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Difference between revisions of "Pedro de Heredia"

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<p>'''Article 3'''</p>
 
<p>'''Article 3'''</p>
  
<p>You can still put yourself in high guard with your arm extended, and with the enemy going to subject your sword outward, you will disengage your point below his guard to the right shoulder, dodging the body and twisting your feet; but this twist must be performed by advancing the forward foot, unlike the two previous lessons, where it is necessary to twist in place because the enemy does not strongly extend the body when covering your sword like he does in stabbing.</p>
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<p>You can still put yourself in high guard with your arm extended, and with the enemy going to subdue your sword outward, you will disengage your point below his guard to the right shoulder, dodging the body and twisting your feet; but this twist must be performed by advancing the forward foot, unlike the two previous lessons, where it is necessary to twist in place because the enemy does not strongly extend the body when covering your sword like he does in stabbing.</p>
  
 
<p>'''Article 4'''</p>
 
<p>'''Article 4'''</p>
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| <p>'''Article 3'''</p>
 
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<p>If being in third or high fourth guard, your enemy is going to perform some feint inward or outward with beating of the foot and hand, at the same time that he performs this movement, you will push a high-thrust with firm foot to the right shoulder.</p>
 
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| <p>'''Article 4'''</p>
 
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<p>On the aforementioned guards you can again cover the enemy's sword inward with your strong on his weak to oblige him to disengage; when the enemy is performing and is going to shoot a low-thrust at you from second outward, at the same time you will disengage your point to go to the right shoulder.</p>
 
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| <p>'''Article 5'''</p>
 
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<p>You can also gain the enemy's sword with your strong to his weak outward; and when the enemy is disengaging his point inward to subjugate you, you will at the same time disengage your sword, shooting a low-thrust from second to his right shoulder with firm foot.</p>
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<p>Being both in third and in exact measure, you will go with your strong to gain the enemy's weak; which wanting at this time to retire his own sword in your presence, at the same movement, you will push a resolute high-thrust to the right shoulder.</p>
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<p>All these times can be performed as much from high-thrust as from low-thrust, depending on how you will assess the proper occasion to your design.</p>
 
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<p>'''Article 1'''</p>
 
<p>'''Article 1'''</p>
  
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<p>Finding first your enemy in high third, you will go from second to gain the middle of his weak with the middle of your strong; and when this one is going to shoot you a high-thrust inward, you will twist the hand in high-thrust striking with counter-time inward to his right shoulder. But note that with all counter-time, it is necessary that the hand and the body be extended before the foot steps, and that it is appropriate to execute these cuts well so that your strong in parrying passes over the enemy's weak.</p>
 
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| <p>'''Article 2'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Article 2'''</p>
  
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<p>Being in high third and the enemy having gained your weak with his strong, and you want to shoot a high-thrust to the right shoulder, at the same time that he abandons the sword, you will push from counter-time to the right shoulder.</p>
 
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| <p>'''Article 3'''</p>
 
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<p>Your enemy being in high third and you in low, you will hold your point below his blade around the middle of his strong; and if he shoots with a high-thrust inward, you will leave in counter-time to the right shoulder in the manner from above.</p>
 
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| <p>'''Article 4'''</p>
 
| <p>'''Article 4'''</p>
  
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<p>You can also hold your point outward below the middle of the strong of the enemy's sword and if the enemy shoots a second low-thrust outward at you, disengage your sword, you'll shoot a high-thrust at him in counter-time to the right shoulder in the manner as above.</p>
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| <p>'''Section 4 The counter-time to the head.'''</p>
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<p>'''Article 1'''</p>
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<p>If the enemy is going to gain your weak inward with his strong and when he wants to shoot a high-thrust to your right shoulder, abandoning your sword, you will push in counter-time straight to the head passing your strong on his weak.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 2'''</p>
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<p>You can also hold your sword outward with the point below the enemy's hilt; while going to shoot a high-thrust to your body, you will push with counter-time straight to the head with firm foot, passing the strong of your sword on the enemy's weak.</p>
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<p>Be advised not to shoot counter-time, except if the enemy is already committed with the arm extended.</p>
 
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! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating}}</p>
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! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation}}<br/>by [[John Tse]]</p>
 
! <p>Transcribed by </p>
 
! <p>Transcribed by </p>
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| <p>'''Article 1'''</p>
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<p>If being in high third holding your sword point toward your enemy's right eye, and when he goes for the second time to subdue your sword with his strong on your weak inward pressing forcefully against it, at the at the same time that he presses, you will disengage your sword below his guard pushing outward to the right side with firm foot.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 2'''</p>
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<p>Being still in the same guard holding your sword point outward, if the enemy goes to subdue your sword outward, as soon as you feel that he presses your sword with his, you can disengage your point pushing a high-thrust to the right shoulder inward with firm foot.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 3'''</p>
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<p>You can also go subdue the enemy's sword by covering it with your strong on his weak; and at the same time that that you feel that he is performing strongly to resist the opposition, you will disengage your point below his guard pushing a high-thrust with firm foot to the right side.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 4'''</p>
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<p>Wanting to do the same subjection outward, as soon as the enemy presses to resist with his sword against yours, you will disengage your point at the same time, pushing from high-thrust to the right shoulder with firm foot.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 5'''</p>
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<p>If the enemy is going to gain your sword by turning or rotating inward or outward depending on what you can notice, you will push a high-thrust or a low-thrust at him, depending on what you prefer, at the same time that he raises the foot to rotate.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 6'''</p>
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<p>If you are finding both in short measure, with the enemy going to cover your sword by pressing or forcing it either with firm foot or with raised foot, you will let go at the same time his own striking it with a high-thrust to the right side outward or inward, whichever you think is most appropriate.</p>
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! <p>Illustrations</p>
 
! <p>Illustrations</p>
! <p>{{rating}}</p>
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! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation}}<br/>by [[John Tse]]</p>
 
! <p>Transcribed by </p>
 
! <p>Transcribed by </p>
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| <p>'''Section 1 Lessons of the hand.'''</p>
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<p>'''Article 1'''</p>
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<p>Your enemy being in third or high fourth, you will lodge your sword inward; from there, you will shoot a feint outward over his hilt; and in case he goes to parry the feint, at the same time you will lodge your left hand on his weak one in order to keep his point out of your presence; disengaging your point below his guard, you will strike his right side with firm foot. Be advised that for all feints where the hand assists, it is necessary in performing the feint that the right foot advances and the left comes to join it. But when you shoot the real high-thrust, you will perform it with firm foot.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 2'''</p>
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<p>Finding the enemy camped in second or high third, you will hold your point inward; from there, going in second, you will push a low-thrust outward to his blade's middle; with this one wanting to parry it, you will jerk with your left hand to his weak, disengaging at the same time your point below his elbow striking with a low-thrust inward to his right shoulder with firm foot as above.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 3'''</p>
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<p>If being in second guard, as the enemy will want the same to come with the hand in low-thrust to gain your weak outward with his strong, you can at the same time beat his weak outward with the hand; in passing your sword below his guard, you will push from high-thrust inward with firm foot to the right shoulder.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 4'''</p>
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<p>You can also from the same guard or from high third hold your point toward the enemy's right eye, who meanwhile is going to gain your weak inward with his strong, you will beat his point with your left hand inward pushing at the same time a high-thrust below his guard to his right side with firm foot.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 5'''</p>
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<p>The enemy being in second or high third holding his point straight, you can hold your point below his guard outward; and at the same time that your enemy moves his foot to advance, you will lead his point outward with your hand; disengaging your point inward at the same time, you will push from low-thrust inward to the right shoulder with firm foot.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 6'''</p>
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<p>You can also hold your point below the middle of the enemy's strong, and from there, push a second low-thrust outward; and with the enemy going to parry, enter with your foot such that you nearly come guard to guard, you will disengage at this time your point below his arm, securing with the hand on his weak, pushing the low-thrust inward without moving the right foot. This lesson can be executed as soon as you shoot the low-thrust nearly to the guards, or else as the enemy shoots.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 7'''</p>
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<p>Finding the enemy still in high third, first or second, and when he goes to cover your weak with his strong, you will shoot at the same time an outward reversal; when the enemy wants to parry strongly, you will disengage your point below his arm, and securing with your left hand on his weak, you will push at the same time a low-thrust with firm foot to the right shoulder.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 8'''</p>
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<p>You can also from high third hold your point inward in order to invite the enemy to go cover it; which doing so, you will disengage with a call of the left foot backward; and the enemy wanting to continue a low-thrust outward, you will shoot a high-thrust inward to the right shoulder accompanying at the same time the hand.</p>
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| <p>'''Article 9'''</p>
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<p></p>
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| <p>'''Article 10'''</p>
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<p></p>
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| <p>'''Article 11'''</p>
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<p></p>
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| <p>'''Article 12'''</p>
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<p></p>
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| <p>'''Section 2 Remedy against those who beat the sword with the hand.'''</p>
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<p>'''Article 1'''</p>
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<p></p>
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| <p>'''Article 2'''</p>
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<p></p>
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| <p>'''Article 3'''</p>
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<p></p>
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Latest revision as of 19:55, 15 August 2022

Pedro de Heredia
Spouse(s) unknown
Occupation
  • Governor
  • Captain
Nationality Spanish
Movement
Influences Girolamo Cavalcabo
Genres Fencing manual
Language Middle French
Notable work(s) Book of Lessons
Principal
manuscript(s)

Pedro de Heredia was a 17th century Spanish governor of a region in Belgium and a cavalry captain from 1615-1645. He wrote three manuscripts.

De Heredia's Le Livre des Leçons ("The Book of Lessons") is influenced by Girolamo Cavalcabo's Nobilissimo discorso intorno il schermo ("Most Noble Discourse on Defense").

Contents

Treatises

Additional Resources

References

  1. According to Lauvernay, fourniment is the powder case of arquebusiers and musketeers (sometimes extended to all the equipment carried). The word is only used once to indicate a place on the body, probably a bit below the shoulder.
  2. Droit can mean "right" or "correct" (as in not incorrect) or "true".
  3. Volter is an Italian loanword of voltare which means "to turn".
  4. Estocade is the French loanword for the Italian stoccata and is used in this treatise as "supination".
  5. Brocade is the French loanword for the Italian imbroccata and is used in this treatise as "pronation".
  6. Caver is the French loanword for the Italian cavare, which means "to dig or to excavate".
  7. Lit. translated as "right-hands".
  8. Estramaçon is a loanword for the Italian stramazzare which means "to fall heavily". It is also French for greatsword.
  9. Credits to Alan Bloniarz for providing context to the word "garatusa" which is a Spanish card game where one discards their cards to win.
  10. Écarté is the French loanword for the Italian technique "inquartata" and means "discarded"
  11. Gannance is a loanword derived from the Spanish word "ganancia", which means "gain". It is used to describe a situation where your blade is used to restrict the opponent's blade movement. Credit to Tim Riviera for the explanation.
  12. The Spanish word "cortar" simply means "to cut".
  13. Chassement means "chasing". In this case, it is the back foot chasing the front. In modern fencing, this is known as advancing.
  14. Crèvement means "to burst or to puncture." In the treatise, it is used to describe breaking guards.