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Fechtkunst Glossary (Jeffrey Forgeng)

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This glossary is © Jeffrey L. Forgeng 2005. This is a rough working document intended chiefly for personal reference, primarily for recording instances of words and maintaining consistency in translations; note that the contents have not been systematically checked for accuracy, consistency, and currentness.


F = Fechtkunst term; T = temporal term; W = weapon term; S = spatial term; B = body and armor parts

  • For German and Latin terms, note that it will sometimes help to search under the root (i.e. remove the prefix).
  • For German terms, note the following alternations: b- = p-, d- = t-, eh = e, umb- = um-, -e- = -a-; c = ck = k, y = i = ie, ie = ü
  • For German terms, note that a vowel may sometimes correspond to modern German vowel + h.
  • For Latin and German terms, note that some verbs may appear under the noun equivalent and vice versa (e.g. L contingere/contactus; punctio/pungere; G absetzen/Absatz)
  • Note that in German terms particularly, doubled and single consonants can interchange.

Citations in boldface refer to principal references to a term.



German Latin English Comments
abbrechen: confringere: Mair (V) 1.16r; infringere: Mair (V) 1.47r breaking Non-technical, synonym with brechen. Breaking not necessarily literal.
abbrechen: Meyer 1570 1.60r breaking off F
abfallen: Mair (V) 2.112r rejicere: Mair (V) 2.112r fall off F
abgehn: Lecküchner (M) 117v delabi: Mair (V) 1.37v falling off? going off? Cf. hinweg gehn. F
abhawen: Starhemberg 31v; Lecküchner (H) 37r; Meyer 1570 1.2r, 23r, 26r, 26v, 31r.1, 31v.2; 2.48r cutting away To step away from an encounter while delivering a cut to cover one’s withdrawal. Also called fighting away. Cf. cutting long after; thrusting away; Withdrawal. Cf. abschlagen? F
abhawen: Mair (V) 1.7r infirmari: Mair (V) 1.7r cutting on (a weapon) Cf. abgehn, hinweg gehn. F
abhawen: Mair (V) 1. 62v uti: Mair (V) 1.62v
ablassen: Mair (V) 1.3v, 4r inclinare: Mair (V) 1.3v, 4r; avertere: Mair (V) 1.6v fall off with F
ablauffen: Lecküchner (M) 117v f.; Egenolph 6r, 21r, 25v; Mair (V) 1.62v, 142v; Meyer 1570 1.18r, 18v, 19v, 27v, 29r (2x), 30v, 31v, 32r, 33r, 35r, 36r, 39v, 47v, 53r, 58r, 60r; 2.4v, 9v, 21r, 27r; 3.27v decurrere: Mair (V) 1.62v; ictus iteratus: Mair (V) 1.99v; deflectere ictum: Mair (V) 1.102v; ictum remittere: Mair (V) 1.105r running off To withdraw from or evade the opponent’s weapon by rotating the blade downwards around the hilt. Cf. pulling (zucken).

Ablauffen lassen = ictum remittere Mair (V) 1.103v

ableiten: Lecküchner 427, (M) 98v, (H) 51v turn aside; send aside
abnehmen understand, deduce
abnemen: Liechtenauer; Lecküchner 30, 41 ff.; Lecküchner (M) 3v, 7r ff., 206r ff.; Mair (V) 1.34r, 74r, 103r, 117r ff., 123r, 130r aversio superna: Mair (V) 1.34r; aversum superne vel ex utroque latere exceptum: Mair (V) 1.34r; discessus: Mair (V) 1.149v; exceptio: Mair taking off; taking away; intercept? avert? deflect? repel? Traditionally, this refers to a technique in which the combatant changes sides from a bind, going over the opponent’s weapon while maintaining pressure on their blade; it can be compared to a modern fencer’s coupé. In Mair, this historical term becomes confused with the contemporary meaning “interception” (1.34r, 103r, 130r). Cf. slicing off. F
(V) 1.151r; acinacis aversio: Mair (V) 1.103r
abritschen: Meyer 1570 1.13r, 1.61r, 1.63v; 3 sg. abrüst: Egenolph 8v slipping off MnG rutschen F
abschlagen: Lecküchner (M) 7r strike off ?A synonym for taking off (abnemen). Cf. abschlagen Starhemberg 58r.1, abstreichen Starhemberg 70r.1. F
abschneiden: Ringeck 44v ff.; Starhemberg 34r; Lew 44v; Lecküchner 22; Paurenfeindt B1r; Egenolph 6r (?error for ablauffen), 10r; Mair (V) 1.87r, 142r; Meyer 1570 1.21v, 60r, 60v; 2.38v, 39v, 40v, 47v, 68r, 72v-73r, 92v; Meyer 1560 69v, 79v abscisio: Mair (V) 1.95v slicing off, slicing away In the early Liechtenauer commentaries, this appears to be describing a slicing action that maintains pressure while pulling the blade out from the opponent’s, essentially similar to taking off, only with different orientation of the blades.

To parry the opponent’s attack by cutting against it with a slicing action (?). Cf. counterslicing. Meyer 1570 1.60r-v looks very much like a countercut. Lecküchner seems to use the term only as an adjunct to schneiden.

absetzen: Ringeck 51r; Gladiatoria 51r; Starhemberg 30r; Cgm 558 130v; Lecküchner (M) 62r f., 124v; Egenolph 13r; Mair (V) 1.3r, 13r, 35v, 52r, 84v, 97r, 134v, 136v; Cgm 3711 50r; Cgm 3712 123 ff.; Meyer 1570 1.18v, 51r, 51v; 2.23v, 34r, 67v, 73v; 3.29r; abversetzen: Falkner 70r; Absatz: Meyer 1570 1.39v avertere: Mair (V) 1.13r; refringere: Mair (V) 1.2v; remotio: Mair (V) 1.95r; excipere: Mair (V) 1.6r; aversio: Mair (V2) 1.206r setting off In the medieval tradition, this seems to be a parry that winds against the incoming cut, typically followed by a thrust. Mair himself seems to use the term simply to mean “parry, deflect.”

In Meyer 1570, this means to parry an incoming attack by extending one’s own weapon into Longpoint and turning the long edge against the incoming weapon. Cf. catching; parrying; turning. La Noble Science apparently translates as entrer. Ringeck 25r.1 also seems to use the term just to mean “parry.”

With reference to lancework, see Starhemberg 39v.

Abstoß: Landshut 7r A wrestling technique. F
abstreichen: Czynner 1r, 4v F
absturtzen: Falkner 58r F
abtragen: Meyer 1570 1.18v, 30v, 43v bearing off F
Abtritt: Ringeck 50r.2; Paurenfeindt D4r; Meyer (Rostock) 91v; Meyer 1570 1.29v, 33r, 35r, 39v, 50v; 2.34v, 38v, 39v, 45r, 99v; 3.1r; abtretten: Starhemberg 89r; Meyer 1570 1.15v, 64v back-stepping, back-step These terms appear to be used both for a step backwards away from the opponent, and a circular step with the rear foot behind the forefoot (like the modern fencer’s inquartata). Cf. Zurucktretten Meyer 1570 1.33v. volte step? Meyer 1570 1.15v, 1.29v, 1.50v.2, 2.39v.4; step away Meyer 1570 1.33r.1, 1.64v.1. Interchanged with austritt Meyer 1570 1.64v.1, 3.44v. Cgm 3711 14v has ill of an Abtritt with a Thwart. Starhemberg 89r seems to refer to a lateral step. F
abwechslen: Meyer 1570 1.14v, 29r, 62r; 2.6v, 51r, 73v, 99v; umwechslen: Meyer 1570 1.28r circumvolvere: Mair (V2) 1.181v changing off The action of changing from one technique to another, e.g. changing from one guard to another, or from one attack to another. change from? Meyer 1570 2.6v F
abweisen: Gladiatoria 53v send away ?Cf. ableiten. F
abwinden: Mair (V) 1.25r detorsio: Mair (V) 1.25r; deflectere: Mair (V) 1.25r deflexio see detorsio (abwinden) winding off? = wind away (a thrust) Mair (V) 1.11v F
abwinnen: Mair (V) 1.99r win away F
abziehen, abzyhen: Lew 27r, 40r; Lecküchner (M) 39r; Mair (V) 1.80v, 85v; Meyer 1570 1.25v, 31v, 44r; abzucken: Meyer 1570 1.28r; abzeuchen: Lecküchner (H) 112v; Cgm 558 126v, 127r; Abzug: Cgm 558 126v; Meyer 1570 1.23r , 61v.3; Abzughauw: Meyer 1570 23r Withdrawal, withdraw In Meyer 1570, this refers to the third stage of an engagement, in which the combatant opens the distance while delivering a cut. Cf. cutting away; cutting long after; Middle; Onset. F
Achselhauw: Meyer 1570 2.55r Shoulder Cut In the rapier, a diagonal cut delivered at the shoulder. F
achselschneiden: Egenolph 25r
achten consider
*Alber: Döbringer 32r; Ringeck 34v; Starhemberg 26r, 34r, 34v; Lew 29r; Mair (V) 1.4v, 81v; Cgm 3711 47r; Cgm 3712 107r-v; Meyer 1570 1.7v, 9v, 19r, 22v; 2.47v; 3.38v; Alber vom Tag: Mair (V) 1.25v, 106v; Olber: Köln 4v ictus qui a similitudine pastorum fustibus innitencium dictus: Mair (V) 1.4v, 25v; Populus (“poplar”): Mair (V) 1.94r Fool; “Fool from the Day The Fool is a guard in which the weapon is held low in front of the body with the point toward the ground. Mair seems unclear as to the meaning of the term: he translates it both as “poplar,” and as “the cut named for its resemblance to shepherds leaning on their staffs”—probably an allusion to the German Albe, “mountain pasture” (the origin of the name of the Alps). The translation used here appears to be the actual meaning of the term, even if this meaning was unknown to Mair (though Meyer 1570, writing twenty years later, did understand the term correctly). Mair also sometimes uses the collocation “Fool from the Day” (Alber vom Tag) as if it were a single expression; this may derive from the fact that a High Cut begins in the Day Guard and ends in Fool; this is supported by the occurrence of the term in the Medl Fechtbuch (32r): “Master Hans makes a single thing of the Alber vom Tag, as follows: when he stands with his right foot forward, he cuts “from the Day” Fool-style downwards and cuts before himself through on the left side into the Fool, and that is called Alber vom Tag.” Traditionally, the term Alber was only used for the longsword (the dusack equivalent was Bastion), but Alber vom Tag also appears in Mair’s dusack material.

Cf. I.33 albersleiben?

alle Treffen: Mair (V) 1.5r, 27v, 97v ictus erraticus: Mair (V) 1.27v; crebri ictus: Mair (V) 1.5r, 97v every-hit This term appears to derive from a corrupted understanding of the Liechtenauer lines 181-82, Zuck allen treffen, den maisteren wiltu sy effen (“Pull every contact against the masters, if you want to fool them”). Mair translates it with two distinct but related terms: ictus erraticus, the term he uses for the Failer, and crebri ictus, the term he uses for the War. Mair apparently understands the term as referring to techniques that involve a rapid succession of blows, pulling back from one to deliver the next. F
als that is Meyer 1570 2.11v
als da When Meyer 1570 2.8v; when, ie., where, Meyer 1570 1.52v
als dann then Meyer 1570 3.38v T
also For an example where the term is used as a filler with no real meaning, see Mair (V) 1.162v
alt Schnitt: Cgm 3711 34v-35r (ill); Meyer 1570 1.59r Ancient Slice Meyer 1570 uses the term of the Low Slice. F
an (the point) of (a weapon) Meyer 1570 2.30v
an: Döbringer 34v; Lecküchner (M) 7r; Mair (V) 1.24r, 74v, 123v; Meyer 1570 1.36v; 2.11r, 29v, 39r, 52v, 75r; von: Meyer 1570 1.49v; 2.75r, 76r; 3.22v in: Mair (V) 1.24r on (the opponent’s weapon) An attack made “on” the opponent’s blade is executed while maintaining contact with the opponent’s weapon; an attack made “off of” the opponent’s weapon breaks contact. Cf. off (von).

Away from (a wrenching) Meyer 1570 3.38r. Döbringer 34v suggests close to weapon, perhaps not in contact.

anbinden: Gladiatoria 52r; Egenolph 9v; Mair (V) 1.28r, 73r; Meyer 1570 1.2r, 12v, 17v, 41r, 42r, 59v; 64r; collisio prima (= anbund): Mair (V2) 1.160v; primus Essentially the same as binden. Schöffer von Dietz (1620) 1.4 glosses stringirn. F
2.71v; 3.17v. Cf. binden. contactus: Mair (V) 1.166v; ferire: Mair (V) 1.179r
anderer Theil: Meyer 1570 3.27r second part (of a staff weapon) The part of a staff weapon between the combatant’s forward hand and the foible. Cf. foible; midpart; tail. W
anders Meyer 1570 1.56v, 1.61r, 2.14v
anderst Meyer 1570 1.60r
anfechten see angreiffen
angewinnen: Gladiatoria 52v; Speyer 120r, 133v, 137v, 140v, 147v; Meyer 1570 3.7r Cf. ausgewinnen Speyer 136v, 139r; Starhemberg 11r, 16r, 20r; gewinnen gain control over (one’s own hand) Starhemberg 92v; achieve Egenolph 21v. angewinnen den Rucken Auerswald B4v, Speyer 120r, 137v, 140v. angewinnen dy wag Lecküchner (M) 91r; angewinnen die Seiten: Speyer 133v; angewinnen die Schwech: Speyer 134r. angewinnen ein Vortheil: Speyer 147v F
angreiffen Meyer 1570 2.45r; 3.38r.1 grappling F
angreiffen: Meyer 1570 1.36r, 47r, 2.24r, 82v, 84v; anfechten: Meyer 1570 2.29r laying on This refers to the initial attack delivered in any encounter; see Onset. Zufechten v. in nontechnical sense Meyer 1570 1.53v ‘grappling’? Meyer 1570 1.61r F
Anke occiput B
anlegen: Kal (V) 127r, Meyer 1570 2.15r, 17r planting Cf. ansetzen. F
Anleitung Meyer 1570 2.74r introduction
annehmen Meyer 1570 3.44v seem
anrennen Meyer 1570 2.97v F
ansetzen: Gladiatoria 26v; Gladiatoria (Vie) 16v; Starhemberg 13v, 27r, 30r.1, 71v; Lecküchner (M) 37r ff. (ill); Egenolph 13v, 25v; Cgm 3711 48r; Mair (V) 1.43r ff., 131r; Mair (V3) 2.150v; Meyer 1570 1.21v, 42v, 62r; 2.46r; 3.36r, 38v, 43v, 44v, 46v, 47r contactus: Mair (V) 1.20r, 43v, 44r; impulsio: Mair (V) 1.64v; 82r; contingere: Mair (V) 1.9r; apponere: Mair (V) 1.11v; applicare: Mair (V) 1.14r, 94r; adjungere: Mair (V) 1.36v, 104r; cubiti (impulsus vel) contactus: Mair (V) 1.43r, 43v; mucronis adponendi: Mair (V) 1.151r; impositio: Mair (V) 2.155v; planting This appears to refer to a fairly deliberate positioning of one’s weapon or body part (usually hand) on the opponent, in some cases to facilitate a followup technique, in others perhaps to minimize the safety risks of a forceful thrust.

In some places, especially in Lecküchner, it may imply a stop-thrust and/or a thrust with opposition.

Cf. anstellen Meyer 1570 1.4r, anlegen qv. Cf. Meyer 1570 3.14r (knee), 40r (positioning weapon). “pertains to earnest combat” Starhemberg 27r. Mair (V) longsword #35: ansetzen a slice. Connected to dringen Gladiatoria 26v. apprehendere, of grabbing with a hand: Mair (V) 1.14v

adpositio: Mair (V) 2.219v; apppositio: Mair (V3) 2.143r; obponere: Mair (V2) 1.238v.3
ansetzen contingere see contactus F
ansetzen impulsio see contactus F
Antritt see Zugang
Arbeit: Gladiatoria 18v; Meyer 1570 1.50r, 51r; arbeiten: Gladiatoria 6r; Mair (V) 1.21r, 23v, 149v; Meyer 1570 1.49v, 51v, 53r, 54r, 59v laborare: Mair (V) 1.3v; ense pulsare: Mair (V) 1.37r work A general term for the use of offensive techniques.

For masculine version, see Mair longsword Liechtenauer ll. 149 ff., 159 ff.?—probably not.

Arbeit ense pulsare see laborare
Arm aus armen Lecküchner 459
auf against Meyer 1570 1.53r, 1.54r; at (of a thrust) Meyer 1570 2.62r, 87v; against (a ward) Meyer 1570 2.35r, 3.38r
auf down at Meyer 1570 1.35r.1; toward (the ground) Meyer 1570 2.32r
auf after Meyer 1570 1.31v, 2.100v T
auf das so that Meyer 1570 1.46r; ?once, when, Meyer 1570 2.4v
auf solches ‘thereupon, then’ Meyer 1570 2.29r, 67v T
aufbrechen: Mair (V2) 2.96r; liberare rursum: Mair (V2) break upwards Cf. ausbrechen. F
aufbringen to incite Meyer 1570 2.98v
auffangen: Meyer 1570 1.15v; 2.6r, 17r, 37v, 42v, 62v; empfangen: Meyer 1570 1.18r, 22r.1, 22r.2; 2.4v; 3.3r catching The action of intercepting an opponent’s weapon; a static parry, as opposed to a countercut. Cf. parrying; setting off; turning. Cf. Mair (V) 1.195v auffahen. F
auffliegeln see fliegeln
aufhalten hold off F
aufsitzen, aufsetzen: Medl 42r; Mair (V) 1.6r, 28v, 144v; Mair (V2) 1.191v; Mair (V) 2.124v applicare: Mair (V) 1.16v; inflixere: Mair (V) 1.21r; contingere: Mair (V) 1.5v, 10v, 12v, 28v; praemittere: Mair (V) 1.42v; ensium sit upon See setzen, sitzen.

Mair (V) 1.28v mentions that the technique is done next to the opponents’ hands on the hilt.

conjunctio: Mair (V) 1.28v, 29r; juxta manum ipsius superimponere acinacem: Mair (V) 1.153v; imponere: Mair (V) 2.300v
aufsitzen conjunctio see contingere F
aufsteigende Meyer 1570 2.3v, 6v upward
aufstreichen: Ringeck 49r ff.; Egenolph 11r; Mair (V) 1.35r, 50r, 52v, Mair (V2) 1.172r; Meyer 1570 27v.1, 28v.1, 29r.1, 31v.1, 33r.1, 33v.1, 42v.1, 63v.1 vibrare: Mair (V) 1.35r, 52v; vibrare sursum Mair (V) 1.50r, Mair (V2) 1.172r slashing up This generally refers to an upward cut with the short edge, often used as one is about to engage the opponent. See also streichen. F
aufwischen Meyer 1570 1.26v
Augapfel: pupilla: Mair (V) 1.163v Meyer 1570 1.26v
aus with, using Meyer 1570 1.54v.1, Meyer 1570 3.33r; cf. Ringeck 112r; from (a guard) Meyer 1570 1.41r
aus following on opponent’s (action) Mair 66v T
aus: Lecküchner (M) 7v, 18v; Mair (V) 1.5r, 20v; Meyer 1570 1.12v, 33r; 2.34r, 70r, 70v; 3.18r, 43v, 44v. austretten, austritt: Ringeck 51v; Paurenfeindt E2r; Meyer 1570 16r, 31v, 64v. ausspringen: Ringeck 29v out This term can refer to lateral motion, typically away from an incoming attack (e.g. stepping out).

It can also be used to describe actions that parry or displace the opponent’s weapon (e.g. striking out, sending out, taking out, jerking out, cutting out). See also outward.

aus: Meyer 1570 1.63v; heraus: Meyer 1570 1.51r; 2.13v; auswerts: Gladiatoria 33v; Meyer 1570 1.38v, 44r, 63v ff.; auswendig: Meyer 1570 1.30r; ausserhalb: Gladiatoria 32v outward, out In describing a winding or hanging action, this indicates motion from a position of deep angulation behind the opponent’s blade toward one less deep. Cf. inward. wenden die halbe Schneide auswerts turning false edge out Meyer 1570 2.105v.1 S
ausbindich Cf. Grimm ausbindlich, excellent(ly
ausbrechen: Lecküchner (M) 166r; Mair (V2) 2.95v; Meyer 1570 3.5v. Cf. also brechen evellere: Mair (V2); exere: Mair (V2); liberare: Mair (V2) force out of (sb’s grasp); break out of (sb’s grasp) Cf. aufbrechen. F
ausfechten: Meyer 1570 1.36v; 2.2r execute fully? F
ausführung: Falkner 51v *leading out A locking technique bringing the opponent’s arm behind their back. F
ausschlagen: Mair (V2) 2.92r.3; Meyer 1570 1.21v, 38v striking out F
aussen see auswendig
ausser: Meyer 1570 1.55r foible? W
aussere Mynn: Starhemberg 28r; Lew 33v; ausser Nym: Wallerstein 8r; eussere Nym: Ringeck 37v; eussere Minne: Mair (V) 1.83r forma externa: Mair (V) 1.94v outer taking (?) This term appears to have been problematic even by the time the Liechtenauer commentaries were composed. Minne is necessary for the rhyme in the verses, but makes little sense; several fifteenth-century texts alter the word to Nim, “taking.”

Medl actually uses this word actively, and even has the corresponding Inner Mynn (34v ff., 38r, 41r); his Ausser Mynn appears to be a hanging parry with the flat of the blade (cf. verschieben)

ausrechen porrigere Mair (V) 1.4v F
ausschupfen: Auerswald E2v A wrestling technique. F
ausreissen: Egenolph 9v; Meyer 1570 1.61v ff.;, 22v, 38r, 39v, 43r, 48v, 61v, 2.35v. See also reissen. wrenching, ?wresting, shove, force, bear Note that the German does not carry any particular connotation of circular motion, but may imply the use of the short edge and/or a pulling motion, since reissen can also mean slashing. This doubtless reflects the mechanical advantage of pulling with the short edge of a weapon for a forcing technique. F
ausschlagen: Gladiatoria 49v; Mair (V2) 2.92r excutere impetum hostilem: Mair (V2) 2.92r.3; porrigere: Mair (V2) 2.94r.3 striking out F
ausweichen Meyer 1570 2.81v, 86v evading F
auswendig: Lecküchner (M) 56r; Gladiatoria 41r-v; Mair (V) 1.18r, 87r; Meyer 1570 1.21r; 2.34r, 37r, 64r; 3.2r; aussen: Meyer 1570 1.20r, 50r; 2.34r, 37v, 89v; 3.8v extrinsecus: Mair (V) 1.60r; exterius: Mair (V) 1.18r outside See inside. S
auswendige/letze/ebichte Flech: Meyer 1570 1.13r, 28r, 35r, 51r, 51v, 61r outside flat The flat of the blade corresponding to the back of the hand. Letz and ebicht both mean ‘reverse, back’. Cf. inside flat. W
auswinden: Falkner 48r F
auswinden: Mair (V) 2.118r, 119r extorquere: Mair (V) 2.118r winding out To force a weapon out of the opponent’s hand by twisting. F
auszaumen: Lecküchner (M) 143r, 174r; frei auszaumen: Lecküchner (M) 126r; Egenolph 32r unbridling A technique in which one releases one’s own weapon and places one’s hands on the opponent’s hilt, on either side of the opponent’s weapon-hand, and pulls to disarm. Cf. Starhemberg 90v ausgezewnt. Grimm “sepire” F
Agst: Kal (V) 127r axe Short for Streitaxt. W
Backanetlin: Mair (V) 2.192v basinet B
bald Bald.. bald… now this, now that Meyer 1570 1.7v; = statim Mair 1.8v
balgen: Meyer 1560 83r ff.; Balghaw: Meyer 1560 83v ff. brawling Refers to a series of cuts learned and delivered as a combination, akin to treiben. F
Balle: Mair (V3) 2.129v manus mons vel vola: Mair (V3) 2.129v B
Band see binden
Basiliscus: Lecküchner (M) 194r ff. Basilisk ?A half-sword technique in which a thrust with the point is followed by a blow to the head with the hilt. Cf. Scorpion. F
Bassler: Cgm 558 131r W
Bastey: Meyer 1570 2.2r, 47v ff.; Meyer 1560: 74v; Pastei: Lecküchner (M) 29r, 33r, 200r (ill); Egenolph 20v; Mair (V) 1.126v, 130r Agger: Mair (V) 1.151r Bastion A falchion/dusack guard with the weapon hand low and forward, the point angling downward. Equivalent to the Fool in the longsword. Meyer also mentions it for the rapier (1560). F
Bauch: Mair (V) 1.244r venter: Mair (V) 1.244r.1 belly B
Baurnstang: Mair (V) 2.10r Fusta agrestis: Mair (V) 2.10r club W
Bausch, Pausch: Mair- Wilhalm Armored 28v, 29r retinaculus Mair (V) 2.293r; hastae pars densior Mair (V) 2.294r ?handguard of a lance, butt or grip area of a lance W
begegnen intercept F
bederben: Liechtenauer 9 Also bedöberen Liechtenauer (L) 124
begriffen: Meyer 1570 1.16r
behend: Meyer 1570 1.75v; behendiglich: Mair (V) 1.46r promptissime Mair (V) 3v; (quam) celerrime: Mair (V) 1.1r, 46r; celeriter: Mair (V) 1.9r, 50r; quickly; ?nimbly T
bei Meyer 1570 1.47r, 1.53v upon (an opponent); in range of S
Beidenfeuster: Gunterrodt D3r A term for the longsword? W
Bein leg B
benehmen; pnemen: Lecküchner (M) 118v ff., 121v ff.; bene(m)men: Mair (V) 1.122v, 143r forma utramque acinacis aciem usurpandi (“the technique of using both edges of the dusack”): Mair (V) 1.149r; repulsae habitus (“pushing away”): Mair (V) 1.153r snaring In Lecküchner’s terminology, this appears to refer to using the crossbar of a falchion to knock aside the opponent’s weapon, but in some cases it seems to refer to taking control of the opponent’s weapon with one’s free hand. Mair seems to be uncertain what the term actually means.

See nehmen.

beschlossen: Lecküchner (M) 93r, 99v ff. locking To execute a wrestling or grappling lock. F
bestecken: Egenolph 6r See stecken. F
betoren: Lecküchner 36 From Thor “fool”?
betrengen see dringen F
betriegen =betrügen deceive
beugen: Lecküchner (M) 23r, 128v ff., 156r flectere: Mair (V) 1.153v, 238r.1 rotate; wind F
Bild Meyer 1570 1.13r figure
binden: Starhemberg 36v; Lecküchner (M) 11r; 2.24v, 28r, 39r ff.; Mair (V) 1.34v, 83r; Band, Bund: Lecküchner (M) 9v; Gladiatoria 52r; Meyer 1570 1.17v, 29r, 38v, 41r, 42r, 42v, 47v, 48v, 51r, 51v, 54v, 59v, 64r; 2.27r, 39r; anbinden: Mair (V) 1.28r; anwinden: Mair (V) 1.46v ligare: Mair (V) 1.5r; contingere (gladium): Mair (V) 1.5r, 92r.; collisio acinacis: Mair (V) 1.151v; acinacium contactus: Mair (V) 1.111v

Cf. I.33 ligare.

binding; bind Refers to the engagement of the weapons, typically brought about after one combatant has attacked and the other has parried.

La Noble Science translates binden as entre.

binden contingere see ligare F
Bindt: Lecküchner (M) 51v, 133v grip W
bleiben: Egenolph 6r, 6v; Meyer 1570 1.17v, 51r; 2.38v remaining To remain in contact with the opponent’s blade to judge his intent. Cf. feeling. F
bleiben: Egenolph 6r, 6v; Meyer 1570 1.17v. remaining This term can also mean a remise; cf. doubling.
Blendthauw: Meyer 1570 1.14r, 61r; 2.12v; plint hauw: Speyer 2r-v Blind Cut Meyer 1570’s doesn’t define this longsword and dusack cut precisely, but it appears to be a flicking cut delivered from a state of contact with the opponent’s weapon. Cf. the Speyer Fechtbuch, fols. 2r-v; also cf. blenden (Egenolph 19v). F
blietzen: Egenolph 29v; Pliczhaw (=Blützhaw): Paurenfeint C3r = glützen.
Plösse: Mair (V) 1.29r, 75r, 97v; Blöß, Plöß: Gladiatoria 9r; Lecküchner (M) 9v; Gunterrodt D2r; Meyer 1570 1.32r, 60r; 2.15r, 65v; Gunterrodt E1r nuditas: Mair (V) 1.29r, 92v opening One of four general targets on an opponent’s body, defined by a vertical line down the middle and a horizontal line at the armpits. This term is characteristically used with the longsword; the traditional falchion/dusack equivalent is target (Zinne), but Mair generally uses the longsword term.

Translate as target? Cf. Meyer 1570 1.54v ‘strike at the target’. sich Blöß geben Starhemberg 13r; cf. geben. Cf. End. Cf. target (Zinne).

Blos: Döbringer 13v, 20r unarmored Blosfechten “unarmored longsword combat”: Döbringer 18r, 64r
bochen: Lecküchner 99; Lecküchner (M) 20r knocking The use in Lecküchner is a bit strange since the weapons are steel.
Bochhauw: Meyer 1570 2.9r, 13v; Meyer 1560 45v Knocking Cut A dusack cut in which the hilt knocks against the opponent’s chest (?). Meyer 1560 45v explains this as knocking to get the opponent to open up the door. F
Bogen: Lecküchner (M) 23r, 128v ff.; Mair (V) 1.98r, 110v, 144r; Mair (V) 2.128r, 129v; Meyer 1570 2.2r, 11r ff., 17r, 36v ff., 39v ff. Arcus: Mair (V) 1.153v; Mair (V) 2.128r Bow A falchion/dusack guard with the weapon-hand forward and thumb down, the point angling forward and down; equivalent to Hanging Point in the longsword. It is often used as a hanging parry. Cf. Köln 14r Bogell. F
Boss: Meyer 1570 1.13r image
Boss: Köln 2r, 3r Posture F
brechen (lit. “breaking”): Gladiatoria 21r; Lecküchner (M) 13r; Meyer 1570 1.34v, 51r; 2.14v, 17r, 27v; 3.13r, 29r; ausbrechen: Meyer 1570 1.40r; Bruch: Gladiatoria 15v; Meyer 1570 1.34v, 36v, 38v, 51r, 52v; 2.27v, 29v countering, counter A technique designed to counteract an opponent’s current device or technique. F
brechen (lit. “breaking”): Mair (V2) 1.237r, 241v.3 -primere: Mair (V2) 1.237r.1; retorquere: Mair (V2) 1.241v.3 force F
Brechfenster: Meyer 1570 1.2r, 41r, 42v ff.; Mair (V) 1.4r, 12r, 23r fenestra patula (“open window”): Mair (V) 1.4r, 12r, 23r, 88r Break-Window In Mair this is a longsword guard in which the hands are in front of the head and the point of the sword up in the air, angling a bit to the right; the combatant sees his opponent through the crook of his wrists (cf. the illustrations on 23r and 68v). The term is a corrupted version of the older Speaking-Window (Sprechfenster).

Mair longsword #23 specifies that you can see your opponent through your arms.

Brendshirn: Talhoffer 1459 (C) 88r, 92v; Talhoffer 1467 pl. 39 F
brieff = prueff
bringen execute; begin? Meyer 1570 1.58r.1; 2.29r
bronsse Auszug: Köln 15v Meaning uncertain—appears to be a technique. F
Bruch see brechen
Brummerhauw: Meyer 1570 2.10r; Brummer: Meyer 1570 2.43r, 45v; Meyer 1560 49v Roaring Cut, Roarer In the dusack, a crooked-edge cut with hanging dusack directed at the opponent’s forearm (?). F
Bucklier: Gunterrodt D3v pelta, parma, clypeus, scutus: Gunterrodt D3v Buckler Said by von Gunterrodt to be used by Scots and English. W
Buffel, Puffel: S 29r, Mair (V) 1.83v; Meyer 1570 1.52v; Puffel: Lecküchner (M) 28v; Buffelschlegen: Meyer 1570 1.21v; Püffelstreich: Egenolph 22r; Buffelschlag: Meyer 1560 53r clod, buffle; whack A powerful but uncontrolled blow. F
Bund see binden F
d (abbrev) Meyer 1570 3.1r
Dall: Falkner 72r ??? W
damit so that Mair (V) 2.129r; Meyer 1570 2.5v; thus? Meyer 1570 1.46r; since Meyer 1570 1.47v
damit after this Meyer 1570 1.21r; = inde ea ratione Mair (V) 2.122v; = postea Mair (V) 2.141v T
damit with it (ie. the short edge, the hand) Mair (V) 1.3r, 12v
dammelt = damelen stumble Meyer 1570 1.38r
dann since Meyer 1570 1.7v, 2.52v
dapffer = tapfer very much Meyer 1570 1.57r
dauchen: Mair (V2) 2.96r ff. shove; bear down on; press Pressing down: Starhemberg 109v. Mair (V) 2.97r.2 seems more like “push.”
Degen: Gladiatoria 4r etc, 52r dagger Cf. Dolch; Kampfdegen W
demnach then Meyer 1570 2.86v T
dempffen, tempfen: Starhemberg 95v; Paurenfeindt B1r; Egenolph 6r; Meyer 1570 1.16r; 2.20r, 22r, 68r, 80r-v; 3.34v, 40r; Meyer 1560 71r; Dempffhauw: Meyer 1570 2.29v, 55r, 56r, 87v suppressing, Suppressing Cut Refers to a High Cut delivered against an incoming attack as a countercutting parry. Cf. the description in Meyer 1570 frontmatter B2r. F
Dempffhut: Meyer 1570 3.38v, 40r, 41v f. Suppressing Guard A pike guard with the butt low and the weapon angling upwards. F
denn now? Meyer 1570 1.47r; =dann Meyer 1570 1.2r
dieff: Meyer 1570 1.33v, 35v, 50v, 51v, 53r deep In some cases, this may refer to the distance that a technique reaches, but it normally appears to refer to the angulation of the blade well behind the opponent’s weapon. For distance, cf. Meyer 1570 3.26v.2 S
dienstlich suitable? Cf. Meyer 1570 2.19r
dieweil although Meyer 1570 2.15r
Dolch: Cgm 3711 82v; Gunterrodt D3r; Egenolph 34r pugio, sica, clunaculum, parazonium: Gunterrodt D3r, D4r dagger Cf. Degen, Bassler, kurz Messer W
Donnerschlag: Mair (V) 1.133v; Donerschlag: Lecküchner (H) 29v; Tunrschlag (?): Talhoffer 1467: pl. 37 plaga quae a tonitru adpellationem habet: Mair (V) 1.151v Thunderclap A blow delivered with the hilt of the weapon, holding the blade in the hands.

Cf. Mortschlag.

dop- see dup-
drate: Liechtenauer 146 at once
drei Hewe: Döbringer 48r F
drei Wunder: Mair (V) 1.90r Three Wonders Possibly also a pun on wunden, “to wound.” F
dringen, tringen: Gladiatoria 19r, 26v, 49r; Gladiatoria (Vie) 17r; Lecküchner (M) 121r; Czynner 27r, 32v ff.; Meyer 1570 3.27r, 29v; nachdringen: Meyer 1570 1.2r, 16v, 2.52v; betrengen: Meyer 1570 2.54r, eindringen Meyer 1570 2.52v, 2.81v; gedreng: Talhoffer 1467 pl. 43 (ill) crowding Seems to be a general term term for aggressive conduct in the fight. Meyer 1570 3.27r. Cf. nachreisen; nachfolgen. überdringen Lecküchner (M) 143v. In armored longsword combat, it seems to refer to pressing upon the opponent after lodging one’s point in the opponent’s mail. Also esp. pressing a point once it is in place—cf. Gladiatoria 26v, 49r. F
Drossel: Lecküchner (H) 155r throat B
drucken (undersich) mit dem knopf pressing Gladiatoria 10r seems to mean pressing down with hilt—not actually exerting pressure directly with the pommel F
dummelen Meyer 1570 1.34v stumble
duplieren, doplieren: Ringeck 24r; Starhemberg 16r ff., 19v, 20r, 23r, 28r, 32r, 36v; Lew 17v, 21v, 30v Mair (V3) 2.150r; dupliren: Lecküchner (M) 11r (ill), 25v, 27v-28r, 65v, 206r; Egenolph 19v; Mair (V) 1.6v, 20v, 33v, 75r-v, 124r- v, 128v; Meyer 1570 1.19r, 60r conduplatio: Mair (V) 1.92v doubling In the medieval texts, this is a secondary cut delivered from the bind, coming in behind the opponent’s blade in a “Thwart” position. By Mair’s time, the term seems to have lost this specific meaning, and to be used more loosely for followup manoeuvers in general.

Starhemberg 22v.3 seems to characterize it as a slicing technique.

doppeln: Meyer 1570 2.60v; Doppelstich: Meyer 1570 2.63v; Doppelhauw: Meyer 1570 2.60v; Dopelhaw: Mair (V) 1.37r duplex: Mair (V) 1.3v; duplex ictus: Mair (V) 1.37r Double Thrust, Double Cut These terms refer to the execution of a secondary cut or thrust following up from an initial one. F
durch for the purpose of (an attack)? Meyer 1570 1.36r, 33r, 40v, 64v; by means of Meyer 1570 1.41r, 1.55v, 2.23r; into (a ward)? Meyer 1570 1.54r; through (an opening) Gladiatoria 10v; from (a guard) Meyer 1570 1.10r, 14r.3, 30v
durch: Lecküchner (M) 30r; Mair (V) 1.33v, 41v, 76v; Meyer 1570 1.21r-v, 30r; 2.42r, 68v, 70v; 3.3r, 30v. Cf. Gladiatoria 20v through Refers to motion from one side of the opponent’s weapon or body to the other, usually executed underneath the opponent’s weapon and/or arm. Cf. around; changing through; going through; winding through.

herdurch = sub Mair (V) 2.131v

durchaus here and there Meyer 1570 2.15r, 16r
durchbrechen Meyer 1570 1.36r, 38r, 41r; 2.25v, 79r, 104r; 3.33r breaking through F
durchentfallen Meyer 1570 1.59v fall? drop? escape? F
durchgangen: Meyer 1570 1.12v; 2.41r, 68v; 3.12r, 23r, 25r; durchgehn: Cgm 558 127v; Lecküchner (M) 67v, 126v ff., 202r; durchgeen: Mair (V) 1.139r-v, 144r; Meyer 1570 1.60v; Meyer 1560 71r (as a form of defense); Durchgang: Meyer 1570 1.42r transigere: Mair (V) 1.150v; trajicere: Mair (V) 1.152v; transitio: Mair (V) 1.153r going through To bring one’s weapon from one side of the opponent’s weapon to the other by going underneath. Cf. changing through; through. Lecküchner says the meaning with the falchion is different from that with the longsword, but it is unclear exactly where the difference lies.

Does changing through lead with the hilt and going through with the point? Cf. I.33 durchtreten? Schöffer von Dietz (1620) 1.4 glosses caviren as durchgehen.

Meyer’s rapier (1560) also lists this among the defenses.

durchhauwen: Meyer 1570 1.46r, 57r, 64v; Meyer 1560 74v; Durchhauw: Meyer 1570 1.50v; 2.25r cutting through To deliver a cut through the space between the combatants, which may be to knock aside the opponent’s weapon, confuse him, incite him to attack, or deliver a hit in passing. Cf. driving; slashing. F
durchlauffen: Gladiatoria 50v (with weapon); Ringeck 30r, 42r ff.; Starhemberg 22r, 32r ff., 37r; Lecküchner (M) 72v ff.; Egenolph 8v, 23r; Mair (V) 1.12v, 78r, 84r, 86r-v, 141r-v, 2.102v; Meyer 1570 1.54v transitio: Mair (V) 1.12v; transcursus: Mair (V) 1.86r- v; transmittere: Mair (V2) running through This refers to closing with the opponent under his arm in order to initiate a body-wrestling, and is used when the opponent’s arm is high.

?Passing under the attack Ringeck 42r. This may mean the same thing as einlauffen (n.b. the use of both terms in Lecküchner (M) 72v ff.), although several of the Ringeck and Starhemberg instances clearly call for the combatant to close by ducking his head under—i.e. “through”—the opponent’s arm. Starhemberg 22v and 37r seem to imply that the opponent’s arms need to be high to permit running through; if his arms are low, one should execute arm-grappling [Starhemberg 37r]. Starhemberg 32v equates running through with body-grappling. Egenolph 23r clearly implies going under the opponent’s arm. ?Cf. durchtreten.

durchrucken: Lecküchner (M) 123r jerking through ?To pull one’s weapon back from an attack and then change through. Cf. pulling through and rucken/zucken alternation in Lecküchner (M) 125v. F
durchschießen: Egenolph 6r, 15r, 15v; Meyer 1570 30r.1, 1.50v, 54r shooting through Apparently a thrusting move setting up to strike from the opposite side F
durchstechen: Gladiatoria 50v; Starhemberg 64v; Lecküchner (M) 152v, 155r; Cgm 3711 65v thrusting through Equated with überdurchstechen in Starhemberg 64v, Lecküchner (M) 152v, 155r. F
durchstreichen: Ringeck 50v; Paurenfeindt E1r; Egenolph 13r; Meyer 1570 14v, 23r, 26r.1, 34r, 42r.4, 51r.2, 53v.1, 60v.2, 62r.3 slashing through See streichen. F
durchtretten: Meyer 1570 1.59v, 63r; 2.42r stepping through Cf. durchlauffen F
durchwechslen: Döbringer 47r, 48r; Ringeck 41r; Starhemberg 30v; Lecküchner (M) 63r ff.; Cgm 3711 50r; Mair (V) 1.61r, 85r, 137r; Meyer 1570 1.5r, 21r, 21v, 42r, 30v, 49v, 50v, 52v, 53r, 54v; 2.39v ff., 70v; 3.12v, 35r, 41r. transmutatio: Mair (V) 1.152r; transmittere: Mair (V) 1.152r; rotare: Mair (V2) 1.172v, 173v, 174r; circumvolvere: Mair (V2) 1.173v, 174r, 180v; circumrotare: Mair (V2) 1.166v changing through The action of moving one’s weapon from one side to the other by going underneath the opponent’s weapon. Cf. going through; through. Cf. changing around. F
durchwinden: Meyer 1570 1.14r, 21r, 40r, 50r, 51r, 51v, 61r, 61v, 64r; 2.35v, 42r, 91r; 3.46r winding through A winding with the pommel underneath the opponent’s blade to the opposite side to catch over the opponent’s arm or weapon. Cf. Mair (V) 1.242v F
durchwinden: circumflectere: Mair (V2) 1.156r winding through To wind the weapon from one side to the other under the opponent’s weapon. F
durchzucken: Starhemberg 56r, 65r, 69r; Lecküchner (M) 125v, 127r traducere: Mair (V) 1.153r pulling through ?To pull one’s weapon back from an attack and then change through. Cf. jerking through. F
Dusacken, Dussakken: Wallerstein 29r (16c hand, of the falchion); Gunterrodt D2v; Thesack: Egenolph 22v, 25r (app. of a lange Messer); Dusegg: Mair (V) 1.109r, 110r, 133r, 2.113v; Dusseggen: Mair (V) 1.101r; Tusegg: Mair (V) 113v acinacen: Gunterrodt D2v, D4r; acinaces: Mair (V) 1.149r; *sica: Mair (V) 2.16r, 18r W
eben: Gladiatoria 8r; Lew 21v; Mair (V) 1.78v exoptatum quem ferias: Mair (V) 1.78v; accurate: Mair (V) 1.40r; quicquid in mentem venerit: Mair (V) 1.151r Grimm eben adj. 4 aptus, conveniens; adv. 2 apte, accurate; 5 immediately; 7 the very same. However, Mair (V) 93v translates as si conspexeris eum superne tibi obvium.
Eber: Lecküchner (M) 33v (ill), 198v; Egenolph 20v; Mair (V) 1.130v; Meyer 1570 2.2r, 11v, 18v, 41r ff., 47v verres, aper: Mair (V) 1.151r Boar In the falchion/dusack, a guard with the hilt of the weapon by the hip, the point up towards the opponent; in later dusack use, the point is forward and down. The longsword equivalent is Plow.

Longsword reference in Lew 13v appears to be a corruption of ober.

ebisch: Mair (V) 1.117v; ewich: Ringeck 57r.1 ff.; ebich, ewich: Mair (V2) 2.97r, 101v; ebicht: Czynner 38v ff. inversus: Mair (V) 1.117v, 2.97r.2 upside-down S
ebichte see auswendige
Eil: (in) eil Meyer 1570 1.51v hastily? Meyer 1570 1.54r, 1.56v. F
eilen, ereilen: Gladiatoria 32r; Meyer 1570 2.52v, übereilen; nacheilen Meyer 1570 1.17v. Cf. rauschen. rushing Nontechnical Meyer 1570 2.80r. Meyer 1570 1.15v. eilen fall on; Meyer 1570 1.18r, 1.37v F
eilents Meyer 1570 1.56v F
ein in See inward. F
ein: Meyer 1570 1.43r, 44r, 63v, 64r; 2.34r; einwart, einwerts: Gladiatoria 33r; Meyer 1570 1.43r-v, 63v; hinein: Meyer 1570 1.38v; intro: Mair (V) 1.178r inward, in When describing a winding or hanging action, these terms indicate motion toward a position of deeper angulation behind the opponent’s weapon. Cf. out. Of turning blade Meyer 1570 2.57r, 58v, 60v. Wenden die kurtze schneide einwerts: Meyer 1570 2.84r. hinein = intro (of a step) Mair (V) 1.107r, 108v. eintretten = procedure Mair (V) 1.242v. F
einbrechen: Mair (V) 1.36v, 50r irruptio: Mair (V) 1.39r, 47v, 50r, 113v; intorsio: Mair (V3) 2.150r breaking in Seems to be a forceful closing attack? F
einfallen: Mair (V) 1.17r incursus: Mair (V) 1.17r, 219r; incursion Same as eingehen? F
Eingang, eingehn: Mair (V) 1.14v ingressus: Mair (V) 1.14v, 66v. Cf. I.33 intrare? Appears to refer to closing with the opponent. F
eingreiffen: Mair (V) 1.67v; Mair (V3) 2.134v apprehensio interior: Mair (V) 1.67v; F
dextre manus in ensem hostilem intorsio: Mair (V3) 2.134v; manuum intorsio: Mair (V) 2.117r
einhawen: Mair (V) 1.37v ictus: Mair (V) F
Einhorn, Einkiren: Cgm 3711 40v; Speyer 3r; Köln 15r; Mair (V) 1.24r, 33v, 35r-v; Cgm 3712 134v; Meyer 1570 1.9r-10r, 37v ff., 54r. Monoceros: Mair (V) 1.24r, 33v, 35r-v Unicorn A longsword guard with the hands forward and the point angling upward— the final position of a Low Cut.

Cgm 558 (129r) says it is the “Windischen Kron.”

einlauffen: Gladiatoria 4r; Cgm 558 126v; Talhoffer 1467: 12; Lecküchner (M) 74v ff., 77r, 190v ff.; Mair (V) 1.65v, 170r, 86r-v; Meyer 1570 1.22v, 61r, 62v, 63r; 2.47v ff.; 3.35r, 46r; Von Gunterrodt 1579: E3r incursio: Mair (V) 1.86r-v running in To close with an opponent to grappling distance, usually in order to grapple or wrestle. Cf. Von Gunterrodt E3r. Mair (V) 1.170r seems to be a good instance of closing the distance to attack from inside the opponent’s range. F
einlegen: Wallerstein 6v F
einschiessen: Lecküchner (M) 188v ff.; Mair (V) 1.26r, 29r, 39v, 51r, 63v, 112r, 113v, 117v, 122v gladii impulsio: Mair (V) 1.26r; impulsus ensis: Mair (V) 1.39v, 51r; impulsus: Mair (V) 1.63v shooting in See shooting. F
eintretten: hineintretten: Mair (V) 2.116r ad hostem concedere: Mair (V) 2.116r stepping in F
einwerts see ein
einwinden: Starhemberg 37v?, 38r?; Mair (V) 1.10v, 24r, 63r intorsio: Mair (V) 1.63r F
Eisenport: Paurenfeindt B2r; Egenolph 7v ff.; Talhoffer 1467: 16; Meyer 1570 1.8r, 9v, 40r ff.; 2.54r; eiserin Pforte: Döbringer 44v, 47r; Medl 37r; Speyer 6v; yser porte: Köln 4r Irongate In Meyer 1570’s rapier, this guard is similar to the Plow, but with the hilt held out in front of the knee and the edges of the blade up and down. In the longsword, Meyer 1570 mentions this meaning, but says that common contemporary use applies the name to the Crossed Guard, and this is evidently the usual meaning of the term in Meyer 1570’s treatise on the longsword. Pforte: Döbringer 32r. Czynner 120v. Paurenfeindt/Egenolph equates it with the Zwerch. Magister Andreas equates it with the Fool (Speyer 6v); Medl 37r says is is also called ansetzen aus dem krump. F
empfangen see auffangen catching F
empfinden: Wallerstein 6v; Lecküchner (M) 39v, 87r; Mair (V) 1.32r, 105r feeling The action of ascertaining an opponent’s actions or intent by feeling the quality of his contact in the bind. F
End: Meyer 1570 1.53r target A synonym for opening (Blöß). F
Enderung: Meyer 1570 2.2r specifics
Endstuck: Falkner 63v finishing technique? A technique intended to kill the opponent? F
engstigen (=ängstigen): Meyer 1570 1.16v, 23r crowding (after, in) = dringen F
entfallen: Meyer 1570 59v.1
entgienge: Meyer 1570 1.59v, 1.60r escape
Entrüsthaw: Lecküchner (M) 25r ff. (ill), 40r, 67r, 211r; the Speyer Fechtbuch, fol. 6r, 7r; Egenolph 19r; Meyer 1570 2.9r, 11v, 12v; Entrüssthaw: Mair (V) 1.99v, 125v-126r; Rüsthaw: Lecküchner (M) 28r?; Entrieschhaw, Entruesch-: ;Speyer 6r ictus severus: Mair (V) 1.99v, 150r-v; ex severitate vel gravitate adpellatur: Mair (V) 1.151v Anger Cut A cut with the falchion/dusack in which the hand is high and the thumb under the blade; the cut is delivered with the blunt edge from the right side, and presumably with the sharp edge from the left. Mair’s sequences usually use the equivalent longsword term, Thwart Cut (Zwerchhaw).

Also called the Armor Cut (Rüsthaw). Meyer 1570 does not define it clearly: he offers two examples whose chief feature in common is that they intercept the opponent’s attack horizontally.

entweren: Gladiatoria 10v, 16v take away (a sword) F
entwischen see erwischen F
ereilen: Meyer 1570 2.2r, 25r overtake Cf übereilen F
erlangen adprehendere: Mair (V) 1.79r, 83r reach (so vil)…erlanget as regards Meyer 1570 2.50r
ermanen teach Meyer 1570 2.4v
Ernst: Gladiatoria 54v, 55r; Lecküchner (M) 171r earnest Refers to serious combat. F
erwägen consider
erwischen: apprehendere: Mair (V) 1.9v catch F
erwischen: Egenolph 36v, 38v; Meyer 1570 1.47r, entwischen: Meyer 1570 1.59r. Cf. weichen. escape Cf. nachwischen. F
etwa rather Meyer 1570 1.10v
eusser. See also ausser furthermost Meyer 1570 1.42v, 1.47v
fallen: ferire: Mair (V) 1.18r
falscher Ort: Cgm 3711 38r ff. Equated with verborgener Ort. F
falsch Tritt: Paurenfeindt G2r; Egenolph 21r, 22v; Cgm 3711 40r; Mair (V) 1.26v, 54v, 58r; Mair (V2) 2.70v; Meyer 1570 1.57r.3 gradus falsus: Mair (V) 1.54v, 58r, 2.70v false step In Mair, this appears to refer to a lateral step with the rear foot, also called “stepping in the Triangle” (cf. Paurenfeindt G2r, H1r).

A deceitful step? Goes through in Meyer 1570; Egenolph seems to refer to a lateral step (equated with Triangel); Mair 54v, 58r also associates with the Triangle.

fangen: Meyer 1570 21v, 34v, 39v catching
fast quamproxime: Mair (V) 1.151v
Faust: Wallerstein 64r ff.; Dürer 16 #47 ff. fist B
Fausthammer: Gunterrodt D3r cestra: Gunterrodt D3r ?warhammer W
fechten execute; ‘fence’? Meyer 1570 1.11v pairs/contrasts it with Kempfen; attack Meyer 1570 2.77r F
fechten sich von: Meyer 1570 3.4v fighting away from (the opponent) See cutting away. F
Fechtschule; Schule: Lecküchner (M) 92r, 183v Grimm FECHTSCHULE, f. palaestra: fechtschule halten, in die fechtschule gehen; auf dinstag in pfingsten (a. 1533) ist von einem handwerksgesellen fechtschule gehalten worden. ZARNKE quellen zur gesch. der univ. Leipzig s. 659; Theagenes thet wie ein geschickter fechter und ringer auf den fechtschulen. buch d. l. 227, 3; es stinkt in der fechtschule. SIMROCK 2316, SCHM. 1, 509, es steckt etwas übles dahinter, ist etwas versehen worden, die sache geht schief. auch von einzelnem gefecht: mit demütiger bitte, diese abenteuerliche fechtschul einzustellen. Simpl. Courage cap. 7. s. fechterspiel.
Fechtschwert Grimm FECHTSCHWERT, n. gladius pugnatorius: wie ein gut fechtschwert aus des unerfahrnen henden, so das schwert nicht kan brauchen. PARACELSUS 1, 331b; man tregt ihn zwei fechtschwert entgegen. AYRER 201b.
Feder: Gunterrodt D3r Associated with the quarterstaff? W
fehl gehn = fehlen Meyer 1570 1.46r
fehlen (lit. “missing”): Lecküchner (M) 139r; Meyer 1570 1.8r, 19v, 30v, 44r, 55v, 56v, 57r, 58r; Fehler: Ringeck 29v ff.; Starhemberg 22r; Cgm 558 128v; Lecküchner (H) 36r (double failer); Lecküchner (M) 26v ff., 214v; Czynner 120v; Egenolph 5v, 21r, 21v; Mair (V) 1.3v, 6v, 19r, 30v, 2.226r.1; Meyer 1570 1.44r, 49v, 56v, 57r, 58r; 2.21r; Fehlhauw: Meyer 1570 2.9r, 12v; Fehlerhaw: Egenolph 19v; Fehlstich: Falkner 56r ictus erraticus: Mair (V) 1.30v, 101v; ictus quo corpus non contingas: Mair (V) 1.3v Failer

failing; Failing Cut; ?feint

An attack that deliberately avoids making contact with the opponent’s body or weapon. F
Felt Hut: Meyer 1570 3.33r, 38v, 39r Field Guard An alternative name for the Straight Parrying with a staff weapon. The version with the pike holds the weapon in the middle of the staff. F
Fenster: Starhemberg 98v; Medl 39v, 41r. Window Cf. Sprechfenster. F
ferner minimal meaning Meyer 1570 2.29v
Fesser: Liechtenauer; Dürer 15 #42
Finger kleiner Finger = digitus auricularis Mair (V) 1.226v.1 B
Flech, Flach(e): Wallerstein 31r; Meyer 1570 1.22r, 35r, 48v, 49v, 55r, 56v, 57r, 63v; flache Klinge Meyer 1570 1.39v ensis plavidus; ensis latitudo: Mair (V) 1.44r flat The flat of the blade. Lecküchner (M) 212v has an attack with the flat.

As a guard Flech and Flechstandt: Medl 26v. Flechlichen Paurenfeindt E1r: “little hits with the flat”?

Flechs Sinew B
Fleiss: (mit) Fleiss ‘intentionally’ Meyer 1570 2.15r
fliegend Meyer 1570 1.47v F
fliegende Stich: Meyer 1570 2.54v, 64v; 3.40v Flying Thrust A thrust delivered at maximum range (?). F
flügelen: Paurenfeindt A3r, I1r; Meyer 1570 1.54r; fligeln Meyer 1570 2.55v; aufffligeln: Mair (V) 1.4v; Meyer 1570 1. 9r, 38r, 54r; auffliegen: Meyer 1570 1.37v. Fligelhaw: Czynner 120v; Mair (V) 1.18r, 20r; Rösener 1589: 51. Fligel: Speyer 3r; Egenolph 5r; Mair (V) 1.27v; Rösener 1589: 57; Flügel, Flügelhew: Köln 3v, 4r, 5r, 15r. ictum alarem usurpare: Mair (V) 1.4v, 27v winging; Wing Cut Some kind of rising cut; its precise nature remains obscure.

Meyer 1570 1.9r, 37v seem to imply a true-edge cut. La Noble Science translates as la volee. ?Cf. Flügel lösen Egenolph 25r

follig, folling: Paurenfeindt G2r, I3r proper? Full?
Frankische Recht: Gladiatoria 52r; Frankisch Kampf: Falkner 65v Franconian duel Dueling with the shield and club. F
Französisch: Wallerstein 28v A manner of thrusting with the dagger. Cf. Walsch Stich? F
frey: Gladiatoria 7v; Ringeck 29v; Starhemberg 22r, 23r, 27v; Talhoffer 1467 pl. 35; Lecküchner (M) 39r, 193r, 214r; Paurenfeindt G3r (2x); Egenolph 21r; Mair (V) 1.19v, 68v, 78v, 79v, 83r, 106r, 112r, 132r; Meyer 1570 1.45v, 50v; 2.14v, 60r; freifliegend: Meyer 1570 1.1v, 47r, 60r, 2.6v; 3.40r liber, libere, liberum: Mair (V) 1.19v, 68v, 93v; porrectus, porrecte: Mair (V) 1.106r, 112r, 151r free(ly)

fluid; ?straight

The meaning of this term is uncertain. In some cases it may suggest that the combatant’s action is unconstrained by a need to respond to the opponent; elsewhere there are indications that it describes a cut in which the weapon is well extended.

Lecküchner (M) 193r appears to contrast with krump, suggesting that it implies that the blade is well extended. Cf. Starhemberg 27v. Mair ?78r; libere quoscunque velis habitus 79v; tan libere velis 80r; liberis 83r; Starhemberg 27v, 110v (both assoc with lang); freileich Starhemberg 64r, 64v. frei ausgezäumbt: Egenolph 32r. Frey in Lew 24r may imply having the initiative (and therefore freedom of action). Frey lang gestrackt = ex manu egregrie porrecta Mair (V) 1.106r; frei, lang und hoch = porrecte ex alto Mair (V) 1.112r

Freyfechter: Lecküchner (M) 30r, (H) 102r; Meyer 1570 1.1r liber Athleta: Mair (M) 1.12r freefighter Grimm: lanista privilegiatus. STIELER 453 F
Freystand: Mair (V2) 1.166v, 167r, 167v status liber: Mair (V2) 1.166v *free stance F
Freischlag: Kal (V) 127r free blow F
fröhlich animose: Mair (V) 1.151v; imperterritus: Mair (V) 1.152v
(h)len: Wallerstein 6r; Meyer 1570 1.17v, 51r, 59v, 63v; 2.39r; 3.25v, 44v feeling To judge or sense the opponent’s intent by the strength or weakness of his weapon’s contact in the bind. F
führen sending Can mean ‘hold’ Meyer 1570 3.2v, 39r. Can also mean to force a person to move where one wishes (Lecküchner (M) 91r, 113r). F
für- see also vor-
fürbilden Meyer 1570 2.3v
fürlauf =verlauf? Meyer 1570 1.47v
fürnehmen = vornehmen undertake
fürsätzlich intentionally
fürtschieben: Meyer 1570 1.36v, 38v, 50r shooting forward Cf. schieben. F
Fürttritt Meyer 1570 2.6r step forward F
fürüber past? Meyer 1570 1.47v, 1.53v S
fürüber fehl Meyer 1570 1.33v, 1.54r, past without hitting Meyer 1570 1.58r, fehl furüber Meyer 1570 1.57r, fehl without hitting Meyer 1570 1.58r S
Füß Can also mean leg: Starhemberg 102v; Lecküchner (M) 101r, 144r; Mair (V) 1.64v, 111r (= pes), 163v, 188v B
Fußhauw: Meyer 1570 2.55r, 60r Foot Cut A rapier cut delivered at the lower leg. F
Gabel: Landshut 7v; Köln 11v, 12r, 16v; Mair (V2) 1.240v; Cgm 558 133r; Czynner 4v, 40r, 47v, etc. furca: Mair 1.240v.1 A wrestling and dagger technique. Cf. Scher? F
gähe, gach hasty
Gang. See Zugang.
ganze Schneid see lange Schneid
ganze Gleve: Speyer 144r F?
ganze Hellebart: Mair (V2) 1.173v full halberd F?
ganze Kron: Mair (V) 1.57v, 115v Corona integra: Mair (V) 1.57v, 115v Full Crown The references in Mair are limited, but suggest that this may refer to versions of the Crown position in which the weapon, and particularly the point, is held high. Cf. Half Crown. F
ganze Stange: Mair (V2) 1.164r, 165r tota hasta: Mair (V2) 1.164r, 165r full staff? F
Gassenhaw: Cgm 558 127v-128r; Köln 4r14v F
gatiert Meyer 1570 3.16r
Gauckelwerck: Egenolph 2r; Meyer 1570
geben sich make oneself (open etc) Meyer 1570 2.84v
Geberd: Meyer 1570 1.50r, 56v attitude stance? Meyer 1570 1.46r.1; comportment Meyer 1570 1.56v F
geberen = geburen? Meyer 1570 1.8r
gebiren = gebühren Meyer 1570 3.47r
gebrochen Tritt: Meyer 1570 broken step An interrupted pace, placed elsewhere than it had initially seemed. Also F
1.24r verstolen Tritt.
gefast ready Meyer 1570 0.6r
Geferhaw: Lecküchner (M) 29r f.; Mair (V) 1.100r, 125v, 130r; Meyer 1570 2.11v, 27r; Ungeferrhauw: Speyer 7r ictus fortuitus: Mair (V) 1.100r, 150r Danger Cut A long-edge cut from above, apparently rolling the hilt slightly to angle the blade downward. This cut occupies a place analogous to the Scalp Cut in longsword combat. Mair actually translates as “Chance Cut”; the translation used here is based on the explanation of the term in Meyer 1570.

In later dusack use, this may be an attack into the opponent’s preparation, close to his weapon (?).

Gefehrt: Liechtenauer (L) 153, 188, 195; Ringeck 37v-38r; Starhemberg 36r, 38r; Mair (V) 1.78r, 90v habitus: Mair (V) 1.93r, 96v; luctae genus: Mair (V2) 2.91r.2. attack? course? situation? tactic? particulars Grimm GEFÄHRTE,GEFÄHRT 3a ff.: form F
Gefess: Meyer 1570 1.4v, 53v hilt Meyer 1570 1.4v equates with Creutz. W
Gegen against F
gegen-, nach- counter- Gegenhauw Meyer 1570 1.28v. widerstreich counterstroke frontmatter B2r. gegengreiffen Meyer 1570 3.13r countergrappling F
Gegenmann: Mair (V) 2.116v, 117r adversarius: Mair (V) 2.116v opponent Mair may use this specifically to indicate a serious adversary as opposed to a martial arts opponent.
Gegenschnitt: Meyer 1570 2.39r; gegenschneiden: counterslicing, counterslice A slicing action used as a parry (?). Cf. slicing off. F
Meyer 1570 2.39v, 40v, 71v; widerschneiden: Meyer 1570 2.39r
gegenüber on the opposite side S
gegenwehr defense
Gehiltz, Gehültz: Gladiatoria 50r; Lecküchner (M) 133v; Mair (V2) 2.4r; Mair (V3) 2.149v; Meyer 1570 1.14r; Gehilcze: Döbringer 19r capulus: Mair (V) 1.3r; Mair (V3) 2.149v; falcis hastula: Mair (V2) 2.5v hilt; shaft (of a pollaxe) Cross guard of the hilt. Lecküchner (M) uses it of the hilt generally. On a scythe, this appears to refer to the staff, possibly the part near the hands. W
gehlings = jählings abruptly, precipitously
gehören zu require Meyer 1570 3.45r
gekreutzig: Meyer 1570 1.63v, 64r cancellatus: Mair (V) 2r; instar crucis Mair (V) 1.2r crossed (hands) F
gelegen depends Meyer 1570 1.55r
Gelenck: Lecküchner 316, 359; Gelaich: Mair (D) 2.98v ff. ?elbow joint, wrist Lecküchner (M) 56r, 58v, 115r, Wallerstein 38v, 60r is wrist. Lecküchner (M) 133v uses it of the elbow. B
gelencken: Liechtenauer (M) 85 =lencken “guide, direct”
Gemecht: Mair (V3) 2.154v pubes: Mair groin; crotch? B
(V3) 2.154v
Gemechtstich: Meyer 1570 2.62v Groin Thrust A rapier thrust directed at the opponent’s groin. F
Genick: Lecküchner (M) 27v nape of the neck B
gerad recta: Mair (V) 1.105v vertical? Meyer 1570 1.35v, 37v, 1.40v, 1.42r, 2.8r; straight Meyer 1570 2.28r, 34v
gerade Versatzung: Meyer 1570 1.40v, 42r; 2.10r, 16r, 32v ff., 44r, 74r ff., 3.17v, 22v ff., 33r, 38v f. Straight Parrying A guard in which the weapon is held forward, and the point angles somewhat upward. In the dusack, this can also be called the Slice. With the quarterstaff, Meyer 1570 is a bit ambiguous: the illustration he references shows two figures, one of whom has the weapon horizontal in a position equivalent to Longpoint, the other angling slightly upward, more akin to Straight Parrying with other weapons. For the pike, Meyer 1570 clearly indicates the latter version. The halberd version is presumably akin to that of the quarterstaff. With staff weapons this is also called the Field Guard. F
geraten fall, come
gernicklich: Lecküchner (M) 76v ?readily
gerüt calm? = gereite? geruhet? Liechtenauer Mtd 61
geschrenckt cancellatus: Mair (V) 1.9v; transversus: Mair (V) 1.3v F
geschrenckt Hut: Mair (V) 2.120r custodia cancellata: Mair (V) 1.9v; transversus: Mair (V) 1.3v crossed guard* This is different from the Schrankhut: the illustration shows the combatant standing with crossed arms holding his staff weapon horizontally with the point toward the opponent (a position akin to the Key in Meyer 1570). F
geschrenckt Wechsel: Mair (V2) 1.166v, 167v mutatorius cancellatus: Mair (V2) 1.166v crossed Change Also Schranckhut? Mair 1.167v F
Geschwinde speed
geschwindt: Meyer 1570 1.54r celeriter: Mair (V) 62v swiftly, nimbly F
geselliglich: Auerswald D2v, G4r Suitable for sport? F
Gesess (MnG Gesäss): Mair-Wilhalm Armored 12r, 21v buttocks B
Gesichtstich: Meyer 1570 2.62r Face Thrust In the rapier, a thrust directed at the face. F
gestracks: recta: Mair (V) 1.33v; Mair (V3) 2.135r straight S
gestrackt: Mair (V) 1.98r; gestrackts: Mair (V) 2.142r recta: Mair (V) 1.98r, 105v; rectus: Mair (V2) 1.188r; recta seu porrectim: Mair (V3) 2.136r; recta porrectim: Mair (V) 2.142r straight, extended S
Gewaltstich: Mair (V) 2.126v; Gewaltsoss: Paurenfeindt I4r punctio potentia facta: Mair (V) 2.126v Power Thrust? F
gewauppet, gewappet, gewappnet, gewappend (adj.,): Gladiatoria 3v, 8v; Talhoffer 1467: 26, 28, 35, 36; Lecküchner (M) 46v; Cgm 3712 113r; Talhoffer 1459 (V) pl. 44; (adv.) Falkner 48r; gewappend Hant, gewappnete Hant: Wallerstein 3v, 31v; Lecküchner (M) 48r, 81v, 196r; gewappnete Hand: Mair (V) 1.133v, 134v; gewappend Ort: Lecküchner (M) 48v, 196r manu armata: Mair (V) 1.151v armor-position; armor-hand; armor-point These terms refer to stances in which the left hand grasps the blade of the weapon, elsewhere called “half-sword.” This was the characteristic stance for armored combat with the longsword.

Talhoffer 1459 (V) uses it of the unarmored dagger.

Gewicht: Lecküchner (M) 171r Meyer 1570 1.54r ‘balance’ Grimm gewicht II 1, d 2)) b)); Mair 1.41r. nemen das gewicht: Lecküchner (M) 51r, 84r ff., 87r, 147r; Paurenfeindt E4r; Mair (V) 1.41r, 111v, 135r, 142v. Refs to a Key position? Cf. Wag. Begriffen das gewicht Mair (V) 1.41r, translated cubitum infirmando apprehendere (of the elbow-grab); nemen das Gewicht translated as infirmare Mair (V) 1.152r; infirmare, quod Germanis dicitur pondus aufere: Mair (V) 1.153r; = brachium debilitare Mair (V) 1.111v. pondus auferas juxta cubitum (id est, sursum torqueas cubitum Mair (V2) 2.89r.1. pondus auferas, id est cubitum pro viribus sursum propellas Mair (V2) 2.90r.2, pondus aufere Mair (V) 2.245r.2 F
gewinnen see angewinnen
gewundene Stich: Gunterrodt E1v W
Gfehrt = Gefahr, danger
Gleffen: Ringeck 93v lance, spear W
gleich simultaneously Cf. immediately. F
gleich: Döbringer 19v Straight forward
gleich at the same level as Meyer 1570 2.52r; at once Meyer 1570 2.15v; as it were Meyer 1570 1.24r, 24v; mutual Gladiatoria 43r ff., 46v
gleich = zwar, wohl, auch Grimm. Cf. Meyer 1570 1.49v
gleich (Hauw) Meyer 1570 1.16r; Mair 27v; simultaneous? Meyer 1570 2.4v; Grimm adj VI straight, even; at the same time. Cg. Gladiatoria 43r, 44r
gleich mit at the same time Meyer 1570 1.32r; 2.60v T
gleich mit just after Meyer 1570 1.49v T
gleich Fassen: Talhoffer 1443 pl. 126. F
gleichwol also; nonetheless Meyer 1570 1.33r, 1.55r, 1.53r, 1.61v
Glid: Lecküchner (M) 185v ff. Wrist joint? Inside or outside? But Wallerstein 36r, 38v, 59v seems to use it of the knuckles. Wallerstein 55v, Gladiatoria 33v ff., Mair (V) 1.239r, 240v is wrist. B
Glidmas: Gladiatoria 33v; Gladiatoria (Vie) 32r limb B
glützen: Lecküchner 9v; Speyer 49v coruscatio: Mair (V) 1.93r; acinaces utrique conveniant: Mair (V) 1.153r clashing Also blietzen. F
Glützhauw, Glietz-: Meyer 1570 1.13r, 16r, 35r, 51v. Clashing Cut A short-edge cut in the longsword in which the hands point upward and the sword crosses in front of the body. Also Plitzhaw,Blützhaw. F
Golden Haw: Köln 5v, 15v
Goller: Mair (V2) 2.99v; Goldir: Wallerstein 55r ff.; Koller: Auerswald D2r; Goller, Goder: Mair- Wilhalm Armored 29r, 39r (of a gorget); Meyer (Rostock) 91r (of a gorget) diphthera: Mair (V2) collar B
greiffen: Meyer 1570 1.19v, 43r, 50r, 51r, 61r, 61v, 62v; ergreiffen: Meyer 1570 1.61v; grip: with hand Meyer 1570 1.62v.1 catch, grapple To snag some part of the opponent’s body or weapon with a part of one’s own weapon. F
greuffen: Lecküchner (H) 27r attack? Lecküchner (H) 61r alts pegreuffen with greuffen. F
grobe Schlag: Lecküchner (M) 23v coarse blow ? F
Grublein: Auerswald H1r ff. A small pit used in a particular type of wrestling. F
Gurgelstich: Meyer 1570 2.62r Throat Thrust In the rapier, a thrust directed at the opponent’s throat. F
Gürtelhauw: Meyer 1570 2.55r Belt Cut In the rapier, a horizontal cut at mid-level. F
Gut: (zu) gut Meyer 1570 1.28v, 2.47v
Hacke: Wallerstein 17r, 46v heel B
Hack: Mair-Wilhalm Armored 29r, 35r, 36r hook The rein-hook on a saddle. See Mair-Wilhalm Armored for illustrations. W
Hack: Landshut 11v and passim.; Hagg: Mair (V) 1.14r, 2.28v, 34v, 179r; Mair (V2) 1.180r, 2.43v, *96v; Mair (V3) 2.135r habitus pedis injiciendi in adversarii poplitem: Mair (V2) 1.180r; *Mair (V2) leg-hook; ?hook Of a hooking action of arm against arm: Mair (V2) 2.96v.2 (=intercludere). F
Hafft confinement? Meyer 1570 1.33v
haften: Starhemberg 69v; Haftung: Wilhalm-Mair Armored 3v ff. To stick in place (of a thrust against armor)
Hagg: Mair (V2) 1.174v; Mair (V3) 2.151av; Hack: Kal (V) 127r mucro recurvus,que e regione laminae bipenni affixus est: Mair (V2) 1.174v; mucro recurvus: Mair (V2) 1.179r; laminae curavatura: Mair (V3) 2.151av hook The rear fluke on a halberd or pollaxe. W
Hagg Stangensigel in deinen haggen bey deinem gurtel Mair (V) 2.283r. Also Mair (V) 2.294r, 294v, 295v, 302r W
halb halb Klingen Mair 1.34r, 45v. (zucken bis zu) halber Klingen Starhemberg 32r; Lew 30v; Mair 21r: “as far as the middle of the blade”. (zu) halben Schwert Mair 13r. zu halber klingen: “on the middle of the blade” Mair (V3) 2.144v. Cf. an dy mit der klingen Lecküchner (M) 68v F
Halphaw: Lecküchner (M) 46r, 66v; Cgm 3711 45r; Gunterrodt E1r Half-Cut ?A flourishing cut that is stopped short when the weapon is extended toward the opponent, used as one approaches within range. Cf. Meyer 1570 2.4v. Starhemberg 22r equates this with the Reverser (Verkerer). F
halbe Glefe: Speyer 143v, 144r F?
halbe Hellebart: Mair (V2) 1.173v, 175r bipennis media: Mair (V2) 1.175r half halberd F?
halbe Kron: Mair (V) 1.57v, 58r, 115v media Corona: Mair (V) 1.58r; dimidia Corona: Mair (V) 1.115v Half Crown The references in Mair are limited, but suggest that this may refer to versions of the Crown in which the point is held low. Cf. Full Crown. F
halber Spieß: Mair (V2) 1.168r, 169r medius hastae: Mair (V2) 1.168r; media lancea: Mair (V2) 1.169r half-pike? The middle part of a pike? A guard holding the pike in the middle? The pike when held in the middle? W
halbe Stange: Mair (V2) 1.158r, 164r, 165r hastae medietas: Mair (V2) 1.158r; media hasta: Mair (V2) 1.164r, 165r half-staff? midstaff? The middle part of a staff? Cf. ganze Stange. Cf. halber Stoß Mair (V2) 1.164v W
halber Stoß: Mair (V2) 1.164v medius ictus half-jab F
halb* Dolch: Mair (V2) 1.195v F
halb Theil Meyer 1570 1.46r
halb: (zum) halben Endt halfway through Meyer 1570 1.54v
halb Schneid see kurtz Schneid W
halb Schwerdt: Ringeck 36r-v, 53v-54r; Starhemberg 98v Half-Sword Paurentfeindt F4r F
halb Spies: Mair (V) 2.207v hasta brevior vel media: Mair (V) 2.207v half-spear F
Halbstangen: Gunterrodt D3r hastile, venabulum: Gunterrodt D3r quarterstaff W
Hals: Wallerstein 8v; Lecküchner (M) 143v jugulum: Mair (V) 2.206r neck The side of the neck? Cf. Kel, Nack. Cf. also auff dem Hals, “upon sb.” Mair (V) 2.191v. B
Halßhauw: Meyer 1570 2.55r, 60r Neck Cut A rapier cut directed horizontally at the opponent’s neck. F
halten observe Meyer 1570 3.46v
halten: Gladiatoria 56r ff. pinning Cf. unterhalten. F
halten sich happens Meyer 1570 1.18v. conduct oneself Meyer 1570 2.76v; bring oneself Mair (V) 1.243r
Hamer: Kal (V) 127r hammer The hammer on a pollaxe. W
Hand von hand Lecküchner 457. von der Hand “using the hand” Mair (V) 2.20v B
Handarbeit: Meyer 1570 1.16r, 60v Handwork Close work in the fight, the stage at which the combattants are at binding distance. Also Middle; War. F
Handgleich wrist Meyer 1570 2. 97v, 3.2r B
Handhab: Lecküchner (M) 51v grip W
Handthauw: Meyer 1570 2.9r, 60v Hand Cut A rapier cut directed at the opponent’s hand. F
(plech)hantschuech: Gladiatoria (Vie) 25r wrist Meyer 1570 2. 97v, 3.2r B
heben: Mair (V2) 1.225r, corripere grasp, hold
2.97v.3, 101r
hengen, hangen: Gladiatoria 44r (of dagger), 51v; Ringeck 46v; Starhemberg 36r, 37r ff..; Lecküchner (M) 198r ff.; Mair (V) 1.22r-v, 24v, 48r, 89r ff., 145v; Cgm 3711 45v; Cgm 3712 130v ff.; Meyer 1570 1.22r, 61r, 63r, 63v, 64r; 2.34r; Meyer 1560 71v (as a defense); verhengen: Meyer 1570 1.21v, 63v, 64r; 2.69r; einhengen: Meyer 1570 1.63v; Lecküchner (M) 198v; inclinatio: Mair (V) 1.24v; protendere: Mair (V) 1.3v; demittere: Mair (V) 1.99r hanging In longsword and falchion/dusack combat, to extend the sword with the blade at an angle relative to the horizon, often in order to intercept the opponent’s attack; the position is equated with the Ox/Steer and Plow/Boar. This technique somewhat overlaps with winding. Cf. High Hanging; Low Hanging

Meyer 1560 lists this among the defenses for rapier combat. Cf. sliding.

hangend downward (angling) Meyer 1570 2.3v, 2.6v
Hangetort, Hangend Ort: Meyer 1570 1.9r, 9v, 39v ff., 61r Hangetort: Meyer 1570 9r, 39v, 61r. hangend Ort: Starhemberg 87r.1; Lecküchner (M) 12v ff., 16v (ill), 118r ff. (ill); Köln14v, 17r; Egenolph 7v, 32r; hangend Ort: Mair (V) 1.1r, 6v, 10r ff., 18v, 19r, 37r, 115r mucro pendens: Mair (V) 1.1r Hanging Point A longsword and falchion/dusack guard with the hilt high and forward, the point extending down and forward. It is not clear how it differs from the Bow.

Meyer 1570 implies that it is essentially a higher version of the Crossed Guard; it is equivalent to the Bow in the dusack. La Noble Science translates as pendant le point sur le poulx, which may suggest an action akin to sliding. Starhemberg 87r.1 uses it of an armored guard.

Har: Wallerstein 57r ff, 70v hair B
Harnasch anbieten: Wallerstein 72v ff. ?offer to give up one’s armor, ie. Cry uncle
hart neben right by, close by Meyer 1570 1.37v; hart vor just in front of Meyer 1570 2.82r
hart: Lecküchner (M) 9v; Wallerstein 4r; Meyer 1570 1.17v, 63v; 2.41r; 3.24r, 25r, 29v; hert: Mair (V) 1.5r fortiter: Mair (V) 1.5r hard Refers to when one engages the opponent in the bind firmly and with commitment. Cf. soft. F
Haube: Gladiatoria 56v helm W
Haw: Lecküchner (M) 1v; Meyer 1570 1.2r, 9v, 10v ff.; 2.2v ff., 55r ff., 61r; 3.32r ff.; Gunterrodt E1r; hawen: Lecküchner (M) 3v; Meyer 1570 1.9v ff; 2.8r, 32r, 55r ff.; 3.32r ff.; verhauwen: Meyer 1570 1.40v ictus; icere: Mair (V) 2.139v; ferire Mair (V) 1.2r, 32v; plaga: Gunterrodt E1r cut, cutting An attack or cutting action leading with the edge of a bladed weapon. Cf. blow. Can be used to mean bringing the sword into a position through a cutting motion. Distinguished from schlagen Meyer 1570 2.61r, which appear to be done with the flat. Delivered at body per Meyer 1570 1.30r. hawen/schlagen contrasted Meyer 1570 2.32r. Cutting into a posture: Meyer 1570 2.2r hauwen (“cutting”): Meyer 1570 35r.2 for cutting through. sich hawen = conduct oneself Mair (V) longsword #51 Can also be used of the initial or final position of the cut. Mair (V) 3v, 4v, 48v. = action Mair (V) 5r. F
hawen ferire see ictus
hawen (lang) nach: Meyer 1570 1. 33r.1, 38r, 53v; hauwen nach: Meyer 1570 1.52v, 57r, 59r, 2.89r; (hin)weghauwen: Meyer 1570 1.2r, 38v; 2.5v, 17r, 18r, 48r; (ab)hawen sich von: Köln 3v, 4r; Meyer 1570 1.50r, 2.20v, 48r, 92v; hauwen sich weg: Meyer 1570 1.2r, 38v.1, 53r; hauwen von sich: Meyer 1570 2.36v, 37r, 38v; hawen sich von: Mair (V) 1.102v, 106r; Mair (V2) 1.172r; Meyer 1570 1.33v.1, 50r.4, 50v.1; also zuruckhauwen (“cutting away”): Mair (V) 1. 28v, 44v; hawen sich zuruck von: Mair (V) 1.5v, 98v, 176v; Mair (V3) 2.127v, 136v; hauwen sich lang von hinweg (“cutting long away from”): Mair (V) 1.21v, 106v referiendo ab eo recedere: Mair (V) 1.5v; retro ferire: Mair (V) 1.28v; retrorsum ictibus gubernandis concedere: Mair (V) 1.98v; feriundo ab hoste se liberare: Mair (V2) 1.172r; recedere: Mair (V) 2.127v cutting away, cutting (long) after To deliver a withdrawing cut with the true edge.

In some cases, “cutting after” can mean simply to deliver a followup cut: hauwen nach is variously translated here as ‘cutting after,’ ‘countercutting,’ and ‘following up with a cut,’ depending on the context, but in some cases more than one meaning would be viable. Cf. striking long after; thrusting long after. lang nach Meyer 1570 2.33v at a distance while retreating? Meyer 1570 1.22r has hauwen lange nach der Blösse; Meyer 1570 1.42r.4 prob at a distance with the true edge while withdrawing. Meyer 1570 1.47v.3. Meyer 1570 2.42r seems a countercut. Lecküchner (M) 39v ff. refers to countercuts. Hawen sich von im mit einem oberhaw = ictum supernum usurpando ab adversario se separare Mair (V) 1.102v, = ab eo recedere facto ictu superno Mair (V) 1.106r. hawen lang von j-m hinweg = aciem longam praemittendo ab adversario recedere Mair (V) 1.106v. Hawen sich zu im = acinacem contra hostem dirigere Mair (V) 1.112r (cf. also 113v); hawen sich von = feriundo recedere ab Mair (V) 1.179r

hawen nach cutting after See cutting long after. F
hawen sich: Mair (V) 1.27r, 43r, 61r, 115r; hawen sich in: Mair (V) 1.27r uti: Mair (V) 1.54r; preparare se in: Mair (V) 1.54v With sense of actually cutting Mair (V) 1.44r. hawen sich mit obern hawen zu im = adversarium ictibus supernis adgredi;
hawen sich zu: Mair (V) 1.111r cutting toward To approach the opponent with cuts; hawen sich in dem Sturtzhaw zu j-m hinein Mair (V2) 1.163v. F
Heft: Egenolph 20v; Meyer 1570 1.4v; grip: 14r, 48v, 62v; Mair (V) 2.16v (of a dusack) grip W
helft Klingen: Mair (V) 1.85v
Hellpart: Gunterrodt D3r; Helmparte: Egenolph 46v; Hellebart: Falkner 62r bipennis, quiris, securis: Gunterrodt D3r halberd W
Hendtrucken, Hande drucken, Hende trucken: Ringeck 46r, Starhemberg 35v?; Lecküchner (M) 104v ff.; Egenolph 12v; Cgm 3711 35v-36r (ill); Cgm 3712 129v ff.; Meyer 1570 1.21v, 55v pressing the hands To change between a Low Slice and a High Slice while remaining in contact with opponent’s wrists. In Meyer 1570, a form of slice executed against the opponent’s wrists. F
henkeln: Kal (V) 127r latch onto Lit. “attach a handle to” F
herfür anteversum: Mair (V3) 2.125v, 129r, 138v; anteversum producto: Mair (V) 2.142 out from under Meyer 1570 1.19v; out from behind Mair
Herzstich: Meyer 1570 2.62v; Meyer 1560 74r Heart Thrust A rapier thrust directed at the opponent’s heart. F
hiemit = after this (transl. ‘with this”, “then”) Meyer 1570 1.34v, 61v T
Hiltprants: Paurenfeindt C3r; Egenolph 10r; Hilprants Haw: Kal (V) 127r Hildebrand’s Cut A cut in the longsword? F
(wol) hinaus: Mair (V) 2.55r longius: Mair (V) 2.55r; longiuscule: Mair (V) 2.70r S
hinden: Mair (V2) 1.188v = “from behind” S
hinder Ort: Mair (V2) 1.174v; Meyer 1570 3.16v, 21v mucro posterior: Mair (V2) 1.174v butt The butt end of a staff weapon. W
hinder Schneid see kurtz Schneid W
hinder Theil (lit. ‘rear part’): Meyer 1570 3.16v, 21v, 41r tail (of a staff weapon) The part of a staff weapon behind the combatant’s rear hand; in some cases it may refer more generally to the rear parts of the weapon. W
hindersich tretten volte step Meyer 1570 3.21v F
hinein see ein
hinnach tretten: Mair (V) 1.5v, 7v, 11v, 26v; Mair (V) 2.127r consequi: Mair (V) 1.5v; insequi: Mair (V) 1.7v, 29v, 31r, 32v; Mair (V) 2.127r; progredere: Mair (V) 1.11v; introgredi seu insequi: Mair (V3) 2.134v step up See hinnach volgen. F
hinnach volgen: Mair (V) 1.2r, 8r, 9r, 9v, 18v, 19v, 22r, 27v, 50v, 56r, 113r; nachfolgen: Lecküchner (H) 28v; Mair (V) 1.1r; cf. hinnach reisen: Mair (V) 1.24v; folgen: Mair (V) 1.4v, 29v; cf. hinein folgen: Mair (V) 1.29v, 105r consequi: Mair (V) 1.16v, 31r, 32v, 56r, 2.122v; insequi: Mair (V) 1.11v, 32v; adgredi: Mair (V) 1.29v; intro sequi: Mair (V3) 2.150v; progredere: Mair (V) 2.208r follow up; cf. step up (hinnach tretten) It is unclear how specifically Mair uses these terms: hinnach volgen seems to refer to a passing step (moving the rear foot in front) in those cases where one can be reasonably certain, but some instances of hinnach tretten could refer to a gather-step similar to that used by modern fencers.

Lecküchner (M) 40v seems to use this of a followup step back in after stepping away. Mair seems to use volgen hinnach consistently to mean “pass forward,” i.e. bring the foot from behind in front; 1.2r etc. appear to be clear examples. Hinnach tretten in 5v, 7v could be a fencing step, but 26v appears to be a pass. Hinnach reisen seems to mean the same thing in Mair (V) 1.24v (L consequi). For a “transitive” use (volgen nach dem haw), see Mair (V) 1.1r. Mair (V) 1.31r hinnach folgen seems very clearly to refer to passing forward.

hinweg gehen: Mair (V) 1.21v, 101v averti: Mair (V) 1.21v; elabi: Mair (V) 1.101v go away ?To be parried. Cf. abgehn, abhawen. F
hinweghauwen: Meyer 1570 2.5v, 29v, 44r, 127v; hinwegk hawen: Mair (V) 2.128v; weghauwen: Meyer 1570 2.17r, 83r, 87v, 92v; aushauwen: Meyer 1570 2.20v cutting away, cutting out To parry with a cut. F
hinwegnemen: Mair (V) 1.29r; Mair (V) 2.127v abigere: Mair (V) 1.109r; avertere: Mair (V) 1.21v; deflectere: Mair (V) 1.101r; ademere*: Mair (V) 2.127v take away I.e. parry. F
Hirnschlag: Meyer 1570 2.55r; 3.23v f. Brain Blow In the rapier, another term for a High Cut. With the quarterstaff, this appears to be again a vertical downwards attack, but delivered with one hand. F
Hochort: Egenolph 21r = Stier? F
Hocken: Meyer 1570 3.32r hook The curved fluke on the back of a halberd head. W
Hoden: Starhemberg 111r; Mair (V2) 2.103r testiculi: Mair (V2) testicles B
höhe Streich Meyer 1570 1.29v, 33r High Stroke F
höhe Hüff: Auerswald F1v; Mair (V) 2.54v, 63r coxa superna: Mair (V) 2.54v, 63r; coxa superior: Mair (V) 2.54v upper hip See also Hüff, kurze Hüff. B
Huds End: Falkner 62v ?butt end The butt of a pollaxe? F
Hüff femur: Mair (V) 1.152r hip anschlahe Hüffe: Auerswald F1v; halbe Hüffe: Auerswald G6r; Landshut 6v, 10v. See also hohe Hüffe, kurze Hüffe. B
Hüffthauw: Meyer 1570 2.55r, 58v Hip Cut A rapier cut directed diagonally downwards at the opponent’s hip. F
Hut: Lecküchner (M) 33r; Cgm 3711 47r; Meyer 1570 1.59v; 2.2r ff., 52v ff.; 3.1r ff., 16r ff., 38v ff. Cf. I.33 custodia guard A standardized position for the body and weapon, typically based on the initial or final position of a cut. Also posture. F
huy = hui, interj.
in dem sine mora Mair (V) 1.1v; interea: Mair (V) 2.141r; inde: Mair (V) 2.142r when Meyer 1570 1.39v, 1.40r T
in dem = after Meyer 1570 1.35r; Mair (V) 1.175r; Mair (V) 179r in dem aufstreichen = ex ipsa vibratione T
in (seinem Haw) = during Lecküchner (M) 69v T
indes; indessen: Lecküchner (M) 170v; Cgm 3711 49r; Meyer 1570 1.26v subito Mair (V) 4v; interim Mair (V) 1.62v; inde Mair (V) 1.48v, 179r, 2.141r; interea: Mair (V) 1.41v, 99r; promptissime: Mair (V) 1.3v; mora omni remota: Mair (V) 1.103r then Meyer 1570 1.47v, 1.51v, 1.53r; immediately?; = then, just after Meyer 1570 1.53r, 2.33v.1, 100r. in dem = in ipso articulo, interim Mair (V) 1.3v T
indes: Lecküchner (M) 1v, 216v; Wallerstein 6r; Mair (V) 1.5r, 74r; Meyer 1570 1.24v-25r, 45v; 2.103r velocitas: Mair (V) 1.83v, 95r; crebri ictus: Mair (V) 1.94v Instantly The abstract term for instantaneous responses intended to gain the initiative in the fight. Cf. After, Before.

Also called Simultaneously

in einem Flug: Meyer 1570 1.49v, 51v, 53r, 58r; 2.65v (in a) single motion F
innen werden become aware
inwendig: Gladiatoria 53r; Lecküchner (M) 77r; Mair (V) 1.40r, 41v; Meyer 1570 1.48v, 51v, 62v ff.; 2.37r, 45r, 62r, 63v; 3.9v, 12r; innerhalb: Gladiatoria 43r, 44r. interius: Mair (V) 1.40r, 41v inside When describing the direction of a technique, outside indicates a technique originating from the outside of the body, e.g. from the recipient’s left if directed toward the left arm, from the recipient’s right if toward the right arm. Inside means coming from the opposite side, e.g. from the left toward the right arm, from the right toward the left arm.

Cf. ein, aus

inwendige Fleche: Meyer 1570 1.35v inside flat The flat on the palm side of a bladed weapon. Cf. outside flat. F
Isen Hut: Falkner 71v helmet B
Joppe: Wallerstein 54v ff; Czynner 52r doublet B
Kampf: Köln 20r, 21v Meaning uncertain
Kampftegen, Kempfdegen: Paurenfeindt K2r; Egenolph 34r W
Kampfstück: Meyer 1570 1.63r dueling technique Refers to longsword techniques executed in the ‘half-sword’ position, with the left hand on the middle of the blade, derived from techniques developed for one-on-one armored combat (Kampf). The term also appears in Landshut 6v. F
Kappe: Mair (V) 2.116v cucullus: Mair (V) 2.116v hood? B
Kel guttur: Mair (V) 1.244r throat The front of the neck. B
Kin: Mair (V2) 2.102v mentum: Mair (V2) chin B
Kinback: Mair (V2) 2.93v maxilla: jaw B
Klemmer: Mair-Wilhalm Armored 8r the Clamp An armored combat technique. Cf. Kloben. F
Kling(e: Gladiatoria 45r; Meyer 1570 1.4v ensis: Mair (V) 1.56v; gladium: Mair (V) 1.59r; strictus vel medius pugio: Mair (V) 1.230r..4 blade W
Kloben: Falkner 60r the Clamp A quarterstaff technique in which one pins the staves together around the opponent’s fingers to make him let go. Cf. Klemmer. F
Klos, Kloß: Döbringer 19r; Lecküchner (M) 144r ff. pommel See also Knopf.
Knebelspieß: Gunterrodt D3r Venabulus Mair (V) 2.281v Partisan Cf. Dolinek and Durdik 140 on Knebelspiess—similar to partizan. Cf. Köln 20v Kneyfell in reference to the Schweinspiess. Cf. wirfspiess W
Knybel: Starhemberg 65v Joint? B
Kniescheube: Mair (V) 1.181v mola: Mair (V) 1.181v kneecap? B
Kniechen?: Lecküchner (M) 92r ankle? B
Kni(e)chelhauw: Meyer 1570 1.2r, 14v Wrist Cut A quick attack with the longsword delivered at the opponent’s exposed forearms. F
Knopf: Gladiatoria 7r, 8r; Meyer 1570 1.4v, 5r nodulus: Mair (V) 1.2v; capitulus: Mair (V) 1.56v; nodus: Mair (V3) 2.132v pommel See also Klos. Gladiatoria 7r has a pommel throwing technique. W
Kolb: Gladiatoria 52r; Falkner 65v dueling mace Also Streitkolb. W
kommen an come within range? Starhemberg 48v F
kommen zu (an opponent): Mair (V) 1.111r propius ad eum concedere: Mair (V) 1.111r, 112r come within range of Lecküchner (M) 65r-v, 66v; Mair (V) 1.112r; Meyer 1570 1.5v, 26r, 57r, 1.54r F
Krawthacke: Döbringer 44v, 47r F
Kreutz: Lecküchner (M) 25v, 91r, 133v; Egenolph 6r, 31v; Meyer 1570 1.4v; Mair- Wilhalm Armored 33r; Creutz: Mair (V) 2.128r; Kreutzstang: Meyer 1570 1.14r, 16v crux: Mair (V) 1.153r; Mair (V) 2.128r; munimentum: Mair (V3) 2.146v crossbar W
Kreutz: Meyer 1570 2.3v, 51v, 57v ff., 79r; 3.32r Cross A diagram of crossed vertical, horizontal, and diagonal lines, used to teach and visualise the cuts. The term can also refer to the pairs of crossed lines used to teach diagonal cuts. F
Kreutzhut: Meyer 1570 3.4r; Kreutz: Mair (V2) 1.237r.2, 239r manibus cancellatis: Mair (V2) 1.237r.2 Cross Guard; Cross A guard or position with the dagger in which the right hand lies across the left, with the dagger folded back along the right forearm. F
kreutziget: Meyer 1570 1.64v crossed Cf. gekreutzig. F
Kreutzlini: Meyer 1570 2.73v Cross Line A synonym for Stroke Line. F
Kreutzstich: Mair (V3) 2.145v; Meyer 1570 3.4v, 12r Cross Thrusts In the dagger, a pair of thrusts delivered diagonally downward from each side, typically to cover a withdrawal. Cf. Cross Stroke. F
Kreutzstreich: Meyer 1570 2.24r, 33v, 47r, 94r; 3.4r; Kreutzhaw: Cgm 558 131r, 132r; Mair (V) 1.5r, 7r, 18v, 24v, 100v; Mair (V3) 2.138v. Meyer 1570 2.14r, 36v, 44v, 57v, 94r; 3.32r; Kreutz: Meyer 1570 1.14r, 55r; 2.20v, 31r, 44v, 89r, 100r; 3.32r, 33r. ictus cruciatus: Mair (V) 1.24v, 100v; ictus qui a crucis similitudine nomen sortitus est: Mair (V) 1.5r Cross Cut, Cross Stroke; Cross Not explicitly described by Mair, but Meyer 1570 describes this as a pair of diagonal cuts in combination from each side; since Mair’s Cross Cuts sometimes come singly, he may be using the term to refer to a single diagonal cut.

In Meyer 1570 this is often used to cover a withdrawal.

With the dagger, Cross Stroke is a synonym for Cross Thrusts.

kreutzweiß: Meyer 1570 1.19v, 56v; 2.18r. Cf. schrenck. cancellatus: Mair (V) 1.3v crosswise In a crossed pattern, crossed over one another. F
Krieg: Lecküchner (M) 9v; 10r; Mair (V) 1.23v, 74r-v, 123v; Meyer 1570 1.45r, 51r bellum: Mair (V) 1.92r; militia: Mair (V) 1.92v, 149v; ictus crebri: Mair (V) 1.92r, 149v; ictus crebri seu superne seu inferni elaborati: Mair (V) 1.23v War In most texts, this refers to the stage of combat once the initial attack has been executed, characterized by winding. However, in some places Mair translates as “crowded blows,” suggesting that he understands it as referring to the rain of attacks delivered in the central part of an exchange.

Also called Handwork or Middle. Czynner 24r ff. seems to refer to two combatants struggling over a single sword (in armored combat). Czynner 23ff. uses it of an armored technique, apparently referring to when two combatants are fighting over a single sword.

kriegen: Dürer 32 #95 Refers to combat with intent to inflict serious harm? F
Kron, Krone: Ringeck 20r, 33r ff.; Starhemberg 25r; Paurenfeindt A4r; Egenolph 5r; Mair (V) 1.34r, 52r, 55r ff., 59r; 2.112r (with dusack); Cgm 3711 41r; Cgm 3712 135r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.21v, 35v, 60v, 62r; kronen: Meyer 1570 1.60v corona: Mair (V) 1.3r; eo modo ut utramque ensis partem manibus contineas: Mair (V) 1.3r Crown In Mair as in most early sources, this refers to a “half-sword” stance, with the secondary hand on the middle of the blade. Half Crown appears to be a version in which the weapon (particularly the point) is held low; in Full Crown, the weapon is held high.

Similar meanings in Starhemberg, Mair, Cgm 3711. In Meyer 1570’s longsword system, a high parry in which the quillons are horizontal and protect the head. The Egenolph version seems different. The term in Cgm 558 (126v, 127r-v) seems to means something quite different, apparently a guard, and perhaps equivalent to the Ox; 128v, 133r refer to stepping to the side into the Kron. Cf. also the windischen Kron on Cgm 558 129r.

Kronhaw: Cgm 3711 45r; Meyer 1570 1.14r, 16r; Cgm 558 128v; kronhauwen: Egenolph 5v. Crown Cut In the longsword, a short-edge cut executed from the Crown. The Egenolph version seems different. F
krumme Schneide: Meyer 1570 2.8v, 9v, 26r crooked edge The back or short edge of a dusack. Krumpschneide: Meyer 1570 1.58r (of longsword) W
krump: Lecküchner (M) 32r, 193r, 204v; Cgm 3711 10r-v (ill); Mair (V) 1.1v, 5v, 106r; Meyer 1570 1.50v, 51r; 2.10r; Krump: Lecküchner (M) 194v, 206r recurve: Mair (V) 1.5v; per ambages: Mair (V) 1.1v crooked This refers to an attack that angles across the space between the combatants, at an angle to the “line of encounter.”

In the dusack, this can refer to techniques leading with the crooked edge of the weapon. Lecküchner (M) 193r contrasts with frey. In Lecküchner, the term is sometimes used as a noun to describe a cut, parry, or position in which the blade is held crooked, in which cases it somewhat shades into the longsword Crooked Cut (Krumphaw), which is equivalent to the Waker (Wecker) in the falchion.

Medl 29v uses offen as the contrary of krump; 32r describes krump as being “with crossed arms.’

Krumphaw: Ringeck 24v ff.; Starhemberg 17r ff.; Mair (V) 1.1v, 10r, 75v, 105v; Cgm 3712 105r f.; Meyer 1570 1.12v, 40r, 47r, 47v, 48v-51r, 52v, 54v, 55r; 2.9v, 43r; ictus curvus: Mair (V) 1.1v, 105v, 111r Crooked Cut, Crooked In the longsword, a cut delivered at an angle to the line of encounter; Mair sometimes also uses the term for the dusack, although the traditional term is Waker.

In Meyer 1570’s dusack system, this means a cut delivered with the crooked edge. Cf. Krumpschneide Meyer 1570 58r

kurtz: Egenolph 21r, 21v; Meyer 1570 1.4v, 52v; 2.14v; 3.4r, 9r short This can either refer to a cut made with the short edge, or to any technique that is executed with limited extension. Cf. long. Short Wards Mair (V) 1.79v. (versetzen) kurtz Egenolph 8v, 9v, 21r, 22r, 25r; Meyer 1570 2.14r “not extended”? F
kurtz: Mair (V) 1.244v breviter: Mair (V) 1.244r.3 quickly T
kurtze Hüff: Auerswald F1v, G2r, Mair (V) 2.54r femur: Mair (V) 2.54r, 58r lower hip See also höhe Hüff, Hüff. B
kurtzer Ort: Meyer 1570 1.49v false point? ?The false-edge side of the point. W
kurtzer Ort: Lecküchner (M) 48v, 54v, 140r; Mair (V) 1.134v mucro brevis: Mair (V) 1.151v short-point A thrust at the “armor-hand” (half-sword) position. F
kurtzer Ort: Mair (V2) 1.161r; Meyer 1570 3.16v mucro brevis: Mair (V) 1.161r short point The butt end of a staff weapon. W
kurtze Schneid: Egenolph 20v; Mair (V) 1.74r, 136v; Meyer 1570 1.4v, 55r; 2.21v, 57r; 3.21v; halbe Schneid (lit. “half edge”): Mair (V) 1.4r; Meyer 1570 1.26v, 47r, 2.38r, 45v, 70v; Gunterrodt D4v; hinder Schneid (lit. “rear edge”): Döbringer 27v; Meyer 1570 2.55r; linke Seite (“left side”): Döbringer 28v; lincke Schneid (“left edge”): Lecküchner (M) 189r; stumpfe Schneid (“blunt edge”): Lecküchner (M) 189r acies brevis Mair (V) 1.1v short edge See long edge. W
kurtzes Schwerdt: Ringeck 98r ; Talhoffer 1467: pl. 39 ff; Egenolph 14v ff.; Meyer 1570 1.62r, 63r shortened sword Refers to holding the sword with the left hand gripping the blade, as in armored combat. F
Kurtzhaw: Ringeck 26r; Starhemberg 18r; Meyer 1570 1.12v, 16v; 2.9v. Short Cut In the longsword, this is a cut that slips under the opponent’s sword to attack from the opposite side. This meaning is also used in the dusack, but Meyer 1570 also applies the term to a false-edge countercut. F
Lämstuck: Lecküchner (M) 184r ff.; lämen: Talhoffer (Cop) 89v; Egenolph 21r; lemen: Mair (V) 1.107v, 236v.1 dissolvere: Mair (V) 1.107v disabling technique; disabling An attack that seeks to disable the opponent’s arm when it is exposed. F
lang: Meyer 1570 1.4v, 21v, 32r, 52v, 53v, 55r, 59v; 2.8r, 14v, 46r porrecta acie longa: Mair (V) 1.107r; porrecte: Mair (V) 1.108r long This can have two overlapping meanings: it is used to describe attacks delivered at maximum distance, with full extension, and can also refer to attacks delivered with the long edge of the weapon. Cf. short. See also cutting long after. Does this imply distance—an extended blow? Meyer 1570 1.52v, 1.53r, 1.53v, 1.54v?, 1.55v; 2.33v at a distance while retreating?; Mair 1.9v, 13r acie longa ferire. Ringen aus langen armen Wallerstein 39r ff. F
lange Arme: Mair (V2) 2.95 porrectis brachiis: Mair (V2) 2.105v at long arms Refers to wrestling with the arms extended. F
langer Ort: Mair (V2) 1.160r, 170r anterior mucro: Mair (V2) 1.160r, 167r; mucro longior: Mair (V2) 1.170r ?long point The tip of a staff weapon. Cf. lenger Ort. But cf. lange Stange Mair (V2) 1.164v, 165v. W
lang Schnitt: Meyer 1570 1.55r longa incisio: Mair (V) 1.8r Long Slice See Longpoint. The Mair instance seems to mean something different. F
lang Zwerch A true-edge Thwart Meyer 1570 1.26r.1 F
lang(e) Schneid: Lecküchner (M) 3v; Egenolph 20v; Mair (V) 1.107v; Meyer 1570 1.4v-5r, 54v, 55r, 60v; 2.28r, 57r, 105v; 3.18r, 18v, 41v, 42v, 47r; gantze Schneid (lit. ‘whole edge’): Gunterrodt D4v; Meyer 1570 1.47r; volle Schneid (lit. ‘full edge’): Meyer 1570 1.10v; vorder Schneid: Döbringer 27v acies longa: Mair (V) 1.1v; acies: Mair (V) 1.100r (of a dusack) long edge The long edge of a bladed weapon is on the knuckle side of the hand, the short edge opposite to it. They are probably so called because the long edge has a greater attack range than the short.

The same terms can be used by analogy for weapons that have no edge. In other traditions, they are often called the true and false edges. Cf. crooked edge; sharp edge; short edge.

Langort: I.33; Ringeck 47v; Starhemberg 27r, 31r, 36r; Lecküchner (M) 14r, 28r, 201r; Cgm 3712 124r ff., 132r; Mair (V) 1.88v, 114v; Meyer 1570 1.7v, 9v, 36v, 37v, 38r, 38v, 39v, 40r, 40v, 41r ff., 51r, 53r, 55r, 60v, 61r; 2.2r, 4v, 17r, 24r, 28r, 30r, 34v, 54v, 75r-v. mucro longius: Mair (V) 1.96r, 114v Longpoint A guard with bladed weapons in which the arm(s) and weapon are extended toward the opponent.

In Meyer 1570, also called the Long Slice. Cf. Straight Parrying.

Can also refer less technically to the sword held in an extended position. Mair (V) 1.25v

lang Schilt: Gladiatoria 49v, 51v, 52r; Falkner 66r judicial dueling shield W
Langschwerdt: Gunterrodt D3r gladius, machaera, xyphomachaera, Romphaea, ensis: Gunterrodt D3r; ensis longis: Mair (V) 1.57r W
Langspieß: Egenolph 46v; Langerspieß: Gunterrodt D3r hasta: Gunterrodt D3r W
lassen (ver)gehn: Mair (V) 1.63r, 64r uti: Mair (V) 1.63r, 64r let run
lassen lauffen: Mair (V) 1.4v, 18r praemittere: Mair (V) 1.4v, 18r; uti: Mair (V) 1.6v, 44r, 101r; usurpare: Mair (V) 1.28v; ferire: Mair (V) 1.30v; praetendere: Mair (V) 1.2v let run Cf. lassen gehn. Refers to a sweeping motion of the blade? Often used of foible.
lauret = lauern lie in ambush
Lauff (in einem) Lauff in a course Meyer 1570 1.33v
lauffen: Mair (V) 1.2v, 4v uti: Mair (V) 1.36r run Refers to any action or motion of the blade? = volvere Mair (V) 1.170v; torquere Mair (V) 1.170v. of the head Mair (V) 1.9v F
legen, ligen: Meyer 1570; legeren: 38v, 46r; schicken sich: Meyer 1570 2.72r; stellen sich: Meyer 1570 2.70v position To take a position, as in one of the four wards. F
Leger: Lecküchner (M) 33r; Cgm 3711 47r; Meyer 1570 1.2r, 5r ff., 46r; 2.2r ff., 18v ff., 52v ff.; 3.16r posture An alternate name for guard (Hut). F
Leib ilia: Mair (V) 1.234v; 2.27v; lumbi: Mair (V) 1.234r; thorax: Mair (V2) 1.238v.3; Mair (V) 2.125v; venter: Mair (V3) 2.145r Body; Torso? Cf. Mair’s other uses of ilia. B
Leibringen: Mair (V2) 2.90v lucta corporalis: Mair (V) 2.104v body-wrestling F
leiss Meyer 1570 1.59v low? gentle? faint?
lembt = lähmen hinder
Leng: Liechtenauer; Wallerstein 3r length Wallerstein uses of extension of the arms and weapon. F
lenger Ort: Meyer 1570 3.16v long tip The tip of a quarterstaff. Cf. short tip. Cf. langer Ort. W
letz/ebicht Flech = auswendig flech Meyer 1570 1.28r “left, turned around, reverse” W
letz: Meyer 1570 1.28r, 35r, 35v, 51v; cf. ebicht, auswendig; ebicht: Meyer 1570 1.11v, 35r back Meyer 1570 1.28r “auswendigen das ist letzer oder ebichter flech”. Of the flat: upper, corresponding to the back side of the main hand. 35r ebichter hand oder auswendiger flech; 35v uber die hand .. das ist mit ebichter oder letzer hand W
letz inversim: Mair (V) 1.56v reversed
letz: Lecküchner (M) 120r awkward
letze Hand: Meyer 1570 1.13r, 35v; ebichte Hand: Meyer 1570 1.13r, 35r, 35v; eppich: Talhoffer 1467pl. 240, 252, 258 back of the hand Attacks delivered “with the back of the hand” come in with the back of the hand toward the opponent. With a two-handed weapon, this refers to dominant hand. Cf. palm toward/away from (the opponent). Meyer 1570 1.13r, 14r. Wallerstein 22r, 23v abich = “inverted”? F
letzen Meyer 1570 3.34r injure hinder Liechtenauer (L) 86 F
linck: Meyer 1570 1.3v, 27v ff. left See right. S
linck: Mair (V) 1.145v (2x) on the left, using the left hand As adverb. S
linke Seite (Schneide) See kurtze Schneid.
Lini: Meyer 1570 1.9v ff., 36r; 2.2v ff., 51v ff., 55v ff.; line The real or imagined lines of the cutting diagrams as shown on Meyer 1570 1.36r, in Dusack Image A, and in Rapier Image A and Meyer 1570 2.58r. See Middle, Scalp, Stroke. F
lösen: Mair (V2) 2.94r.1 domare remove F
Lufftstich: Mair (V) 2.124r punctio que a vento nomen sortitur: Mair (V) 2.124r lofty thrust* F
Luginsland: Lecküchner (M) 33v (ill), 203r ff.; the Speyer Fechtbuch, fols. 6r, 7r; Mair (V), 1.110v; Egenolph 20v sublata: Mair (V) 1.151r; alta custodia: Mair (V) 1.150r; munimentum quod in terras longe distantes prospiciendum esse monet: Mair (V) 1.111v; see also 1.129r Watchtower A falchion/dusack guard with the hilt above the head, the point angling up and forwards. The longsword equivalent is Day Guard.

Cf. Wacht. Grimm, eine der vier 'hunten oder leger' im fechten. SCHM. 1, 1462 Fromm.

Mantel: Mair (V) 2.116v pallium: Mair (V) 2.116v cloak B
Masse: Liechtenauer; Wallerstein 3r-v, 15r measure Wallerstein seems to use of keeping the body low, but 15r seems to be the correct placement of hand and foot. F
Maul: Gladiatoria 44v; Wallerstein 11v, 13r; Paurenfeindt K3r; Dürer pl. 10 #29 (ill) os Mair (V) 1.78v jaw B
Meinung intention
Meister magister: Mair (M) 1.11v master; practitioner Grimm: meister des schwertes hieszen die freifechter: von freifechtrn odr meistrn des schwert.

WASZMANNSDORF sechs fechtschulen s. 13a (v. 1573); die bei ertheilung der meisterschaft ritterliche gebräuche nachahmten: welcher wil meister sein des schwerdts inn diesem ritterlichen scherz, derselb inn die herbstmess allein ziech hin gen Frankfort an den Main, alda wirdt er examiniert ... als denn man jn zum meister schlecht, sanct Marxen bruderschaft entpfecht. 50b (v. 1589); und selbst bei dem unehrlichen des scharfrichters: schwäb. meister, nachrichter, abdecker. SCHMID 381; ebenso westerwäldisch. KEHREIN 277; vgl. auch meistermann; dieses alles sind gewisse vorboten, dasz sie (die kranken pferde) dem meister bald müssen zu theil werden. UFFENBACH neues rossbuch 2, 8; ich .. liesz den meister im langen schwerdt holen, der muste den schaden (an einem brandigen arme) eröffnen. AGRICOLA neue feldscheerkunst (1701) 23; man zog sogar den doctor Treufaug, des alten meisters von Arnheim ehrlich gemachten groszsohn, ins spiel. PESTALOZZI Lienh. u. Gertr. 2, 47

Meisterhäuw: Cgm 3711 45r; Meyer 1570 1.2v, 11r, 15r Master Cuts Five cuts in the longsword (Scalp, Wrath, Thwart, Crooked, Squinting) that were considered especially important in the Liechtenauer tradition. Cgm 3711 lists 6 for longsword. F
Men (MnG Mähne): Wilhalm-Mair Armored 40v mane B
Messer: Gladiatoria 55r; langes Messer: Lecküchner (M) 7r falchion Lit. “(long) knife.” Rendered braquemar in French translation of Paurenfeindt. W
Misthacke: Auerswald H2v, H4r F
Mittel: Meyer 1570 1.25v, 26r Middle The portion of the combat after the initial attack has been executed; also called the Handwork or War. Cf. Onset, Withdrawal. F
Mittel: Meyer 1570 1.5r; mitler Theil: Meyer 1570 3.16v; Mitt: Mair (V) 1.159r midpart With the longsword, the middle part of the blade, between the forte and foible; with staff weapons, the part of the staff between the combatant’s hands. W
mittelarbeiten: Meyer 1570 1.44r work in the Middle F
Mittelhaw: Gladiatoria 53v; Cgm 558 128r; Speyer 3r; Köln 2r; Mair (V) 1.30r; Meyer 1570 1.11r, 26v, 33r, 35r, 39v, 50r, 60v; 2.3v, 20v, 21v, 55r, 60r; 3.28v, 34v; Mittelschlag: Meyer 1570 2.23r; Mittelstreich: Meyer 1570 2.21r. medius ictus: Mair (V) 1.30r Middle Cut, Middle Blow, Middle Stroke A cut or blow delivered horizontally. Köln appears to use it of the Mittelhut.

Also Horizontal Cut. Middle Blow/Stroke are with flat. Medl 27r equates with the Zwerch.

Mittelhut: Meyer 1570 1.40r, 40v; 2.2r, 20r, 43r, 85v, 95r; 3.2v, 17v, 21r ff., 38v ff., 41v Middle Guard With the longsword, dusack, and rapier, this guard has the weapon horizontal at waist height, with the point back. With the dagger, the point is forward. With the quarterstaff, Meyer 1570 gives two definitions, one that equates it with Straight Parrying, the other analogous to the Middle Guard with bladed weapons. With the pike, the butt is on the combattant’s flank and the point in the opponent’s face, again roughly equivalent to Straight Parrying. F
Mittellini: Meyer 1570 1.35r, 61r; 2.3v, 6v Middle Line The horizontal line on the Cross (cutting diagram). Also called the Horizontal or Thwart Line. F
Mittelstich: Meyer 1570 3.9r, 10r, 13r Middle Thrust A thrust delivered at the opponent’s mid-level. F
mitten in der Hellenbarten: Mair (V) l.181r media bipennis: Mair (V) l.181r middle of the halberd W
Mordagst: Mair (V3) 2.152v hastilis: Mair (V3) 2.152v; secures: Mair (V3) 2.153r pollaxe W
Mortschlag: Gladiatoria 11r, 30r; Talhoffer 1467: 33-34; Talhoffer 1459 (V) p. 11; Starhemberg 113v; Czynner 27v ff.; Mordschlag: Mair (V3) 2.149v; Mort: Lecküchner (M) 47r (ill); plaga letalis: Mair (V3) 2.149v Murder-Blow A blow delivered with the hilt of a sword, holding the blade in the hands. Cf. Thunderclap (Donerschlag). With other weapons, this can mean a powerful blow delivered with lethal force and the weapon fully extended.

Gladiatoria 30r describes the use of this technique to bring the opponent to the ground.

Mordstich punctio letalis Mair (V) 2.254r, 256r murder-thrust F
Mordstreich: Talhoffer 1467: pl. 47, 53, 56, 58; Mair (V) 2.11r (with club); Mair (V3) 2.151ar; Mordstrach: Czynner 4r etc. plaga letalis: Mair (V3) 2.151ar; letaliter infligere: Mair (V3) 2.152v; pro viribus infligere: Mair (V3) 2.153r Murder-Stroke F
Mordstuck: Wallerstein 64v ff. F
Mordwurff: Mair (V3) 2.129v ratio pugionis in hostem conjiciendi murder-throw A technique in which one throws the dagger at the opponent. F
mutieren, mutirn: Ringeck 24v; Starhemberg 16v, 20v; mutiren: Lew 17v; Lecküchner (M) 11v ff. (ill), 25v, 197r (ill), 207v; Mair (V) 1.6v, 20v, 75r-v, 100r, 124r-v; Meyer 1570 1.60r; 2.64v; Meyer 1560 80r-v. mutare, mutacio: Mair (V) 1.6v, 20v, 75v, 100r, 149v transmuting In the medieval texts, this refers to an attack from the bind, used against an opponent who is soft on the sword, in which the combatant winds over his opponent’s blade to thrust low. It is unclear whether this meaning was still understood by Mair’s day.

The term appears to have minimal technical implications in Meyer 1570. In Meyer 1560, it seems usually to refer to a change of the line of a thrust between low and high.

nach afterward? toward? Meyer 1570 1.54r (2x). ?Afterwards, then: Gladiatoria 37r-v, 39v, 43v
nach trucken Meyer 1570 1.23r F
nach/noch interchange in Meyer 1570
Nach: Lecküchner (M) 1v; Wallerstein 5v; Mair (V) 1.31v, 35v, 72v-73r, 121v; Meyer 1570 1.24r, 46r; 2.15r, 27v, 56r, 103r; 3.40v sequi: Mair (V) 1.149r After A situation in which one’s opponent has the initiative. Cf. Before (Vor), Instantly (Indes).

See also cutting long after (hawen lang nach).

Nacharbeit: Meyer 1570 1.39v counterattack F
nachdenken study Meyer 1570 2.64v
nachfolgen follow up See hinnach volgen. F
nachfolgen, -volgen: Döbringer 34v; Starhemberg 18v, 28v (doubled with nachreisen—could be as synonyms or contrasting), 69r; Lecküchner (M) 121r; Paurenfeindt C2r; Meyer 1570 1.17v, 33v, 34v, 59v; 2.47v, 79v; nachfahren: Meyer 1570 1.48v; cf. folgen: Meyer 1570 2.41r; nacheilen: Meyer 1570 1.17v, 23v pursuing In some cases, these appear to be used as synonyms for chasing (nachreisen); the distinction between technical and nontechnical senses here is tenuous. Mair (V2) 1.225r “follow up” (the hand with the elbow). F
nachgeben: Kal (V) 127r give way?
nachgehend (Meyer 1570 1.40v) Appropriate to the After? Cf. vorgehend. vorgehend (Meyer 1570 1.40v)
Nachhauw: Gunterrodt E1v; Meyer 1560 82v; Gegenhauw: Meyer 1570 2.62v; gegenhauwen: Meyer 1570 1.28v; nachhawen: Mair (V) 1.104v countercut F
nachreisen: Starhemberg 27v ff.; Cgm 558 126v; Lecküchner (M) 39r ff.; Egenolph 25v; Mair (V) 1.5v ff., 26v, 82v; Cgm 3711 48r; Cgm 3712 120r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.17v, 21v, 26v, 36r, 38v, 51r, 55v, 59r, 59v; 2.38v, 41r, 71r; 3.38v; instare: Mair (V) 1.5v, 151v; instantia: Mair (V) 1.26v; consequutio: Mair (V) 1.94v; ratio urgendi hostem insequendo chasing This seems to generally imply an attack that overtakes the opponent’s initiative. It can be used of an attack into the opponent’s preparation, or a counterattack after the opponent has missed, or an attack that crowds into an opening that the opponent has created.

Cf. nachtretten Mair (V) 1.204r. Medl 34r has a note on the difference between Nach and Nachreisen.

nachreissen: Meyer 1560 81v

?reissen: Mair (V) 1.7v (=insistere) Cf. dringen

progressu: Mair (V) 1.82v; insequi/consequi instando: Mair (V) 1.44r, 60r; urgere: Mair (V) 1.151v; Mair (V3) 2.134r. ?Cf. I.33 sequi
Nachstich: Gunterrodt E1v F
nachtretten: Paurentfeindt B2r; Egenolph 8r, 22r step up ?To deliver a followup attack while advancing. F
nachtrucken: Mair (V2) 94v.3-4; Meyer 1570 1.16v colophonem addidere: Mair (V2) 94v.3; addidere in auxilium: Mair (V2) 94v.4 press after; follow up? Nachtruck n. Mair (V2) 2.123r, 155v, 225r F
Nack: nape The back of the neck. Also Genick (Lecküchner (M) 76v). B
Nagel: Wallerstein 29r ff. hand-guard The side lug on the hilt of a falchion. Also Wehrnagel. W
naigen ?nähen approach. ?neigen bring down
Neben: Mair 1.85v beside S
neben in addition to? Meyer 1570 2.31v
Nebenhut: Ringeck 49r; Speyer 148r; Egenolph 11r, 14r; Mair (V) 2.217v (armored); Meyer 1570 1.8r, 10r, 40r, 40v; 2.91v, 99v; 3.16v, 38r ff., 42v f., 44v Side Guard A guard with the longsword and staff weapons, with the grip of the weapon at hip height, the tip extending back and down. In Meyer 1570’s rapier system, this term is used for the right-hand version of the Low Guard. With Meyer 1570’s pike, the butt is on the flank, the point low (similar to the rapier version). La Noble Science translates as Garde du coste.

Mair-Wilhalm Armored 31v ff. uses it of a mounted combat guard.

nechst just, just now Meyer 1570 1.44r. (den) nechsten as quickly as possible? Meyer 1570 2.48v
ne(h)men: Mair (V2) 1.190v, 225v; Meyer 1570 2.16r ff.29r, 44r; 3.47r; ausnemen: Falkner 46v; Meyer 1570 1.40v, 2.29r, 34v, 70v, 85r; ?annemen: Meyer 1570 2.24v taking, taking out; ?intercepting To intercept the opponent’s attack or strike his weapon out to the side.

Cf. Schöffer von Dietz (1620) 1.4 pariren, das ist wann man mit der Klingen versetzet oder außnimpt.

ne(h)men: Meyer 1570 3.34r, 36r, 37r; pnemen: Lecküchner (M) 118v ff. taking To take control of the opponent’s weapon. F
nehmen: Lecküchner (M) 131r ff. Messer nehmen: to take away the falchion. F
nehmen: Egenolph 6r; Mair (V) 1.27v, 37r arripere: Mair (V) 1.106v execute
nemen fur sich: Mair (V) 1.18v observare ut See that you…
nehmen wider: Mair (V) 57r rursus arripere: Mair (V) 57r
nehmen take a body part out of the way Meyer 1570 1.47v.2, 1.51r.2, 54r.2, 54r.3. of a flourished blow Meyer 1570 1.33r; learn Meyer 1570 2.97r F
neidlichen aggressively
Nehmer: Meyer 1570 2.16r ff., 67r f. Taker See Hitter. F
Notstuck: Lecküchner (M) 136r emergency technique A technique used by an unarmed combatant against an armed opponent. F
Noterczunge: Döbringer 44v F
nötten = nötteln, notten? (shake) Liechtenauer (L) 31
ob conjuncta et admota: Mair (V) 2.152v; supra: Mair (V) 2.154r ob deinem schenckel = supra pede Mair (V) 2.249r; ob seiner klingen = super ense hostis Mair (V) 2.125r S
Oberhauw schlims: Meyer 1570 2.57v diagonal High Cut In the rapier, an alternative name for the Wrath Cut. The distinction of the cuts into four separate angles of incidence (vertically downward, diagonally downward, across, and diagonally upward) is a particular characteristic of Meyer 1570; other German treatises tend to distinguish only between downward cuts and upward cuts. F
Oberhaw: Gladiatoria 52r; Ringeck 24v, 29v, 30r; Starhemberg 17r; Cgm 558 125r ff.; Talhoffer 1467: 1, 3, 17, 28; Lecküchner (M) 130v; Mair (V) 1.9v, 10v, 29r, 51r, 66r, 74r; Cgm 3712 97r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.11r, 35r.3, 40r, 43r, 49v, 50v, 51v, 53r, 53v, 57r, 60v, 64r, 64v; 2.3v, 7r, 9r, 11r, 55r-v; 3.32r ff. ictum supernum: Mair (V) 1.29r, 99v High Cut A cut directed downwards from above.

In Meyer 1570, this is used specifically of a vertical downward cut, but the prior tradition uses it more generically of any downward cut; Meyer 1570 equates it with the Scalp Cut. (Scheitelhaw). See also diagonal High Cut.

oberhengen: Lecküchner (M) 198v; Cgm 3711 45v; überhengen: Lecküchner (M) 199r; Mair (V) 1.3v, 88r, 90v, 146r; Meyer 1570 1.63v; oberhengen: Döbringer 32r, 52v propendere: Mair (V) 1.3v; superinjectio: Mair (V) 1.96v High Hanging In longsword and falchion/dusack combat, the Ox (Ochs) or Steer (Stier) as used in parrying and winding. See hanging (hengen). F
Oberhut: Starhemberg 87r; Cgm 558 127v, 129r; Czynner 1r; Meyer 1570 1.6v, 42v; 2.20r, 32r; 2.53v, 86v, 91r, 104v; 3.1r, 16v, 18r ff., 34v, 38v ff., 40v ff.; Oberleger: Köln 3r, 13v High Guard A guard in which the weapon is held high. With the longsword, this is another name for the Day. In the dusack, this is an alternative name for the Watch. In the rapier, the hilt is high and forward; the point can be forward (High Guard for the thrust, also called the Ox) or backward (High Guard for the stroke). In the dagger, the weapon is held high with the point forward. In the quarterstaff and halberd, the butt of the weapon is by the combatant’s flank and the point straight in the air; in the pike, there are again two versions: the High Guard for the thrust, with the weapon on the shoulder and the point at the opponent’s face, and the High Guard for the blow, in which the point angles upward. Starhemberg 87r and Czynner use it of an armored guard.

Mair-Wilhalm Armored 32r uses it of a mounted guard.

Oberleger: Meyer 1570 2.41r; Oberhut: Meyer 1570 1.38v; 2.24r-v, 32v, 42r high posture Any posture in which the sword is held high or naturally delivers an attack from above, for example Ox, Steer, or Wrath. F
ober Ort: Mair (V2) 1.155r High Point? The tip of a staff weapon? F
Ober Schilt: Falkner 48r High Shield A dagger defense executed at the armor-stance. F
Oberschnitt: Lecküchner (M) 104v; Cgm 3711 32r-v (ill); Meyer 1570 1.21v High Slice A slice executed downward from above, apparently in the Plow/Boar position. F
Oberstich: Meyer 1570 2.35v, 61r; 3.13r, 38v High Thrust A thrust delivered from above. F
obschon although, even if
Ochs: Döbringer 32r; Ringeck 34r; Starhemberg 25v, 37v; Lew 28r; Köln 5r; Mair (V) 1.3v, 19v, 48v, 115r; Cgm 3711 45v, 47r; Cgm 3712 112r-v; Meyer 1570 1.6v, 11v, 36r ff., 46r, 56v; 2.53v, 59r ff.; 3.32r. Bos: Mair (V) 1.19v, 94r Ox A longsword guard in which the weapon is held by the side of the head, with the point extended toward the opponent’s face. The weapon extends from the combattant’s head like the horn of an ox. Traditionally this position was called the Steer (Stier) with the falchion, but Mair also uses the term for the dusack.

In Meyer 1570’s rapier, this is another name for the High Guard for the thrust. Hochort: Egenolph 5r ff. The use in Köln seems to be quite different.

offen Hand palm Meyer 1570 2.9v B
offen Hut: Mair (V2) 1.167r custodia aperta: Mair (V2) 1.167r Medl 29v uses offen as the contrary of krump. F
ohn- see un-
ohne das moreover Grimm ohne II 2
ohngefehr “by chance, more or less, incidentally, certainly” Meyer 1570 1.10r, incidentally, ‘should happen’. See un-
Ort target Meyer 1570 2.74r F
Ort: Lecküchner (M) 4r ff. thrust F
Ort: Gladiatoria 45r; Meyer 1570; Döbringer 19r; vorder Ort: “forward point” mucro Mair (V) 1r point The term ‘forward point’ is often used to distinguish the point of the weapon from the butt end, sometimes called the ‘rear point’ (hinder Ort). W
ober/under Ort: Mair (V) 1.10r High/Low Thrust F
Parate: Döbringer 44v F
Part: Gladiatoria 57v; Mair- Wilhalm Armored 10v bevor =Bart B
Paurnstreich: Lecküchner (M) 22v; Egenolph 24v-25r; Pawrenschlag: Lecküchner (M) 22v; peurlems (adv.): Kal (V) 127r peasant-stroke A powerful but undisciplined attack stroke delivered from above. = Püffelstreich. pawrisch adv. Lecküchner (M) 22v. Cf. Wallerstein 41v. ringen als die pauern Dürer 13 #38, 29 #86. F
Peren stoß: Wallerstein 15v A wrestling technique. F
Pflug: Ringeck 34r, 40r; Starhemberg 25v, 30v, 37v; Lew 28v; Egenolph 9v; Mair (V) 1.4r, 11v, 30v, 37r, 60r; Cgm 3711 45v, 47r; Cgm 3712 112r-v; Meyer 1570 1.6v, 53r, 56v, 63v; 2.54v, 95r ff., 97r.; Pluck: Köln 4r Aratrus: Mair (V) 1.4r, 94r Plow A longsword guard in which the hilt of the weapon is held by the hip, with the point angling upward toward the opponent’s face. The falchion/dusack equivalent is Boar.

In Meyer 1570’s longsword, a guard in which the hilt is held low inside or outside the forward knee, the crossbar horizontal, thumb on the blade, with the point directed toward the opponent’s face. In the longsword, Meyer 1570’s left version has the left foot forward, the right has the right foot forward, contrary to his version in the rapier, as well as to other authors and the norms of the German tradition. L Meyer 1570 2.95r. R Meyer 1570 2.97r. Mair (V) 1.37r seems to have a variant version.

Pfobenczagel: Döbringer 44v, 47v, 48v F
Pfriem: Paurenfeindt H2r, Egenolph 22v bodkin, stiletto W
Plat: Falkner 63v; Mair (V2) 1.174v; Mair (V3) 2.149r lamina, id est pars bipennis plavida: Mair (V2) 1.176r; bipennis locus latior: Mair (V) 1.181r blade The blade of a halberd. W
Plitzhawen: Egenolph 10r Cf. Glützhaw? F
Ploßschwert: Mair (V) 2.216r dueling sword? W
possen, pussen: Lecküchner 175, 404, 503 strike
Practick: Meyer 1570 1.28v, 30v; 2.84v Craft Meyer 1570’s term for the execution of techniques in strategic combination in order to overcome the opponent. F
Prellhauw, Brell-: Meyer 1570 1.13r, 36v; Brellhauw: 36v. Rebound Cut A longsword cut delivered doubly using the rebound. F
Pressen: Mair-Wilhalm Armored 38r, 39r pressing? A mounted combat technique. F
Prusthaw: : Mair (V2) 1.173v impulsusqui de pectore formatur, et pectus itidem Chest Cut A cut with the halberd. F
ejus sauciatur: Mair (V2) 1.173v, 161r
Puckler: Gladiatoria 54v buckler W
Punckt: Meyer 1570 2.3v, 81r, 2.58r Midpoint The middle point on the Cross (cutting diagram). F
Radt: Lecküchner (M) 66r-v; Paurenfeindt E2r; Egenolph 29r; Meyer 1570 1.39v; 2.88r; Meyer 1560 84v; cf. Döbringer 47v; Rad: Mair (V) 1.138v; Mair (V) 2.24v ff. Radtstreich: Meyer 1560 85r Rota: Mair (V) 1.152v wheel ?A technique in which the weapon is brandished prior to attacking in order to confuse the opponent. It is unclear whether this simply means a circular motion, or implies a precise technical meaning.

Cf. Rad in Mair (V), fol. 1.173v; Redel in the Ringeck Fechtbuch, fol. 52r. ?rat Egenolph 14r. Auerswald B3r, D4r, E6v seems to be a different meaning. Cf. Rinde.

Ram: Lecküchner ?target Cf. remen? F
Rappier: Gunterrodt D3r; Rapir: Mair (V) 2.128v framea: Gunterrodt D3r; ensis Hispanus: Mair (V) 2.128v rapier W
rauschen: Meyer 1570 1.60v (ab)rauschen Meyer 1570 2.36v, 37v. Glance off. ?Also = eilen: Meyer 1570 1.60v F
rechen vindicare: Mair (V) 1.149v
recht treffen “just as it hits?” Meyer 1570 2.15r; esp. cf. 1.27v.1 to 1.28v.1; 1.46r very telling too; Meyer 1570 2.67v.2. nicht recht treffen = leviter pungere Mair (V) 1.152v
recht: Meyer 1570 1.3v, 27v ff. right When describing the targets of the opponent, right and left normally refer to the opponent’s own right and left (cf. Meyer 1570 1.13r, 28r, 35v). When describing guards, right and left generally indicate which side of the body the weapon is on (with the longword, the leg on that side will normally be back, the other forward), except as noted in this glossary. Ligen an der rechten/lincken seitten Leck 118v seems to refer to the relative positions of the swords. Wenden sich auf sein rechte seitten = versus latus sui corporis dextrum se convertere Mair (V) 1.112v S
recht Schneid: Lecküchner (M) 13r, 14v, (H) 7v right edge A synonym for long edge (lang Schneid). W
Redel: Ringeck 52r Same as Rose? F
Redlin: Speyer 3r; Auerswald B6r ff., E4r
reiben; raiden: Starhemberg 96r, 96v; reiden: Gladiatoria 46r; reiden: Mair (D) 236v.2 twist
reissen = attack Meyer 1570 1.26r; ?Lecküchner (M) 212r F
reissen: Gladiatoria 52v, 53r; Starhemberg 13v?; Mair (V) 7v, 9v, 38v, 16v, 32v, 34v, 36v, 38r, 38v; Meyer 1570 1.43r?, 62r, 62v; 3.1r ff., 35r; force: Meyer 1570 1.50r, 51v, 61v; zwingen: Meyer 1570 1.40r; riß (n.): Meyer 1570 1.33v, 35r.2, 39v, 50r. See also ausreissen. insistere: Mair (V) 1.7v; inflectere: Mair (V) 1.16v attrahere: Mair (V) 1.38v; rumpere: Mair (V) 1.32v; vellere: Mair (V) 1.38v; deprimere: Mair (V) 1.152r forcing, wrench; attack? 35r Riß a forcing, a wrenching, Meyer 1570 1.35r, 50r (parallel with ausreissen), 39v; rushing? 33v, 35r, 50r. Cf. wrenching. La Noble Science translates as Lever croix a croix. Czynner 6v ff. has a series of techniques labeled reissen. F
reissen: Lecküchner (M) 3v, 205v; Meyer 1570 1.35r.2; 2.8r-v; 3.2r, 18v, 21v, 30v, 32r-v, 34v, 94v; 3.43r; ausreissen: Meyer 1570 2.45v, 89r, 90v, 104r, 3.18v- 19r, 30v; durchreissen: Meyer 1570 1.55r; 2.8v; Riß: Meyer 1570 1.35r, 2.25v, 70v, 89r; 3.1r, 2r, 2v; übersich reissen: Meyer 1570 2.8r, 94v; 3.43r. slashing To execute a cutting motion of the blade leading with the short edge. = streichen
Reithammer: Gunterrodt D3r cestra: Gunterrodt D3r ?warhammer W
Reitschwerdt: Paurenfeindt A3r W
Reitzer: Meyer 1570 2.16r ff. Provoker See Hitter (Treffer). F
Relyn: Köln 15r F
remen: Liechtenauer 63; Döbringer 20r; Lecküchner seek, try for, aim for
resch: Gladiatoria 36v briskly
Restricta: Meyer 1570 3.2r The transverse lines at the base of the palm.



richten: Meyer 1570 1.1r arrange carry out, execute Meyer 1570 1.29r, 2.80v F
Rigel: Cgm 558 132r; Auerswald E2v (ill), E5r ff.; Landshut 4v; Mair (V2) 2.45r pessulus: Mair (V) 2.45r bolt A wrestling technique. Cf. Lew 44v verrigeln. F
Rinde, Runde: Meyer 1570 1.14r, 20v, 40v, 51r; Meyer 1560 81r; rinden: Meyer 1570 1.17v loop, looping An action in which the combatant arcs his sword around his head, used to deceive the opponent (?). Cf. Radt. F
Ring: Talhoffer 1459 (C) 9v lists The enclosure around a judicial duel. According to Talhoffer 1459 (C), the combatants are not allowed to come outside of it. Also called the Schrank [Talhoffer (1467) pl. 68]. W
ringen, rangen: Gunterrodt D4r lucta: Mair wrestling F
Ringharnisch: Czynner 33r Mail? B
under Rist: Kal (V) 127r ankle? instep? B
Rose, Rosen: Speyer 3r; Paurenfeindt A4r; Egenolph 5v, 6r, 9v; Mair (V) 1.7v, 12r, 24r; Meyer 1570 1.40v, 41r, 42r; 2.35r, 45v, 64r; 3.20v; Rosenhauw: Meyer 1570 2.9r, 11r, 45v; Meyer 1560 56r rosa: Mair (V) 1.7v, 24r Rose, Rose Cut Mentioned by Mair, Meyer 1570, and Egenolph, but never described explicitly. The term may refer to an action that arcs around the opponent’s weapon; the tip of the weapon may describe the shape of a flower’s petals.

La Noble Science translates durch die Rosen as parmy les roses, suggesting that the translator found the term opaque.

Ruck: Lecküchner (M) 186r; Paurenfeindt G3r; Egenolph 21r back The short edge on a dusack or falchion.
rucken: Gladiatoria 21v; Lecküchner (H) 62v.1 (= M zucken), 94r; Meyer 1570 1.19v, 33r; Ruck: Meyer 1570 1.26v, 34v, 47r, 48v; ausrucken: Meyer 1570 1.63r jerking, jerk; jerking out Not necessarily a pulling motion—cf Meyer 1570 3.23r.2. A second meaning is suggested by Lecküchner (M) 84r and elsewhere “jerk hard to him with your hilt”, perhaps “come close to him with a jerking motion of the weapon”? F
Rundel: Mair (V3) 2.144v; Rodel: Paurenfeindt K3r clypeus orbicularis: buckler W
Mair (V3) 2.144v
Rundstreich: Meyer 1570 2.59r-v; 3.37r; Rundhauw: Meyer 1570 3.37r Round Stroke, Round Cut In the rapier, a pair of cuts delivered opposite each other in a circular motion. A double Round Stroke delivers three cuts in an S-pattern. Meyer 1570 does not explain the staff weapon version of the Round Stroke: it may be a cut delivered with a wind-up. F
Rung: Meyer 1570 1.63r wrestling? F
ruren, ruoren: Lecküchner (M) 73r; Ruor: Mair (V) 1.108v connect Cf. glützen; treffen. Rur = contactus Mair (V) 1.108v F
Rüsthaggen: Mair (V) 2.280r Lance-rest W
Rüsthauw: Meyer 1570 2.11v Armor Cut Another name for the Anger Cut. F
sampt as if Meyer 1570 2.66v
Schaffgriff: Starhemberg 98v; Speyer 151r; Falkner 72r Sheep Grip A wrestling technique on horseback. Also edel Schaffgriff. F
Schaft: Lecküchner (H) = M 196v Grimm Schaft 4cα “grip” W
Schaller: Mair-Wilhalm Armored 37r sallet W
scharpfe Schneid: Lecküchner (M) 19r, 33v, sharp edge A synonym for the long edge of a falchion/dusack. W
67v; Egenolph 20v; Mair (V) 133r, 133v, 139r; Meyer 1570 2.60r Usually contrasted with stumpfe Schneid.
schawen see, ensure Meyer 1570 1.63r, 2.67r. Look Grimm
Scheftlin: Paurenfeindt I2r; Egenolph 46v, Mair (V) 2.15r Hastula qua peregrinantes utuntur: Mair (V) 2.15r ?leading staff W
Scheib(e: Starhemberg 94v; Egenolph 34r; Czynner 45v; Mair (V2) 2.226r; Schaid: Starhemberg 94v lamina rotunda: Mair (V2) 2.226r; lamina: Mair (V2) 2.226r handguard The disc-like guard on a dagger. W
Sche(i)delhaw, Scheitelhaw: Cgm 3711 46v; Meyer 1570 1.2r, 11r, 35v; 2.55r-v; Scheidler: Meyer 1570 1.44v; schaitlen, schaittelen: Mair (V) 1.3r, 4r, 30r; Meyer 1570 2.55v; Schaitlerhaw: Mair (V) 1.3r, 10v, 80r ff.; Schaitler: Mair (V) 1.10v, 19r, 97r; Scheitelhaw, ictus quo capitis vertex appetitur: Mair (V) 1.19r, 97r, 103r Scalp Cut; Scalper; Scalping A vertical cut from above to the top of the head; the sources are not detailed in describing it, but comparison to the analogous Danger Cut (Geferhaw) in the falchion suggests that the blade may be rotated to angle down toward its target. The term traditionally is only applied to the longsword, but Mair also uses it for the dusack.

Meyer 1570 equates it with the High Cut; in the rapier, he also calls it the Brain Blow. Scheitel Vertex (crown of head) Mair (V) 1.3r, 30r; Meyer 1570 1.3v, .21r. Medl 30v, 37r equates the Schaitler with the Sturtzhaw.

Schaitler: Ringeck 32v ff.; Starhemberg 24v ff.; Cgm 3712 107v, 117r
Scheidellini, Scheittel-: Meyer 1570 1.33v; 2.2r, 3v Scalp Line The vertical line on the Cross (cutting diagram). F
Scheller: Köln 5r A tecique W
Schel?: Gunterrodt D2v A term for the dusack? W
Schenckelhauw: Meyer 1570 2.55r Thigh Cut In the rapier, a diagonal cut delivered at the level of the opponent’s thigh. F
Schenkel; Schenkel (des rechten Fuß): Mair (V2) 2.92v.2 pes: Mair (V) 1.1v, nodus pedis: Mair (V2) 2.92v.2; crus Mair (V) 3r; superior pars pedis: Mair (V2) 1.215r, 216v; superior pes: Mair (V2) 2.84v Normally Schenkel = thigh, but cf Auerswald H3r, Mair, and Meyer 1570 2.36r, where it evidently means foot or leg. B
Scher: Falkner 49r; Mair (V) 2.127r (with rapier and dagger); Schär: Talhoffer 1467 pl. 174, 177, 184 forpex: Mair (V) 2.127r; forpex id est cum brachiis cancellatis: Mair (V2) 2.22r; Mair (V2) 1.192v; forpex, id est cum manus more forpicis constituuntur: Mair (V2) 1.203v Scissors, *Shears? A posture with the dagger with the arms crossed. Speyer 139r-v (from Ott). *Halb Scher Mair (V2) 1.193r. F
Scher: Gladiatoria 22r ff.; Gladiatoria (Vie) 20r ff.; Mair-Wilhalm Armored 13v An armored technique in which the swords are crossed over each other. F
scheuben torquere: Mair (V) 2.114r Equated with schiessen Lecküchner (M) 38v, 188v ff.; alternates with scheussen in Mair (V/D) 1.174v Elsewhere seems to mean shove? Lecküchner (M) 191r F
scheuben: Lecküchner (M) 4v, 5v, 23v shove What action does Lecküchner actually have in mind? F
scheussen: Lecküchner (M) 38v; Schuß: Lecküchner (M) 38v, 188v protendere Mair (V) 5r thrust Equated with schiessen and scheuben Lecküchner (M) 188v. F
schicken, anschicken comport, act Meyer 1570 1.12v, 2.59v, 2.83v. See also legen.
Schi(e)lhauw: Meyer 1570 1.11v, 16r, 43r, 47r, 52v- ictus qui a limis oculis aut Squinting Cut, Squinter A cut delivered from above with the short edge. In the final position, the combatant looks sideways at his opponent, whence the name. The term was F
54v; 2.55r, 57r; Schillerhauw: Mair (V) 1.2v, 78v ff.; Meyer 1570 1.18v; Schieler: Meyer 1570 1.47r, 52v. Schielhaw, Schil-; Schieler: Ringeck 31r; Starhemberg 23r ff.; Cgm 3712 113v ff.; Schiller: Mair (V) 1.78v ff.; Schilcher: Cgm 3711 46r; schillen (v.): Mair (V) 1.30r, 113r; Schilder: Köln 4v strabonibus nomen adeptus est: Mair (V) 1.2v, 113r, 114r traditionally for the longsword, the falchion/dusack equivalent being Constrainer Cut, but Mair extends the use to the dusack. Mair’s sequences often offer this as an alternative to the Scalper, the two cuts being very similar save for the long-edge/short-edge distinction (cf. Mair (V) 1.114r).

The term can also mean a deception with the eyes (cf. Mair (V) 1.79r; Meyer 1570 1.18v); Köln 4v.

Meyer 1570 52v, 55r, 58r: L version; also 53r (2x). Medl 29r, 39v equates this with the Wechselhaw.

schieben, fürtschieben thrust, extend Meyer 1570 2.9r, 11r, 29v, 30r F
schieben, scheuben: Lecküchner (M) 20v, 23v; Meyer 1570 1. 50r, 53r; 2.42r.2; 3.43v thrust, push? Push (pommel) Meyer 1570 1,17v?, 54r. Shove? F
schier: Liechtenauer (L) 174 prope: Mair (V) 1.153r at once; close? Grimm II, 1
Schierprandt: Cgm 3711 74v A half-sword technique. Cf. brentschirn. F
schiessen: Meyer 1570 1.35r, 36v, 38r, 38v; scheussen: Mair (V) 1.16v, 25r, 33v, 39v, 102v, 112r, 113v, 118r; scheuben: Mair (V) 1.118v; einschiessen: Lecküchner (M) 189r; Mair (V) 1.122v, 138r; Meyer 1570 1.40v, 53r; einscheussen: Mair (V) 1.11r, 13r; überschiessen: Mair (V) 1.23v, 51r, 67v; Meyer 1570 1.57r; durchschiessen: Meyer 1570 1.30r, 50v, 54r; überschieben: Meyer 1570 3.24r (see also Paurenfeindt/Egenolff longsword section for this term.) impellere: Mair (V) 1.16v, 25r; propellere: Mair (V) 1.33v; superna impulsio (= überschiessen) Mair (V) 1.67v shooting This term appears to refer to an inverted thrusting action, executed at the opponent or over his weapon or arm, with the short edge angled fully or partly downward.

Mair (V) 1.11r, 16v, 39v, 102v, 118r, 118v, 122v has long edge up. Mair (V) 1.33v has thumb above. Mair (V) 1.13r, 112r, 113v shoots at face with short edge. Mair (V) 1.23v shoots short edge over opponent’s sword. Mair (V) 1.51r shoots short edge over arms. Mair (V) 1.25r shoots Longpoint in with crossed arms; 138r shoots Longpoint in with thumb above. La Noble Science translates durchschiessen as passer dessoubz. (ein)schiessen Mair (V) 1.11r, 63v (=impulsus). Meyer 1570 2.6r. = revolvere Mair (V) 1.170r. Cf. scheuben.

Gladiatoria (V) 5v schos is done with the spear overhand in a raised position, but could be either a jab or throw.

Schilt: Gunterrodt D3v shield Of a buckler W
Schilt: Talhoffer 1459 (C) 64v, 70r; Talhoffer 1467 pl. 171, 185 A dagger defense in the “half-sword” position? F
Schilt: Lecküchner (M) 26r, 129v Used of parrying. Köln 2r seems to use it of a guard position, but the text is far from clear. Cf. also Köln 4r, 4v. F
Schilt: Egenolph 14v; Mair (V) 1.34v, 39r, 56r; Meyer 1570 1.34v, 35v, 38r, 42v, 51r clypeus, id est locus ensis latiores infra gladii cruce attigeriti (“the shield, that is the wider parts of the blade next to the crossbar of the sword”) Mair (V) 1.34v, 39r, 56r; clypeum, quę est pars latior ensis juxta crucem, sed paulo inferior: Mair (V) 2.110r shield The broad part of a practice longsword blade near the hilt, roughly corresponding to the ricasso.

?The area generally around the hilt Mair (V) 2.290v. Cf. Lecküchner (M) 26r where it is used to refer to “parrying”—but presumably with the forte of the blade.

Schimpff: Gladiatoria 54v, 55r; Ringeck 16v; Lecküchner (M) 171r, 183r; schimpflich: Lecküchner (M) 183r sport Cf. Schule? F
Schinbein: Mair (V) 2.57v crus: Mair (V) 2.57v shin B
Schirenbrand: Mair-Wilhalm Armored 15v An armored technique in which the combatants circles his tip around to deceive the opponent. F
Schirtzen (?):Mair-Wilhalm Armored 34r F
Schlachtschwerdt: Gunterrodt D3r; Paurenfeindt A3r A term for the longsword? W
Schlag: Meyer 1570 2.30r, 61r, 107r; 3.21r, 43v Cf. I. 33 plaga blow See striking. Occasionally used of attacks with the edge (e.g. Meyer 1570 1.56v). Used instead of hauw for staff Meyer 1570 3.28v; with the flat Meyer 1570 2.45v F
schlagender Ort: Lecküchner (H) 100v striking point The pommel of a sword, as used offensively; the term comes from armored longsword combat, in which the weapon has two points: the thrusting point at one end, and the striking point at the other. W
schlagen lang nach: Meyer 1570 3.31r striking long after See cutting long after. F
schlagen: Lecküchner (M) 83v, 183r; Meyer 1570 1.13r, 29v, 36v, 38r, 42r, 60r; 2.30r, 32r, 37v, 45r, 104r; 3.13v, 18r, 38v, 43r; streichen: Meyer 1570 1.10r, 15r striking These are the verbs corresponding to blow and stroke. The terms usually— but not always—refer to an attack with the flat or short edge of a bladed weapon, or with a blunt surface of another weapon, as opposed to the cut and slice, which are delivered with sharp (or theoretically sharp) surfaces. Note however that streichen can in some cases overlap with slashing. Lecküchner (M) 83v has it of the short edge. F
schlaudern: Paurenfeindt B1r; Egenolph 6r; Meyer 1570 1.5r, 19r, 60r, 60v; 2.25v slinging To deliver a flinging cut with the tip of the weapon. La Noble Science translates as trainer du long coup [MnG schleudern] F
schlecht: Döbringer 23r; Lecküchner 147, Cgm 32r; Meyer 1570 2.2v, 38v simply, straight. Lecküchner 147 contrasts with krump.
schleuen: Lecküchner (M) 54r ?Slip. Cf. schliefen.
schliessen Meyer 1570 3.3r
schlimm diagonal, angled downward Meyer 1570 1.11r (of Wrath Cut), Meyer 1570 1.64v, 1.36r; 2.3v; 36v (contrasts with uberzwerch); Meyer 1570 1.11v (schlims uber ort, of Wrath Cut). Cf. hangende, auffsteigende. Used for upward: Meyer 1570 2.90v. Cf. schlimshauw Cgm 558 129r, 131v.
Schloß: Lecküchner (H) 47v.3 lock F
Schloß: Gladiatoria 48r; Schös: Gladiatoria (Vie) 48v pelvis B
Schlosringen: Falkner 50r, 71v habitus pesselatus: Mair (V) 2.25v; intercludendus: Mair (V) 2.49r Falkner uses this of a locking technique in dagger combat, and as a synonym for Sonnenzaigen in 71v. F
Schlüssel: Egenolph 22v (dagger); Meyer 1570 1.9r, 33v.1, 38v ff., 40r Key In the longsword, a guard in which the sword is held horizontally at the base of the chest, point forward, false edge resting on the forward arm. In dagger or unarmed fighting, ?equivalent to Crossed Guard. F
schnappen: Ringeck 36r; Starhemberg 34v; Lew 45v; Wallerstein 4r; Mair (V) 1.87r; Meyer 1570 1.14v, 17v, 55r. snapping To execute a flicking attack with the weapon.

Cf. flicking.

Schneide: Döbringer 19r edge See lange, kurtze, etc. W
schneiden see Schnitt
schnellen: Lew 45v; Lecküchner (M) 89r, 214v; Egenolph 31r; Mair (V) 1.87r; Meyer 1570 1.35v, 37v, 38v, 46r, 48v, 49v, 50r, 50v, 51r, 51v, 55r, 61r; 2.33v, 34r; Schnall: Meyer 1570 1.21r, 31v, 49v, 50r, 51r; 2.12v; Schneller: Meyer 1570 1.14v, 37v; Schnellhauw: Meyer 1570 2.13v, 37v; Meyer 1560 50v flicking, flick; Flicking Cut A flicking attack, probably delivered with the tip of the weapon.

Cf. cutting; snapping; Tag-Hit. Contrasted to cutting Meyer 1570 1.38v.

Schnitt: Ringeck 33v, 53r; Starhemberg 19v, 25r, 34v ff.; Talhoffer 1467: 21; Lecküchner (M) 102v ff., 177r; Mair (V) 1.5v ff., 16r, 17r ff., 22v, 44v, 49r, 50r; Cgm 3712 126 ff.; Meyer 1570 1.5r, 18r, 21r, 21v, 22v, 26v, 34v, 36r, 48v, 55r, 56v, 58r, 59r-60v, 64v; 2.33v, 34r, 38v, 39r; schneiden: Wallerstein 8r; Lecküchner (M) 102v ff., 177r (ill); Mair (V) 1.24v, 32v, 30r, 45r-v, 46v; Meyer 1570 1.18r, 34v, 36r, 46r, 50v, 51r, 55v, 59r, 59v; 2.34r, 39r, 61r, 72v; alt Schnitt: Cgm 3712 129r; Meyer 1570 59r; *of a halberd: Mair (V2) 1.180r incisio: Mair (V) 1.50r; Mair (V2) 1.180r; perstringere: Mair (V) 1.32v; stringere: Mair (V) 1.30r; proscindere: Mair (V) 1.46v; saucire: Mair (V) 1.1v; conscindere: Mair (V) 1.3v; constringere: Mair (V) 1.4v slice, slicing One of the three chief attacks with a bladed weapon (thrust, cut, slice). The slice is generally executed with the long-edge forte, applying the blade to the opponent and moving it along its lengthwise axis to injure.

How this technique would have worked in sporting combat remains to be understood. Cf. High Slice, Low Slice. In Meyer 1570’s rapier and dusack, it typically appears to mean cutting against the opponent or his weapon with a slicing action, with the blade angling back from the hand. Cf. drawing. Krumpschneide: Meyer 1570 58r; schneiden in die Wehre: Mair (V) 82v. Used of technique holding both swords Mair (V) 1.17r.

Of a pollaxe: Mair (V3) 2.151av

Schnitt: Meyer 1570 2.2r, 10r, 16r, 32v ff. Slice In Meyer 1570’s dusack, this is an alternative name for the Straight Parrying. F
Schopf: Wilhalm-Mair Armored 40v A horse’s forelock? Schopfraiff Wilhalm-Mair Armored 42v B
Schopfhut custodia jubata: Mair (V) 2.297r F
Schopfgriff: Wilhalm-Mair Armored 42v; Mair (V) 2.308v Wilhalm-Mair Armored 42v suggests that this refers to gripping the horse’s forelock. F
Schöfferschlag, -streich: Meyer 1570 3.24r Crest Blow A quarterstaff blow from above delivered one-handed, with the right hand reversed on the staff (?). The translation of the name remains somewhat uncertain since the definition of the blow is unclear. Cf. Mair (V) 2.297r F
Schragen: Auerswald F6r, G5v; Landshut 3r correptio corporis: Mair (V) 2.52r A wrestling technique F
Schrank: Talhoffer 1459 (C) 10v; Czynner 1r, 33v; lists The enclosure around a judicial combat. Also called the Ring. W
Schrenken: Gladiatoria (Vie) 6v
Schranckhut: Döbringer 32r, 48v, 52v; Ringeck 25v, 51v; Starhemberg 17r-v; Lecküchner (M) 14v, 17r-v ff. (?ill); Egenolph 19r, 20r (for the falchion); Mair (V) 1.32v, 54r, 99r, 76r, 125r; Meyer 1570 1.8r, 40r; Schranck: Lecküchner (M) 14v custodia cancellata: Mair (V) 1.54r, 99r Crossed Guard In traditional German technique, this appears to be the final position of a Crooked Cut, with the hilt forward and the blade angling to the right (long edge up) or left (short edge up).

The two primary manuscripts of Lecküchner seem to have different versions of this guard: in M, it appears to resemble Change (Wechsel) in the longsword, with the weapon extended out to the side, the short edge toward the opponent; in H, the position may be akin to the longsword version, with the hand forward, and the blade extending sideways, either to the left with the short edge up, or to the right with the long edge up. For Meyer 1570, it seems to be similar to the Hanging Point, but with the hands and weapon lower; he also calls it Irongate.

Mair-Wilhalm Armored 14r uses the term in relation to the Scher technique, referring to the point at which the blades are crossed over each other.

schrenck: Meyer 1570 1.19v, 55v Crossed over one another. S
schrenken: Mair (V2) 2.92r, 94v.2 cancellare: Mair (V2) 1.49r, 2.92r.1 To cross one leg over the opponent’s in wrestling. F
Schritt, schreiten: Gladiatoria 11r, 14r; Ringeck 25r; schreiten: Lecküchner (M) 69r; schreten: Döbringer 22v; Schrete: Döbringer 28r, 82v passus Mair (V) 5v stride Starhemberg 113r contrast w. springen, tretten. But Döbringer 22v seems to use it of stepping generally. Döbringer 82v may indicate that it means a pass, crossing one foot past the other, and can be done laterally or in line with the opponent. F
Schuch: calceus: Mair (V) 1.246r.1 B
Schule: Lecküchner (M) 92r, 183v school F
Schulter: Wallerstein 59r B
Schurtzer hasta equestre Mair (V) 2.280r W
schütten: Liechtenauer (A) 30 shake, vanquish
schutten: Starhemberg 112r ? F
Schwank: Egenolph 22v balance
Schwech (lit. “weak”): Lecküchner (M) 1v; Wallerstein 4r; Meyer 1570 1.4v-5r; 2.57r; 3.35r; Gunterrodt D4v; eusser(ste) Theil (lit. ‘furthermost part’): Meyer 1570 1.54v; 2.57r, 65r; 3.17v, 22v, 23r; langer Theil (lit. ‘long part’, used only of staff weapons): Meyer 1570 3.18v, 25r; vorder Theil (lit. “forward part”): Lecküchner (M) 80r; Meyer 1570 1.20v; 2.4v; 3.18r, 19r, 39r locus inferior ensis Mair (V) 2r; pars debilis: Gunterrodt D4v foible The weak part of a weapon, toward the point.

Cf. forte; midpart; second part; tail. Also, a state of relative weakness (Egenolph 38v, 44v). Can also mean “soft” [Lecküchner (M) 24v]. It can also refer to being soft in the bind: Mair (V) 1.101r uses it in alternation with waich. Starhemberg 61v uses Schwech and Sterck for general weakness and strength.

Schwech: Köln 10v ff.; Mair (V2) 1.248r Referring to targets on the body. Ober Schwech: impulsus menti vel gutturis Mair (V) 2.30r; cf. 47v. Mittle Schwech = medii corporis infirmitas Mair (V) 2.30v. Obere / undere Schwech Mair (V) 2.55v, 250v Cf. Köln11r kleine Schwech, mittel Schwech; also obere/undere Schwech. F
Schweinspieß: Paurenfeindt I2r; Egenolph 22r; Mair (V) 2.19r ff., 121v venabulus: Mair (V) 2.19r ff., 121v partisan?; boar- spear? W
schwechen: Meyer 1570 1.16r weaken F
Schwerdt: Mair (V) 1.120r gladium: Mair (V) 1r; ensis longiorum: Mair (M) 11v sword; longsword Lecküchner (M) 67v, Mair (V) 1.120r uses it specifically of the longsword. W
schwingen: Gladiatoria 46v; Meyer 1570 1.40v, 58r, 63r, 64v; Schwung: Gladiatoria 46v; Paurenfeindt K1r (re balance?); Meyer 1570 1.33v, 42v, 46r, 63r; verschwingen: Meyer 1570 1.39v: in einem Schwung in a flight? Meyer 1570 1.14v, 33v; impetus, momentum, Meyer 1570 2.77r praecipitare: Mair (V) 2.26r, 27r, 28r arc, impetus? momentum? swing? = vibrare Mair (V) 1.166r nemen schwung, to capture someone’s balance, Paurenfeindt H1r. F
Scorpian: Lecküchner 471; Lecküchner (M) 193v Scorpion ?A complex variant on the High Cut, in which the initial cut is followed up by several subsequent attacks, keeping the hand forward. F
Seges: Mair (V) 2.1r falx foenaria: Mair (V) 2.1r scythe W
Seitenleger: Meyer 1570 2.34v, 73r; 3.22v side posture A guard in which the weapon is held on the side of the body, such as the High and Low Guards in the rapier, Low, Middle, and High Guards in staff. Cf. the list on Meyer 1570 2.2r. F
Seitenschlag: Meyer 1570 3.41r, 41v, 43r Side Blow In the pike, a lateral blow used to strike out the opponent’s weapon. F
selb (an ihm) selber ‘essentially’ Meyer 1570 2.14r
setzen Gesatzt parrying Paurenfeindt I2r
seuberlich: Ringeck 57v; Lecküchner (M) 7v cleanly, well, slowly
sitzen: Mair (V) 1.6r, 12r, 22r, 25r, 29r, 144v contingere: Mair (V) 1.6r, 12r, 18r; applicare ensem: Mair (V) 1.16v sitting Mair appears to use this term for planting one’s blade (probably the forte) on the opponent’s weapon near the hands, or on the opponent’s hands or arms. Mair 1.6r Latin specifies that it is done near the hands. F
so ‘when’ Meyer 1570 2.14v, if Meyer 1570 2.72v
so = relative particle Meyer 1570 2.50r
Sonnenblick: Wilhalm-Mair Armored 41v; Mair (V) 2.303r Halb Sonnenblick Mair (V) 2.295r, Mair-Wilhalm Armored 30r F
Sonnenzaigen: Lecküchner (M) 111r ff.; Speyer 145r, 156r, 156v; Falkner 71v; Mair (V) 1.52v; Sonnenzaiger: Mair (V) 2.323v ratio solem adversario demonstrandi: Mair (V) 2.339v Sun-Pointer (lit “showing the sun”) A grappling technique in which the opponent’s head is twisted around so that his face is toward the sky. ?Cf. Sonnenzaiger, the gnomon of a sundial. Cf. Mair (V) 1.28r wenden j-m das angesicht gegen der Sonnen. F
sparen Meyer 1570 3.2v
sperren: Paurenfeindt C3r; Egenolph 7v; Mair 2115r; Meyer 1570 1.22v; 2.25v, 70r, 89r; 3.25r, 41v; Gunterrodt E1v intercludere: Mair (V) 1.56v, 175v; Mair (V3) 2.115r, 155r barring Refers to an action that interposes the combatant’s weapon between the opponent’s weapon and its line of attack. Cf. widersperren. F
Spiegelhaw: Czynner 120v F
Spieß: Gladiatoria 5r etc. lancea: Mair (V) 1.167v = Glefe S 48v W
Spindel Meyer 1570 1.53v radius: Mair (V) 1.4v The radius of the forearm, the inner bone of the forearm. B
Spitz: Talhoffer 1459 (V) pl. 27; Wallerstein 23r; Lecküchner (M) 22v point Cf. ort. W
Spitz der Rundellen: Mair (V3) 2.133r mucro seu aculeus clypei orbicularis: Mair (V3) 2.133r pointed boss W
Sprechfenster (“Speaking- Window”): Döbringer 37v; Ringeck 47r; Starhemberg 36r; Lecküchner (M) 28r; Köln 5r; Egenolph 10v, 48r; Mair (V) 1.88r; Cgm 3712 131v fenestra patula (“open window”): Mair (V) 1.96r Speaking-Window The medieval texts describe this term as a synonym for Longpoint; it literally refers to the window in a monastery used to communicate with the outside world. By Mair’s time the term had become corrupted to Brechfenster (Break-Window), and acquired a somewhat different meaning. F
springen insilere: Mair (V) 1.3r; assilere: Mair (V) 1.1r S 21v F
Stand: Starhemberg 53v Position? Situation?
Stang: Gladiatoria 55v quarterstaff W
Stangenzigel frenum Mair (V) 2.302r F
starck acerimme Mair (V) 3v right, entirely? Meyer 1570 2.7r; starck zusammen, ?one right after the other Meyer 1570 2.6r
starcke Schneid: Mair (V) 1.133v =Long edge? W
Stat: Lew 17r; Mair (V) 1.77r place (on the body)
Stattlich finely; readily, quickly? Meyer 1570 2.16r, 59v
stechen see Stich F
Stecher: Gunterrodt D3r dagger W
stecken: Paurenfeindt B1r, D4r; Meyer 1570 1.33r, 36v, 60r; bestecken: Egenolph 6r stop, interrupt Egenolph may imply a static parry. Cf. sperren? F
stecken: Gladiatoria 48v (of a dagger) to sit in the sheath W
Stegreiff: Wilhalm-Mair Armored 41r stirrup W
stehen innito: Mair (V) 1.31v
stellen: Meyer 1570 1.53r, stellen sich Meyer 1570 2.100r conduct, act See also legen. F
stellen: Mair 1.9v land F
Sterck (lit. “strong”): Lecküchner (M) 1v; Meyer 1570 1.4v-5r; 2.57r; Wallerstein 4v; Mair (V) 5r; Gunterrodt D4v firmior locus ensis Mair (V) 5r; pars firma: Gunterrodt D4v forte The strong part of the weapon, closest to its wielder. Cf. foible; midpart. Mair (V) 1.93r translates mit Stercke as “with all your strength, or with your forte.” Meyer 1570 1.16r. mit sterck Lecküchner (M) 58r, 59r strongly; mit der sterck = fortissime Mair (V) 2.218r. It can also refer to being hard in the bind: Mair (V) 1.101r uses it in alternation with hart. For reference to parts of the body, cf. Köln 10v ff. W
mit der Sterck: Mair (V) 1.102r; aus der Stercke: Mair (V) 1.171r-v (appears to be misunderstood in the Latin) fortiter: Mair (V) 1.102r; loco firmiori: Mair (V) 1.104r F
stercken: Ringeck 50r.2, 50v.2, 52r.1; Medl 36r; Paurenfeindt E2r; Egenolph 14r, 48r To execute a blocking parry with the long edge. Cf. weichen? F
Steürhut: Meyer 1570 3.16r, 17v Rudder Guard A quarterstaff guard with the tip of the staff on the ground, either pointing forward or back, the butt at face level. F
Stich: Gladiatoria 33v; Meyer 1570 1.38v; 2.50r, 61r ff.; 3.38v, 40r; Gunterrodt E1r; stechen: Gladiatoria 31r etc; Meyer 1570 1.32r, 38v, 40r, 46r, 62r; 2.50r, 61r ff. Stich, Ort: Mair (V) 1r, 10r, 11v, 12r, 13r, 48r. I.33 mucro: Mair (V) 1r; pungere: Mair (V) 28r. Cf. I.33 fixura. thrusting, thrust An attack with the point of a weapon, usually one that is sharp or theoretically sharp. Cf. jabbing. Stechen of a hilt-jab Lecküchner 209v. F
stichen lang nach: Meyer 1570 3.10r thrusting long after See cutting long after. F
Stier, Stir: Lecküchner (M) 17v (ill), 34r (ill), 198v; Egenolph 20v; Stier: Mair (V) 1.130v; Meyer 1570 2.2r, 18v, 22r, 29r, 31r ff. Taurus: Mair (V) 1.151r Steer A falchion and dusack guard equivalent to Ox in the longsword, with the hilt beside the head and the point toward the opponent. F
Storcken Schnabel: Meyer 1570 2.17r, 48v; Storch Schnabel: Lecküchner (M) 189v Stork’s Beak In the falchion and dusack, a long thrust with the long edge upwards (?). F
Stosdegen: Gunterrodt D3r dagger W
stossen: Meyer 1570 1.34v, 42v shove F
stossen: Gladiatoria 18r; Meyer 1570 1.62r; 2.30v; Stoß: Mair (V) 1.36v, 41r; Meyer 1570 1.50r; 2.30v impellere Mair (V) 1.36v; tundere: Mair (V) 1.168v jabbing; stabbing To deliver a thrusting attack, generally with a blunt surface. Note that the thrusting attacks with the quarterstaff and pike are normally described as stossen, but are here translated as “thrusting.” Cf. thrusting. Mair (V2) 1.248r-v of a dagger attack. F
straiffen: Liechtenauer (A) 33; Figuren 3 graze?
Strass der glider: Gladiatoria (Vie) 11r-v F
Streich: Meyer 1570 1.26v, 33r, 42v stroke See striking. F
streichen: Ringeck 49r ff.; Starhemberg 34r-v; Mair (V) 1.33r, 35r, 50r, 83v; Meyer 1570 26v.1; 37v.1; Meyer 1570 1.42v, 63v; auffstreichen: Paurenfeindt D4r; Mair (V2) 1.172r, 173r; Meyer 1570 1.27v, 28v, 31v; durchstreichen: Meyer 1570 1.10r, 26r, 42r, 51r, 53v, 60v, 62r; 2.86r; 3.33r, 34r; übersich streichen (“slashing up”): Ringeck 54v; Meyer 1570 63v.1; Streichhaw: Lecküchner (M) 66v vibrare: Mair (V) 1.33r, 83v, 172r slashing To execute a cutting action leading with the short edge of the weapon; often executed upwards at the beginning of an exchange.

Some of the words used for this action overlap with the terms for wrenching; both are typically pulling motions that use the short edge.

With the dagger, the term appears to mean a downwards stab—again a pulling motion, since the dagger here extends from the little finger side of the hand. In some cases, there is potential for confusion with striking (streichen), which uses one of the same terms in a more general sense. Of pommel? Meyer 1570 3.7r. Downward Meyer 1570 3.32r. But in Meyer 1570 26v it is also used to mean simply a cut. Cf. Streithaw. Streichhawen rendered as ictus supernus Mair (V) 1.152v. Cf. abstreichen Starhemberg 70r.1.

Streichlini, Strich-: Meyer 1570 1.35r; 2.3v, 73v; Meyer 1560 Stroke Line The diagonal line on the Cross (cutting diagram). Also called the Wrath Line or Cross Line. The right and left Stroke Lines are the ones that start in the opponent’s proper upper right and left quarters. F
Streitaxt: Gunterrodt D3r; Streitaxst: Kal (V) 127r; Stryttagst: Falkner 64v cestra: Gunterrodt D3r pollaxe; ?warhammer The Kal text 127r specifies that the weapon has a hammer and a hook. W
Streithaw: Lew 45r Starhemberg has streichen in the same place. F
Streitkolb: Mair (V) 2.211r cęstus: Mair (V) 2.211r dueling mace Also Kolb. W
Streittes: Lecküchner (M) 101r ?Aggressively
Stück: Meyer 1570 25v element element, technique Meyer 1570 1.25v (2x), 26v. Cf. end of Meyer 1570 2.1v, which has a Stuck being built from Stucke F
Stück: Gladiatoria 2r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.32r; 2.2r, 19r ff., 27v, 74r ff.; 3.3r ff., 18r ff., 38v ?Cf. I.33 fruscus device A series of maneuvers executed as a combination. The German term is often used in a less precise sense for ‘technique’ or ‘element’. F
Stück: Meyer 1570 1.56v technique F
stumpf Seite: Egenolph 18v; stumpff Schneid: Lecküchner (M) 7r, 67v; Egenolph 20v blunt edge The back edge of a falchion. Usually contrasted with scharpfe Schneid. W
Stuermhuetlin: Mair (V) 2.192v burgonet B
Sturtzhaw: Döbringer 48r; Mair (V) 1.30r, 39r; Meyer 1570 2.9r; Sturtz: Meyer 1570 Frontmatter B2r; Meyer 1570 1.14v, 36r, 53v, 57r; 2.6r, 22r, 23r; Meyer 1560 64v. Stortz: Köln 2r; Sturtzhauw, Sturtz: Talhoffer 1467: 2. Cf. Gladiatoria 54r (with judicial combat shield) ictus qui regitur ab aure dextra vel sinistra manibus cancellatis: Mair (V2) 1.39r, 160v Plunge Cut, Plunge Mair does not describe this cut clearly; in Meyer 1570 it is a Wrath Cut or High Cut followed by bringing the weapon into the Ox. Medl 30v, 37r equates this with the Schaitler. F
Tachbuffler (Meyer 1570 1.52v) F
Tachstreich: Meyer 1570 1.55v; Meyer 1560 85r Day Stroke A synonym for a High Cut. F
*Tag, (von) Dach: Cgm 3711 47v; Meyer 1570 1.2r, 6v, 9v, 11v, 31r ff., 53v, 55r vom Tag: Döbringer 27r-v, 32r; Ringeck 34r-v, 35r, 52v; Starhemberg 18v, 19r, 25v- 26r, 26v, 27v; Lew 29r; Mair (V) 1.4v, 20r, 25v, 81v, 110v, 116r; Cgm 3712 109v de die: Mair (V) 1.94r; custodia diurna: Mair (V) 1.110v, 116r; habitus qui a similitudine pastorum factus cum baculis recta innituntur: Mair (V) 1.4v; ictus qui a similitudine pastorum inter greges fustibus innitentium dictus est: Mair (V) 1.20r Day Guard (lit. “from the Day”) A longsword guard in which the hilt is above the head, the blade angling back and upward. An attack “from the Day” is a High Cut. The guard was traditionally called the Watchtower in the falchion/dusack, but Mair extends the longsword term to the dusack. Mair also uses the term in the somewhat unclear collocation Fool from the Day (Alber vom Tag).

Also called High Guard in Meyer 1570. Oberhut: Meyer 1570 6v, 38v, 42v. Von Dach can also be used to describe a cut delivered from above. von Tag (as a cut): Ringeck 27r; Cgm 3712 107r; von Tach (as a cut): Paurenfeint G2r; Egenolph 8r; Talhoffer 1467: 5, 18. Cf. dachbuffler: Meyer 1570 52v; dachstreich: Meyer 1570 55v

Tänar: Lecküchner 80r B
tapfer very much
Tartsche: Gladiatoria 5v; Meyer (Rostock) 92r; Gunterrodt D3v shield Gunterrodt is of a buckler W
Taschenhaw: Mair-Wilhalm Armored 35v Cf. Lecküchner (M) 183r.
tuchen: Lecküchner 281 ?bring down
tieff = around past the opponent? Meyer 1570 1.33v; Meyer 1570 1.53r.3 Does this imply a deep angulation of the blade? Meyer 1570 1.50v.2, 1.56v.1 F
transferieren: Meyer 1570 1.47r, 2.69r transfer ?To transfer one’s weapon from contact with one portion of the opponent to another. Meyer 1570 2.69r is different F
Trapp: Auerswald B3r
trauwen: Meyer 1570 1.35r, threaten = MnG drohen ‘menace’. F
49v, 50r, 53v
Treffer: Lecküchner (M) 27v, 65v, 72r (ill), 214v; Egenolph 29r; Mair (V) 1.128v, 138v; Meyer 1570 2.16r ff., 67r f.; treffen: Gladiatoria 30r ictum qui ab attingendo adpellationem habet: Mair (V) 1.153r; is habitus Germanis dicitur non Erraticus, sed is qui corpus adversarii contingat: Mair (V) 1.150v Hitter In Lecküchner, this appears to be a sporting technique in which the combatant strikes his opponent’s belly with the blade. It is unclear whether this meaning survived in Mair’s day.

In Meyer 1570, this is one of three classes of attacks as delivered in combination: the Provoker seeks to incite the opponent to leave the safety of his guard to attack; the Taker parries the opponent’s attack; and the Hitter is the combattant’s own successful attack. Cf. Meyer 1570 2.99r. Lecküchner 214v may use the term in a different sense from others in the text, possibly closer to Meyer 1570’s meaning.

treiben throw (a blow)? Meyer 1570 1.35v, execute (a technique) Gladiatoria 21r; Meyer 1570 1.47v
treiben: Egenolph 7v; Meyer 1570 1.35r, 35v; 2.6r, 31r; 3.30v-32v; Meyer 1560 64v ff.; Treibhauw: Lecküchner (M) 66r-v; Meyer 1570 2.38r; Gunterrodt E1r driving, Driving Cut To deliver a pair of cuts opposite each other along the same line. Cf. cutting through. This can also just mean ‘execute’. Meyer 1570 2.42v may imply same direction? Treibhaw rendered as ictus impetuosus Mair (V) 1.152v. F
tretten consistere Mair stepping stand Meyer 1570 1.6v
(V) 3v
Triangel: Cgm 558 126r, 128r, 129r; Paurenfeindt A4r, G2r; Egenolph 21r, 22r, 22v; Köln 6r, 16r; Czynner 122r; Mair (V) 1.54v, 58r; Meyer 1570 1.24r; Sutor 72 triangulum: Mair (V) 1.58r, 101v, Mair (V) 2.122r Triangle Mair’s information on this term is cryptic, but comparison to other sources suggests that it refers to an imaginary triangle on the ground, used to describe a lateral step with the rear foot while the front foot remains in place. Cf. false step: Paurenfeindt G2r seems to suggest that the terms are equivalent.

Cf. the Egenolph Fechtbuch (?c. 1535): fols. 5v, 8v, 9v; Wassmannsdorf 1870: 57 (a text of 1589). Cgm 3712: 105r. Cgm 558 (128r) refers to stepping sideways, which may indicate a similar meaning. Mair (V) 2.211r for the triangle done in armor.

Sainct-Didier also uses the term triangle to describe stepping.

Triecker: Paurenfeindt A3r A kind of sword W
Trischel: Mair (V) 2.6r tribulus: Mair (V) 2.1r flail W
trucken: Meyer 1570 1.5r, 19v, 36r, 61v, 62v deprimere Mair 1.36v pressing =drucken press F
Tunrschlag See Doner- F
Turcken Zug: Paurenfeindt G3r; Egenolph 21v A back-handed cut? F
über over your arm Meyer 1570 2.104v.2, 104r.1 F
über behind? Meyer 1570 3.19v, 21v, 38r S
überbmitten: Lecküchner (M) 43v down the middle Cf. Grimm übermitts, “by means of, through the middle, while” S
über (dein) Hand Meyer 1570 1.35r, 35v, 38r (2x) 1.51v, cf ebichter hand (35v). Meyer 1570 1.35v looks like ‘with R hand upward’, ‘from above the R hand’. Meyer 1570 2.47r contrasts over and under hand. Cf. Paurenfeindt I3r, Egenolph 47v über die hand? S
überdurchstechen: Starhemberg 64v; Lecküchner (M) 82v, 151v ff., 154r ff. thrusting through and over A grappling technique in which the combatant shoots his point under the opponent’s arm and up to catch it at the half-sword position. Also durchstechen. Cf. oben durchstechen Starhemberg 69r ff. F
über Eck Lecküchner (M) 209r; Meyer 1570 1.29r, 36r, 1.55v, 1.56v diagonally S
über Ort diagonal Meyer 1570 2.58v, 73r?, 73v, 76v, 82v, 90v; upward at an angle? Meyer 1570 2.90v?; 3.33r; schlimms uber ort Meyer 1570 1.11v, 2.65r S
übereilen: Gladiatoria 3v, 4r, 34r, 48v; Gladiatoria (Vie) 32v; Mair (V2) 1.237r.1, 2.99v, 116v praevenire: Mair (V) 2.116v; circumvenire: Mair (V2) 1.237r surprise? assault? Wallerstein 17r, 51r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.5v, 36v, 45v suddenly fall upon, attack, surprise; archaic for ereilen F
überfallen: Mair (V) 1.67v; Mair (V) 2.125r subitus incursus: Mair (V) 1.46v; incursus: Mair (V) 1.61v, 62v; subitus concursus: Mair (V) 1.56v; superinjectio: Mair (V2) 1.237r; Mair (V) 2.125r sudden attack*; falling over F
überfaren: Lecküchner (M) 59r F
übergehen: Mair (V) 1.115v; übergangen: Mair (V) 1.115v transitio: Mair (V2) 1.115v, 179r crossing over ?presenting a target Meyer 1570 3.27v F
übergreiffen: Talhoffer 1467: 29; *Mair (V3) 2.135r; Meyer 1570 1.21r, 43r, 50r, 63r ratio brachia corripiendi: Mair (V3) 2.135r catching over To snag the opponent’s body or weapon with one’s own weapon or limbs. F
übergreiffen: Paurenfeindt B4r; Egenolph 6v; Meyer 1570 1.22v, 43r, 64r gripping over A technique with the longsword in which the combatant sends some of his fingers over his quillon. Cf. a similar technique used in Mair longsword #77. F
überhangen See ober- F
überlangen: Ringeck 37v; Meyer 1570 2.15v, 20r, 22r, overreaching To deliver a counterattack that hits by coming in above the opponent’s attack. overreach Ringeck 37v, 39v F
49r; 3.2v.
überlauffen: Ringeck 39v; Starhemberg 30r, 70r; Lecküchner (M) 46r ff. (ill), 59r ff., 136r; Egenolph 24v; Mair (V) 1.8v ff., 15v, 29v, 84r, 133r ff.; Cgm 3711 49v; Cgm 3712 121r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.21v, 45r, 48v, 50r; 2.48r, 49r, 97v; 3.4v occursatio: Mair (V) 1.8v ff.; accursus: Mair (V) 1.29v; habitus quo contra hostem irruimus: Mair (V) 1.29v; superinjectio ensis: Mair (V) 1.84r, 95r; accursus subitus: Mair (V) 1.15v

rotato per humerum (of a weapon) Mair (V) 2.12v; ense rotato: Mair (V) 2.16r; hastam rotandosupra humerum volvere: Mair (V2) 1.161r; rotare: Mair (V2) 1.162r, 2.16r

overrunning; overreaching Traditionally, this term refers somewhat generally to techniques that take control of the situation from above: it can refer to overreaching an opponent’s low attack by cutting to the head at the maximum possible distance; it can also refer to taking control of the opponent’s weapon by pushing it down with one’s hilt. Mair normally seems to use it even more loosely to refer a sudden aggressive attack.

overreach Meyer 1570 1.21v; Ringeck 39v. Lecküchner (M) 59r: come in close from above? Lecküchner (M) 136r uses it of being attacked by an armed opponent when one is unarmed. Lecküchner (M) 59r uses it of gaining control of the opponent’s weapon by grappling. Mair (V) 1.29v has “low overrunnings”.

überschrenken: Meyer 1570 1.48v, 54v, 59r crossing over In the longsword, crossing one hand over the other to trap the opponent’s weapon or arms. Cf. barring; reversing. F
übersich führen Meyer 1570 2.73r send up Parry upwards? F
überschießen: Egenolph 8r, 21v; Mair (V) 64r, 67v; Meyer 1570 1.37v.1, with ill supernus impulsus Mair (V) 67v F
übertringen superare Mair 86r F
überwinden: Starhemberg 68v; Mair (V2) 1.175v superintorsio: Mair (V2) 1.175v Overcome, overwhelm; winding over with force F
überzwerch across, horizontal S
überzwerch Lini: Meyer 1570 2.7r Horizontal Line A synonym for Middle Line. F
überzwerch von unden Meyer 1570 1.62r (= Low Blow); 2.14v, 29v. 2.47r horizontal Low Blow. (von) uberzwerch ubersich Meyer 1570 1.62r S
Überzwerchhauw: Meyer 1570 1.11v, 16r; 2.24v, 55r; Zwerchhauw: Meyer 1570 1.11v. Horizontal Cut A cut delivered horizontally with the true edge. Also called the Middle Cut. Cf. Thwart. For zwerch meaning across or horizontal, see Meyer 1570 3.2v, 3r, 4r. F
um: Lecküchner (M) 23r; Meyer 1570 2.33v, 70v around Refers to actions that move one’s weapon from one side of the opponent’s weapon or body to the other, typically following a high trajectory, around the opponent’s weapon from above. Cf. snapping around; striking around; cf. also through. Cf. Meyer 1570 2.18v on around vis a vis one’s own head. Umbhauwen Meyer 1570 2.52v. around the head—not really around? Meyer 1570 3.37r. Umbhawen Lecküchner (M) 143v. Lecküchner (M) 40r has striking around the opponent—perhaps referring to the same action, still in contrast to durch. Um sich Ringeck 52v.1; um dich Lew 33v.1. S
umgehen: Mair (V2) 2.97r.3 tractare; tentare: Mair (v2) 2.97r.3
umschlagen: Lecküchner (M) 70r-v, 102v f.; Meyer 1570 1.18r, 26r, 43r, 46r, 49v, 58r, 59v, 60v. striking around To pull away from the bind on a high trajectory to attack to another opening. F
umschnall: Meyer 1570 51v
umschnappen: Meyer 1570 1.19v, 35r, 38r, 42r, 42v, 44r, 48v, 50v, 51v, 53v, 54v, 55v, 57r; 2.47r. snapping around After a cut, to follow up with another by rotating around the hilt. F
umschrencken: Falkner 49r crossing around The action of pinning an opponent’s limb between one’s crossed arms. F
umwechslen: Meyer 1570 2.70v. Cf. also abweschlen. changing around The action of moving one’s weapon from one side to the other by going above the opponent’s weapon. Cf. around; changing through. F
under (dein) hand Meyer 1570 1.35v =w inward flat Meyer 1570 1.35v looks like w R hand pointing down. Cf. Meyer 1570 2.47r S
under augen in the face Grimm auge 5. Cf. Mair (V) 1.158r sub oculos = “to his face”
under des at once, then, immediately? Meyer 1570 1.34v.1 then? meanwhile Meyer 1570 1.21r; then , next at once Meyer 1570 1.34v.1 T
under Leger: Meyer 1570 2.41r; under Hut: Meyer 1570 1.38v; 2.70v low posture A guard where the weapon is held low, as in Plow, Fool, Boar, Bastion. F
under Schnitt: Lecküchner (H) 55r; Meyer 1570 1.21v, 59r; Underschnitt: Cgm 3711 33r (ill) Low Slice A slice executed upward from below, apparently in the Thwart/Anger Cut position. Cf. High Slice. F
under: Meyer 1570 1.16v, 26r, 42v, 52v, 55r; underlauffen: Meyer 1570 1.60v, 62v, 63r; 2.42r, 97v, 106v; underlauf: Köln7v under (an opponent, an opponent’s weapon, etc.) Refers to a situation in which one is too close to the opponent for him to cut or strike effectively with his long edge. (an opponent’s weapon) inside the range of? Meyer 1570 1.55r, 63r.3, 2.48v.2, 98r, 106v; underlauffen Meyer 1570 2.107r “come inside the range of’? S
underdes = meanwhile Meyer 1570 2.74r; immediately after Meyer 1570 1.21r T
underdes, under welchen = after, then Meyer 1570 2.21r.1, 101v T
unterhalten: Cf. halten F
Unterhaw: Ringeck 24v, 30r, 35v, 54v; Starhemberg 17r; Talhoffer 1467: 1; Lecküchner (M) 14v; Mair (V) 1.16v, 29v, 50v; Meyer 1570 1.11v, 33v, 34v, 35r, 37v, 38r, 40r, 49v, 50r, 53r, 53v, 61v, 62r, 62v, 63v, 64v; 2.3v, 6r ff., 21v, 65r; 3.32r, 34r f. ictus inferus: Mair (V) 1.5v Low Cut A cut delivered upwards from below. F
Unterhengen: Lecküchner (M) 199v; Mair (V) 1.90v; Cgm 3711 45v; undenhengen, underhengen: Döbringer 32r, 47v, 52v inferni proclinationes: Mair (V) 1.96v Low Hanging In longsword and falchion combat, the Plow/Boar as used in parrying and winding. See hanging (hengen). F
Underhut: Cgm 558 125v, 127r-v; Meyer 1570 2.54r, 89r, 91v, 54r, 99v; 3.2v, 16v, 38r ff., 44v, 45r; 3.2v, 10r, 16v, 19r ff., 32v, 38r, 40r, 41r ff.; Underleger: Köln 3r, 13v Low Guard In Meyer 1570’s rapier, a guard with the weapon hand extended downwards beside the body. On the right, the weapon extends forward, and the position can also be called the Side Guard. On the left, the weapon extends towards the left, and the position is equivalent to the Change. In the dagger, this position has the weapon at thigh level, point toward the opponent. In the quarterstaff and halberd, this guard has the butt of the weapon on the right flank, the point extended forward toward the ground. In the pike, the weapon is held low and aimed at the opponent’s face. Köln apparently uses it of the Plow. F
unter Ort: Gladiatoria 52r The lower point of a dueling shield? W
unter Ort: Mair (V2) 2.6r, 13v, 19v inferior pars: Mair (V2) 2.13v; mucro inferior: Mair (V2) 2.19v butt W
Unter Schilt: Falkner 51r Low Shield A dagger defense. Cf. Ober Schilt. F
Understich: Meyer 1570 2.35v, 54v; 3.13r, 38v Low Thrust A thrust delivered from below. F
untertretten: Wallerstein 15v; Mair (V2) 2.100v.1, 101v.1 inferne calcare: Mair (V2) 2.100v.1 stepping under A wrestling technique. F
ungefehrlich, ohngefehrlich = Grimm ohngefaehrlich incidentally, approximately Meyer 1570 1.38v
Ungenannt: Lecküchner (M) 90v ff., 93v; Egenolph 27r; Falkner 49v the Unnamed Lecküchner uses this term of two “secret” arm-locks. ungenante Stich Mair (V2) 1.246r.3. Falkner uses it of a dagger arm-lock. F
Ungrisch Schilt: Gladiatoria 55r W
unter die Hand: Meyer 1570 1.35v; 2.35v; über die Hand: Meyer 1570 1.11v, 35v; 2.9r, 35v, 71v; 3.24r palm toward/away from (the opponent) Note that with a two-handed weapon, this refers to the final position of the dominant hand. S
urbäring: Starhemberg 58r suddenly = Grimm urbarig
Vatterstreich: Meyer 1570 1.11r; 2.29r Father Stroke An alternative name for the Wrath Cut. F
verborgener Griff: Lecküchner (H) 46v, 56v Secret Grip A term used in Lecküchner (H) for both the Unnamed (Ungennant) and Sun-Pointer (Sonnenzaigen). F
verborgener Ort: Cgm 3711 38r ff.; Mair (V) 2.123r, 125v, 129r mucro occultus: Mair (V) 2.123r; mucro reconditus: Mair (V) 2.129r Secret Thrust? Equated with falscher Ort? F
verdrossen: Lecküchner 26 ?=verdrießen “to vex”. Cf. Lecküchner 222
Verenderung =Veraenderung modification; variation Meyer 1570 1.25r
verfallen inclinare: Mair (V) 1.5v, 8r; inclinare ex latere: Mair (V) 1.5v, 23r; reclinare: Mair (V) 1.4v; deflectere: Mair (V) 1.5r, 17v, 112r; dempto mucrone: Mair (V) 1.118r fall; ?drop one’s blade F
verfellen: Meyer 1570 1.55r falling? feinting? miss? Meyer 1570 2.99v F
verfliegen fly Meyer 1570 1.33v F
verfliegen: Meyer 1570 1.7v, 18v, 30v, 33v, 34v, 36r, 38v, 45v, 47v, 50v, 51r, 57r, 59v; cf. entfliegen Meyer 1570 1.60r. flitting To pull back from an attack prior to weapon contact in order to deliver an attack elsewhere. Meyer 1570 1.33v probably non-technical. F
verführen send aside, send astray, send elsewhere
verführen: Meyer 1570 1.18v, 38v, 40v, 47v, 50r, 54r deceiving A general word for all kinds of deceptive maneuvers, but especially for one in which the combattant makes the opponent believe the attack will come in one area, but brings it home in another. F
vergeben lose control Meyer 1570 2.84v F
verhauwen Meyer 1570 2.34v; verhauwen sich ‘position oneself’ Meyer 1570 2.47v, 2.90v; ‘blunder’? Meyer 1570 2.18r, cf. 2.23v. Meyer 1570 1.11v. Starhemberg 28r, 28v, 29v F
verhawen sich: Talhoffer 1459 (C) 4v; Lecküchner (M) 41r; Mair (V) 1.132r ictus eius concidet: Mair (V) 1.11v; longius ferire: Mair (V) 1.152v; cum adversarius longius feriat quam ut celeriter acinacem tollat: Mair (V) 1.151v; longius ferire quam athletas peritos decet: Mair (V) 1.152v overcommit to a cut; cut past; over-cut This term is difficult to render plausibly in English. ictum longius deorsum dirigere Mair 83r; longius feriundo derosum fertur 83r; longius ictum rexerit 83v; ictu suo longius excesserit 84r; Mair (V) 1.30v; overcommit to a cut Meyer 1570 2.99v. “miss” Mair (V) 1.11v. Mair (V) 1.109r uses verhawen to describe a version of the Wechsel in which the weapon is further backward than normal. F
Verkerer: Köln 4v; Mair (V) 1.180v, 2.118r, 119r habitus quo adversarius convertitur: Mair (V2) 1.180v; conversor: Mair (V) 2.118r Reverser Can refer to a technique in which the body (one’s own or the opponent’s) is turned around. F
verkehren: Mair (V) 2.118r; Meyer 1570 3.21v convertere se: Mair (V) 2.118r reversing turn the body around F
verkehren: Gladiatoria 35r, 42r; Ringeck 30r, 51v; Starhemberg 22r; Lecküchner (M) 50r; Egenolph 14r; Mair (V2) 1.169v; Meyer 1570 1.19v, 22r, 26v, 48v, 51r, 54r, 54v, 55v, 57r, 59r, 63r; 2.8v, 49r, 97v; 3.24r, 38v mutare: Mair (V) 1.95v, 169v; convertere: Mair (V) 1.169v; invertere: Mair (V) 1.235r reversing To rotate the hand(s) and/or weapon so that the hand is inverted relative to its relaxed position. Of a single free hand Meyer 1570 1.62r, 63r. Cf. wechslen. F
verkerter Haw: Mair (V2) 1.175v ictus autem is conversus est, si bipennem contineas juxta parte anteriorem, dextra vero posteriorem, atque is circumagatur sub brachio sinistro, ut anteriori parte caput ejus pulses): Mair (V2) 1.175v reversed cut F
verkerte Stich: Meyer 1570 2.54v, 63v Reversed Thrust A rapier thrust delivered from the left side. F
verliesen: Paurenfeindt K2v Egenolph 34r
vermudest Meyer 1570 2.45r
versaumen? Gladiatoria (Vie) 37r
verscheuben: Mair (V) 1.3v propellere: Mair (V) 1.3v shove
verscheuben: Mair (V) 1.6v, 29r, 32r, 10r, 20r, 22r. avertere: Mair (V) 1.6v, 17r, 32r, 2.98v; eludere: Mair (V) 1.107r; inflectere: Mair (V) 1.10r; deflectere: Mair (V) 1.4v deflect F
verschieben: Meyer 1570 1.22r, 34v, 58r; 2.30r; underschieben: Meyer 1570 1.64r. sliding To slip one’s sword under the opponent’s weapon for a hanging parry. Cf. hanging. F
verschneiden: Mair 1.227v ?slicing Of the dagger F
verschrenken: Meyer 1570 crossing F
versehen realize Meyer 1570 1.50r
versehen sich anticipate (+gen)
versetzen defend, protect Ringeck 59r; vorsetzen Starhemberg 98r F
versetzen: Gladiatoria 12v, 36v; Lecküchner (M) 34v ff.; Meyer 1570 1.12v, 15r, 22v, 31v, 47r, 50v, 51v, 52v, 53r, 53v, 54v, 55v, 56v, 58r, 59v; 2.16r ff., 67v, 81v; Versatzung: Meyer 1570 1.4r, 15r; 2.81r-v, 101v; Gunterrodt E1r; versetzen; Versatzung: Gladiatoria 40r; Ringeck 35r ff.; Starhemberg 26r ff.; Mair (V) 11r; 7v; 12r; 51r; 7r, 10v; Cgm 3712 119v defensionem Mair (V) 1.11r; defensio seu ensis adversarii exceptio Mair (V) 1.7v; avertere Mair (V) 1.12r; declinare: Mair (V) 1.101v; eludere Mair (V) 1.51r; elidere: Mair (V) 1.100r; excipere Mair (V) 1.10v; opponere Mair (V) 1.1r; praemunitio: Mair (V) 1.94v, 95r; protectio: Gunterrodt E1v. Cf. I.33 contrarium, obsessio parrying Refers to any action that defends against the opponent's incoming weapon with one’s own. Cf. catching; setting off; turning. Can also refer to a static position for defense, a guard that closes off the opponent’s line of attack. = opposition Cgm 3711 47v. Can also mean to defend, protect (oneself, a body part), cf. Mair (V) 1.51v, 192r (=defendere). Cf. Schöffer von Dietz (1620) 1.4 pariren, das ist wann man mit der Klingen versetzet oder außnimpt. Note that for many modern practitioners, “parry” suggests a defense that deflects rather than directly opposes the energy of the attack. Versetzen does not appear to imply one or the other. F
verstand this applies to
verstellen: Meyer 1570 1.56v? transposing F
verstolen Tritt: Meyer 1570 1.24r Stolen Step An interrupted step. Also gebrochen Tritt. Cf. Köln 15r verstell fuss. F
verstüllen: Meyer 1570 1.22v blocking A version of the slice in which one keeps one’s forte on the opponent’s arm or weapon until an opportune opening arises. F
verwand(elen: Meyer 1570 1.31r, 57r, 58r, 60r, 2.64v; verwendeln: Meyer 1570 1.30v, 31r, 58r, 49v, 51r, 53r; verwenden Meyer 1570 1.37v, 39v: 2x, 49v, 58r; ?2.66r Check transforming, turn aside, conversion? To change one type of attack into another. Meyer 1570 1.53v, 58r: turn (blade) F
verwenden: Mair (V3) 2.144r; Meyer 1570 1.18v.1, 2.85v, 88v permutare Mair (V) 2r; convertere: Mair (V3) 2.144r; invertere: Mair (V3) 2.144r ?turn; rotate Mair 1.58r turn (hands around to Mortschlag position)
verworfen: Lecküchner (M) ?brandishing F
verzabeln Meyer 1570 1.47r, 2.75v play out, tire
Visire: Gladiatoria 9v; Visier: Mair (V) 2.207r bucula: Mair (V) 1.232v.4; Mair (V) 2.207r visor W
voll: (in) vollen Fechten in the middle of combat Meyer 1570 3.22v
volle Schneid see lange Schneid W
von see an S
(greiffen) vonan away fromto Refers to moving away from one body part to another. S
vonwegen on account (of sth)
Vor: Lecküchner (M) 1v; Wallerstein 5r; Mair (V) 1.23v, 35v, 72v f., 104v, 121v; Meyer 1570 1.24v, 32r, 51r, 54v, 56r; 2.3v, 99v partes priores: Mair (V) 1.57r; partes primae: Mair (V) 1.104v; praevenire: Mair (V) 1.149r Before The situation of having the initiative. Cf. After, Instantly. F
vorder in front Meyer 1570 2.86r. For vorder Schneid see lange.
vorder Ort: Starhemberg 54r; Mair (V2) 1.174v; Meyer 1570 3.17v mucro anterior: Mair (V2) 1.174v tip W
vorder Tail: Starhemberg 54r forward part W
vornen: Mair (V2) 1.61r, 174r, 176v, 180v pars anterior: Mair (V) 1.180v; prope mucronem: Mair (V) 2.129r forepart Referring to the forward part of the weapon. W
vornen straight in, not high or low Meyer 1570 3.5v; in front Meyer 1570 3.36r S
vorseren = versehren harm Liechtenauer (M) 37
Vortheil: (in sein) Vortel partes priores: Mair (V) 2.231r, 232v Meyer 1570 2.18r; opportunity Meyer 1570 1.38r, 2.99v
Vorwehr: Meyer 1570 1.15v The forward part of the weapon? F
Wacht: Meyer 1570 2.2r, 5v, 18v, 20r ff.; Meyer c1560 44v; ?Wach: Lecküchner (M) 10v Watch A dusack guard with the hilt above the head, the point angling down and backwards. Also called the High Guard. In the earlier sources, this guard is usually called Luginsland. Cf. Lecküchner (Munich), fol. 33r; the Speyer Fechtbuch, fols. 6r, 7r. F
Wag: Mair (V) 1. 71v, 118r, 118v, 142v; D 1.19r (cf. V 1.15v ff.); (V2) 1.162r, 233v; 2.9r, 29r in der wag = in libramine Mair (V) 2.7v; = in libra Mair (V) 2.13v; geben sich in die Wag = se componere in habitu librae Mair (V) 2.20r Wag often refers rather qualitatively to the combatant’s state of balance; most commonly it implies that one is in a low position with a sunken center of gravity.

Gladiatoria 31r, Balder 66r: ringen aus der Wag (in armor), apparently referring to an arm-lock. Lecküchner (M) 203v; Wallerstein 3r, 15r, 16v: in dy wag app. = “in a (low) well balanced position”, also Auerswald C5v, D6r, F3v; Mair (V) 1.239r.1, 2.306r (on horseback). nemen die wag Czynner 22r (ill); gewynnen jdm dy wag Lecküchner (M) 91r; in die Wag bringen Lecküchner (M) 92r, 99r, 171r. springen in dy Wag: Lecküchner (M) 84r. Cf. gewicht. Does this actually mean a “key” position? Springen in die Wag rendered as in libram prosilere: Mair (V) 1.153r. haben in der Wag Mair (V3) 2.130v

waich see weich
Waich: Mair (V2) 2.102r ilia: Mair (V2)
Walsch Stich: Wallerstein 27r A dagger technique. Cf. Französisch? F
Wamm: Auerswald C4v, D2r; Mair (V2) 2.71r doublet? B
Wang: Lecküchner (M) 127v cheek B
Wappenrock: Falkner 46r coat armor? B
War nemen: Mair (V) 1.21v, 31v, 37v, 49r observare: Mair (V) 1.49r take heed Mair (V) 1.31v seems to refer specifically to attacking.
warten auf: Gladiatoria 5v
Wechsel, Wexel: Gladiatoria 45v (?), 46r, 48r; Köln 2r, 2v; Mair (V) 1.18r?, 35r?, 61r, 63v?, 106v, 109r, 2.13r; Meyer 1570 1.8r, 10r, 22v, 42r ff.; 2.2r, 8r, 24v, 45v ff., 70v, 99v; 3.39r, 44v; wechseln, Wechsel: Mair (V) 1.62r; Meyer 1570 17v, 21r, 62r Change A guard with the hilt next to the belly, the point hanging downward to the side at a right angle to the opponent. With the pike, this is another name for the left Low Guard. Right-hand: Meyer 1570 1.26r, 42r, 51r, 55r; left-hand: 64v

wechslen sich zuruck von = L mutando recedere ab: Mair (V2) 1.177v, 170r, 193r; cf. Mair (V2) 1.171r “withdraw in the Change”; 1.180v “step back double in the Change” Cf. also einfach Wechsel Mair (V2) 1.169r, geschrenkt Wechsel. Wechslen sich zwifach von j-m zuruck = gemino gradu pugione hincinde athletice mutando ab hoste recedere Mair (V2) 1.207r.

Gladiatoria 45v ff. uses this term of a wrestling technique.

Wechselhaw: Medl 29r; Mair (V) 1.33r, 106v; Wechselhaw, Wechselhow: Döbringer 44v; Gladiatoria 53r-vs; Talhoffer 1467: 2; Cgm 3711 45r; Meyer 1570 1.2v, 14v; 2.14r, 45v; Wechsel: Meyer 1570 Frontmatter B2r; Meyer 1560: 65r; Talhoffer 1467: 2; Mair (V) 1.33r, 35r, 106v, 109r; Wechssler: ictus mutatorius: Mair (V) 1.33r, 35r, 106v

Cf. I.33 mutacio gladium

Change Cut Mair never clarifies exactly what this means, but it seems to refer to a cut that brings the sword diagonally from one quarter to another. Mair also uses the term for the final position of the cut.

Medl 29r equates this with the Schilhaw. Gladiatoria 53r-v uses the term with reference to the dueling shield.

wechslen: Mair (V2) 1.175r, 181v; verwechselen: Mair (V3) 2.150v mutare: Mair (V2) 1.181v; Mair (V3) 2.150v; commutare: Mair (V2) 1.175r; transmittere: Mair (V2) 1.231v, 233r; adplicare: Mair (V2) 1.232r transferring; ?inverting; ?switching Changing the direction or location of the hand or weapon; also reversing the hand? F
wechseln: Meyer 1570 1.17v, 21r, 62r; 2.70v transmittere: Mair (V3) 2.154r changing To change the line of attack from one target to another. Change into? (a cut) Meyer 1570 2.6v F
Weckerhaw: Mair (V) 1.124v ff.; Meyer 1570 2.11r; Wecker: Lecküchner (M) 14v ff. (ill); the Speyer Fechtbuch, fol. 3r, 5r; Egenolph 18v; Mair (V) 1.124v ff.; Meyer 1570 2.27r, 43r, 47v, 65r; Meyer 1560 48v; Wegger: Mair (V) 1.125v ictus qui ab excitando nomen retinet: Mair (V) 1.149r, 149v Waker Cut, Waker This cut occupies the same place in Lecküchner’s system as the Crooked Cut (Krumphaw) in the longsword, and appears to be executed the same way. Mair sometimes applies the longsword term to the dusack.

Lecküchner’s description is not detailed, but the comparison suggests that it is a cut that comes in at right angles to the line of engagement between the combatants. In Meyer 1570’s dusack technique, this is a cut that is transformed into a thrust, delivered while maintaining contact with the opponent’s blade. This seems to be the normal meaning of the term in the prior dusack sources. Also Entwecker in Egenolff. Mair (V) 1.149r translates aufwecken as decipere.

wegschneiden: Meyer 1570 2.84r, 87v = abschneiden F
weg stichen: Meyer 1570 3.4v thrusting away See cutting away. F
Weg: (zu) wegen bringen bring about, accomplish Meyer 1570 1.63v, 1.64v; 2.59r
weg: sich wegfichten von: Meyer 1570 1.34v.1 fighting away from (the opponent) See cutting away.
Wehrstreich: Meyer 1570 2.13v, 55r, 57v, 66v, 67v, 92v Defence Stroke A Wrath Cut delivered as a parry. F
Weich, Waich: Mair (V) 1.113r, 2.93r.2 ilia: Mair (V) 1.113r waist B
weich: Lecküchner (M) 9v; Wallerstein 4r; Meyer 1570 1.17v; 2.41r; 3.46v; waich Mair (V) 5r; Cgm 3711 50v infirmiter: Mair (V) 1.5r soft Refers to when one engages the opponent in the bind without force or commitment. Cf. hard. F
weichen: Döbringer 37v; Wallerstein 20r; Lecküchner (M) 40v; Egenolph 47v; Meyer 1570 1.19v, 2.37r, 70r Slip. Cf. erwischen. entwychen: Döbringer 37v “escape”. Contrast to stercken? Wallerstein app. “to give ground, step back” F
Weickringen: Gladiatoria (Vie) 46r
Weitfechten: Döbringer 44v
wencken: Lecküchner (M) 27v proclinare: Mair (V) 150v lean?
wenden =winden Meyer 1570 2.71v; = applicare Mair (V) 1.166r F
wenden, winden: Lecküchner (M) 198v ff.; Mair (V)1.1r; Meyer 1570 2.86v, 89v; 3.41r; wynten: Lecküchner (H) 108r; verwenden: Meyer 1570 1.49v, 57r; 2.68r, 84r, 85v; 3.41r; abwenden: Paurenfeindt I3r; Meyer 1570 2.46r, 91v, 95v; auswenden: Meyer 1570 2.88r; auswinden: Meyer 1570 2.71v, 95r intorsio: Mair (V)1.149v; torqueare Mair (V) 1.24v; flectere: Mair (V) 1.1r; inflectere: Mair (V) 1.25r; convertere: Mair (V) 1.39v turning (away, out) To parry an attack by turning one’s long edge against the opponent’s incoming weapon. Of the pommel: Meyer 1570 1.51r, 59r, 64r, 64v F
wenden sich (zuruck) von: Mair (V2) 1.162r, 166v, 190r; winden sich zu: Mair (V2) 1.190r; wenden sich: Mair (V2) 1.196r deflectere ab: Mair (V2) 1.162r, 190r; pivot; ?twist Cf. Mair (V2) 1.177r winden sich/convertere. securem circumrotare Mair (V3) 2.149r, 152r F
(ein) wenig nonnihil: Mair (V) 2.30v
Werffen: Gladiatoria 20r; Gunterrodt D4r casting; throwing Throwing an opponent to the ground. F
Werk: (im) Werk in practice, in reality, in a real combat Meyer 1570 3.47r F
Werkemeister: Döbringer 47v F
Wernagel: Lecküchner (M) 25v; wörnagel: Mair (V) 1.127r munitionis clavus: Mair (V) 1.150v hand-guard The side-lug on the guard of a falchion.

Cf. Nagel.

wider against Meyer 1570 2.107v
wider- see also gegen-
Widerbruch: Lecküchner (M) 43v countercheck, counteropposition A counter designed to respond to another counter. F
widerhalden: Meyer 1570 1.50r: 2x oppose F
widersperren: Meyer 1570 1.63r counterblocking Cf. sperren F
Widerstuck Meyer 1570 2.19r counterdevice F
widerum Meyer 1570 1.57r, 1.61r contrarily
widerum iterum: Mair (V) 1.33v again
wie ?depending on how, ?however, in whatever way Meyer 1570 1.64r, 2.41r. Cf. Meyer 1570 2.49v
wincken: Meyer 1570 2.66r, Meyer 1570 1.18v?, 54r glancing F
Wincker(haw: Lecküchner 18, 139; Lecküchner (M) 30r ff.; Speyer 7r; Egenolph 20r; Mair (V) 1.129r; winken: Lecküchner 115, 452; Meyer 1570 1.31v ictus qui a innuendo appellatur: Mair (V) 1.151v Winker, ?smacking, nipping A falchion/dusack cut akin to the Constrainer (Zwinger); Lecküchner’s description implies that it begins as a long-edge cut from above, then turns to come in with the short edge, often following up by changing through.

Cf. Grimm winken B 1 c “strike, thrash”. Lecküchner (M) 30r says this is a new technique. ?Cf. Cavalcabo 15, where wincken appears to refer to a beat against the opponent’s blade prior to an attack. Speyer 7r equates to Zwinger.

winden: Gladiatoria 52r; Starhemberg 14v ff., 30v, 37v ff.; Lecküchner (M) 211v ff.; Cgm 3711 45v; Mair (V) 1.10v, 12r, 23v ff., 24v, 25r, 39v, 74v; Meyer 1570 1.5r, 20v, 22r, 36r, 38v, 39v, 40r, 43r-44r, 46r, 48v, 49v, 50r, 50v, 51r, 51v, 54v, 55r, 58r, 59r, 59v, 62r, 63r, 63v, 64r; 2.34r, 39r, 71v; 3.29v ff., 35r, 43v; wenden: Meyer 1570 1.44r, 62r; 3.35r; verwenden: Meyer 1570 1.49v inflectere: Mair (V) 1.2r, 6r; impellere: Mair (V) 1.2v; trajicere: Mair (V) 1.151v; adjicere: Mair (V) 2.110r; *torquere: Mair (V) 2.110r winding *To turn one’s sword or body from one side to another (typically into variants of the Ox/Steer and Plow/Boar postures), either to defend against an incoming attack, or to attack the opponent. The term often refers to the process of the “War,” once the blades are in contact, in which each combatant seeks to gain an advantage of leverage or angulation. The same term can be used of a similar maneuver that leads with the pommel. F
winden: Mair (V) 2.118v torquere: Mair (V) 2.110r winding To twist an opponent’s weapon in order to make him release it. F
Windhaw: Mair (V) 1.17r, 107r; Meyer 1570 1.14r, 64v; 2.13v, 29r, 32r, 37r, 42r ff.; Meyer 1560 49v; Windtstreich: Paurenfeindt G4r, H4r; Egenolph 21v, 25r ictus qui a vento nomen sortitur: Mair (V) 1.17r Winding Cut Not clearly described by Mair; 17r and 107r specify that the pommel is upwards and toward the opponent, the point back, the long edge upward. In Meyer 1570 this is a cut executed as a winding manoeuver, with one’s forte engaged with the opponent’s weapon, the cut levering around the opponent’s weapon (?). Mair’s translation interprets as “Wind Cut.” F
Windstich: Mair (V) 2.124r-v punctio que a vento nomen sortitur: Mair (V) 2.124r-v Winding Thrust F
Wirfspiess: Köln 17r W
wischen: Meyer 1570 1.20v, 21v, 49v, 50r; nachwischen: Meyer 1570 1.14r, 35r, 38v, 47v, 58r; ausritschen: Meyer 1570 1.54r slip? Escape? 55v See also ab-, er-, nach-, entwischen F
Wüste: Mair (V2) 2.88v, 92r costa: Mair (V2) 2.88v, 104v; ilia: Mair (V2) 2.93r flank B
Zaum: Falkner 72r frenum Mair (V) 2.304r bridle W
Zeckrur: Ringeck 13v; Paurenfeindt E1r; Meyer 1570 1.14v, 50r. Tag, Tag-Hit A flicking attack with the weapon. Cf. flick. F
Zedel = Zettel; Zyttel: Speyer 5r tabula: Mair (V) 7v Mair (V) 7v seems to be referring to ancient inscriptions. F
ziehen: Mair (V) 1.53r; Meyer 1570 2.33v, 34r, 39r f., 60r, 87v, 103v drawing To pull the blade along its axis, often to cut the opponent. Cf. slicing. F
Zinne: Lecküchner (M) 10v; Egenolph 18v; Mair (V) 1.124r target In the falchion and dusack, a synonym for Opening (Plösse). F
Zirckel, Zürckel: Meyer 1570 1.18v, 20v, 35v, 36r, 40v, 47v, 49v, 51v, 53r, 53v. Cf. Döbringer 47v Circle A handwork technique in the longsword, executed from an engaged position with the hands high, in which the hands are crossed while remaining high to deliver a short-edge cut. Probably closely related to running off. F
Zornhaw: Döbringer 23r; Ringeck 19r ff.; Starhemberg 13r ff.; Lecküchner (M) 3r ff.; Egenolph 13v, 17v; ; Mair (V) 1.1r, 48r, 51v; Cgm 3712 98r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.11r, 11v, 36r; 2.3v, 9r, 21v, 29v, 75v; 3.38v ictus qui ex ira nomen sortitur: Mair (V) 1.1r Wrath Cut A cut delivered diagonally downwards from the shoulder. In Meyer 1570, also called the Father Stroke. La Noble Science translates as coup courouche. See Mair-Wilhalm Armored 33r for its use on horseback. F
Zornhut: Meyer 1570 1.5v, 7v, 9v, 12v, 16r, 34v ff.; 2.18v, 29r, 44v; Zornleger: Meyer 1570 1.7v, 34v; Zorn: Meyer 1570 1.19v, 22r, 35r, 35v; 2.29r Wrath Guard; Wrath Posture; Wrath A longsword and dusack guard in which the weapon hangs over the rear shoulder. F
Zornlini: Meyer 1570 2.3v, 8r; Mayer 1560 84r Wrath Line A synonym for Stroke Line. F
Zornort: Ringeck 57r.1; Lecküchner (M) 4r, 15r; Medl 37r, 38v); Cgm 3711 4r-v (ill) ; Zornstich: Köln14v, 16v Wrath Thrust A Wrath Cut followed by a thrust. F
zu along with, at the same time as Meyer 1570 2.93v; in addition to? Meyer 1570 1.26r.1; 2.48v T
zu at the same time as, along with Meyer 1570 Meyer 1570 2.84v T
zu dir Meyer 1570 3.35r. forcing toward oneself—ie pulling rather than pushing?
Zuberstange: Paurenfeindt I2r; Egenolph 46v pike, club? zuberstange, f., s. zoberstange. im eigentlichen sinne: dorzu 2 zuberstangen TUCHER 302. schwerer hebebaum 'phalanga' DIEFENBACH 223a; vectis BAS. FABER (1587) 908b, auch sonst in alten wbb.: mocht doch einer mit einer zcuberstangen kaum druber springen, szo ein geschwetz ist es LUTHER 14, 333 W. als bauernwaffe (pseudo-) NEITH. 228, 59; fastnachtsp. 756, 8 Keller. W
zucken: Gladiatoria 44v draw (a weapon)
zucken (a stroke) of a flourished blow Meyer 1570 1.29v, 57r?; gezogen “pulled”, of a suppressing blow Meyer 1570 2.87v.2; deliver Meyer 1570 1.29v, 2.31v; begin Meyer 1570 1.57r; 58r; cf. bringen. Gather (a blow, a thrust). Meyer 1570 1.29v, 34v, 57r, 2.22r, 49v. Lecküchner (M) uses the term for pulling back on the weapon to set up for a thrust; so also Mair (V2) 243r ff., 248r. ?deliver a reverse or draw-cut, Paurenfeindt G4r F
zucken: Ringeck 41v; Starhemberg 31v; Mair (V) 1.7r, 13r, 27r-v, 36v, 139r ff.; Lecküchner (M) 67r ff., 121r; Meyer 1570 1.19r, 34v, 60r; 2.6v, 30v, 34v, 39r, 71v; 3.28v f., 38r; verzucken: Mair (V) 1.78v; Meyer 1570 1.18v, 32r, 39v, 60v; 3.38r; Verzuck: Meyer 1570 1.29r. retrahere: Mair (V) 1.27r-v; arripere: Mair (V) 1.36v, 60v; stringere: Mair (V) 1.243r pulling Withdrawing from the opponent’s weapon before or after contact by pulling away with the hilt. Cf. running off.

Cf. Meyer 1570 1.29r contrast with ablauffen. Different meaning in Wallerstein 7r? zucken an sich = reducto ense, mucrone reparato Mair (V) 2.142v

zufechten: Lew 36v, 45r; As a verb, often refers to the initial attack (Onset). See also Meyer 1570 F
Mair (V) 1.84r, 1.142r 2.84r
Zufechten: Lecküchner (M) 10v; Mair (V) 1.1v, 2r; Meyer 1570 1.14v, 24v; Zutretten: Meyer 1570 2.95v; Angriff: Meyer 1570 1.14v, 21r, 24v, 36r, 53r, 2.99v in adversarii conspectum gladiando prope accedere: Mair (V) 1.1v; congressus: Mair (V) 1.153r, 2.112v onset The initial stage of combat, in which the combatants adopt their guards, come within attacking range, and deliver the initial attack.

Cf. laying on; Middle; Withdrawal. Mair 1.24r uses the phrase prope in ejus conspectum accedere of closing with the opponent in a bind, suggesting that it implies coming close; Mair (V) 1.33r similarly uses the phrase prope in adversarii conspectum progredi; = prope accedere Mair (V) 1.170v; cf. also Mair (V) 1.205v where the term appears to refer to the point where one comes in range of the opponent.

Zugang: Meyer 1570 1.25v, 34v, 47r; Gang: Meyer 1570 1.14v; Antritt: Meyer 1570 1.54r; zutretten: Meyer 1570 1.24r; Zugen: Lecküchner (H) 106r Approach, approaching These terms refer to the initial stage of the fight; essentially the same as Onset. F
zugleich at the same time? Meyer 1570 1.33v, 35r, 38r; 2.56r, 1.60r; as adj. Kal (V) 127r T
zugleich in just after Meyer 1570 1.47v T
zugleich mit at the same time as Meyer 1570 1.47v T
zukommen in Zufechten prope in conspectum pervenire: Mair (V) 1.54v
Zulauffen: Mair (V2) 2.95r = zufechten on horseback. Interchanges with einlauffen Mair (V2) 1.248r.1. F
zureitten = zufechten on horseback F
zurucktretten step backward? Meyer 1570 2.52v; volte step? Meyer 1570 1.33v.1, 1.35v; cf. 1.39v; equiv to abtretten Meyer 1570 1.39v.2, 1.33r.1 F
zuruckschneiden abigere retrorsum perstringendo: Mair (V) 1.56v F
zutritt. See also Zugang. forward and to side Meyer 1570 1.54v. Pass forward? Meyer 1570 1.36r F
Zwerchaw, Zwerch, Zwirch: Döbringer 27r-v; Ringeck 27r ff., 52v ff.; Starhemberg 18v ff.; Lecküchner (M) 42v, 131v, 143v, 194v, 213r; Egenolph 14v; Mair (V) 1.2r, 13r, 62r, 66v, 97v; Cgm 3712 108r ff.; Meyer 1570 1.12v, 16r, 26r, 55r ff., 61r; Zwerchhauw, Zwirchhaw: Mair (V3) 2.135v; Meyer 1570 1. 11v, 14v, 16r, 21r, 26r; Zwirchschlag: Meyer 1570 1.55v; zwerchen (v.): Mair (V) 1.6r; Meyer 1570 36v, 39v, 43r (2x), 46r transversarius: Mair (V) 1.4r, 66v Thwart, Thwart Cut A notionally horizontal cut delivered with the hands high and the thumb underneath the blade, with the short edge when delivered from the right, with the long edge from the left. This is usually called the Anger Cut (Entrüsthaw) in the falchion, but Lecküchner occasionally uses the longsword term, and Mair uses it extensively. Cf. Horizontal Cut. May sometimes be used imprecisely for horizontal—cf woodcut Meyer 1570 1.36r. Cf. Meyer 1570 43r.3 and Middle Cut. Cf. Landshut 11r thwirch. Medl 27r equates with the Mittlehaw. The 1594 English translation of Di Grassi's 1570 translates tondo (used in the sense of a horizontal blow over the head) as "thwarte". It's in the section on the spadone. Paurenfeint B2r claims that Zwerch was the old term for the Irongate. F
zwerchs: Mair (V) 1.27v horizontally S
(mit der) Zwerch: Lecküchner (M) 131v, 213r ?across Nach der twirch horizontally? Gladiatoria 53v S
Zwirch: Wallerstein 17v ff., 33r ff.; Dürer pl. 2 #4 ff.; Mair (V2) 2.95v, 97v transversus: Mair (V2) A wrestling position that places one leg across that of the opponent. F
Zwerchlini: Meyer 1570 2.3v Thwart Line A synonym for Middle Line. F
Zwerchstich: Mair (V2) 1.245v transversaria punctio: Mair (V2) 1.255r Thwart Thrust A dagger technique.* F
zwifach (unter) Haw: Lecküchner (M) 66v F
zwifach Tritt: Lecküchner (M) 65v, 69v; Mair (V) 1.138r, 144r; Meyer 1570 1.24r, 50v, 53v, 59r; 2.44r, 87v gradus geminus: Mair (V) 1.152v double step Two steps in the same direction using the same foot, facilitated by a gathering step with the trailing foot after the first step. A double step is also implied in Cgm 558 127v. F
(hawen sich von) zwifach: Mair (V2) 1.176v; ziehen sich zuruck zwifach: Mair (V2) 1.170r dupliciter retrorsum concedere feriundo: Mair (V2) 1.176v withdrawing double Cf. wechslen sich zwifach zuruck. winden sich zwifach von Mair (V) 2.209r = gemino gradu recedere F
zwifachen: Meyer 1570 1.52v double? F
zwingen: Meyer 1570 1.19v urgere: Mair (V) 1.96r constrain; control compel Meyer 1570 2.58v F
Zwingerhaw: Egenolph 19v; Mair (V) 1.99r, 127v, 130r; Meyer 1570 2.10r; Meyer 1560 50r; Zwinger: Lecküchner (M) 28v ff.; Speyer Fechtbuch, fol. 6r; Meyer 1570 2.34v; Meyer 1560 55v habitus cogendi quo adversarius cogitur ictum tuum excipere: Mair (V) 1.99r Constrainer Cut, Constrainer In Lecküchner’s system, this cut occupies a position equivalent to the Squinting Cut in the longsword, which implies that it is a High Cut delivered with the false edge.

However, at one point “Master Andreas” matches it with the Crooked Cut [the Speyer Fechtbuch, fol. 7r]. Meyer 1570’s description of this dusack cut is not entirely clear: he offers two versions, both of which appear to involve a Middle Cut from the left, one used as a parrying countercut, the other following an evasion of the opponent’s attack. Possibly akin to Clasher in earlier versions?

ictus technique; guard Mair (V) 1.5r uses it of the bind, 4v of the Day Guard, 4r of the Plow (ictus seu modus), 48v of the Ox.