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! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]]</p>
+
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
  
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  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/5th master}}
+
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|B|Completed Translation (from the Getty and PD)}}<br/>by [[translator::Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>{{rating|C|Draft Translation (from the Paris)}}<br/>by [[translator::Kendra Brown]] and [[translator::Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[66] <em>I want each of my students to know<br/>That you cannot defend against the collar grab unless you move quickly.<br/>And with the strike that I make against your elbow,<br/>I will quickly feel your arm dislocate.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Fifth Dagger Remedy Master who defends against the collar grab made by this player. Before he can strike me with his dagger I destroy his arm like this, because the grip he has on me is actually to my advantage. And I can do all of the covers, holds and binds of the other remedy masters and their students who came before me. And I say this from experience: all who study this art should be aware that you cannot successfully defend the collar grab unless you move quickly.</p>
 +
| <p>''You would grasp my chest. Thus far you have not been able to wound me.<br/>I will, nevertheless, dislocate this, your shoulder, during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38r.jpg|38r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 33v.jpg|33v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[67] <em>After striking against your elbow, I will continue on<br/>To quickly seek to find your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to destroy the arm. And from this play I can move to other plays and holds…</p>
 +
| <p>''I would now strike close by your elbow. You will then move past me,<br/>And I, the strong one, will unexpectedly attempt your dagger.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10a.jpg|10a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[68] <em>I will get rid of your spear with my arms in this way,<br/>Then I will turn and hit you,<br/>And if I cannot do it this way<br/>Then I will use the technique I described before.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also, if you are pinned by a spear then by making this strike against it you will either unpin yourself or break off the haft from the spearhead.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[69] <em>If I want to get this spear off me,<br/>I had better hit it hard from above,<br/>So that I will break the staff of your spear<br/>And then I will want to come to the close.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is another way to make you let go, and is also a better method of breaking off the head of a spear…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 16b.jpg|16b-c}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[70] <em>By striking to your wrist or to your elbow,<br/>I will either dislocate it, or you will quickly let go.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…Also if I strike you hard in the wrist joint of the hand holding my collar, I am certain to dislocate it unless you let go.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I wish to tell you the counter. As the student strikes down with his arms to dislodge the player's hand, the player quickly withdraws his hand from the student’s collar, and he then quickly strikes the student in the chest with his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''Either I will strike over the elbow, or near the fist,<br/>And in this place I will dislocate the wretched one.  Henceforth you will quit the entire chest.''<ref>Note: ''pectora'' is plural, perhaps meant to indicate both halves of the chest.</ref></p>
 +
 
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34r.jpg|34r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[71] <em>I am confident and certain that you will go to the ground,<br/>And I care little or nothing for your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This play will make you let go of me. And in addition, if I advance my right foot behind your left foot, you will be thrown to the ground without fail. And if this play is not enough, I will try others on your dagger, because my heart and my eyes are never focused anywhere other than upon taking away your dagger quickly and without delay.</p>
 +
| <p>''I am able to safely believe that you will go into the ground now;<br/>Neither will your dagger be able to accomplish harming me.</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[72] <em>I choose to try this method of throwing you to the ground,<br/>And if this does not work I will try a different play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I will throw you to the ground like this, before your dagger can get near me. And if your dagger comes down the center line to strike at me, I will release my grip and deal with your dagger, so that you will not be able to injure me in any way. Then with the remedy plays I will make you suffer.</p>
 +
| <p>''I put to the test where I would at once lay you sharply on your back.<ref>Or “I put to the test where I would at once bend you back acutely.”</reF><br/>If, perchance, I do not strew you, I will [scribal error] <actually try> something better.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 38v.jpg|38v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 34v.jpg|34v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[73] <em>You will find out that over my right shoulder<br/>I will not fail to break your arm.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This player had me grabbed by the collar, but before he could strike me with his dagger I quickly seized his left hand with my hands and pulled his arm over my shoulder so as to dislocate it, and then I completely dislocated it. But this play is safer to do in armor than unarmored.</p>
 +
| <p>''I will not have been cheated of breaking the left shoulder;<ref>Or “I will not be deceived while breaking the left shoulder.”</ref><br/>I am holding that which is loaded<ref>Or possibly “weighed”.</ref> down on the right using the leg during wrestling.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[74] <em>By the way I seize you and hold you,<br/>I will force you to the ground shoulders first.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In this way I will hurl you to the ground without fail. And I will surely take your dagger. And if you are armored that may help you, since I will be aiming to take your life with your own dagger. But even if we are armoured, this art will not fail me. And if you are unarmored and very quick, other plays can be made besides this one.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's right foot is inside (in front) of his opponent's left leg.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I hold you using this form, and I will catch the lamenting one;<br/>Now, with the leg, you will be strewn as deep into the earth as possible.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35r.jpg|35r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[75] <em>To take your dagger I make a cover like this,<br/>And then with other plays I will make you suffer.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This cover is very good in armor or without armor. And against any strong man such a cover is good for covering an attack from below as well as from above. And from this play you can enter into a middle bind as shown in the third play of the First Dagger Remedy Master. And if the cover is made in response to an attack from below, the student will put the player into a lower lock also known as “the strong key”, as shown in the sixth play [38] of the Third [Dagger] Remedy Master who plays to the reverse hand attack.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I make this cover, for which reason <read: in order that> I would be able to take away the dagger,<br/>Not to mention [that] I can strike you using many plays.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 10b.jpg|10b-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[76] <em>If I can turn this arm of yours,<br/>Then I will force you into the lower lock.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>If I can turn this arm I will be certain to put you into the lower lock also known as “the strong key”. I will however be able to do this more safely if I am armored. I could also do something else against you: if I grip your left hand firmly and seize you under your left knee with my right hand, then I will not lack the strength to put you to the ground.</p>
 +
| <p>''If I can now twist your shoulder while fighting,<br/>I will readily cause [that] you will be overwhelmed in the lower key.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15r.jpg|15r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 35v.jpg|35v-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[77] <em>Whether you try to strike at me from above or below,<br/>You will lose your dagger from this crossing.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>With arms crossed I await you without fear. And I don't care whether you come at me from above or below, because however you come at me, you will be bound. You will be locked either in the middle lock or the lower lock. And if I wished to make the plays of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master, I would cause you great harm with these plays. And I will have no difficulty in taking your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's left foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[78] <em>By holding your arm with my two hands,<br/>I will take away the dagger from you, as you deserve.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This grip is sufficient to prevent you being able to touch me with your dagger. And from here I can do the play that comes after me. And I could also certainly do other plays to you. I disregard the other plays for now, however, because this one is good for me and very fast.</p>
 +
| <p>''Now because I am holding you using both hands during wrestling,<br/>I certainly would take hold of [your] dagger just as if you had truly deserved.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[79] <em>The student who came before me did not make this play,<br/>So I show how to take away the dagger in his place.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>This is the play referred to by the student who came before me, and I take away this dagger as he indicated. And to disarm him I push his dagger downwards and to the right as written above. And then by making a turn with his dagger I will thrust the point into his chest without fail.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty and Paris, the Scholar's left foot is forward, and his opponent's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''Now I teach taking the dagger away while wrestling the associate;<br/>This first student does not know how to play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| <p><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36r.jpg|36r-d}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[80] So that this student cannot dislocate my arm, I pull it towards me and bend it. And the farther I pull it towards me and bend it, the better, because in this way I make the counter to the Remedy Master of the close play of the dagger.</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 15v.jpg|15v-d}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
  
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  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/6th master}}
+
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Latin 11269 36v-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[81] <em>There is no man who knows more about dagger versus dagger than I.<br/>Whether in armor or without, I will gravely injure you,<br/>And when fighting at the barrier I truly love<br/>To vanquish everyone with these close plays.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I tell you that this cover is good either in armor or without armor. And with this cover I can cover attacks from all directions and enter into all of the holds and binds, and strike to finish, as the students who follow me will show. And each of my students will make this cover, and then they will make the plays shown after, as they are qualified to do.
 +
| <p>''I do not recognize the man with whom I can’t play.<br/>If we both lead while turning dagger in dagger,<br/>Either I would be armed [with both], or by chance we would be without weapons,<br/>And that movement is pleasing, provided that it would be a close play.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-e}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[82] I made the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master who preceded me. And as soon as I have made this grip I will be able to strike you. And because I position my left hand in this way, I will not fail to take away your dagger. I can also put you in the middle bind, which is the third play [3] of the First Dagger Remedy Master. I could also make other plays against you, without abandoning my dagger.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[83] <em>From the cover of my Master which is so perfect,<br/>I will strike you in the chest with a half turn of my dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have made this half turn from the cover of my Sixth Master and I have quickly positioned myself to strike you. And even if you were armored I would care little, for in that case I would thrust this dagger in your face. However, as you can see, in this case I have thrust it into your chest because you are not armored and you do not know the close range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[84] <em>With my Master’s cover and with a half turn to the outside,<br/>I can still strike or bind you or take away your dagger.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have not abandoned the cover of my Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master. I turn my left arm over your right. And moving my right foot at the same time as my left arm I turn myself to the outside. You are now partly bound, and you will have to admit that you will quickly lose your dagger. And I make this play so quickly that I have no concern or fear of your counter.
 +
 
 +
''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown, and both he and his opponent have their right feet forward.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16r.jpg|16r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[85] <em>From the cover my Master made<br/>With this grip and cover I will give you grief.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
Having made the cover of my Master, I made this grip. And I can strike you whether you are armored or unarmored. And I can also put you into the lower lock of the first scholar of the Fourth Dagger Remedy Master.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11a.jpg|11a-f}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[86] Without abandoning the cover of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master, I make this turn [with my dagger]. Your right hand will lose the dagger, and seeing that you have been reversed, my dagger will quickly strike you, and your dagger will be lost to you. Also I can make a turn with my left arm and make you suffer in the lower lock.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[87] <em>If you and I are both armored,<br/>I will thrust the knife into your hand, as you can see.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<del>Although I am placed after the counter-remedy to the Sixth Master, I should logically be placed before him, because</del> I am a student of the Sixth [Dagger Remedy] Master and my play belongs to him. And this play makes more sense in armor than unarmored, because if he is armored I can strike him in the hand where he cannot fully protect himself; whereas if he is unarmored, I would aim to strike him in the face or in the chest, or in some other vulnerable place.
 +
 
 +
''[This play has been moved to its proper location as given in Fiore's explanation.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-a}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[88] <em>With my left hand I will turn you and expose you<br/>And with this counter, I will be able to strike you hard.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I make the counter-remedy of the Sixth King [Dagger Remedy Master], turning your body with an elbow push, and in this way I can strike you, because with this elbow push that I quickly do, I will be able to defend against many close plays. And this is a particularly good counter-remedy to the all of the holds of the close-range game.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 16v.jpg|16v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[89] <em>With my left hand placed in my defense as shown,<br/>I will quickly cause you harm with this counter.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-c}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
  
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  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/7th master}}
+
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[90] <em>If I am armored this is a good cover to choose,<br/>And from here I can enter quickly into the middle bind,<br/>And the fight will be over<br/>For there is no good defense against it.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''I, well-fortified, make this cover in arms,<br/>And suddenly, I will enter<ref>N.B. “I will enter” begins the fourth line in the Latin. It was moved to fit English sentence structure.</ref> into the middle key, which ends all<br/>Wars; neither is any strong against the conducting of war,<br/>Nor is any opposition able to oppose me.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-e}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 36v.jpg|36v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>I am the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master and I play with arms crossed. And this cover is better made when armored than unarmored. The plays that I can do from this cover are the plays that came before me, especially the middle bind which is the third play of the first Dagger Remedy Master. Also I can turn you by pushing your right elbow with my left hand. And I can strike you quickly in the head or in the shoulder…</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="3" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" |
 +
| rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[91] <em>In armour this is a very strong cover<br/>Because from here you can bind either above or below;<br/>One way you go to the lower bind,<br/>The other way you go to the upper bind or the middle bind.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" | <p>''That movement certainly prevails over the dagger while held in the cross[ing],<br/>And on the other hand it can work above and beneath in armor.<br/>This lower play openly goes to the outside <br/>Bind. The middle [bind] lies below, or perhaps [the] highest.''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-c}}
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| <p>…And this cover is better for binding than any other cover, and is a very strong cover to make against the dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, this Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" |
 +
| class="noline" rowspan="2" | [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[92] <em>You will not be able to put me into the middle bind,<br/>Whereas I am going to strike you as I turn you.</em></p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 11b.jpg|11b-f}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | <p>This is the counter remedy to the plays of the Seventh [Dagger Remedy] Master who came before me. With the push that I make to his right elbow, let me tell you that this counter-remedy is good against all close range plays of the dagger, the poleaxe, and the sword, whether in armor or unarmored. And once I have pushed his elbow I should quickly strike him in the shoulder.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Master's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
  
Line 3,009: Line 3,425:
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/8th master}}
+
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[93]<br/><br/><br/><br/>&nbsp;</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master and I cross with my dagger. And this cover is good both armored or unarmored. And some of my plays are shown before me, and some are shown after me…</p>
 +
| <p>''In this way, I carry my dagger while fighting during the cross[ing]. Any defense<br/>Which the dagger offers does not oppose itself in the play,<br/>But I will be strong to lay waste in playing using many moves.''</p>
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | <p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
 +
 
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-c}}
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37r.jpg|37r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[94] …In the play that is shown before me, three plays back [72], the ''Zugadore'' was struck in his hand with the point of his opponent's dagger. Similarly in this play I could strike downwards to his hand just as in the earlier play I struck upwards to his hand.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Also, I could seize his hand at the wrist with my left hand, and then strike him hard with my right hand, just as you will find demonstrated by the ninth student [108] of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master, who strikes the ''Zugadore'' in the chest. Also, I could do the last play that follows after [109] where I drop my own dagger and take his.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[95] I am the counter-remedy to the Eighth [Dagger Remedy] Master that preceded me, and to all of his students…</p>
 +
 
 +
''[This counter was moved before [97] and [98] because it is unclear how they relate to the Eight Master.]''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| rowspan="2" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17r.jpg|17r-d}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[96] <em>After this turn that I make you do<br/>I will strike you and force you to the ground.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>…If I extend my left hand to his elbow, I can push it so strongly that I can strike him obliquely. Also, as I make him turn I can throw my arm around his neck and hurt him in a variety of possible ways.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-b}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[97] This is a guard that is a strong cover in armor or unarmored. It is a good cover because from it you can quickly put your opponent into a lower lock or “strong key.” This is what is depicted by the sixth play [54] of the Third [Dagger Remedy] Master who defends against the reverse hand strike and who uses his left arm to bind the ''Zugadore''’s right arm.</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-a}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | [[File:Cod.1324 29r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| class="noline" | <p>[98] This cover that I make like this with arms crossed is good in armor or unarmored. And my play puts the Zugadore into the lower lock, which is also called the “strong key,” which the scholar who preceded me told you about, namely the sixth play [54] of the Third Master who defends with his right hand against the reverse hand strike. And this play is made similarly to the play that immediately preceded me, but is begun in a slightly different way.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>And our counter–remedy again is the elbow push.</p>
 +
 
 +
''[The Master in the right image is missing both garter and crown.]''
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" | {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-b}}
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
| class="noline" |
 +
 
 +
|}
 
{{master subsection end}}
 
{{master subsection end}}
  
Line 3,016: Line 3,515:
 
  | width = 240em
 
  | width = 240em
 
}}
 
}}
{{:Fiore de'i Liberi/Dagger/9th master}}
+
{| class="master"
 +
|-
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>Illustrations</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|B|Novati Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Getty Translation}} by [[Colin Hatcher]]</p>
 +
! <p>''{{rating|C|Paris Translation}} by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]''<br/>{{rating|B|Morgan Translation}} by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)|Morgan Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Tratt‍ato della sch‍erma (MS M.383)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)|Getty Transcription]] (1400s){{edit index|Fior di Battaglia (MS Ludwig XV 13)}}<br/>by [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)|Pisani Dossi Transcription]] (1409){{edit index|Flos Duellatorum (Pisani Dossi MS)}}<br/>by [[Francesco Novati]] and [[Michael Chidester]]</p>
 +
! <p>[[Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)|Paris Transcription]] (1420s){{edit index|Florius de Arte Luctandi (MS Latin 11269)}}<br/>by [[Kendra Brown]] and [[Rebecca Garber]]</p>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[100] <em>From this grip that I have I can do many plays.<br/>Take away the dagger, break, strike or bind.<br/>And the quickest is to take the dagger from your hand,<br/>so as to avoid any risk of harm from the player.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I am the Ninth King [and Dagger Remedy Master] and I no longer have a dagger. And this grip that I make from the low attack is similar to the grip made by the Fourth King [and Dagger Remedy Master], only this one is made against the low attack instead of the high attack, and my plays are not the same as his. This grip is good whether in armor or unarmored, and from it you can make many good strong plays, as shown below. Whether in armor or unarmored there is no doubt of their effectiveness.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/><br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-d}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-e.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[101] <em>If I rotate the dagger close to your elbow,<br/>Your dagger will be mine for certain.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I have followed on from the ''presa'' of the Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master. Taking my right hand from the grip, I seize your dagger as shown and I rotate it upwards close to your elbow. And I will then thrust the point into your face for certain, or I will deal with you as the next student will demonstrate.
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 17v.jpg|17v-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-e}}
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-c.png|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-a.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[102] <em>The first student of this Master<br/>Takes away the dagger and makes this play.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
I complete the play of the student who came before me, and from his grip this is how he should finish his play. Other students will make different plays from his grip. Watch those who follow, and you will see their techniques.
 +
| <p>''The student will perhaps be able to make this play of that master [of yours],<br/>And would have snatched the powerful dagger away.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a Master's crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-b}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-b.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[103] <em>I can dislocate your arm like this,<br/>And I can also bind you in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>My Master's grip has already been demonstrated. Here my right hand leaves his grip. And if I grip you under your elbow, I can dislocate your arm. And also from this grip I can put you into a bind, namely the “strong key” [lower bind], which is one the third King and [Dagger Remedy] Master showed in his plays In his sixth play [38] he shows you how this one is done.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I can truly dislocate your shoulder in this same way;<br/>Furthermore, I can lead to using the lower key.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-b}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-a.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[104] <em>If I can give your arm a half turn,<br/>You will quickly find yourself in the lower bind.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have arrived at this position from the grip of my Master [Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], and I do not remain in this grip but move into the lower bind, also known as the “strong key.” This I can do without difficulty, and I can then easily take your dagger.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Getty, the Scholar's right foot is forward.]''</p>
 +
| <p>''I prepare to take away your life using the <br/>Lower bind, if by chance I can twist your shoulder.''</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>''[In the Paris, the Scholar wears a crown.]''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-c}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 38r.jpg|38r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r-d.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a-f.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[105] <em>Without releasing my grip I enter underneath your arm,<br/>And from behind your shoulder I will hurt you grievously.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I have not abandoned the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master], but I have quickly entered under his right arm, to dislocate it with this grip. I can do this whether he is wearing armor or not, and once I have him held from behind and in my power, I will show him no mercy as I hurt him.</p>
 +
| <p>''Behold! I crossed beneath the shoulder during play,<br/>And furthermore, I left behind the taking. But I will burden the back.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18r.jpg|18r-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12a.jpg|12a-f}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 37v.jpg|37v-c}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b-d.png|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[106] <em>Although this play is not often employed,<br/>It can be done well, if you practice it.</em></p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I did not abandon the grip of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and the ''Zugadore'' saw that he could not break my grip on his arm. And as he pressed downwards towards the ground with his dagger, I quickly reached through his legs from behind and grabbed his right hand with my left hand. And once I had a good grip on his hand, I passed behind him. And as you can see in the picture, he cannot dismount his own arm without falling. And I can now also do the play that follows me. If I let go of the dagger with my right hand, and I grab his foot I will send him crashing to the ground, and I cannot fail to take his dagger.</p>
 +
| <p>''It is granted that this play could scarcely be learned by this art,<br/>Yet this one honestly succeeds by means of the practiced man.''</p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
<br/><br/>
 +
{{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-a}}
 +
| {{section|Page:Pisani-Dossi MS 12b.jpg|12b-d}}
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Latin 11269 43r.jpg|43r-a}}
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-b.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[107] The student who preceded me performed the first part of this play, and I make the finish by driving him into the ground, as has already been explained. Although this play is not commonly performed in the art, I wish to show you that I have a complete knowledge of it. </p>
 +
|
 +
|
 +
| {{section|Page:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v.jpg|18v-b}}
 +
|
 +
|
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| [[File:Cod.1324 31r-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| [[File:MS Ludwig XV 13 18v-c.jpg|400px|center]]
 +
| <p>[108] I made the cover of my Master [the Ninth Dagger Remedy Master] and then quickly I gripped him in this way with my left hand. And then I drew my dagger and thrust it into his chest. And if I do not have time to draw my dagger, I will make the play that follows me. </p>
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| <p>[109] With this play I complete the play of the student who preceded me, who left his [sheathed] dagger where it was and instead decided to take your live dagger. I have already explained how this play is performed.</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>[110] The Counter-remedy to this Ninth [Dagger Remedy] Master's play is as follows: when the ''Zugadore'' with his left hand has seized your right hand that has the dagger, then you should quickly seize your dagger near the point and strongly draw or pull it back towards you so that he has to let go of it, or alternately press the dagger point into his elbow to make him think twice.</p>
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Revision as of 14:24, 7 June 2021

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi

This man appears sporadically throughout both the Getty and Pisani Dossi MSS, and may be a representation of Fiore himself.
Born Cividale del Friuli
Relative(s) Benedetto de’i Liberi (father)
Occupation
Nationality Friulian
Patron
  • Gian Galeazzo Visconti (?)
  • Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este (?)
Influences
Influenced Philippo di Vadi
Genres
Language
Notable work(s) The Flower of Battle
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations

Fiore Furlano de’i Liberi de Cividale d’Austria (Fiore delli Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d’Austria; fl. 1381 - 1409) was a late 14th century knight, diplomat, and fencing master. He was born in Cividale del Friuli, a town in the Patriarchal State of Aquileia (in the Friuli region of modern-day Italy), the son of Benedetto and scion of a Liberi house of Premariacco.[1][2][3] The term Liberi, while potentially merely a surname, more probably indicates that his family had Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit), either as part of the nobili liberi (Edelfrei, "free nobles"), the Germanic unindentured knightly class which formed the lower tier of nobility in the Middle Ages, or possibly of the rising class of Imperial Free Knights.[4][5][6] It has been suggested by various historians that Fiore and Benedetto were descended from Cristallo dei Liberi of Premariacco, who was granted immediacy in 1110 by Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V,[7][8][9] but this has yet to be proven.[10]

Fiore wrote that he had a natural inclination to the martial arts and began training at a young age, ultimately studying with “countless” masters from both Italic and Germanic lands.[1][2][3] He had ample opportunity to interact with both, being born in the Holy Roman Empire and later traveling widely in the northern Italian states. Unfortunately, not all of these encounters were friendly: Fiore wrote of meeting many “false” or unworthy masters in his travels, most of whom lacked even the limited skill he'd expect in a good student.[3] He further mentions that on five separate occasions he was forced to fight duels for his honor against certain of these masters who he described as envious because he refused to teach them his art; the duels were all fought with sharp swords, unarmored except for gambesons and chamois gloves, and he won each without injury.[1][2][11]

Writing very little on his own career as a commander and master at arms, Fiore laid out his credentials for his readers in other ways. He stated that foremost among the masters who trained him was one Johane dicto Suueno, who he notes was a disciple of Nicholai de Toblem;[3] unfortunately, both names are given in Latin so there is little we can conclude about them other than that they were probably among the Italians and Germans he alludes to, and that one or both were well known in Fiore's time. He further offered an extensive list of the famous condottieri that he trained, including Piero Paolo del Verde (Peter von Grünen),[12] Niccolo Unricilino (Nikolo von Urslingen),[13] Galeazzo Cattaneo dei Grumelli (Galeazzo Gonzaga da Mantova),[14] Lancillotto Beccaria di Pavia,[15] Giovannino da Baggio di Milano,[16] and Azzone di Castelbarco,[17] and also highlights some of their martial exploits.[1][2]

The only known historical mentions of Fiore appear in connection with the Aquileian War of Succession, which erupted in 1381 as a coalition of secular nobles from Udine and surrounding cities sought to remove the newly appointed Patriarch (prince-bishop of Aquileia), Philippe Ⅱ d'Alençon. Fiore seems to have supported the secular nobility against the Cardinal; he traveled to Udine in 1383 and was granted residency in the city on 3 August.[18] On 30 September, the high council tasked him with inspection and maintenance of city's weapons, including the artillery pieces defending Udine (large crossbows and catapults).[5][19][20] In February of 1384, he was assigned the task of recruiting a mercenary company to augment Udine's forces and leading them back to the city.[21] This task seems to have been accomplished in three months or less, as on 23 May he appeared before the high council again and was sworn in as a sort of magistrate charged with keeping the peace in one of the city's districts. After May 1384, the historical record is silent on Fiore's activities; the war continued until a new Patriarch was appointed in 1389 and a peace settlement was reached, but it's unclear if Fiore remained involved for the duration. Given that he appears in council records four times in 1383-4, it would be quite odd for him to be completely unmentioned over the subsequent five years if he remained,[5][22] and since his absence from records coincides with a proclamation in July of that year demanding that Udine cease hostilities or face harsh repercussions, it seems more likely that he moved on.

Based on his autobiographical account, Fiore traveled a good deal in northern Italy, teaching fencing and training men for duels. He seems to have been in Perugia in 1381 in this capacity, when his student Peter von Grünen likely fought a duel with Peter Kornwald.[23] In 1395, he can be placed in Padua training the mercenary captain Galeazzo Gonzaga of Mantua for a duel with the French marshal Jean Ⅱ le Maingre (who went by the war name “Boucicaut”). Galeazzo made the challenge when Boucicaut called into question the valor of Italians at the royal court of France, and the duel was ultimately set for Padua on 15 August. Both Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of Padua, and Francesco Gonzaga, Lord of Mantua, were in attendance. The duel was to begin with spears on horseback, but Boucicaut became impatient and dismounted, attacking Galeazzo before he could mount his own horse. Galeazzo landed a solid blow on the Frenchman’s helmet, but was subsequently disarmed. At this point, Boucicaut called for his poleaxe but the lords intervened to end the duel.[24][20][14]

Fiore surfaces again in Pavia in 1399, this time training Giovannino da Baggio for a duel with a German squire named Sirano. It was fought on 24 June and attended by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, as well as the Duchess and other nobles. The duel was to consist of three bouts of mounted lance followed by three bouts each of dismounted poleaxe, estoc, and dagger. They ultimately rode two additional passes and on the fifth, Baggio impaled Sirano’s horse through the chest, slaying the horse but losing his lance in the process. They fought the other nine bouts as scheduled, and due to the strength of their armor (and the fact that all of the weapons were blunted), both combatants reportedly emerged from these exchanges unharmed.[16][25]

Fiore was likely involved in at least one other duel that year, that of his final student Azzone di Castelbarco and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi, as the latter is known to have died in 1399.[26] After Castelbarco’s duel, Fiore’s activities are unclear. Based on the allegiances of the nobles that he trained in the 1390s, he seems to have been associated with the ducal court of Milan in the latter part of his career.[20] Some time in the first years of the 1400s, Fiore composed a fencing treatise in Italian and Latin called "The Flower of Battle" (rendered variously as Fior di Battaglia, Florius de Arte Luctandi, and Flos Duellatorum). The briefest version of the text is dated to 1409 and indicates that it was a labor of six months and great personal effort;[3] as evidence suggests that at least two longer versions were composed some time before this,[27] we may assume that he devoted a considerable amount of time to writing during this decade.

Beyond this, nothing certain is known of Fiore's activities in the 15th century. Francesco Novati and Luigi Zanutto both assume that some time before 1409 he accepted an appointment as court fencing master to Niccolò Ⅲ d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Modena, and Parma; presumably he would have made this change when Milan fell into disarray in 1402, though Zanutto went so far as to speculate that he trained Niccolò for his 1399 passage at arms.[28] However, while the records of the d’Este library indicate the presence of two versions of "the Flower of Battle", it seems more likely that the manuscripts were written as a diplomatic gift to Ferrara from Milan when they made peace in 1404.[25][20] C. A. Blengini di Torricella stated that late in life he made his way to Paris, France, where he could be placed teaching fencing in 1418 and creating a copy of a fencing manual located there in 1420. Though he attributes these facts to Novati, no publication verifying them has yet been located and this anecdote may be entirely spurious.[29]

The time and place of Fiore's death remain unknown.

Despite the extent and complexity of his writings, Fiore de’i Liberi does not seem to have been a very significant master in the evolution of fencing in Central Europe. That field was instead dominated by the traditions of two masters of the subsequent generation: Johannes Liechtenauer in the Holy Roman Empire and Filippo di Bartolomeo Dardi in the Italian states. Even so, there are a number of later treatises which bear strong resemblance to his work, including the writings of Philippo di Vadi and Ludwig VI von Eyb. This may be due to the direct influence of Fiore or his writings, or it may instead indicate that the older tradition of Johane and Nicholai survived and spread outside of Fiore's direct line.

Treatise

The d'Este family owned at least three manuscripts by Fiore during the 15th century,[30] and a total of four copies survive to the present. Of these, the MS Ludwig ⅩⅤ 13 (Getty) and the Pisani Dossi MS (Novati) are both dedicated to Niccolò Ⅲ d'Este and state that they were written at his request and according to his design. The MS M.383 (Morgan), on the other hand, lacks a dedication and claims to have been laid out according to his own intelligence, while the MS Latin 11269 (Paris) lost any dedication it might have had along with its prologue. Each of the extant copies of the Flower of Battle follows a different order, though each of these pairs contains strong similarities to each other in order of presentation.

In addition, Philippo di Vadi's manuscript from the 1480s, whose second half is essentially a redaction of the Flower of Battle, provides a valuable fifth point of reference when considering Fiore's teachings. (These is also a 17th century copy of the Morgan's preface, transcribed by Apostolo Zeno, but it contributes little to our understanding of the text.)

The major sections of the work include: abrazare or grappling; daga, including both unarmed defenses against the dagger and plays of dagger against dagger; spada a un mano, the use of the sword in one hand (also called "the sword without the buckler"); spada a dui mani, the use of the sword in two hands; spada en arme, the use of the sword in armor (primarily techniques from the shortened sword); azza, plays of the poleaxe in armor; lancia, spear and staff plays; and mounted combat (including the spear, the sword, and mounted grappling). Brief bridging sections serve to connect each of these, covering such topics as bastoncello, or plays of a small stick or baton against unarmed and dagger-wielding opponents; plays of sword vs. dagger; plays of staff and dagger and of two clubs and a dagger; and the use of the chiavarina against a man on horseback.

The format of instruction is largely consistent across all copies of the treatise. Each section begins with a group of Masters (or Teachers), figures in golden crowns who each demonstrate a particular guard for use with their weapon. These are followed by a master called Remedio ("Remedy") who demonstrates a defensive technique against some basic attack (usually how to use one of the listed guards to defend), and then by his various Scholars (or Students), figures wearing golden garters on their legs who demonstrate iterations and variations of this remedy. After the scholars there is typically a master called Contrario ("Counter" or "Contrary"), wearing both crown and garter, who demonstrates how to counter the master's remedy (and those of his scholars), who is likewise sometimes followed by his own scholars in garters. In rare cases, a fourth type of master appears called Contra-Contrario ("Counter-counter"), who likewise wears the crown and garter and demonstrates how to defeat the master's counter. Some sections feature multiple master remedies or master counters, while some have only one. While the crowns and garters are used across all extant versions of the treatise, the specific implementation of the system varies; all versions include at least a few apparently errors in assignation of crowns and garters, and there are many cases in which an illustration in one manuscript will only feature a scholar's garter where the corresponding illustration in another also includes a master's crown (depending on the instance, this may either be intentional or merely an error in the art). Alone of the four versions, the Morgan seeks to further expand the system by coloring the metallic portions of the master or scholar's weapon silver, while that of the player is left uncolored; this is also imperfectly-executed, but seems to have been intended as a visual indicator of which weapon belongs to which figure.

The concordance below includes Zeno's transcription of the Morgan preface for reference, and then drops the (thereafter empty) column in favor of a second illustration column for the main body of the treatise. (The Zeno transcript is in the first transcription column even though it's the youngest source so that the others can remain in the same position throughout.) Generally only the right-side column will contain illustrations—the left-side column will only contain additional content when when the text describes an illustration that spans the width of the page in the manuscripts, or when there are significant discrepancies between the available illustrations (in such cases, they sometimes display two stages of the same technique and will be placed in "chronological" order if possible). The illustrations from the Getty, Morgan, and Paris are taken from high-resolution scans supplied by those institutions, whereas the illustrations of the Pisani Dossi are taken from Novati's 1902 facsimile (scanned by Wiktenauer). There are likewise two translation columns, with the the two manuscripts dedicated to Niccolò on the left and the two undedicated manuscripts on the right; in both columns, the short text of the PD and Paris will come first, followed by the longer paragraphs of the Getty and Morgan.