Wiktenauer logo.png

Difference between revisions of "Fiore de'i Liberi"

From Wiktenauer
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 121: Line 121:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 601: Line 601:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 699: Line 699:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 1,129: Line 1,129:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 1,286: Line 1,286:
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
Line 1,300: Line 1,300:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[2] {{red|b=1|[The Long Guard]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
<p>''I am ready to show you how I win with my holds,<br/>And if I don’t leave you wondering what happened, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
 
<p>''Even if you capture me, I would win; I am truly prepared.<br/>If I do not deceive you, you will be able to benefit for a short while.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-a}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Longa'' and I seek you like this. And in response to the first grapple that you attempt on me I will bring my right arm up under your left arm. And I will then execute the first play of Grappling. And with that lock I will force you to the ground. And if that lock looks like it will fail me, then I will switch to one of the other locks that follow.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-a}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| rowspan="2" |  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[3] {{red|b=1|[The Boar's Tooth]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to reverse the fight,<br/>And from this position I will force you to the ground.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
 
<p>''I seek to shift, <for> which reason I would be able to deceive you well.<br/>Henceforth, I would turn you, using the speeding chest, through the dirt.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-b}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>I counter you with ''Dente di Zenghiaro''. And with this move I am sure to break your grip. And from this guard I can transition to ''Porta di Ferro'', which will force you to the ground. And if my plan fails me because of your defense, I will seek other ways to hurt you, for example with breaks, binds and dislocations, as you see depicted in these drawings.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-b}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[4] {{red|b=1|[The Iron Gate]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 
<p>''If you fail to beat me with your skill, I believe<br/>That with my power I will hurt you, or worse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
+
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one &lt;that is, you&gt; will suffer many calamities.''</p>
| <p><br/></p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<p>''If you do not conquer with a trick, I can, of course, believe [that]<br/>By my strength, that one <that is, you> will suffer many calamities.''</p>
+
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
 +
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I wait for you without moving in ''Porta di Ferro'', ready to grapple with all of my skill. And this guard can be applied not only in the art of grappling, but also in the art of the Spear, the Poleaxe, the Sword, and the Dagger. For I am ''Porta di Ferro'', full of danger. Those who oppose me will always end up in pain and suffering. And as for those of you who come against me trying to get your hands on me, I will force you to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-c}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
<br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[5] {{red|b=1|[The Guard of the Forehead]}}</p>
  
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
<p>''I advance upon you with my arms well forward<br/>To lay hands on you in a variety of ways.''</p>
 
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
  
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
 
<p>''Behold!  I am coming, eager to overcome by means of the stretched shoulder,<br/>In order that I gain for myself a powerful capturing during the playing.''</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/>
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 
|
 
<br/>
 
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
 
{{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04a.jpg|4a-d}}
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p><br/></p>
<br/>
+
 
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 
{{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| class="noline" | <p>I am ''Posta Frontale'', used to get my hands on you. Now if I come against you in this guard, you may lay hands on me. But I will then move from this guard, and with skill I will take you down to ''Porta di Ferro''. Then I will make you suffer as if you had fallen into the depths of hell. And I will serve you so effectively with locks and dislocations, that you will quickly acknowledge my superiority. And as long as I don’t forget my skills, I will gain my superior holds.</p>
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |
| <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06r.jpg|6r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
 
 
|-
 
| [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
 
 
<p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
 
| <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
 
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
 
 
<p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
 
| <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
|
 
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-a.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[6] ''With this move I will either force you to the ground<br/>Or else your left arm will be dislocated.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I, using a capturing, would make you touch the earth.<br/>I will dislocate your left shoulder, or perhaps the other.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-b}}
  
<p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>This is the first play of ''Abrazare'' and from every grappling guard you can arrive at this play, and from this position, proceed as follows: jam his right inside elbow with your left hand, and bring your right hand up behind and against his left elbow as shown. Now quickly make the second play, that is to say, having gripped him like this, turn your body to the left, and as a result he either goes to the ground or his arm will be dislocated.</p>
 
+
| class="noline" |
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
+
| class="noline" |
|  
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-a}}
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" |  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
 
 
<p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
 
| <p>''Because of capturing, <by> wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
 
 
<p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
| <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, <in order that> I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[7] ''Either I will make you kiss the ground with your mouth,<br/>Or I will force you into the lower lock.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would compel you, ugly, to lick the ground with your mouth;<br/>Not to mention I would even make you, wretched, enter the lowest key.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39r.jpg|39r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>As the Scholar of the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master says, I am certain to put this man to the ground, either by breaking or dislocating his left arm. And if the ''Zugadore'' who fights with the First ''Abrazare'' Remedy Master takes his left hand off the shoulder of the Remedy Master in order to make a defense, then I will quickly let go of his right arm with my left hand and instead seize his left leg with my left hand, and grip his throat with my right hand in order to throw him to the ground, as you see depicted in the third play.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left <and put> the head of this person <that is, me> under the shoulder.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
 
 
<p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
 
| <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-c.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[8] ''And I will put you on the ground on your back,<br/>And I will not let you back up again without injury.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I would throw you, without pause, into the farthest earth up to the kidneys.<br/>Without you being able to rise from ominous punishment at all.''<ref>''Nec sine'' is an emphatic, not a negation.</ref></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-b}}
  
<p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''<If you>, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts <and buries> you in the deepest ground.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>The scholar that came before me speaks truly that from his hold he will force his opponent to the ground or dislocate his left arm. As he told you, if the ''Zugadore'' takes away his left hand from the shoulder of the Remedy Master, then the Remedy Master transitions to the Third Play, as you see depicted here. Thus, the First play and the Second play are really one single play, where the Remedy Master forces the ''Zugadore'' to the ground with a turn of his body, while in this Third play the ''Zugadore'' is thrown to the ground onto his back.</p>
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
|  
+
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-c}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
+
| class="noline" |  
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
 
 
<p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
 
| <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
 
 
<p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
 
| <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-d.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[9] ''Even if you were a master of grappling,<br/>I will force you to the ground with this technique.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, I would make you sink down to the earth using a capturing,<br/>If you were being better during the entire playing by the masters.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 39v.jpg|39v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is the Fourth Play of ''Abrazare'', by which the ''Scholaro'' [Student] can easily force the ''Zugadore'' to the ground. And if he cannot force him to ground like this, he will seek other plays and techniques and use other methods, as you will see depicted below. You should know that the plays and the techniques will not always work in every situation, so if you do not have a good hold, you should quickly seek one, so as not to let your opponent gain any advantage over you.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 06v.jpg|6v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
+
|-
| <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
 
 
<p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
 
| <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b-e.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.<br/>&nbsp;''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[10] ''With the grips that I have on you above and below,<br/>I will break open your head on the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Because of capturing, &lt;by&gt; wrestling above and below<br/>You will pound the earth with the top of your head. The fates will not refuse.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-b}}
  
<p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This grip that I make with my right hand at your throat will bring you pain and suffering, and with it I will force you to the ground. Also let me tell you that if I seize you under your left knee with my right hand, I will be even more certain of driving you into the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]''</p>
+
|-
| <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, <you>, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
 
 
 
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
 
 
|-
 
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
 
 
<p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
 
| <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[11] ''Your hand in my face is well placed,<br/>But I will now show you some other moves.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I served up the palms to the face.<ref>''Apposui'' is clearly “I served up,” but with the convention that the captions are spoken by the wearer of the crown or garter, this makes little sense (as the palms are in the face of that person). Further, the Pisani Dossi text reverses the speaker.</ref> But still I cheerfully moved<br/>Those [palms] from that place, &lt;in order that&gt; I would therefore be able to<br/>Bury you using the other capturing.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 04b.jpg|4b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40r.jpg|40r-c}}
  
<p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>I am the counter of the Fifth Play [10] that is shown earlier. And let me explain that if with my right hand I push up the elbow of his hand that seeks to harm me, I will turn him in such a way that either I will force him to the ground, as you see here depicted, or I will gain a hold or a lock, and so I will have little concern for his grappling skills.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
<p>''[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
+
|-
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
+
| <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 +
|  
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|  
  
<p>''[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[12] ''By putting my head under your arm,<br/>I will easily throw you to the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''You, confused one, will be spread on the ground (like a tarp) in sadness and disorder;<br/>This, because I am holding [your arm] on the left &lt;and put&gt; the head of this person &lt;that is, me&gt; under the shoulder.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
<br/><br/>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-a}}
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-a}}
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
 
  
|}
 
{{master end}}
 
 
{{master begin
 
| title = Baton
 
| width = 240em
 
}}
 
{| class="master"
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>From this hold that I have gained, and by the way I hold you, I will lift you off the ground with my strength and throw you down under my feet head first with your body following. And as far as I am concerned, you will not be able to counter me.</p>
! <p>Illustrations</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-c}}
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
+
| class="noline" |  
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 
 
<p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
<br/><br/>
+
|  
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|  
+
| rowspan="3" |  
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
+
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-b.png|400px|center]]
| <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[13] ''Because of my thumb pressing under your left ear,<br/>Your hold on me is failing, as you can see depicted here.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''{{highlight|I but hold}} this finger to the left ear during wrestling,<br/>In order that you destroy the capturing by which you were keeping the upper hand on me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 40v.jpg|40v-d}}
  
<p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>When I press my thumb under your ear you will feel so much pain that you will go to the ground for sure, or I will make other hold or lock that will be worse than torture for you. The counter that can be made is the Sixth play [11] made against the Fifth Play [10] when he puts his hand underneath his opponent’s elbow. This counter can certainly be done to me here.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07r.jpg|7r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
''[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]''
+
|-
 +
|
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]</p>
 +
|
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| <br/><br/>
 
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 +
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[14] ''With great cunning you grabbed me from behind,<br/>But this move will throw you to the ground without fail.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''&lt;If you&gt;, Traitor, by your art have seized me from behind,<br/>This capturing nevertheless puts &lt;and buries&gt; you in the deepest ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-a}}
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>You seized me from behind in order to throw me to the ground, and I turned like this. And if I fail to throw you to the ground you will have a lucky escape. This play is a good finishing move, but unless this is done quickly, this remedy will fail.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
|  
 
|  
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 
| <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 
 
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]''</p>
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
+
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[15] ''This is a grappling move that involves the ''Gambarola'',<br/>But be aware that this move will not always work.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, meanwhile, the play of turning of legs is discussed.<br/>{{highlight|However, it}} is not suitable; it often fails at holding.''</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
+
| class="noline" |  
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
+
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41r.jpg|41r-c}}
  
<p>''[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]''</p>
+
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is a play that involves a throw over the leg [''Gambarola''] which is a risky move in grappling. So if you want to make this leg throw successfully, you will need to do it with power and speed.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[16] ''This is a good hold to practice,<br/>For I can hold you without you being able to harm me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''By the joint, thought and mind, the capturing is called Outsider.<br/>In this way, at last, I will force you, gloomy one, to endure.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is a finishing move and it is a good way to hold someone, because they cannot defend themselves. For the counter, the one who is being held should move as quickly as he can over to a wall or a post and drive himself backwards against it so that the man holding him breaks his head or his back against the aforementioned wall or post.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[17] ''I will strike you so hard in the groin<br/>That all of your strength will be taken away.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''In this way, &lt;I&gt; myself would destroy your testicles with a hard<br/>Knee, so that no strength will be present in the heart.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05a.jpg|5a-f}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 41v.jpg|41v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This student strikes his opponent with a knee to the groin to gain advantage in order to throw him to the ground. To make the counter, when your opponent comes in quickly to strike you in the groin with his knee, seize his right leg under the knee with your right hand, and throw him to the ground.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 07v.jpg|7v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[18] ''I'll give you so much pain and suffering to your nose<br/>That I will immediately make you let go of me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I will redouble so many<ref>''Tot'': so many, such a number.</ref> pains which your nose is suffering<br/>That I believe you will quickly release me [who {{highlight|am}}] fighting with you.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-a}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>If you seize me with both your arms underneath mine, I will strike with both my hands into your face. And even if you were well armored this would still make you let go. The counter of this play is to place your right hand under the left elbow of your opponent and push hard upwards, and you will be able to free yourself.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[19] ''No doubt about it, with this move I will free myself<br/>And with this counter you will be thrown to the ground.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I set up your limbs using a similar capturing (and so we demonstrate).<br/>Nevertheless, &lt;you&gt;, miserable ruined one, will depart<br/>By means of the counter, as you will duly see if you examine [it] by the light of day.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-b}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42r.jpg|42r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This shows how I make the counter to the thirteenth play [18]. As you can see his hands have been removed from my face. And from this hold, if I fail to throw him to the ground I will be worthy of your disdain.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Getty, the master grabs the scholar's right elbow rather than his left wrist.]</p>
 +
| <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[20] ''I will hurt you under your chin so badly<br/>That you will quickly find yourself thrown onto your back.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''And I drag many pains to you below your chin,<br/>So that I touch the farthest earth with the sorrowful kidneys.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>If you come to grips with both your arms underneath your opponent's, then you can attack his face as you see depicted, especially if his face is not protected. You can also transition from here into the third play of grappling.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[21] ''With your hands in my face you can cause me trouble,<br/>But with this counter to your eyes, I will cause you even more trouble.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''Here, by this twin play, you press the face with the hand.<br/>But the counter, thenceforth, will injure the eye more greatly.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-d}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 42v.jpg|42v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter to the fourteenth play [20], and to any other play where my opponent has his hands in my face while grappling with me. If his face is unprotected, I push my thumbs into his eyes. If his face is protected, I push up under his elbow and quickly move to a ''presa'' or a ''ligadura''.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08r.jpg|8r-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Pisani Dossi, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[In the Paris, the Master is missing his crown.]</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
{{master end}}
 +
 
 +
{{master begin
 +
| title = Baton
 +
| width = 240em
 +
}}
 +
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[1] ''With a short staff I bind your neck,<br/>And if I fail to put you into the ground, you can count yourself lucky.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>See how with a short staff I hold you bound by your neck. And from here if I wish to throw you to the ground I will have little trouble doing so. And if I choose to do worse to you I can keep this strong bind applied. And you will not be able to counter this play.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-a}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[2] ''If this short staff play does not put you on the ground,<br/>Then I will have no faith in the effectiveness of this art.''</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 05b.jpg|5b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>If you were well armored then I would prefer to make this play against you than the previous one. Now that I have caught you between your legs with the short staff, you are stuck riding it like a horse, but you won't be trapped like this long before I turn you upside down onto your back.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[In the Getty, the Scholar steps between his opponent's legs.]</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[3] I am the Student of the Sixth Remedy Master of the Daga, who counters in this way with his dagger. And it is in his honor that I make this cover with my short staff. And from here I will rise quickly to my feet and I will make the plays of my Master. And this cover that I have made with a short staff can also be done with a hood. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master [in the dagger section].</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the following play.]</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="3" |
 +
| rowspan="3" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[4] I have taken this remedy from the Eighth Remedy Master of the Dagger, and I can defend myself armed only with this short staff. And having made this cover I rise to my feet, and I can then make all of the plays of my Master. And I could defend myself in this way equally well with a hood or a piece of rope. And the counter to this move is the same counter shown by my Master.</p>
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
 
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 08v.jpg|8v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[Based on the description, the placement of this illustration is probably an error and it more likely belongs to the previous play.]</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  
 
| class="noline" |  

Revision as of 15:27, 27 May 2021

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi

This man appears sporadically throughout both the Getty and Pisani Dossi MSS, and may be a representation of Fiore himself.
Born Cividale del Friuli
Relative(s) Benedetto de’i Liberi (father)
Occupation
Nationality Friulian
Patron
  • Gian Galeazzo Visconti (?)
  • Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este (?)
Influences
Influenced Philippo di Vadi
Genres
Language
Notable work(s) The Flower of Battle
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late 14th century knight, diplomat, and fencing master. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.[1][2][3] The term Liberi, while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit), either as part of the nobili liberi (Edelfrei, "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.[4][5][6] It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,[7][8][9] but this has yet to be proven.[10]

Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.[1][2][3] He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.[3] He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight duels for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.[1][2][11]

Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one Johane dicto Suueno, who he notes was a disciple of Nicholai de Toblem;[3] unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous condottieri that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),[12] Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),[13] Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),[14] Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,[15] Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,[16] and Azzone di Castelbarco,[17] and also highlights some of their martial exploits.[1][2]

The only known historical mentions of Fiore appear in connection with the Aquileian War of Succession, which erupted in 1381 as a coalition of secular nobles from Udine and surrounding cities sought to remove the newly appointed Patriarch (prince-bishop of Aquileia), Philippe Ⅱ d'Alençon. Fiore seems to have supported the secular nobility against the Cardinal; he traveled to Udine in 1383 and was granted residency in the city on 3 August.[18] On 30 September, the high council tasked him with inspection and maintenance of city's weapons, including the artillery pieces defending Udine (large crossbows and catapults).[5][19][20] In February of 1384, he was assigned the task of recruiting a mercenary company to augment Udine's forces and leading them back to the city.[21] This task seems to have been accomplished in three months or less, as on 23 May he appeared before the high council again and was sworn in as a sort of magistrate charged with keeping the peace in one of the city's districts. After May 1384, the historical record is silent on Fiore's activities; the war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in 1389 and a peace settlement was reached, but it's unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration. Given that he appears in council records four times in 1383-4, it would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years if he remained,[5][22] and since his absence from records coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on.

Based on his autobiographical account, Fiore traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels. He seems to have been in Perugia in 1381 in this capacity, when his student Peter von Grünen likely fought a duel with Peter Kornwald.[23] In 1395, he can be placed in Padua training the mercenary captain Galeazzo Gonzaga of Mantua for a duel with the French marshal Jean Ⅱ le Maingre (who went by the war name “Boucicaut”). Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court of France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August. Both Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of Padua, and Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantua, were in attendance. The duel was to begin with spears on horseback, but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking Galeazzo before he could mount his own horse. Galeazzo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmet, but was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut called for his poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel.[24][20][14]

Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted poleaxe, estoc, and dagger. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.[16][25]

Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.[26] After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.[20] Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as Fior di Battaglia, Florius de Arte Luctandi, and Flos Duellatorum). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;[3] as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,[27] we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.

Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. Francesco Novati and Luigi Zanutto both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.[28] However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.[25][20] C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a fencing manual located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.[29]

The time and place of Fiore's death remain unknown.

Despite the extent and complexity of his writings, Fiore de’i Liberi does not seem to have been a very significant master in the evolution of fencing in Central Europe. That field was instead dominated by the traditions of two masters of the subsequent generation: Johannes Liechtenauer in the Holy Roman Empire and Filippo di Bartolomeo Dardi in the Italian states. Even so, there are a number of later treatises which bear strong resemblance to his work, including the writings of Philippo di Vadi and Ludwig VI von Eyb. This may be due to the direct influence of Fiore or his writings, or it may instead indicate that the older tradition of Johane and Nicholai survived and spread outside of Fiore's direct line.

Treatise

The d'Este family owned three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,[30] and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 (Getty) and the Pisani Dossi MS (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The MS M.383 (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the MS Latin 11269 (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the Flower of Battle follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.

In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the Flower of Battle, provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)

The major sections of the work include: abrazare or grappling; daga, including both unarmed defenses against the dagger and plays of dagger against dagger; spada a un mano, the use of the sword in one hand (also called "the sword without the buckler"); spada a dui mani, the use of the sword in two hands; spada en arme, the use of the sword in armor (primarily techniques from the shortened sword); azza, plays of the poleaxe in armor; lancia, spear and staff plays; and mounted combat (including the spear, the sword, and mounted grappling). Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as bastoncello, or plays of a small stick or baton against unarmed and dagger-wielding opponents; plays of sword vs. dagger; plays of staff and dagger and of two clubs and a dagger; and the use of the chiavarina against a man on horseback.

The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called Remedio ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called Contrario ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called Contra-Contrario ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.

The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Morgan preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. (The Zeno transcript is in the first transcription column even though it's the youngest source so that the others can remain in the same position throughout.) Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.