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Difference between revisions of "Francesco Fernando Alfieri"

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| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 01.png|400x400px|center]]
 
| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 01.png|400x400px|center]]
| <p>'''The Flag by Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri'''</p>
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| <p>'''The Flag by Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri''', Master of Arms at the Illustrious Academy Delia of Padua</p>
 
 
<p>Master of Arms at the Illustrious Academy Delia of Padua</p>
 
  
 
<p>''In which it is demonstrated by way of figures an easy and new method, its handling, and its use with the defence of the sword.''</p>
 
<p>''In which it is demonstrated by way of figures an easy and new method, its handling, and its use with the defence of the sword.''</p>
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<p>'''In Padua,''' printed by Sebastiano Sardi. MDCXXXIIX.</p>
 
<p>'''In Padua,''' printed by Sebastiano Sardi. MDCXXXIIX.</p>
 
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<p>With Permission from the Authorities</p>
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<p>''With Permission from the Authorities''</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|5|lbl=i}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|5|lbl=i}}
  
 
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| [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 02.png|2250x250px|center]]
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| rowspan="2" | [[File:La Bandiera (Alfieri) 02.png|2250x250px|center]]
 
| <p>'''To the Most Illustrious Sir''' Most Excellent and Honourable Sir and Patron '''Lodovico Conte di Vidman'''</p>
 
| <p>'''To the Most Illustrious Sir''' Most Excellent and Honourable Sir and Patron '''Lodovico Conte di Vidman'''</p>
  
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<p>My soul is overflowing with obeisant reverence, and Your Most Illustrious Excellency of benignity, to you I most humbly bow.</p>
 
<p>My soul is overflowing with obeisant reverence, and Your Most Illustrious Excellency of benignity, to you I most humbly bow.</p>
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{{pagetb|Page:La Picca (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1641.pdf|49|lbl=iii|p=1}} {{section|Page:La Picca (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1641.pdf/50|1|lbl=iv|p=1}}
  
<p>In Padua the 6 th  day of September M.DC.XXXIIX.</p>
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| <p>In Padua the 6 th  day of September M.DC.XXXIIX.</p>
  
 
<p>Your Most Illustrious Excellency</p>
 
<p>Your Most Illustrious Excellency</p>
  
<p>Your Most Humble and Most Obliged Servant<br/>Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri.</p>
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<p>Your Most Humble and Most Obliged Servant,</p>
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<p>Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri.</p>
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| {{section|Page:La Picca (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1641.pdf/50|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| <p>'''The Flag by Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri'''</p>
 
| <p>'''The Flag by Francesco Ferdinando Alfieri'''</p>
  
From what I have been able to learn, from those few books that have come to my hands, from the discourses of great men, and from a long and uncommon experience, there is nothing in my judgement either more honourable or more necessary to a person of noble birth, than keeping their youth engaged in the practices that are useful to, and which help and adorn, the virtues of the soul.
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<p>From what I have been able to learn, from those few books that have come to my hands, from the discourses of great men, and from a long and uncommon experience, there is nothing in my judgement either more honourable or more necessary to a person of noble birth, than keeping their youth engaged in the practices that are useful to, and which help and adorn, the virtues of the soul.</p>
  
The antique and famous republics which will always serve as examples, and as stimuli to set on the path towards civic happiness, also prized virtue, skill, and agility, reputing as blessed those who were solemnly considered stronger and faster than others.<ref>This passage is later self-plagiarised by Alfieri in the introduction to his treatise on the spadone of 1653.</ref>
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<p>The antique and famous republics which will always serve as examples, and as stimuli to set on the path towards civic happiness, also prized virtue, skill, and agility, reputing as blessed those who were solemnly considered stronger and faster than others.<ref>This passage is later self-plagiarised by Alfieri in the introduction to his treatise on the spadone of 1653.</ref></p>
  
They were seen in the piazzas competing, some at wrestling, some launching the pole, they challenged themselves in races, they battered one another with the cestus, and at times by hurling discs or balls of wood, they put on show the gifts they had received from nature, enhanced through their art.
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<p>They were seen in the piazzas competing, some at wrestling, some launching the pole, they challenged themselves in races, they battered one another with the cestus, and at times by hurling discs or balls of wood, they put on show the gifts they had received from nature, enhanced through their art.</p>
  
These exercises were common into the early centuries of the Italic nation, and if they are never expressed with the pomp in which the inhabitants of the Peloponnese and Phrygia excelled, they have nonetheless been largely conserved up to the present age, as you can see every day principally in Tuscany, while other arts that were not practised in antiquity have been discovered.
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<p>These exercises were common into the early centuries of the Italic nation, and if they are never expressed with the pomp in which the inhabitants of the Peloponnese and Phrygia excelled, they have nonetheless been largely conserved up to the present age, as you can see every day principally in Tuscany, while other arts that were not practised in antiquity have been discovered.</p>
  
The practice of the flag will always be among the most commended, since it readies the foot, it renders the waist pliable; the hand becomes strong, the arm flexible. If we look to its origins, and to who was the first to unfurl it in an army we find in the holy scriptures that it was the great captain Moses,<ref>Although taken somewhat out of context, Alfieri appears to be referring to Numbers 21:8: “And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole” (King James Bible).</ref> he was followed first of all by the Assyrians, then the Egyptians followed the same example both with representations of bulls and other animals they held in veneration, and with numerous hieroglyphics alluding to victory, the pretexts and reasons for war, and to the strength and valour of their soldiers. Finally there is no people so barbaric, that it does not see its armies ordered and distinct under a particular standard.
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<p>The practice of the flag will always be among the most commended, since it readies the foot, it renders the waist pliable; the hand becomes strong, the arm flexible. If we look to its origins, and to who was the first to unfurl it in an army we find in the holy scriptures that it was the great captain Moses,<ref>Although taken somewhat out of context, Alfieri appears to be referring to Numbers 21:8: “And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole” (King James Bible).</ref> he was followed first of all by the Assyrians, then the Egyptians followed the same example both with representations of bulls and other animals they held in veneration, and with numerous hieroglyphics alluding to victory, the pretexts and reasons for war, and to the strength and valour of their soldiers. Finally there is no people so barbaric, that it does not see its armies ordered and distinct under a particular standard.</p>
  
If we then turn to consider how useful and of what consequence it is in the management of war, although such a treatise would belong to a captain rather than to me, even I am clearly aware that the fortune and glory of war depends in large part on the flag, and that in truth via this instrument military discipline forms troops and centuriae, permits them to understand and execute commands, maintains them in order, and allows the parts of the army needed for victory to be deployed quickly and without confusion.
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<p>If we then turn to consider how useful and of what consequence it is in the management of war, although such a treatise would belong to a captain rather than to me, even I am clearly aware that the fortune and glory of war depends in large part on the flag, and that in truth via this instrument military discipline forms troops and centuriae, permits them to understand and execute commands, maintains them in order, and allows the parts of the army needed for victory to be deployed quickly and without confusion.</p>
  
Efforts should not be directed elsewhere, other than to seize flag. If it is lost it seems you must no longer fear resistance, there remains a confused and armed multitude without a guide, oppressed more by disorder than by iron. Thus we see that standards are the real trophies which render a warrior's valour immortal, and they are suspended in perpetual remembrance not only in private homes but also in public buildings and churches. Therefore the subject of the art I have chosen to demonstrate is itself a worthy one and perhaps inferior to no other.
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<p>Efforts should not be directed elsewhere, other than to seize flag. If it is lost it seems you must no longer fear resistance, there remains a confused and armed multitude without a guide, oppressed more by disorder than by iron. Thus we see that standards are the real trophies which render a warrior's valour immortal, and they are suspended in perpetual remembrance not only in private homes but also in public buildings and churches. Therefore the subject of the art I have chosen to demonstrate is itself a worthy one and perhaps inferior to no other.</p>
  
Some might wish to object, stating that the flag is employed in war, but not its art, to these I would reply with a question: is the ensign needed to defend the flag? One who would deny this hints at having a rare talent, and of being a few eggs short of a dozen.<ref>Here Alfieri employs a practically untranslatable idiom “''tenero di sale''”, which refers to a dish lacking in salt but also ironically to a foolish, naïve or credulous person. The translator has replaced this with an approximately equivalent English idiom.</ref>
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<p>Some might wish to object, stating that the flag is employed in war, but not its art, to these I would reply with a question: is the ensign needed to defend the flag? One who would deny this hints at having a rare talent, and of being a few eggs short of a dozen.<ref>Here Alfieri employs a practically untranslatable idiom “''tenero di sale''”, which refers to a dish lacking in salt but also ironically to a foolish, naïve or credulous person. The translator has replaced this with an approximately equivalent English idiom.</ref></p>
  
If this is undeniable then, who is better able to defend the flag than one who knows how to handle it perfectly? Why is the pole armed if not intended to injure? To know how to wound it is necessary to practice the art, otherwise the flag serves only to entangle and envelop the hands, while it is horribly lost, holding it up being in vain. This does not occur in the hands of someone experienced, who when reduced to such extremes will have a ready solution appropriate to the situation. Emboldened by virtue one such as this will either rescue the flag from the enemy or will pursue it through vendetta.
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<p>If this is undeniable then, who is better able to defend the flag than one who knows how to handle it perfectly? Why is the pole armed if not intended to injure? To know how to wound it is necessary to practice the art, otherwise the flag serves only to entangle and envelop the hands, while it is horribly lost, holding it up being in vain. This does not occur in the hands of someone experienced, who when reduced to such extremes will have a ready solution appropriate to the situation. Emboldened by virtue one such as this will either rescue the flag from the enemy or will pursue it through vendetta.</p>
  
Therefore for those who understand this virtue, without need for further exposition, it will be a simple task to arrive at the mastery desired, observing the following figures which make clear the particulars that are difficult to express with words alone.
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<p>Therefore for those who understand this virtue, without need for further exposition, it will be a simple task to arrive at the mastery desired, observing the following figures which make clear the particulars that are difficult to express with words alone.</p>
 
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{{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|13|lbl=1|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|14|lbl=2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|15|lbl=3|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|16|lbl=4|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|17|lbl=5|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|13|lbl=1|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|14|lbl=2|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|15|lbl=3|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|16|lbl=4|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:La Bandiera (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1638.pdf|17|lbl=5|p=1}}
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| <p>'''Of the Spadone, by Francesco Fernando Alfieri'''</p>
'''Of the Spadone, by Francesco Fernando Alfieri'''
 
  
'''Chapter 1'''
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<p>'''Chapter 1'''</p>
  
It is certain, that between all these exercises and humanly arts, no practice is any more excellent nor illustrious, nor utilitarian than the martial arts. That with this, one will defend the region, expand the religion, vindicate the injustices, stabilize the peace, and facilitate the people. The ancient and famous republic, which we serve by example, and stimulates us to set out to the road that we conduct to civil happiness, they have in the meantime esteemed the art and agility that deems those which were in their solemnity judged with more force, and more velocity, than the others. We do display those gifts that we have received from nature and aggrandized with the art; these exercises were common place yet from the first centuries to the Italian nation, the exercise of the spadone is commended in as much in that the foot knows to be ready, one makes the body flexible, the hand acquires force, and one loosens the arm; we remember your origin, and who was the first, that placed it in use and aggrandized said salute, which was in the reign of Ninus, then in the Asian Cyrus, in Greece and Sparta and the Athenians, and themselves passed to Rome. Understood of possessing public academies, in which venues professors trained the youth so that not being of doubt of the ancient and marvelous effects of the Spadone, and who perfectly expect good handling and the necessary exercises in the art that otherwise has no use than to tangle and envelope the hands, which does not happen to one tested, that coming against the enemy, having readied the terms that will be appropriate to the case, making vigorous the virtue and accompanied with the vendetta. To this therefore, that without other speeches I know this virtue will easily venture to arrive at perfection that he desires, observing however the lessons of the following figures, which make clear this particularity: that hardly one can declare with words & both end this discourse of this weapon.
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<p>It is certain, that between all these exercises and humanly arts, no practice is any more excellent nor illustrious, nor utilitarian than the martial arts. That with this, one will defend the region, expand the religion, vindicate the injustices, stabilize the peace, and facilitate the people. The ancient and famous republic, which we serve by example, and stimulates us to set out to the road that we conduct to civil happiness, they have in the meantime esteemed the art and agility that deems those which were in their solemnity judged with more force, and more velocity, than the others. We do display those gifts that we have received from nature and aggrandized with the art; these exercises were common place yet from the first centuries to the Italian nation, the exercise of the spadone is commended in as much in that the foot knows to be ready, one makes the body flexible, the hand acquires force, and one loosens the arm; we remember your origin, and who was the first, that placed it in use and aggrandized said salute, which was in the reign of Ninus, then in the Asian Cyrus, in Greece and Sparta and the Athenians, and themselves passed to Rome. Understood of possessing public academies, in which venues professors trained the youth so that not being of doubt of the ancient and marvelous effects of the Spadone, and who perfectly expect good handling and the necessary exercises in the art that otherwise has no use than to tangle and envelope the hands, which does not happen to one tested, that coming against the enemy, having readied the terms that will be appropriate to the case, making vigorous the virtue and accompanied with the vendetta. To this therefore, that without other speeches I know this virtue will easily venture to arrive at perfection that he desires, observing however the lessons of the following figures, which make clear this particularity: that hardly one can declare with words & both end this discourse of this weapon.</p>
 
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{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|189|lbl=xxi|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|190|lbl=xxii|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|189|lbl=xxi|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|190|lbl=xxii|p=1}}
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| <p>'''Of the art Around the Operations with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the art Around the Operations with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 2''
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<p>''Chapter 2''</p>
  
In this art one will consider the theory, and the practice; The theory is the method, how we must work with the weapon in hand against the enemy, an how one must walk with the feet, and bring the arm, and yet know to pull the body, which we learn in various and diverse manners, which serves to offend, and to defend, as one does with forehand and backhand horizontal cuts, and scalpers, montanti, strammazone, diagonals, make beats, and wheels, molinelli, bending the body and pulling the point and cuts in various and diverse guise. And as one brings, hurling, circling from one part, and hurling through the other, going forth, and you will return, in many methods that the art demonstrates, and with this exercise and study you will increase the ardor, by stretching from the people brimming with sanguine humor, brought to make injury, and who well know themselves worth this artificious weapon of the spadone, are able to go against all opposing weapons, by having it very advantageously, and in all places the man himself is able to defend, as in a large and narrow street, as in the plaza, and in the field, that he will assail the enemies before him and behind him. This noble exercise is much frequented in my school by Italian, Polish, French, and German men, and other regarded subjects of diverse nations and whom do acquire the speed and fortification with the body, and make the agility, and rouse the intelligence adorned by nature. But all studious armigers in the need can themselves be worthy of the excellence of the art, by defense of the life, and of the honor, as demonstration and discourse, and with the figure, clearly demonstrate.
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<p>In this art one will consider the theory, and the practice; The theory is the method, how we must work with the weapon in hand against the enemy, an how one must walk with the feet, and bring the arm, and yet know to pull the body, which we learn in various and diverse manners, which serves to offend, and to defend, as one does with forehand and backhand horizontal cuts, and scalpers, montanti, strammazone, diagonals, make beats, and wheels, molinelli, bending the body and pulling the point and cuts in various and diverse guise. And as one brings, hurling, circling from one part, and hurling through the other, going forth, and you will return, in many methods that the art demonstrates, and with this exercise and study you will increase the ardor, by stretching from the people brimming with sanguine humor, brought to make injury, and who well know themselves worth this artificious weapon of the spadone, are able to go against all opposing weapons, by having it very advantageously, and in all places the man himself is able to defend, as in a large and narrow street, as in the plaza, and in the field, that he will assail the enemies before him and behind him. This noble exercise is much frequented in my school by Italian, Polish, French, and German men, and other regarded subjects of diverse nations and whom do acquire the speed and fortification with the body, and make the agility, and rouse the intelligence adorned by nature. But all studious armigers in the need can themselves be worthy of the excellence of the art, by defense of the life, and of the honor, as demonstration and discourse, and with the figure, clearly demonstrate.</p>
 
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{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|191|lbl=xxiii|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|192|lbl=xxiv|p=1}}
 
{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|191|lbl=xxiii|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|192|lbl=xxiv|p=1}}
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| <p>'''Of the Use, Length, and of the Strong and Weak of the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Use, Length, and of the Strong and Weak of the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 3''
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<p>''Chapter 3''</p>
  
With all my power I strive, that in this little volume you do not find those things that are not appropriate for experience nor experimentation, that neither accompany from reason, for many the studious gentleman will see the following figure the variety of sites and positions of the body, feet, and spadone, and to his whole will discourse about the nature of each, and the effect that from each they are able to bare, & one will discuss these happenings that easily brings one to understand where both tempo is used and has one and other reasons, and with that advantage, and method one should go against the enemy, even that man that has science can go as he pleases; because he finds in any method the creation of good results through the understanding of the art, which is the mistress of many offenses and defenses, bringing however the spadone in due method, and later the changes and occasions given by the adversary, one has from differently performing, because this, what is good in one place is not worthy in another. It’s blade is divided in two parts, the first near the hand is of much strength, and with which you are more to defend and resist any grand blow; the second that follows somewhat more weakly, but in the offense is the principle over many, not only the point, but the cut, such that the spadone comes to be sectioned half in defense, and half in offense, and its length must be very long, as long as a proportionate man, neither tall nor short, it must have two edges and must be very light to observe of this art, pulling the blows with cuts and point with great velocity and little fatigue; yet must have great hilt-fittings to ensure the hand orchestrates the principles of operation following the nature and rules of the art.
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<p>With all my power I strive, that in this little volume you do not find those things that are not appropriate for experience nor experimentation, that neither accompany from reason, for many the studious gentleman will see the following figure the variety of sites and positions of the body, feet, and spadone, and to his whole will discourse about the nature of each, and the effect that from each they are able to bare, & one will discuss these happenings that easily brings one to understand where both tempo is used and has one and other reasons, and with that advantage, and method one should go against the enemy, even that man that has science can go as he pleases; because he finds in any method the creation of good results through the understanding of the art, which is the mistress of many offenses and defenses, bringing however the spadone in due method, and later the changes and occasions given by the adversary, one has from differently performing, because this, what is good in one place is not worthy in another. It’s blade is divided in two parts, the first near the hand is of much strength, and with which you are more to defend and resist any grand blow; the second that follows somewhat more weakly, but in the offense is the principle over many, not only the point, but the cut, such that the spadone comes to be sectioned half in defense, and half in offense, and its length must be very long, as long as a proportionate man, neither tall nor short, it must have two edges and must be very light to observe of this art, pulling the blows with cuts and point with great velocity and little fatigue; yet must have great hilt-fittings to ensure the hand orchestrates the principles of operation following the nature and rules of the art.</p>
 
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{{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|193|lbl=01|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|194|lbl=02|p=1}}
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| <p>'''How you will Carry the Body and Feet to Meet Against the Enemy with the Spadone'''</p>
'''How you will Carry the Body and Feet to Meet Against the Enemy with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 4''
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<p>''Chapter 4''</p>
  
The body must bring good disposition, and simple without forcing, and upright with a cheerful expression, the method that after taking the hand to the spadone is able to go against the enemy, by taking any advantage, and free himself without any danger of the enemy injuring him.
+
<p>The body must bring good disposition, and simple without forcing, and upright with a cheerful expression, the method that after taking the hand to the spadone is able to go against the enemy, by taking any advantage, and free himself without any danger of the enemy injuring him.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/195|1|lbl=03}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/195|1|lbl=03}}
  
 
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| Wanting to move himself, the gentleman, to go against the adversary, must commence and carry the feet with ordinary steps, as appropriately brought forth in the stride, if well with somewhat more alacrity of motion, & the steps more brief, one will not ever enlarge their step, if not while the person is to make resistance against the enemy, than when he comes to offend, so alone as accompanied, and immediately with alacrity that is often the mother of fortune, closes the way that they are not able to come first to wound; Many have the opinion that when fighting one should look for the eyes, which I don’t understand on what it is based, seeing that never I have seen, nor understood, nor read that men are basilisks; I say that we should look at the length of the person that we intend to offend, and not just the eyes; the observation of this art can go against all sorts of honest weapons, and to resist against all kinds of adversaries, do from mastery of assisting the body and the spadone in such a way that one has more strength than the opposing weapons; however it is necessary to be abounding in starting out, to go to wound the enemy without stopping, as we shall say in their places in the following figures.
+
| <p>Wanting to move himself, the gentleman, to go against the adversary, must commence and carry the feet with ordinary steps, as appropriately brought forth in the stride, if well with somewhat more alacrity of motion, & the steps more brief, one will not ever enlarge their step, if not while the person is to make resistance against the enemy, than when he comes to offend, so alone as accompanied, and immediately with alacrity that is often the mother of fortune, closes the way that they are not able to come first to wound; Many have the opinion that when fighting one should look for the eyes, which I don’t understand on what it is based, seeing that never I have seen, nor understood, nor read that men are basilisks; I say that we should look at the length of the person that we intend to offend, and not just the eyes; the observation of this art can go against all sorts of honest weapons, and to resist against all kinds of adversaries, do from mastery of assisting the body and the spadone in such a way that one has more strength than the opposing weapons; however it is necessary to be abounding in starting out, to go to wound the enemy without stopping, as we shall say in their places in the following figures.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/195|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|196|lbl=04|p=1}}
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| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
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| <p>'''The Method the Spadone must be Held Walking'''</p>
'''The Method the Spadone must be Held Walking'''
 
  
''Chapter 5''
+
<p>''Chapter 5''</p>
  
It has come time to deal with the way of carrying the spadone, which is a weapon of much utility, holds the enemy back, is not subject to any prohibition, and common in every province and of every Prince and authority. Many carry it as they like, and without rule: but because there are different ways, among which we’ll show only one is best; in which one considers the walking of the feet, the motion of the stride, and disposition of the body. The time wanting it carried without tedium, without any hindrance, so at night as by day, as alone as accompanied by friends.
+
<p>It has come time to deal with the way of carrying the spadone, which is a weapon of much utility, holds the enemy back, is not subject to any prohibition, and common in every province and of every Prince and authority. Many carry it as they like, and without rule: but because there are different ways, among which we’ll show only one is best; in which one considers the walking of the feet, the motion of the stride, and disposition of the body. The time wanting it carried without tedium, without any hindrance, so at night as by day, as alone as accompanied by friends.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|1|lbl=05}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|1|lbl=05}}
  
 
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+
| <p>You must seize it with the right hand, as it is nobler, and with that you will place it in the left hand, and with it you will hold it resting on the same arm, as taught by the present figure, the gentleman remaining in this posture can travel, and being assaulted one to one, or by many men, can expediently without more time grasp with the right hand, unsheathe the spadone, and rely thereon to use it as the occasion requires.</p>
You must seize it with the right hand, as it is nobler, and with that you will place it in the left hand, and with it you will hold it resting on the same arm, as taught by the present figure, the gentleman remaining in this posture can travel, and being assaulted one to one, or by many men, can expediently without more time grasp with the right hand, unsheathe the spadone, and rely thereon to use it as the occasion requires.
 
 
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{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|198|lbl=06|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/197|2|lbl=-|p=1}} {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|198|lbl=06|p=1}}
Line 1,676: Line 1,673:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of Gripping the Spadone: and Forming Yourself in Posture to Assail the Enemy.'''</p>
'''Of Gripping the Spadone: and Forming Yourself in Posture to Assail the Enemy.'''
 
  
''Chapter 6''
+
<p>''Chapter 6''</p>
  
In this discourse one will show that it is much more effective to teach the figure: they don’t make speeches, because seeing the drawn posture and manner that one must observe by imitating them, raising all doubts that could be born from the weakness of the oppressive. The following figure represents how you must in one indivisible time stop in the posture, keeping yourself free to be able to wait or assault according to his good pleasure.
+
<p>In this discourse one will show that it is much more effective to teach the figure: they don’t make speeches, because seeing the drawn posture and manner that one must observe by imitating them, raising all doubts that could be born from the weakness of the oppressive. The following figure represents how you must in one indivisible time stop in the posture, keeping yourself free to be able to wait or assault according to his good pleasure.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|1|lbl=08}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|1|lbl=08}}
  
 
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| <p>Wanting the gentleman to do the first lesson, it must begin with the two principle cuts, that is a forehand and backhand, and they are brought and at the same time accompanied from the right and left hand, lengthening the step, and the body, pulling the blow either down, or up, according to the place, and the time, these two cuts are pulled indifferently, and replicated more times. The forehand are pulled from the right part, and the backhand are pulled from the left hand, and whoever will well go examining and arguing with intellect will easily find the reasons for going against every one, as we reason in a place of one, and time in another, of the other following lesson.</p>
Wanting the gentleman to do the first lesson, it must begin with the two principle cuts, that is a forehand and backhand, and they are brought and at the same time accompanied from the right and left hand, lengthening the step, and the body, pulling the blow either down, or up, according to the place, and the time, these two cuts are pulled indifferently, and replicated more times. The forehand are pulled from the right part, and the backhand are pulled from the left hand, and whoever will well go examining and arguing with intellect will easily find the reasons for going against every one, as we reason in a place of one, and time in another, of the other following lesson.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/200|2|lbl=-}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''The First Method to Commence Handling the Spadone'''<br/><br/></p>
'''The First Method to Commence Handling the Spadone'''<br/><br/>
 
  
''Chapter 7''
+
<p>''Chapter 7''</p>
  
This lesson one will make three cuts that are worthy of being observed. One will by the subtlety and mastery of the blow seek to consider the impression of the present figure, with which he will commence the passage. And to attain the honor that one will desire, must the body be somewhat bent and disposed to the force; the arm has to be united, and take strength with both hands in gripping the spadone, and moving the natural yet generous step you will form from one time the first forehand strike, and the backhand second, and one will replicate many times such cuts, turning the body and the spadone with the hands turning over the head, and so one will go in this continuous way, both in going forward as in the return backwards, as is more effectively shown by the posture.
+
<p>This lesson one will make three cuts that are worthy of being observed. One will by the subtlety and mastery of the blow seek to consider the impression of the present figure, with which he will commence the passage. And to attain the honor that one will desire, must the body be somewhat bent and disposed to the force; the arm has to be united, and take strength with both hands in gripping the spadone, and moving the natural yet generous step you will form from one time the first forehand strike, and the backhand second, and one will replicate many times such cuts, turning the body and the spadone with the hands turning over the head, and so one will go in this continuous way, both in going forward as in the return backwards, as is more effectively shown by the posture.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|202|lbl=10}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|202|lbl=10}}
  
 
|-  
 
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| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''The Head Guard of the Spadone: For Defending Yourself in an Ordinary Street.'''</p>
'''The Head Guard of the Spadone: For Defending Yourself in an Ordinary Street.'''
 
  
''Chapter 8''
+
<p>''Chapter 8''</p>
  
The present figure serves to awaken the chance memory, which by the length of time and little use of my recollection given to living voice became out of mind. Now you are shown that all lessons are so ordered that one is linked with the other. Here we learn how you will pull the three cuts, making the head guard with the spadone. This not only serves to show the disposition and skill of those who exercise, but may be given the case that paragons of mastery practice it in combat. Therefore hold the arm outstretched, and give a round of three forehand cuts over the head, and the same is done with backhand cuts. You must at once spring forward without losing time. You will turn the hands together afterward, as seen in the demonstrated drawing. With the union of the right and left foot you will extend the strike, so forward as backward, having always regard for the exactness of the step so avoiding the disgrace which removes merit.
+
<p>The present figure serves to awaken the chance memory, which by the length of time and little use of my recollection given to living voice became out of mind. Now you are shown that all lessons are so ordered that one is linked with the other. Here we learn how you will pull the three cuts, making the head guard with the spadone. This not only serves to show the disposition and skill of those who exercise, but may be given the case that paragons of mastery practice it in combat. Therefore hold the arm outstretched, and give a round of three forehand cuts over the head, and the same is done with backhand cuts. You must at once spring forward without losing time. You will turn the hands together afterward, as seen in the demonstrated drawing. With the union of the right and left foot you will extend the strike, so forward as backward, having always regard for the exactness of the step so avoiding the disgrace which removes merit.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|204|lbl=12}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|204|lbl=12}}
  
 
|-  
 
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| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Must in a Wide Space do the Three Crosses of the Spadone'''</p>
'''How You Must in a Wide Space do the Three Crosses of the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 9''
+
<p>''Chapter 9''</p>
  
The present lessons are all taken from the real occasions of the matter, which for most happen hot-blooded, we have come to the method of doing the three crosses. By using it in the time that you are assaulted in a plaza or a large street by several people, and to do this you all know requires much judgement, but accompanied with resolution and skill as shown in the prefixed figure.
+
<p>The present lessons are all taken from the real occasions of the matter, which for most happen hot-blooded, we have come to the method of doing the three crosses. By using it in the time that you are assaulted in a plaza or a large street by several people, and to do this you all know requires much judgement, but accompanied with resolution and skill as shown in the prefixed figure.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|1|lbl=14}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|1|lbl=14}}
  
 
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+
| <p>The first cross will be split with two cuts from the forehand, accompanying it with the right foot, rotating the body and spadone around, and every single strike causes its motion, having the left foot firmly grounded, and the other which walks with the cuts two times. And then stopping the right foot, and commence with the left foot the same with two backhand cuts, and finish the two blows you will start as before with the right foot, and if it will from here pass to the right side, pull the same two forehand cuts, and stop the right foot when finished. And the left you will put to the left side and pull its two backhand cuts, and you will return then into the same place where you had started.</p>
The first cross will be split with two cuts from the forehand, accompanying it with the right foot, rotating the body and spadone around, and every single strike causes its motion, having the left foot firmly grounded, and the other which walks with the cuts two times. And then stopping the right foot, and commence with the left foot the same with two backhand cuts, and finish the two blows you will start as before with the right foot, and if it will from here pass to the right side, pull the same two forehand cuts, and stop the right foot when finished. And the left you will put to the left side and pull its two backhand cuts, and you will return then into the same place where you had started.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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+
| <p>The second cross you will do with three cuts of the forehand, and with three backhand cuts. The forehand cuts will be accompanied with the right foot, and the backhand with the left foot, turning the body three times with the spadone. You will however keep the said order.</p>
The second cross you will do with three cuts of the forehand, and with three backhand cuts. The forehand cuts will be accompanied with the right foot, and the backhand with the left foot, turning the body three times with the spadone. You will however keep the said order.
 
 
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{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|1|lbl=16|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/206|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|1|lbl=16|p=1}}
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| <p>The third cross you will do four cuts, likewise of backhand cuts, replicating four turns per part, one forward, the other to behind, and the same will be done to the right flank, and left. Observing the rule which we have established with aforesaid discourse.</p>
The third cross you will do four cuts, likewise of backhand cuts, replicating four turns per part, one forward, the other to behind, and the same will be done to the right flank, and left. Observing the rule which we have established with aforesaid discourse.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Handling of the Point and Cut with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Handling of the Point and Cut with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 10''
+
<p>''Chapter 10''</p>
  
There are many ways in which you can go resolutely against the enemy without stopping, and wanting to do this does by trade has great amusement. In this place we’ll show the lesson of point and cut, the principle motions are the forehand and backhand cuts, with these formed over the head, and you understand its turns with the union of the body, and of the feet, as the proposed figure shows. It begins first with the forehand cut and in the passage of the cut you will accompany the blow of the thrust, and extend it forward with the step, and the same is done from backhand cuts, so from one and the other side, replicating more times the passing with the cut and point together, and according to the occasion you will commence a new play, he could from the novelty take to this celebration, and that delight which feels the love of the virtue.
+
<p>There are many ways in which you can go resolutely against the enemy without stopping, and wanting to do this does by trade has great amusement. In this place we’ll show the lesson of point and cut, the principle motions are the forehand and backhand cuts, with these formed over the head, and you understand its turns with the union of the body, and of the feet, as the proposed figure shows. It begins first with the forehand cut and in the passage of the cut you will accompany the blow of the thrust, and extend it forward with the step, and the same is done from backhand cuts, so from one and the other side, replicating more times the passing with the cut and point together, and according to the occasion you will commence a new play, he could from the novelty take to this celebration, and that delight which feels the love of the virtue.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/208|3|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
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| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Three Crosses from the Spadone’s Point and Cut'''</p>
'''Of the Three Crosses from the Spadone’s Point and Cut'''
 
  
''Chapter 11''
+
<p>''Chapter 11''</p>
  
I fear not being tedious in repeating the same things, than becoming obscured in leaving something out. Now come consider the figure to the practice of what you reason. But take however great marvel that in the drawing one will resemble another, this doesn’t make the art be however different to the display of its actions, although they are similar in posture. The present figure demonstrates a wonderful invention for doing the three crosses with the point and cut, and for everyone I can briefly interweave the declaration.
+
<p>I fear not being tedious in repeating the same things, than becoming obscured in leaving something out. Now come consider the figure to the practice of what you reason. But take however great marvel that in the drawing one will resemble another, this doesn’t make the art be however different to the display of its actions, although they are similar in posture. The present figure demonstrates a wonderful invention for doing the three crosses with the point and cut, and for everyone I can briefly interweave the declaration.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|1|lbl=18}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|1|lbl=18}}
  
 
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+
| <p>The first cross you will do with two cuts, and a thrust together. You will start, such that the left foot is placed grounded. You will begin with the right foot pulling forehand cuts, and with this you will go around to return, and you will run until you have finished the two cuts, and immediately you will chain the thrust rounding the spadone behind the back, and you will put forward the strike united with the quickness of the step. So you must do with the two backhand cuts, and with the thrust together accompanied with the left foot. The same will be done from the right band, and left.</p>
The first cross you will do with two cuts, and a thrust together. You will start, such that the left foot is placed grounded. You will begin with the right foot pulling forehand cuts, and with this you will go around to return, and you will run until you have finished the two cuts, and immediately you will chain the thrust rounding the spadone behind the back, and you will put forward the strike united with the quickness of the step. So you must do with the two backhand cuts, and with the thrust together accompanied with the left foot. The same will be done from the right band, and left.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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+
| <p>The second cross is of three cuts, and a thrust around, and you will observe the same circumstances of foot, body, and celerity as above. First you will pull three cuts with the right foot, and a thrust, and finishing with that one you will start with the left foot, and you will do the same. This will be done forward, and back, and the right side, and left, divided into three tempos, which you will do with the right foot, and with the left.</p>
The second cross is of three cuts, and a thrust around, and you will observe the same circumstances of foot, body, and celerity as above. First you will pull three cuts with the right foot, and a thrust, and finishing with that one you will start with the left foot, and you will do the same. This will be done forward, and back, and the right side, and left, divided into three tempos, which you will do with the right foot, and with the left.
 
 
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{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|1|lbl=20|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/210|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|1|lbl=20|p=1}}
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+
| <p>The third cross you will do four cuts and a thrust likewise around, which you will do forward, and behind, and to the right flank, and left. There with one foot firm, and the other turning, finishing with the right that will stop, and you will move the left, and continue until the end of the four changes, supposing always that the tempo, the step, both proportionate, without which all effort and merit is lost, and nothing more is acquired than blame.</p>
The third cross you will do four cuts and a thrust likewise around, which you will do forward, and behind, and to the right flank, and left. There with one foot firm, and the other turning, finishing with the right that will stop, and you will move the left, and continue until the end of the four changes, supposing always that the tempo, the step, both proportionate, without which all effort and merit is lost, and nothing more is acquired than blame.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
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| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Molinello You will do with the Spadone in the Crosses'''</p>
'''Of the Molinello You will do with the Spadone in the Crosses'''
 
  
''Chapter 12''
+
<p>''Chapter 12''</p>
  
All lessons are ordered, here we must learn to do the molinello in the cross. This is not only to show the disposition, but skill of whoever plays, so you must keep your arm relaxed, as shown in the following figure shown. With three montanti one knows to pass forward, and with the molinello the spadone and body will turn together, and you will return to the same position. And similar are the montanti to the right part, continue from the left side, and then the right side, doubling at your pleasure. And although the whole thing appears very clear, nonetheless, hardly anything can be put into practice without an instructor.
+
<p>All lessons are ordered, here we must learn to do the molinello in the cross. This is not only to show the disposition, but skill of whoever plays, so you must keep your arm relaxed, as shown in the following figure shown. With three montanti one knows to pass forward, and with the molinello the spadone and body will turn together, and you will return to the same position. And similar are the montanti to the right part, continue from the left side, and then the right side, doubling at your pleasure. And although the whole thing appears very clear, nonetheless, hardly anything can be put into practice without an instructor.</p>
 
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{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|1|lbl=22|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/212|3|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|1|lbl=22|p=1}}
Line 1,792: Line 1,774:
 
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| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Will Handle the Spadone to Sweep the Land'''</p>
'''How You Will Handle the Spadone to Sweep the Land'''
 
  
''Chapter 13''
+
<p>''Chapter 13''</p>
  
To do the lesson of Sweeping the Land, after you have done more steps of the forehand and backhand cuts, beginning from the right side you will make the turns of three steps with forehand arcs, and with equal skill you will return to produce the backhand cuts to the left part, and more times you will redouble according to the crowd of people, needing continually to remain in motion turning the body and the spadone there in one space, and there in another as the figure shows. And in encountering the enemy we must govern ourselves with form wanted by the occasion and the space, because in many manners you will pass to drive on, and pass from one to the other side, placing in one step good moderation, and you will not keep from becoming distinguished, experimenting in this noble exercise.
+
<p>To do the lesson of Sweeping the Land, after you have done more steps of the forehand and backhand cuts, beginning from the right side you will make the turns of three steps with forehand arcs, and with equal skill you will return to produce the backhand cuts to the left part, and more times you will redouble according to the crowd of people, needing continually to remain in motion turning the body and the spadone there in one space, and there in another as the figure shows. And in encountering the enemy we must govern ourselves with form wanted by the occasion and the space, because in many manners you will pass to drive on, and pass from one to the other side, placing in one step good moderation, and you will not keep from becoming distinguished, experimenting in this noble exercise.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/214|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Will Feint Cuts from the Spadone to Deceive the Enemy'''</p>
'''How You Will Feint Cuts from the Spadone to Deceive the Enemy'''
 
  
''Chapter 14''
+
<p>''Chapter 14''</p>
  
And of great advantage this device is added, as is the rule of the art, to feint and to wound from cuts. The figure does not need many words, demonstrating giving a backhand cut and injuring with a forehand cut. Completing wounding with a forehand cut and striking the backhand cut, you will be able to do those steps in this lesson which you will learn from the mastery, the person can go forward, and in pulling back the blow you will stretch the crux of the hands and the force of the arms, with the step well adjusted. The feint is no different than a deception, which by itself is odious. This deception of which I speak offends neither justice nor faith, but is a rule of the art simply to beat the enemy, and is named “Feint”.
+
<p>And of great advantage this device is added, as is the rule of the art, to feint and to wound from cuts. The figure does not need many words, demonstrating giving a backhand cut and injuring with a forehand cut. Completing wounding with a forehand cut and striking the backhand cut, you will be able to do those steps in this lesson which you will learn from the mastery, the person can go forward, and in pulling back the blow you will stretch the crux of the hands and the force of the arms, with the step well adjusted. The feint is no different than a deception, which by itself is odious. This deception of which I speak offends neither justice nor faith, but is a rule of the art simply to beat the enemy, and is named “Feint”.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|216|lbl=24}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|216|lbl=24}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| rowspan="2" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Step and Sidestep With the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Step and Sidestep With the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 15''
+
<p>''Chapter 15''</p>
  
In this Figure you will have the arm collected with the spadone to do the step and sidestep. You will make to play the body from one and the other sides, making three forehand cuts and three backhand cuts, walking the feet in the tempo which you will make the cuts, bringing them around, and extending the blow forward, obtaining with all guidance you will utilize from the speed, without confusion, and so remain forestalling the adversary.
+
<p>In this Figure you will have the arm collected with the spadone to do the step and sidestep. You will make to play the body from one and the other sides, making three forehand cuts and three backhand cuts, walking the feet in the tempo which you will make the cuts, bringing them around, and extending the blow forward, obtaining with all guidance you will utilize from the speed, without confusion, and so remain forestalling the adversary.</p>
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|1|lbl=26}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|1|lbl=26}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| <p>The fundamental principle in this lesson is to know your advantage. Traversing there from one side, and now from the other, pulling forehand and backhand cuts. Many are the enemies of truth, and they love most the new things, even such extravagance. This they make to be of great spirit, and almost reforming of this art, and don’t know that these findings have all of the ridicule, and are pernicious. And those who do not know to escape, easily remain deceived. This which I’ve taught you is always approved by those that know.</p>
The fundamental principle in this lesson is to know your advantage. Traversing there from one side, and now from the other, pulling forehand and backhand cuts. Many are the enemies of truth, and they love most the new things, even such extravagance. This they make to be of great spirit, and almost reforming of this art, and don’t know that these findings have all of the ridicule, and are pernicious. And those who do not know to escape, easily remain deceived. This which I’ve taught you is always approved by those that know.
 
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf/218|2|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 4.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Must Handle the Spadone in a Large Street'''<br/><br/></p>
'''How You Must Handle the Spadone in a Large Street'''<br/><br/>
 
  
''Chapter 16''
+
<p>''Chapter 16''</p>
  
Danger arises from what you least believe; Boldness ends combat, but the victory is his own from virtù by protecting himself from accidents both in war and peace; turning the spadone towards the enemy, himself arranged in good guard to resist every offense. Through clarity of this lesson I show that you will begin with the natural step, and you will move three steps to the right side to assail the adversary, and with three forehand cuts you will walk forth, and three other times you will go to the left with three backhand cuts, harassing the enemy around to gain some advantage over him, and then make doing more steps, and from forehand and backhand cuts, according to the need, and in addition to this you are able to do many whims; turns, half-turns, and other artifices that are proper ornaments of the art.
+
<p>Danger arises from what you least believe; Boldness ends combat, but the victory is his own from virtù by protecting himself from accidents both in war and peace; turning the spadone towards the enemy, himself arranged in good guard to resist every offense. Through clarity of this lesson I show that you will begin with the natural step, and you will move three steps to the right side to assail the adversary, and with three forehand cuts you will walk forth, and three other times you will go to the left with three backhand cuts, harassing the enemy around to gain some advantage over him, and then make doing more steps, and from forehand and backhand cuts, according to the need, and in addition to this you are able to do many whims; turns, half-turns, and other artifices that are proper ornaments of the art.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|220|lbl=28}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|220|lbl=28}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 5.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Method of Doing the Snake, of Forehand and Backhand Cuts with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Method of Doing the Snake, of Forehand and Backhand Cuts with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 17''
+
<p>''Chapter 17''</p>
  
This following figure shows the passage of the lesson, the Snake, beginning with forehand cut, and concluding the forehand cut with five steps. The same will be followed for backhand cuts, and finishing the backhand cuts, the forehand will be done with the right foot, and backhand cut with the left foot. This you will replicate more times according to the occasion, and the man will be able to defend from the many people he’s found himself against, or in a narrow street, or else in a wide street, and only with extending the arm, and bending from the body you may reach the adversary:  Never wanting movements to be very fast, of body, spadone, and feet, that without any doubt this is the most secure and certain rule that in tests of such esteem, in which you will draw for life, a person can defend themselves in all places.
+
<p>This following figure shows the passage of the lesson, the Snake, beginning with forehand cut, and concluding the forehand cut with five steps. The same will be followed for backhand cuts, and finishing the backhand cuts, the forehand will be done with the right foot, and backhand cut with the left foot. This you will replicate more times according to the occasion, and the man will be able to defend from the many people he’s found himself against, or in a narrow street, or else in a wide street, and only with extending the arm, and bending from the body you may reach the adversary:  Never wanting movements to be very fast, of body, spadone, and feet, that without any doubt this is the most secure and certain rule that in tests of such esteem, in which you will draw for life, a person can defend themselves in all places.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|222|lbl=30}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|222|lbl=30}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 6.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''The Manner you must Keep with the Spadone to Make the Simple and Double Molinelli in a Narrow Street'''</p>
'''The Manner you must Keep with the Spadone to Make the Simple and Double Molinelli in a Narrow Street'''
 
  
''Chapter 18''
+
<p>''Chapter 18''</p>
  
We have come to the method of how one should form the molinello with the montanti, and the non-guarding sottomani. There is no blow in fencing that cannot also be adapted to the art of the spadone, wanting to do this, which I have thought to show in the present figure, the pupil will find himself in the passage of the right flank, or left, and with montanti or sottomani turn the spadone, and make the simple molinello, walking always forward following the adversary, and pulling back if you have yourself a throng of enemies. In the double molinello you will walk with the same rule, but more times the body turns around accompanied with the same montanti and sottomani, thus in going forewards as in backwards; and I hold fast that it is a great advantage in the assault. We release the long discourse to the learned persons, because our profession constitutes more in the work than in the words; in this method, with the spadone you can advance against a shafted weapon, pike, or halberd, and win it, as I myself have done, beholding the effect in actual practice more times at different occasions to the presence of gentlemen and grand princes.
+
<p>We have come to the method of how one should form the molinello with the montanti, and the non-guarding sottomani. There is no blow in fencing that cannot also be adapted to the art of the spadone, wanting to do this, which I have thought to show in the present figure, the pupil will find himself in the passage of the right flank, or left, and with montanti or sottomani turn the spadone, and make the simple molinello, walking always forward following the adversary, and pulling back if you have yourself a throng of enemies. In the double molinello you will walk with the same rule, but more times the body turns around accompanied with the same montanti and sottomani, thus in going forewards as in backwards; and I hold fast that it is a great advantage in the assault. We release the long discourse to the learned persons, because our profession constitutes more in the work than in the words; in this method, with the spadone you can advance against a shafted weapon, pike, or halberd, and win it, as I myself have done, beholding the effect in actual practice more times at different occasions to the presence of gentlemen and grand princes.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|224|lbl=32}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|224|lbl=32}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 3.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''How You Must Operate the Spadone with Forehand and Backhand Cuts to Defend Yourself from Enemies on a Bridge.'''</p>
'''How You Must Operate the Spadone with Forehand and Backhand Cuts to Defend Yourself from Enemies on a Bridge.'''
 
  
''Chapter 19''
+
<p>''Chapter 19''</p>
  
In handling the spadone, it seems that skill and agility prevail over force, which is manifestly understood through our figure of defending yourself on a bridge; with forehand and backhand cuts, starting with your right foot, and following with your left, turning your body and your step three times in rotation, walking forward, returning back, often depending on the situation created by the enemy, from either one side or another of the bridge, always accompanying the blows with your arm and foot, with artifice. You can also intersperse some feints or other variations, which serve to ornament the lessons, and demonstrate the spirit of the practitioner.
+
<p>In handling the spadone, it seems that skill and agility prevail over force, which is manifestly understood through our figure of defending yourself on a bridge; with forehand and backhand cuts, starting with your right foot, and following with your left, turning your body and your step three times in rotation, walking forward, returning back, often depending on the situation created by the enemy, from either one side or another of the bridge, always accompanying the blows with your arm and foot, with artifice. You can also intersperse some feints or other variations, which serve to ornament the lessons, and demonstrate the spirit of the practitioner.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|226|lbl=34}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|226|lbl=34}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 7.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 7.png|400x400px|center|border]]
|  
+
| <p>'''Of the Method that you must Keep Body to Body to Defend Yourself with the Spadone'''</p>
'''Of the Method that you must Keep Body to Body to Defend Yourself with the Spadone'''
 
  
''Chapter 20''
+
<p>''Chapter 20''</p>
  
The art consists to own everything which researches the mastery of the student for using the spadone well against another that has the same weapon; against the other one must use the observations of the measure and the tempo, and yet investigate the nature and quality of the enemy’s play, and of this observation more than any depends loss and victory. Wanting the man to commence combat against the other, first he must form himself in presence of the enemy, and secondly there he moves with hostile movement, as backwards as forwards, or to the right or left flank, and like one like the other little by little, he will advance. If one pulls a forehand cut, do a forehand cut and wound with a backhand cut; and if one pulls a backhand cut, crack a backhand cut and strike a forehand cut. And observe the same for the montanto and sottomano, and as such one continues until one or the other sides leave satisfied. I do not extend to repeat this that I have more times said in advance; the principle method is taught in the present figure, leaving out nothing that has been known more for ostentation than to teach the youth.
+
<p>The art consists to own everything which researches the mastery of the student for using the spadone well against another that has the same weapon; against the other one must use the observations of the measure and the tempo, and yet investigate the nature and quality of the enemy’s play, and of this observation more than any depends loss and victory. Wanting the man to commence combat against the other, first he must form himself in presence of the enemy, and secondly there he moves with hostile movement, as backwards as forwards, or to the right or left flank, and like one like the other little by little, he will advance. If one pulls a forehand cut, do a forehand cut and wound with a backhand cut; and if one pulls a backhand cut, crack a backhand cut and strike a forehand cut. And observe the same for the montanto and sottomano, and as such one continues until one or the other sides leave satisfied. I do not extend to repeat this that I have more times said in advance; the principle method is taught in the present figure, leaving out nothing that has been known more for ostentation than to teach the youth.</p>
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|228|lbl=36}}
 
| {{pagetb|Page:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Francesco Fernando Alfieri) 1653.pdf|228|lbl=36}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| class="noline" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
 
| class="noline" | [[File:L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada (Alfieri) Spadone 2.png|400x400px|center|border]]
| class="noline" |  
+
| class="noline" | <p>'''The End of the Present Work'''</p>
'''The End of the Present Work'''
 
  
''Chapter 21''
+
<p>''Chapter 21''</p>
  
One collects the spadone, bringing it in the left hand, as the following figure demonstrates; the drawing done by a good carver. If one were accompanied by anyone delighting of such exercise, my works would have more credit, and I would quite often be without trouble. Here is a short lesson of my promise, the summary, that to me it was in the approved principle; I am not spread out in the declarations, by not having to repeat many times the same thing, (I admit, my failing) I serve nothing less stimulating to another so intendent on discovering that which I have not known and demonstrated with this style. Whom is incapable of my genius is difficult to please in this listless century; some will regard my discovered nature that others yearn, and I am well aware that a wise man is always fair.
+
<p>One collects the spadone, bringing it in the left hand, as the following figure demonstrates; the drawing done by a good carver. If one were accompanied by anyone delighting of such exercise, my works would have more credit, and I would quite often be without trouble. Here is a short lesson of my promise, the summary, that to me it was in the approved principle; I am not spread out in the declarations, by not having to repeat many times the same thing, (I admit, my failing) I serve nothing less stimulating to another so intendent on discovering that which I have not known and demonstrated with this style. Whom is incapable of my genius is difficult to please in this listless century; some will regard my discovered nature that others yearn, and I am well aware that a wise man is always fair.</p>
 
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== References ==
 
== References ==
  
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Alfieri, Francesco Fernando}}
 
{{Early Italian masters}}
 
{{Early Italian masters}}
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[[Category:Italian]]
 
[[Category:Italian]]
  
[[Category:Copy/Pasting]]
 
 
[[Category:Translation]]
 
[[Category:Translation]]
  

Latest revision as of 21:44, 30 July 2020

Francesco Fernando Alfieri

Portrait from 1640
Born 16th century (?)
Died 17th century
Occupation Fencing master
Nationality Italian
Genres Fencing manual
Language Italian
Notable work(s)

Francesco Fernando Alfieri was a 17th century Italian fencing master. Little is known about his life, but Alfieri means "Ensign" which might be a military title rather than a family name. In his fencing treatise of 1640, he identifies himself as a master-at-arms to the Accademia Delia in Padua, and indicates that he had long experience at that time

In 1638, Alfieri published a treatise on flag drill entitled La Bandiera ("The Banner"). This was followed in 1640 by La Scherma ("On Fencing"), in which he treats the use of the rapier. Not content with these works, in 1641 he released La Picca ("The Pike"), which not only covers pike drill, but also includes a complete reprint of La Bandiera (complete with title page dated 1638). His treatise on rapier seems to have been especially popular, as it was reprinted in 1646 and then received a new edition in 1653 titled L’arte di ben maneggiare la spada ("The Art of Handling the Sword Well"), which not only includes the entirety of the 1640 edition, but also adds a concluding section on the spadone.

Treatise

Additional Resources

References

  1. This passage is later self-plagiarised by Alfieri in the introduction to his treatise on the spadone of 1653.
  2. Although taken somewhat out of context, Alfieri appears to be referring to Numbers 21:8: “And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole” (King James Bible).
  3. Here Alfieri employs a practically untranslatable idiom “tenero di sale”, which refers to a dish lacking in salt but also ironically to a foolish, naïve or credulous person. The translator has replaced this with an approximately equivalent English idiom.
  4. Note the use of fencing terminology to describe actions with the flag, which continues throughout the treatise.
  5. Montanti (singular montante) in fencing terminology refers to rising blows.
  6. Literally “totally covered”, this describes a guard or posture in which your opponent has no direct line of attack, as demonstrated for example in chapters XXV and XXXIV of Alfieri's 1640 treatise on rapier fencing.
  7. Note that this final plate is simply reused from chapter I.
  8. Again this passage is later self-plagiarised in the conclusion to Alfieri's 1653 treatise on the spadone.