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Difference between revisions of "Johannes Lecküchner"

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| <p>[57] <span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">If you have grasped that<br/>The peaks are acquired<br/>If you want to take revenge<br/>And break skillfully the four peaks<br/>Double from above<br/>And mutate from below</span></p>
 
| <p>[57] <span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">If you have grasped that<br/>The peaks are acquired<br/>If you want to take revenge<br/>And break skillfully the four peaks<br/>Double from above<br/>And mutate from below</span></p>
  
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| <p>[58] </p>
 
| <p>[58] </p>
 
| <p>Then, if you strike to him from your left side and bind him on his Messer with the long edge, go quickly high with the arm and remain standing on the Messer and strike to him behind the blade of his Messer with the blunt edge.</p>
 
| <p>Then, if you strike to him from your left side and bind him on his Messer with the long edge, go quickly high with the arm and remain standing on the Messer and strike to him behind the blade of his Messer with the blunt edge.</p>
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| <p>[59] </p>
 
| <p>[59] </p>
 
| <p>Then, perform the doubling this way: if he strikes to you from above coming from his right shoulder, so strike from your right with strength the same way as he from above to the head. If he displaces the stroke with the strength, wind the hilt under your right arm and go quickly high with the arm and strike him with the long edge behind the blade of his Messer to the head.</p>
 
| <p>Then, perform the doubling this way: if he strikes to you from above coming from his right shoulder, so strike from your right with strength the same way as he from above to the head. If he displaces the stroke with the strength, wind the hilt under your right arm and go quickly high with the arm and strike him with the long edge behind the blade of his Messer to the head.</p>
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| <p>[60] </p>
 
| <p>[60] </p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[61] </p>
 
| <p>[61] </p>
 
| <p>Then, have you bound from your left side with the long edge at his Messer: go high with the arm and remain with the same edge at his Messer and wind to his left side over his Messer and thrust at him to the other peak of his left side. This way you can perform the two elements from all the strokes after you have feeled whether he is “soft” or “hard” “on the Messer.”</p>
 
| <p>Then, have you bound from your left side with the long edge at his Messer: go high with the arm and remain with the same edge at his Messer and wind to his left side over his Messer and thrust at him to the other peak of his left side. This way you can perform the two elements from all the strokes after you have feeled whether he is “soft” or “hard” “on the Messer.”</p>
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| <p>[62] </p>
 
| <p>[62] </p>
 
| <p>'''If he wants to mutate<br/>Twitch the point-this will decorate you'''</p>
 
| <p>'''If he wants to mutate<br/>Twitch the point-this will decorate you'''</p>
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| <p>[63] </p>
 
| <p>[63] </p>
 
| <p>'''If he wants to do the mutating to the right<br/>Wind in the hanging point and you should be guarded'''</p>
 
| <p>'''If he wants to do the mutating to the right<br/>Wind in the hanging point and you should be guarded'''</p>
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| <p>[64] </p>
 
| <p>[64] </p>
 
| <p>'''The hanging point to your left side<br/>Wind: if you want to deflect the mutating'''</p>
 
| <p>'''The hanging point to your left side<br/>Wind: if you want to deflect the mutating'''</p>
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| <p>[65] </p>
 
| <p>[65] </p>
 
| <p>'''If you have deflected the mutating in the hanging point<br/>You may hurry straight to the face'''</p>
 
| <p>'''If you have deflected the mutating in the hanging point<br/>You may hurry straight to the face'''</p>
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| <p>[66] </p>
 
| <p>[66] </p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[67] </p>
 
| <p>[67] </p>
 
| <p>Now notice that the ''Wecker'' is one of the four displacements against the four guards, as with it one obtains the ''Stier'' and the ''Eber'', and the strokes from below.</p>
 
| <p>Now notice that the ''Wecker'' is one of the four displacements against the four guards, as with it one obtains the ''Stier'' and the ''Eber'', and the strokes from below.</p>
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| <p>[68] </p>
 
| <p>[68] </p>
 
| <p>Then, perform the ''Wecker'' this way: when you come to a man with the ''Zufechten'' and he stands against you and holds his Messer in front of the head in the guard of the ''Stier'' on his left side, put your left foot forwards and have your Messer on your right shoulder or in the ''Schrankhut'' at the right leg and leap with the right foot well to your right side and strike to him with the right edge well on his Messer. “Simultaneously” wind the point into his face.</p>
 
| <p>Then, perform the ''Wecker'' this way: when you come to a man with the ''Zufechten'' and he stands against you and holds his Messer in front of the head in the guard of the ''Stier'' on his left side, put your left foot forwards and have your Messer on your right shoulder or in the ''Schrankhut'' at the right leg and leap with the right foot well to your right side and strike to him with the right edge well on his Messer. “Simultaneously” wind the point into his face.</p>
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| <p>[69] </p>
 
| <p>[69] </p>
 
| <p>'''The ''Wecker'' turns the point to the face<br/>Overcoming the point is the end'''</p>
 
| <p>'''The ''Wecker'' turns the point to the face<br/>Overcoming the point is the end'''</p>
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| <p>[70] </p>
 
| <p>[70] </p>
 
| <p>'''Learn to do the ''Wecker'' to the right<br/>Shorten, you should angle it out'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Learn to do the ''Wecker'' to the right<br/>Shorten, you should angle it out'''</p>
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| <p>[71] </p>
 
| <p>[71] </p>
 
| <p>'''Do the ''Wecker'' with the point to the right<br/>Hang it or stretch straight'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Do the ''Wecker'' with the point to the right<br/>Hang it or stretch straight'''</p>
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| <p>[72] </p>
 
| <p>[72] </p>
 
| <p>'''Do the ''Wecker'', let the point go to the face<br/>Wind again to the left, you should not spare with the point'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Do the ''Wecker'', let the point go to the face<br/>Wind again to the left, you should not spare with the point'''</p>
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| <p>[73] </p>
 
| <p>[73] </p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[74] You should also perform the ''Wecker'' therefrom on both sides and perform the ''Schranckhut'' this way: When you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your left foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point to your right side on the ground and the long edge be turned upwards on the Messer, and expose yourself with the left side. If he strikes to you from above to the opening, leap out of the stroke with your right foot well to the right side and wind the hilt of the Messer under your arm and strike to him with the long edge to his Messer and turn the blunt edge to his head.</p>
 
| <p>[74] You should also perform the ''Wecker'' therefrom on both sides and perform the ''Schranckhut'' this way: When you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your left foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point to your right side on the ground and the long edge be turned upwards on the Messer, and expose yourself with the left side. If he strikes to you from above to the opening, leap out of the stroke with your right foot well to the right side and wind the hilt of the Messer under your arm and strike to him with the long edge to his Messer and turn the blunt edge to his head.</p>
 
| <p>You should also perform the ''Wecker'' therefrom on both sides and perform the ''Schranckhut'' this way: if you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your right foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point on the ground on your left side, so that the blunt edge is against the man. And expose yourself with the right side. If he strikes from above to your opening, leap out of the stroke with your left foot well to his right side and wind the hilt of your Messer under your arm and strike with the long edge on his Messer and turn the short edge on his head and work “simultaneously” as you know it well.</p>
 
| <p>You should also perform the ''Wecker'' therefrom on both sides and perform the ''Schranckhut'' this way: if you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your right foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point on the ground on your left side, so that the blunt edge is against the man. And expose yourself with the right side. If he strikes from above to your opening, leap out of the stroke with your left foot well to his right side and wind the hilt of your Messer under your arm and strike with the long edge on his Messer and turn the short edge on his head and work “simultaneously” as you know it well.</p>
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| <p>[75] Then, assume the ''Schranckhut'' on the left side this way: if you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your right foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point at your left side on the ground, so that the short edge is above on the Messer. And expose yourself with the right side. If he strikes to your opening, step with your left foot well out of the stroke to your left side and strike at him while stepping with the short edge over his Messer near the hand and turn the long edge to his head or thrust at his face as before.</p>
 
| <p>[75] Then, assume the ''Schranckhut'' on the left side this way: if you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your right foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point at your left side on the ground, so that the short edge is above on the Messer. And expose yourself with the right side. If he strikes to your opening, step with your left foot well out of the stroke to your left side and strike at him while stepping with the short edge over his Messer near the hand and turn the long edge to his head or thrust at his face as before.</p>
 
| <p>Then, perform the ''Schranckhut'' on your right side in this way: when you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your left foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point to your right side so that the point is on the ground and the short edge is against the man, and expose yourself with the left side. Then, step with your right foot well out of the stroke to your right side and strike to him with the short edge on his Messer close to the hand. Then, turn the long or the short edge on his head or thrust to his face as before. You can also perform the ''Wecker'' to the ''Stier'', as it is depicted below.</p>
 
| <p>Then, perform the ''Schranckhut'' on your right side in this way: when you come with the ''Zufechten'' to the man, put your left foot forwards and hold your Messer with the point to your right side so that the point is on the ground and the short edge is against the man, and expose yourself with the left side. Then, step with your right foot well out of the stroke to your right side and strike to him with the short edge on his Messer close to the hand. Then, turn the long or the short edge on his head or thrust to his face as before. You can also perform the ''Wecker'' to the ''Stier'', as it is depicted below.</p>
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| <p>[76] </p>
 
| <p>[76] </p>
 
| <p><span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">Do not do the ''Wecker'' to the left, strike short<br/>Change through the right and strike</span></p>
 
| <p><span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">Do not do the ''Wecker'' to the left, strike short<br/>Change through the right and strike</span></p>
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| <p>[77] </p>
 
| <p>[77] </p>
 
| <p>'''If he has done the ''Wecker'' to the left with changing through<br/>Remain straight, he will be stretched'''</p>
 
| <p>'''If he has done the ''Wecker'' to the left with changing through<br/>Remain straight, he will be stretched'''</p>
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| <p>[78] </p>
 
| <p>[78] </p>
 
| <p><span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">Strike the ''Wecker'' to the left<br/>Show the changing through with it</span></p>
 
| <p><span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">Strike the ''Wecker'' to the left<br/>Show the changing through with it</span></p>
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| <p>[79] </p>
 
| <p>[79] </p>
  
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| <p>[80] </p>
 
| <p>[80] </p>
 
| <p>'''If he strikes the Wecker from the left and wants to save the point<br/>Let the point go down directly, thrust at the throat'''</p>
 
| <p>'''If he strikes the Wecker from the left and wants to save the point<br/>Let the point go down directly, thrust at the throat'''</p>
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| <p>[81] <span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">Do the ''Wecker'' to the flats<br/>Of the masters, if you want to weaken them<br/>As it clashes above<br/>Stand away-this I want to praise</span></p>
 
| <p>[81] <span class="red" style="font-weight:bold;">Do the ''Wecker'' to the flats<br/>Of the masters, if you want to weaken them<br/>As it clashes above<br/>Stand away-this I want to praise</span></p>
  
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| <p>[82] </p>
 
| <p>[82] </p>
 
| <p>'''He does the ''Wecker'' around so<br/>Hanging point-he hits the chest'''</p>
 
| <p>'''He does the ''Wecker'' around so<br/>Hanging point-he hits the chest'''</p>

Revision as of 23:01, 12 July 2021

Johannes Lecküchner
Born ca. 1430s
Nuremberg, Germany
Died December 31, 1482
Herzogenaurach, Germany
Occupation
Alma mater University of Leipzig
Influences Johannes Liechtenauer (?)
Genres Fencing manual
Language Early New High German
Notable work(s) Kunst des Messerfechtens
Archetype(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations
Signature Johannes Lecküchner Sig.jpg

Johannes Lecküchner (or Hans Lebkommer; ca. 1430s – 1482) was a 15th century German cleric and fencing master. He was born in the Nuremberg area, and in 1455 he was inscribed at the University of Leipzig. In 1457, he received the title of baccalaureus, and he was consecrated as a Catholic acolyte in 1459. At some point before creating his first manuscript in 1478, Lecküchner was consecrated as a priest. From 1480 until his death on December 31, 1482, he was employed as a communal priest in Herzogenaurach, Germany.[1] Lecküchner dedicated his fencing manual to Philip "the Upright" of Wittelsbach, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, but the nature of his connection to the duke remains unclear.[2]

Some 19th century scholars assumed that Lecküchner's name was a corruption of "Liechtenauer" and a reference to Johannes Liechtenauer, the grand master of the primary German longsword tradition. However, biographical information from historical records, as well as the colophon in the manuscript itself, thoroughly disproves this theory. Lecküchner's system of Messer fencing does, however, seem to be related in some way to the longsword teachings of Liechtenauer from the previous century. His teachings are organized in a similar fashion using similar terminology, and often his Recital (Zettel) is nearly identical to that of Liechtenauer.

Two potentially-autograph copies of Lecküchner's treatise are preserved: the Cod. Pal. Germ. 430, completed in 1478, and the Cgm 582, completed on 19 January 1482 (the year of his death).[3] The Cgm 582 mentions in the last paragraph that a previous draft had been produced, which is presumed to be a reference to the CPG 430. Despite the Cgm 582 being the more extensive and elaborate of the two, it is the CPG 430 that seems to be the source for all later repetitions of Lecküchner's teachings. A slightly abridged version of this treatise (probably based on a lost intermediary) was included by Hans von Speyer in the MS M.I.29 in 1491, and similar (but not identical) abridged versions were reproduced by Gregor Erhart in 1533, Paulus Hector Mair in the 1540s, and Lienhart Sollinger in 1556.

Preceding the treatises of Lecküchner and Liechtenauer in the MS M.I.29 are brief notes by a Magister Andreas explaining equivalences in concepts and terminology between the two,[4] perhaps indicating that by this time Lecküchner's teachings had been integrated into the Liechtenauer school of fencing. This notion is further supported by the appearance of Lecküchner's Recital alongside Liechtenauer's in Marxbrüder captain Peter Falkner's treatise of ca. 1495.

One final note of interest is that in 1531, printer Christian Egenolff published a fencing anthology entitled Der Altenn Fechter anfengliche kunst, and included in it a brief treatise on the Messer attributed to a certain Master Hans Lebkommer. This is either a misspelling or alternate rendering of "Lecküchner"; the text appears to be a brief summary of Lecküchner's teachings, intermingled with the Messer teachings of Andre Paurenfeyndt (uncredited). Since there is no indication that it was actually written by Lecküchner (who was long dead by that time), and in order to avoid confusion here, this otherwise anonymous treatise can be found on the Lebkommer page.

Treatise

The two manuscripts whose creation seems to have been personally overseen by Lecküchner contain a number of substantial differences, some of which can be interpreted as corrections in the later edition and others which are less explicable. In this compilation, they're treated as mutually-authoritative and translated separately; it's possible that a future version of this article will merge the translations together and describe the differences in footnotes. Both of these manuscripts were prepared late in Lecküchner's life based on one or more lost earlier versions. The Salzburg version seems likely to be a faithful copy of one of those versions, so it is presented in the first transcription column to illustrate how the text expanded over time.

The typical Wiktenauer style is to break up the Recital into verses in a standard fashion according to their rhyme scheme. In the case of Lecküchner, however, the Recital is already broken into discrete lines in most extant copies, but the precise separation varies from copy to copy. The format of the various copies has therefore been preserved in this table in order to allow comparison (even though that means leaving the Vienna version completely un-separated). In the translation, the verses that are common to multiple copies are rendered in red text, while the verses that are unique to Munich version Ⅰ appear in black text.