrusts of the dagger which lead to all the limb-wrestling, which leads to all techniques involved in the dagger, and the counter-responses that pertain to them. If he thrusts from above at your face with his dagger, then catch his right hand by the wrist in your left hand, and twist his arm outwards, thus countering his thrust. If you wish to bring him to wrestling, then release your dagger and grasp with your right hand from below on his right elbow and jerk inwards against the chest; thus you break his arm or he must fall. That is the first technique of the dagger as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[2] Here begin six thrusts of the dagger which lead to all the limb-wrestling, which leads to all techniques involved in the dagger, and the counter-responses that pertain to them. If he thrusts from above at your face with his dagger, then catch his right hand by the wrist in your left hand, and twist his arm outwards, thus countering his thrust. If you wish to bring him to wrestling, then release your dagger and grasp with your right hand from below on his right elbow and jerk inwards against the chest; thus you break his arm or he must fall. That is the first technique of the dagger as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|30v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|30v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|32r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|32r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 31r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 31r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The second technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at your chest from above, having rushed upon you so that you cannot get to your dagger, then catch his hand behind his dagger with your right hand, and throw your left arm over his right arm, and set your left hand in front on your chest, and press your right hand well to you; thus you break his arm or throw him down before you as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[3] The second technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at your chest from above, having rushed upon you so that you cannot get to your dagger, then catch his hand behind his dagger with your right hand, and throw your left arm over his right arm, and set your left hand in front on your chest, and press your right hand well to you; thus you break his arm or throw him down before you as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|31r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|31r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|32v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|32v|jpg}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 31v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 31v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The third technique of the dagger: if he thrusts right at your body from below, and you cannot get to your dagger, then grasp from above with your right hand on his wrist behind his dagger, and with your left hand from below on his elbow, and lift his arm up on your left shoulder; thus you break his arm, or carry him wherever you want to, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[4] The third technique of the dagger: if he thrusts right at your body from below, and you cannot get to your dagger, then grasp from above with your right hand on his wrist behind his dagger, and with your left hand from below on his elbow, and lift his arm up on your left shoulder; thus you break his arm, or carry him wherever you want to, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|31v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|31v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|33r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|33r|jpg}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 32r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The fourth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above at your face, then release your dagger and catch his hand behind the dagger in your left hand, and grasp with your reversed right hand on his blade; thus you take away his dagger and bring it wherever you will, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[5] The fourth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above at your face, then release your dagger and catch his hand behind the dagger in your left hand, and grasp with your reversed right hand on his blade; thus you take away his dagger and bring it wherever you will, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|32r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|32r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|33v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|33v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 32v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 32v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the fifth technique: If he thrusts upwards from his right side towards your body then grab his arm behind his dagger with your left hand and with your right hand turn down his blade. So you take his dagger away as seen in the picture above.</p>
+
| <p>[6] Note the fifth technique: If he thrusts upwards from his right side towards your body then grab his arm behind his dagger with your left hand and with your right hand turn down his blade. So you take his dagger away as seen in the picture above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|32v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|32v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|34r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|34r|jpg}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 33r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 33r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The sixth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from his left shoulder to your neck, then catch his hand behind the dagger with your left hand, and grasp with your right hand on his blade, and lift upwards, thus taking away his dagger; and stride with your left foot outside behind his right foot, and push with your right hand on his chest; thus you throw him as you can see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[7] The sixth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from his left shoulder to your neck, then catch his hand behind the dagger with your left hand, and grasp with your right hand on his blade, and lift upwards, thus taking away his dagger; and stride with your left foot outside behind his right foot, and push with your right hand on his chest; thus you throw him as you can see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|33r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|33r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|34v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|34v|jpg}}
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 33v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 33v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The seventh technique of the dagger, one of the five parryings: if he thrusts at your face from above, then catch the thrust on your dagger between your hands; when you have parried his thrust, then grasp briskly with your left hand from below on his right elbow, and stride with your right foot outside behind his left foot, and lift his arm well upwards; thus you throw him backwards as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[8] The seventh technique of the dagger, one of the five parryings: if he thrusts at your face from above, then catch the thrust on your dagger between your hands; when you have parried his thrust, then grasp briskly with your left hand from below on his right elbow, and stride with your right foot outside behind his left foot, and lift his arm well upwards; thus you throw him backwards as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|33v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|33v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|35r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|35r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 34r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 34r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The eighth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts forcefully from below to your body, then fall on his blade with your dagger between your hands, thus parrying his thrust; and grasp with your left hand on his wrist behind the dagger, and pass with your right foot outside in front of his right foot, and grasp with your right hand on the left side of his neck; thus you can well throw him down as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[9] The eighth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts forcefully from below to your body, then fall on his blade with your dagger between your hands, thus parrying his thrust; and grasp with your left hand on his wrist behind the dagger, and pass with your right foot outside in front of his right foot, and grasp with your right hand on the left side of his neck; thus you can well throw him down as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|34r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|34r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|35v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|35v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 34v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 34v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The ninth technique of the dagger: if he has his right foot forward and thrusts from his left side to your chest, then catch the thrust on your blade between your hands, and grasp with your left hand on his arm behind the elbow, and push well away from you so that he turns his back toward you, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[10] The ninth technique of the dagger: if he has his right foot forward and thrusts from his left side to your chest, then catch the thrust on your blade between your hands, and grasp with your left hand on his arm behind the elbow, and push well away from you so that he turns his back toward you, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|34v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|34v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|36r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|36r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 35r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 35r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The tenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to your face and you cannot get to your dagger, then lay your right hand crosswise on your left and catch the thrust on your arms, and grasp with your left hand around his wrist behind the dagger, and with your right hand upwards on his blade, thus taking away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[11] The tenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to your face and you cannot get to your dagger, then lay your right hand crosswise on your left and catch the thrust on your arms, and grasp with your left hand around his wrist behind the dagger, and with your right hand upwards on his blade, thus taking away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|35r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|35r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|36v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|36v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 35v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 35v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The eleventh technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from below on the right side to your chest, and his left foot is forward with strength, and you have lost your dagger, then fall again with your hands crosswise from above on his dagger and grasp with your left hand above on his hand behind the dagger, and grasp with your right hand on his blade, and press downwards, thus taking away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[12] The eleventh technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from below on the right side to your chest, and his left foot is forward with strength, and you have lost your dagger, then fall again with your hands crosswise from above on his dagger and grasp with your left hand above on his hand behind the dagger, and grasp with your right hand on his blade, and press downwards, thus taking away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|35v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|35v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|37r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|37r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 37v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 37v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The twelfth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to your visor, then catch his right hand behind his dagger with your left hand, so that his blade is outside on your arm, and stride with your left foot inside his left foot, so that you can well thrust at him and take away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[13] The twelfth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to your visor, then catch his right hand behind his dagger with your left hand, so that his blade is outside on your arm, and stride with your left foot inside his left foot, so that you can well thrust at him and take away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|37v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|37v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 38r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 38r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The thirteenth technique of the dagger: if you have both thrusted at each other from the left side, and each has parried the other’s thrust, then stride with your left foot outside his right foot, and grasp through with your left hand under the arms of both of you onto the blade of your dagger, and jerk hard toward you, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[14] The thirteenth technique of the dagger: if you have both thrusted at each other from the left side, and each has parried the other’s thrust, then stride with your left foot outside his right foot, and grasp through with your left hand under the arms of both of you onto the blade of your dagger, and jerk hard toward you, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|38r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|38r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 36r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 36r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The fourteenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts down from above with his full strength at you, then come from your right side with parrying of his thrust, afterwards push his right elbow with your left hand, so that he turns his back toward you, and go through with your dagger from behind through onto his legs; jerk toward you, and grasp with your left hand behind on his neck, thus casting him before you, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[15] The fourteenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts down from above with his full strength at you, then come from your right side with parrying of his thrust, afterwards push his right elbow with your left hand, so that he turns his back toward you, and go through with your dagger from behind through onto his legs; jerk toward you, and grasp with your left hand behind on his neck, thus casting him before you, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|36r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|36r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|38v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|38v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 36v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 36v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The fifteenth technique of the dagger: if each of you thrusts at the other’s face from above from the right side, and both come against each other with parrying, then push with your left arm from below on his right arm, and grasp with your left hand on his neck, and catch through with your dagger between his legs, jerk toward you; thus you throw him as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[16] The fifteenth technique of the dagger: if each of you thrusts at the other’s face from above from the right side, and both come against each other with parrying, then push with your left arm from below on his right arm, and grasp with your left hand on his neck, and catch through with your dagger between his legs, jerk toward you; thus you throw him as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|36v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|36v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|39r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|39r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 37r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 37r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The sixteenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to your neck, and you cannot get to your dagger, then catch his arm with both hands, and twist his dagger inwards and his elbow outwards, and set your left foot forward outside his left foot, thus throwing him, as is illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[17] The sixteenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to your neck, and you cannot get to your dagger, then catch his arm with both hands, and twist his dagger inwards and his elbow outwards, and set your left foot forward outside his left foot, thus throwing him, as is illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|37r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|37r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|39v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|39v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 37v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 37v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The seventeenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at from above, then grasp with your reversed left hand behind his dagger around his wrist, so that his blade is outside on your arm, and stride with your right foot outside of his right foot, and push with your right hand on his neck, thus casting him, as is illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[18] The seventeenth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at from above, then grasp with your reversed left hand behind his dagger around his wrist, so that his blade is outside on your arm, and stride with your right foot outside of his right foot, and push with your right hand on his neck, thus casting him, as is illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|37v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|37v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|40r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|40r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 40v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 40v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The eighteenth technique of the dagger: if he again comes from above with a thrust and his right foot is forward, then again catch his right hand by the wrist behind his dagger with your reversed left hand, so that his blade comes outside over your arm; set your left foot forward, and grasp with your right hand on his knee joint, and pull well toward you, thus throwing him, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[19] The eighteenth technique of the dagger: if he again comes from above with a thrust and his right foot is forward, then again catch his right hand by the wrist behind his dagger with your reversed left hand, so that his blade comes outside over your arm; set your left foot forward, and grasp with your right hand on his knee joint, and pull well toward you, thus throwing him, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|40v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|40v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 41r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 41r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The nineteenth technique of the dagger: if he has thrusted to your chest, then fall with your left hand above on his right arm behind his dagger; press it well downwards and with your left hand twist his blade against his body, and push hard upon it with your chest; thus you jab at him with his own dagger as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[20] The nineteenth technique of the dagger: if he has thrusted to your chest, then fall with your left hand above on his right arm behind his dagger; press it well downwards and with your left hand twist his blade against his body, and push hard upon it with your chest; thus you jab at him with his own dagger as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|41r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|41r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 41v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 41v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The twentieth technique of the dagger: if you both have thrusted from above from the right side at each other’s faces, and the daggers come on each other with mutual parrying, then go up from below with your left hand on his right arm, and press down with your right hand on his right hand; thus you bring his arm under your left armpit; jerk well toward you so that his right foot comes inside your left foot; throw or thrust upwards at him as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[21] The twentieth technique of the dagger: if you both have thrusted from above from the right side at each other’s faces, and the daggers come on each other with mutual parrying, then go up from below with your left hand on his right arm, and press down with your right hand on his right hand; thus you bring his arm under your left armpit; jerk well toward you so that his right foot comes inside your left foot; throw or thrust upwards at him as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|41v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|41v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 42r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 42r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The twenty-first technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at you from above and you cannot get to your dagger, then grasp with your reversed left hand on his wrist behind the dagger so that his blade is outside on your arm, and stride with your right foot, and grasp with your right hand outside on his right elbow, and jerk well toward you, thus breaking his arm as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[22] The twenty-first technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at you from above and you cannot get to your dagger, then grasp with your reversed left hand on his wrist behind the dagger so that his blade is outside on your arm, and stride with your right foot, and grasp with your right hand outside on his right elbow, and jerk well toward you, thus breaking his arm as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|42r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|42r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 42v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 42v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the twenty-second technique, which belongs to the previously described technique. When you have brought him as was described and painted, then throw yourself to the other side of his arm so that his arm comes on your shoulder. Thus you can break his arm or carry him where you want as you can see painted above.</p>
+
| <p>[23] Note the twenty-second technique, which belongs to the previously described technique. When you have brought him as was described and painted, then throw yourself to the other side of his arm so that his arm comes on your shoulder. Thus you can break his arm or carry him where you want as you can see painted above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|42v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|42v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 43r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 43r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the twenty-third technique. When he thrusted at your face and you have not drawn your dagger, then catch with your upturned right hand his right hand behind the dagger, and with your left hand grasp his elbow from the outside, and twist his arm around. Thus you will bring him to this what is painted above.</p>
+
| <p>[24] Note the twenty-third technique. When he thrusted at your face and you have not drawn your dagger, then catch with your upturned right hand his right hand behind the dagger, and with your left hand grasp his elbow from the outside, and twist his arm around. Thus you will bring him to this what is painted above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|43r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|43r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 43v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 43v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The first ??? against the lift</p>
+
| <p>[25] The first ??? against the lift</p>
  
 
<p>Note the twenty-fourth technique. When you have brought him to this, what was described and painted before, then twist his arm around so that he turns backward. Thus you will throw him to the earth, as you can see painted above.</p>
 
<p>Note the twenty-fourth technique. When you have brought him to this, what was described and painted before, then twist his arm around so that he turns backward. Thus you will throw him to the earth, as you can see painted above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 44r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 44r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the twenty-fifth technique. When he thrusts from above from the left shoulder toward your breast, and you have not drawn your dagger, then with your right hand catch his hand behind the dagger, and with your left foot step forward outside his right foot, and with your left hand grasp his neck on the left side, and push backward, so that you throw him as you can see painted above.</p>
+
| <p>[26] Note the twenty-fifth technique. When he thrusts from above from the left shoulder toward your breast, and you have not drawn your dagger, then with your right hand catch his hand behind the dagger, and with your left foot step forward outside his right foot, and with your left hand grasp his neck on the left side, and push backward, so that you throw him as you can see painted above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|44r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|44r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 44v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 44v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The twenty-sixth technique of the dagger: if you both have your right feet forward and thrust from above from the left side at each other’s faces, and have come to each other with mutual parrying, then hang your dagger with the point down and fall with your right hand inside on his hand behind the dagger, and thrust to the right side of his neck behind his nape, and grasp with your left hand on the point of your dagger, so that you lock his neck, and stride forward with your left foot and jerk him down, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[27] The twenty-sixth technique of the dagger: if you both have your right feet forward and thrust from above from the left side at each other’s faces, and have come to each other with mutual parrying, then hang your dagger with the point down and fall with your right hand inside on his hand behind the dagger, and thrust to the right side of his neck behind his nape, and grasp with your left hand on the point of your dagger, so that you lock his neck, and stride forward with your left foot and jerk him down, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|44v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|44v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 45r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 45r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The twenty-seventh technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to the face of your visor, and you have failed to draw your dagger, then go up with your right reversed hand, and grasp his hand behind the dagger, and strike it behind his helmet, and with your left hand grasp behind on his nape, thus casting him before you on his face, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[28] The twenty-seventh technique of the dagger: if he thrusts from above to the face of your visor, and you have failed to draw your dagger, then go up with your right reversed hand, and grasp his hand behind the dagger, and strike it behind his helmet, and with your left hand grasp behind on his nape, thus casting him before you on his face, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|45r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|45r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 45v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 45v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The twenty-eighth technique of the dagger: if he has his right foot forward and thrusts down from above at you with all his might, then catch his arm between his dagger and elbow with your left hand, and grasp with your reversed hand on his blade, and press the point down, and stride with your left foot outside his right foot; thus you cast him or take away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[29] The twenty-eighth technique of the dagger: if he has his right foot forward and thrusts down from above at you with all his might, then catch his arm between his dagger and elbow with your left hand, and grasp with your reversed hand on his blade, and press the point down, and stride with your left foot outside his right foot; thus you cast him or take away his dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|45v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|45v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 46r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 46r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[30] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>The twenty-ninth technique of the dagger, and it is a wrestling from the Change: if he has his left foot forward and again thrusts at you, then grasp with your left hand inside on his left thigh by the knee-joint, and set your right arm on the right side of his neck, and stride forward with your right foot outside his left, and pull his leg well to you, and push away from you above, thus throwing him as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
<p>The twenty-ninth technique of the dagger, and it is a wrestling from the Change: if he has his left foot forward and again thrusts at you, then grasp with your left hand inside on his left thigh by the knee-joint, and set your right arm on the right side of his neck, and stride forward with your right foot outside his left, and pull his leg well to you, and push away from you above, thus throwing him as you see illustrated above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 38r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 38r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] <br/></p>
+
| <p>[31] <br/></p>
  
 
<p>The thirtieth technique of the dagger, and it is the counter to the wrestling of the Change: if he has grasped for your left thigh, and has set his right arm on the right side of your neck, then push with your left hand on his joint behind the elbow, and grasp with your right hand on his wrist behind the dagger, and twist his arm around so that he turns his back toward you; thus you have countered the wrestling from the Change, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
<p>The thirtieth technique of the dagger, and it is the counter to the wrestling of the Change: if he has grasped for your left thigh, and has set his right arm on the right side of your neck, then push with your left hand on his joint behind the elbow, and grasp with your right hand on his wrist behind the dagger, and twist his arm around so that he turns his back toward you; thus you have countered the wrestling from the Change, as you see illustrated above.</p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 38v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 38v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The thirty-first technique of the dagger: if you have both equally seized one another and each has brought his right arm under the left armpit of the other, and each quickly swings the other, when you have brought him in the swing on your left side, then step forward outside his right leg outside before his right leg, and swing well with your right arm*; thus you throw him down on his back as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[32] The thirty-first technique of the dagger: if you have both equally seized one another and each has brought his right arm under the left armpit of the other, and each quickly swings the other, when you have brought him in the swing on your left side, then step forward outside his right leg outside before his right leg, and swing well with your right arm*; thus you throw him down on his back as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|38v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|38v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|47r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|47r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 47v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 47v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The thirty-second technique of the dagger: if he has set his right foot outside in front of your right foot, and has grasped you with his right arm under your left armpit, and means to throw you over his right leg, then fall down on your left knee; thus you throw him as he had intended to do, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[33] The thirty-second technique of the dagger: if he has set his right foot outside in front of your right foot, and has grasped you with his right arm under your left armpit, and means to throw you over his right leg, then fall down on your left knee; thus you throw him as he had intended to do, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|47v|jpg}}
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 48r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 48r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] Note the thirty-third technique of the dagger: if he has his right foot forward and thrusts down from above to your helmet, and you have not drawn your dagger, then send your left hand over his right arm, so that you bring his arm under your armpit, and stride forth with your left foot behind his legs, and grasp with your right hand from outside into his right thigh, and lift upwards; thus you will throw him as illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[34] Note the thirty-third technique of the dagger: if he has his right foot forward and thrusts down from above to your helmet, and you have not drawn your dagger, then send your left hand over his right arm, so that you bring his arm under your armpit, and stride forth with your left foot behind his legs, and grasp with your right hand from outside into his right thigh, and lift upwards; thus you will throw him as illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 39r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 39r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The thirty-forth technique of the dagger—this wrestling comes out of the counter of the Change: if he has set his right arm on your neck and means to grasp with his left hand for your leg above your knee, and means to throw you backwards, then seize his right hand behind the dagger with your right hand, and throw it on his pelvis, and stride with your right foot so that you come behind his back; grasp with your left hand from behind through his legs on his wrist behind the dagger; then let go with your right hand and grasp with it from outside over his chest; thus you throw him as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[35] The thirty-forth technique of the dagger—this wrestling comes out of the counter of the Change: if he has set his right arm on your neck and means to grasp with his left hand for your leg above your knee, and means to throw you backwards, then seize his right hand behind the dagger with your right hand, and throw it on his pelvis, and stride with your right foot so that you come behind his back; grasp with your left hand from behind through his legs on his wrist behind the dagger; then let go with your right hand and grasp with it from outside over his chest; thus you throw him as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|39r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|39r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|48v|jpg}}
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 39v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 39v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The thirty-fifth technique of the dagger: if he has his left foot forward and thrusts down from above with his reversed hand with the dagger, and thrusts at your left shoulder, and he has rushed upon you so that you cannot get to your dagger, then go up from below with your right hand and catch his arm in the elbow and throw your left arm over his right arm from outside and press well down, and stride forward with your left foot inside his left foot; thus you break his arm or throw him, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[36] The thirty-fifth technique of the dagger: if he has his left foot forward and thrusts down from above with his reversed hand with the dagger, and thrusts at your left shoulder, and he has rushed upon you so that you cannot get to your dagger, then go up from below with your right hand and catch his arm in the elbow and throw your left arm over his right arm from outside and press well down, and stride forward with your left foot inside his left foot; thus you break his arm or throw him, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|39v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|39v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|49r|jpg|blk=1}}
 
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| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 40r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 40r.jpg|400px|center]]
|  
+
| <p>[37] </p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|40r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|40r|jpg}}
 
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 40v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 40v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The thirty-sixth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at you from below from his left side and his right foot is forward, then stride with your left foot inside his foot, and leave your dagger in its sheath, and briskly grasp his right hand behind the dagger with your left hand, and go up from below with your right hand on his blade, and twist his point to his chest; thus his grip comes on your chest; thus you crowd his dagger at him as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[38] The thirty-sixth technique of the dagger: if he thrusts at you from below from his left side and his right foot is forward, then stride with your left foot inside his foot, and leave your dagger in its sheath, and briskly grasp his right hand behind the dagger with your left hand, and go up from below with your right hand on his blade, and twist his point to his chest; thus his grip comes on your chest; thus you crowd his dagger at him as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|40v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|40v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|53r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|53r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 53v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 53v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The first technique of pinning: when it happens in wrestling that you have brought him down on his back, then grasp with your left arm over his neck and knee him between his legs with your left knee, and hold him fast and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[39] The first technique of pinning: when it happens in wrestling that you have brought him down on his back, then grasp with your left arm over his neck and knee him between his legs with your left knee, and hold him fast and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|53v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|53v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 54r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS KK5013 54r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The second technique of pinning: when you have brought him on his belly with wrestling, then fall on his back with your right knee, and grasp with your left hand on his visor, and lift *hard upward, and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[40] The second technique of pinning: when you have brought him on his belly with wrestling, then fall on his back with your right knee, and grasp with your left hand on his visor, and lift *hard upward, and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|54r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|54r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 41r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 41r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The third technique of pinning: when you have come to wrestling with him, and have grasped with your left arm in front around his neck, then fall down on your *right knee, and jerk him down onto his back toward you, and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[41] The third technique of pinning: when you have come to wrestling with him, and have grasped with your left arm in front around his neck, then fall down on your *right knee, and jerk him down onto his back toward you, and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|41r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|41r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|54v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|54v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 41v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 41v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The fourth technique of pinning: when you have again brought him onto his back with wrestling, then fall between his legs with your right knee, and press down on his right arm by the shoulder with your left elbow, and lift upwards with your hand by his *bevor,<ref>Part</ref> and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[42] The fourth technique of pinning: when you have again brought him onto his back with wrestling, then fall between his legs with your right knee, and press down on his right arm by the shoulder with your left elbow, and lift upwards with your hand by his *bevor,<ref>Part</ref> and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|41v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|41v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|55r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|55r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 42r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 42r.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The fifth technique of pinning: when it again happens that you have thrown him on his back, then fall down on your left knee outside his left leg above the lower leg*; if he pulls his foot toward him and means to get up again, then send your left hand through his left knee joint from outside, and grasp his right hand by the wrist and hold it fast, and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[43] The fifth technique of pinning: when it again happens that you have thrown him on his back, then fall down on your left knee outside his left leg above the lower leg*; if he pulls his foot toward him and means to get up again, then send your left hand through his left knee joint from outside, and grasp his right hand by the wrist and hold it fast, and work with your dagger, as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|42r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|42r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|55v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|55v|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 42v.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 42v.jpg|400px|center]]
| <p>[] The sixth technique of pinning: when it happens that you have thrown him on his belly with wrestling, then fall down with your right knee beside his right leg, and fall with your left knee on his *arse;<ref>lentter</ref> if he *lifts himself on his arms, and means to stand up underneath you, then clap his right arm under his chest with your right hand, and grasp with your left hand for his left hand by the wrist, and turn it around behind his back, and hold it fast, and pull out your dagger and work as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| <p>[44] The sixth technique of pinning: when it happens that you have thrown him on his belly with wrestling, then fall down with your right knee beside his right leg, and fall with your left knee on his *arse;<ref>lentter</ref> if he *lifts himself on his arms, and means to stand up underneath you, then clap his right arm under his chest with your right hand, and grasp with your left hand for his left hand by the wrist, and turn it around behind his back, and hold it fast, and pull out your dagger and work as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|42v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|42v|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|56r|jpg}}
 
| {{paget|Page:Ms. KK5013|56r|jpg}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 43r.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:MS U860.F46 1450 43r.jpg|400px|center]]
| class="noline" | <p>[] The seventh technique of pinning: when it happens again that you have brought him on his back with wrestling, then fall with your right knee between his legs, and catch with your right foot over his left instep, thus holding his foot so that he cannot pull his leg to himself; and take his left hand in your left hand, and jerk it behind his helmet, and hold fast, and work to his face as you see illustrated above.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[45] The seventh technique of pinning: when it happens again that you have brought him on his back with wrestling, then fall with your right knee between his legs, and catch with your right foot over his left instep, thus holding his foot so that he cannot pull his leg to himself; and take his left hand in your left hand, and jerk it behind his helmet, and hold fast, and work to his face as you see illustrated above.</p>
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|43r|jpg}}
 
| class="noline" | {{paget|Page:MS U860.F46 1450|43r|jpg}}
 
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| source link = http://www.higginssword.org/guild/study/gladiatoria/gladiatoria_dagger.pdf
 
| source link = http://www.higginssword.org/guild/study/gladiatoria/gladiatoria_dagger.pdf
 
| source title= Higgins Armory Sword Guild
 
| source title= Higgins Armory Sword Guild
 +
| license    = copyrighted
 +
}}
 +
{{sourcebox
 +
| work        = [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] Transcription
 +
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 +
| source link =
 +
| source title= [[Index:Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)]]
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
}}
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}}
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
{{sourcebox
| work        = [[Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)|New Haven]] Transcription
+
| work        = [[Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel]] Transcription
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
| source link =
 
| source title= [[Index:Gladiatoria (MS U860.F46 1450)]]
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
{{sourcebox
 
| work        = [[Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)|Wolfenbüttel]] Transcription
 
 
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
| authors    = [[Dierk Hagedorn]]
 
| source link =  
 
| source link =  
| source title= [[Index:Wolfenbüttel Sketchbook (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)]]
+
| source title= [[Index:Wolfenbüttel Picture Book (Cod.Guelf.78.2 Aug.2º)]]
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
| license    = copyrighted
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 23:30, 15 February 2021

Gladiatoria Group
MS Germ.Quart.16 01r.jpg
Author(s) Unknown
Illustrated by Unknown
Patron Unknown
Date ca. 1430s
Genre
Language Early New High German
Archetype(s) Currently lost
Manuscript(s)
First Printed
English Edition
Knight, 2008
Concordance by Michael Chidester and
Dierk Hagedorn
Translations Traduzione italiana

The Gladiatoria Group is a series of several 15th century German manuscripts that share the same art style and cover the same material—various types of armored fencing. These are interesting texts in that they seem to be contemporary with the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, but not directly influenced by it. Gladiatoria is thus one of very few glimpses into the characteristics of a potentially independent German martial tradition.

The core of the Gladiatoria group is a series of plays of armored fencing following the typical progression of a judicial duel: beginning with spears and small shields called ecranches, moving to longswords, then employing daggers on foot and on the ground. (Traditional dueling would typically begin on horseback before going to foot combat, and the ecranche is designed for mounted fencing, but Gladiatoria seems to skip that stage entirely.) The diverse manuscripts in the group sometimes describe other kinds of fighting as well, such as the sword and buckler of the Cod. Guelf 78.2 Aug. 2º or the longshield of the MS Germ. quart. 16, but these teachings lack some of the common elements of the core Gladiatoria complex and will not be covered on this page. They may be found on the individual manuscript pages.

There are currently five known versions of the Gladiatoria treatise, the New Haven (MS U860.F46 1450), the Vienna (MS KK5013), the Kraków (MS Germ. quart. 16, the only version with a title page), the Wolfenbüttel (Cod. Guelf 78.2 Aug. 2º), and the Paris (MS Cl. 23842) versions. Hans-Peter Hils mentions a sixth lost manuscript identified as MS T in his edition of Gladiatoria,[1] but Dierk Hagedorn has since determined that this is the New Haven (which Hils did not have access to). Aside from these five, there are several other manuscripts that some scholars have ascribed to the group. These include the the Cod.11093 and part C of the Codex Wallerstein (also known as pseudo-Gladiatoria for this reason). In each case, there are disqualifying factors that lead us to exclude them from the group, but additional research may reverse these decisions.

While the three oldest texts in the Gladiatoria complex present a fairly identical set of plays, the slightly later Wolfenbüttel version contains significantly more material, primarily in the dagger section. The origin of this additional material is unknown, and the text-less nature of that manuscript makes it difficult to place these plays in any sort of context.

Treatise

As the oldest manuscript, the New Haven version would normally be used to set the order of plays. However, it has been extensively damaged and disordered during its history (and especially in the 20th century), and its current sequence of plays is the result of guesswork during a recent binding. Since the next two oldest versions, Vienna and Kraków, are in genral agreement, they will be used to establish the order instead.

To illustrate the different amount of content in each manuscript, the New Haven illustrations are used whenever available. Plays in the Vienna version that are missing from New Haven are illustrated from that source. Illustrations from the Kraków version are only used for plays missing from both older manuscripts (presumably invented after they were created). Due to the fact that Wolfenbüttel and Paris versions appear in mixed anthologies combining multiple sources, plays that are not reflected in at least one other version will not be included below.

Additional Resources

References

  1. Hils, Hans Peter. "Gladiatoria: Über drei Fechthandschriften aus der ersten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts." Codici Manuscripti 13. Verlag Brüder Hollinek, 1987. pp. 1-54. Print.
  2. Lit: turn the iron below itself
  3. Es läßt sich nicht zweifelsfrei ausmachen, ob das Wort durchgestrichen oder die Tinte nur verwischt wurde
  4. Lit. "turn your place"
  5. Zwischen „gew“ und „omen“ befindet sich ein Zeichen, daß wie eine schließende Klammer aussieht.
  6. Könnte auch „deim“ heißen.
  7. Beim ´z´ ist zwar ein Aufstrich am Beginn des Wortes zu sehen, dieser geht aber nicht über das Niveau des ´z´. Das Wort wird deshalb als „zukch“ anstatt „tzukch“ transkribiert.
  8. Last letter in the inner fold not visible.
  9. Illustration contains an error.
  10. Über dem Wort befindet sich ein kurzer Strich. Es ist nicht ersichtlich, ob es sich dabei um einen Nasalstrich handelt oder den Umlaut ´ä´ oder ´ö´ kennzeichnen soll. Hier wird es als ´ä´ transkribiert.
  11. Der Anfangsbuchstabe ist eindeutig als ´v´ zu identifizieren, das Wort muß aber „recht“ heißen. Vergleiche auch 30r 2. Zeile 1. Wort „resch“
  12. Der Schreiber hat das erste ´l´ zu tief gezogen, so dass es einem ſähnelt, es wird hier dennoch als ´vallen´ transkribiert.
  13. Disappears into the margin.
  14. Difficult to decipher from «als er». The text reaches into the lower, clipped off margin.
  15. Der Schreiber fügt dem Buchstaben l meist einen kurzen Aufstrich an, womit das Wort wie „zwelifft“ aussieht, dies wird hier aber vernachläßigt
  16. Das Wort ist nicht lesbar und läßt sich auch mit Hilfe der Ms. germ. Quart. 16 nicht ergänzen, da dieses dort fehlt.
  17. Folio 8 appears to have been added to the Kraków version at the end of its production. It's been moved to the beginning of the sword section because it appears to be intended as an introductory note, inserted between the first and second play because that's as close to the beginning of the section as the layout of the manuscript would allow.
  18. The left margin is clipped off, so the initial letters are missing occasionally.
  19. vor dich nicht eindeutiges so
  20. Geschrieben ist „ärtt“, sinngemäß ist ortt gemeint.
  21. This seems to suggest holding the sword well back—close to the body—so there is room to thrust up under the attacker's palm.
  22. Difficult to read due to a speck.
  23. Neben dem s befinden sich 2 Punkte und ein halbhoher Schaft. Dies könnte auch auf die Kombination „sü“ hinweisen, wird aber hier als „si“ transkribiert
  24. „darhin“ könnte auch nur „darin“ heißen. Das ´h´ sieht hier eher wie eine schließende Klammer aus und könnte auch auf einen Abschreibfehler hindeuten
  25. Similar
  26. A speck has made portions of the text difficult to read.
  27. What is straß der glider? It is likely glider is glieder from modern German, meaning "joints". While the use of straß (probably "road") is confusing here, the contextual use in this and the following plate suggest these to be a class of techniques attacking joints. Other texts (e.g., Codex Wallerstein fol. 15r) use the term Armbrüche (lit. "arm breaks") for joint locking techniques so this might represent a separate kind of attack, especially one intended to disarm an opponent.
  28. nach bruch setzt der Schreiber drei Punkte, offenbar um anzuzeigen das der Satz durch das in den Text ragende Bild nicht unterbrochen ist.
  29. Die r-Abbreviatur befindet sich am Ende des Wortes, wird hier aber sinngemäß mit andern transkribiert.
  30. korrekt wohl: wenn ainer den andern das ort an dye prust hat gesetzt
  31. Dringen = Crowding. This refers to pressing into one's opponent after lodging one's point in the opponent's mail in armored halfsword combat and is the same as Ringeck and von Danzig's Fourth Guard of the halfsword.
  32. dreyvndreyßigst fälschlich für Zweiundreissigstes ?
  33. nhd : davon
  34. Wer es ... gemalet siest Hierbei müßte es sich um das 38. Stück handeln
  35. Partially illegible due to clipping.
  36. „tenken“ wurde aberhalb der Zeile ergänzt.
  37. Hs: als du es oben gemalt ist, du wurde vom Hg. getilgt
  38. The rest of the line disapears in the margin.
  39. „auffs“ wurde oberhalb der Zeile ergänzt.
  40. "Wag" might be Waage or scale, which in the Wallerstein Codex (fol. 3r) is used to refer to the Balance Stance of the feet.
  41. Perhaps this refers to the angle of your hand as you reach through?
  42. The last line diappears in the margin.
  43. Some words illegible because of clipping.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Underlined by a later hand in pencil
  45. Hs: ob du er dir, du wurde vom Hg. getilgt
  46. Über dem Wort befindet sich ein Nasal- oder ein Zierstrich, wird aber in der Transkription vernachlässigt.
  47. Über dem Wort befindet sich ein Nasal- oder ein Zierstrich, wird aber in der Transkription vernachlässigt.
  48. tencken korrigiert für teincken ? temcken ? trincken ?
  49. Wurde am oberen Rand des Blattes durch eine andere Hand ergänzt, ist aber nicht vollständig zu lesen.
  50. „oben“ wurde oberhalb der Zeile ergänzt.
  51. Wurde am oberen Rand des Blattes durch eine andere Hand hinzugefügt.
  52. The rest of the line disappears in the clipped margin.
  53. Part
  54. lentter
  55. „zum´“wurde sinngemäß ergänzt, da im Text, durch eine Beschädigung des Blattes nur ein ´z´ und ´m´ erkennbar sind.
  56. Das Wort ist im Text nur fragmentarisch erkennbar, da das Blatt hier beschädigt ist und wurde deshalb sinngemäß ergänzt.