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Paulus Kal

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Paulus Kal
Born ca.1420s
Dingolfing, Germany
Died after 1485
  • Ludwig IV "the Gentle"
  • Ludwig IX "the Rich"
  • Sigismund of Austria
Movement Society of Liechtenauer
Influenced Peter Falkner (?)
First printed
english edition
Tobler, 2006
Concordance by Michael Chidester, Carsten Lorbeer, Julia Lorbeer, Andreas Meier, Marita Wiedner

Paulus Kal was a 15th century German fencing master. He wrote that he studied martial arts under Hans Stettner von Mörnsheim, and was an initiate of the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer. He was also attached as Schirrmeister to three different courts in his career, serving in various military capacities including commanding men in at least three campaigns.[1] Perhaps his most significant legacy is an honor role of deceased masters[2] which he styled the Society of Liechtenauer (Geselschaft Liechtenauers). While several of these masters remain unknown, the majority wrote treatises of their own and Kal's list stands as an independent confirmation of their connection to the grand master. Kal's treatise is interesting in that it represents the first attempt to illustrate Liechtenauer's Record (Zettel).

Little is known of Kal's early life, but from 1440 to ca. 1449 he served Ludwig IV "the Gentle" of the House of Wittelsbach, Count Palatine of the Rhine. In 1448, while in the count's service he participated in the defense Nuremberg, commanding a unit of wheel cannons below the gates.[3] The Nuremberg Council notes from 17 March 1449 mention that he had broken the peace of the city at that time by drawing his weapons.[4]

Kal entered the service of Ludwig IX "the Rich" of the House of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut, on 29 September 1450.[1] In 1461, he is mentioned commanding a unit of 12 marksmen.[citation needed] From 1465 to 1475, he seems to have also maintained a secondary occupation as a toll collector in Dingolfing.[5] In November 1468, he participated in military actions on the castle Saldenburg, which was successfully taken on 4 December.[6] Kal is listed as a guest at the wedding of Ludwig's son George,[7] and continued in the duke's service until his death on 18 January 1479. Paulus Kal created the first two versions of his treatise while in the service of Ludqig IX, an uncaptioned draftbook as well as a more elaborate presentation copy including brief explanations in German for most devices (many extracted from Liechtenauer's Record).

On 12 February 1480, Paulus Kal entered the service of Sigismund of the House of Habsburg, Archduke of Austria and Tyrol.[1] Kal acted as one of the archduke's witnesses at a number of interrogations held on 17 October 1485 in Innsbruck, related to the witch trials being conducted by Heinrich Kramer at that time.[8] This is the final time that Kal's name appears in the histories. Several copies of Kal's treatise were created during the 1480s and 90s, but Kal only seems to have been personally involved in the extensive MS KK5126.

In total, Paulus Kal's teachings are preserved in at least six manuscripts written between 1457 and 1514. Aside from the three already mentioned, two other fragmentary, text-less copies also exist (one copied from the Bologna, and the other from an unknown source). A sixth version was sold at auction in Italy during the 20th century as individual leaves; this copy contains single-word captions in Latin or Italian and was likely based on either the Bologna or Vienna. In addition, Paulus Hector Mair based content in several sections of the Munich and Vienna versions of his Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica on Kal's treatise. Rather than using Kal's descriptions (if the copy he used had them), Mair wrote his own extensive commentary on the images. The precise set of images Mair drew upon do not appear in any of the six extant manuscripts, which may signify that there was once a seventh copy of Kal's work which has since been lost.


Additional Resources


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Rainer Welle. "… und wisse das alle höbischeit kompt von deme ringen. Der Ringkampf als adelige Kunst im 15. Und 16. Jahrhundert. Eine sozialhistorische und bewegungsbiographische Interpretation aufgrund der handschriften und gedruckten Ringlehren des Spätmittelalters." Forum für Sozialgeschichte 4. Pfaffenweiler, 1993. pp 243-253.
  2. Christian Henry Tobler. In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010. p7
  3. Quellen und Erörterungen zur bayerischen und deutschen Geschichte, vol. 8. G. Franz, 1860.
  4. Die Nürnberger Ratsverlässe, vol 1. Irene Stahl. Degener, 1983.
  5. Geschichte der stadt Dingolfing und ihrer umgebung Von Joseph Wolfgang Eberl. F. Datterer, 1856.
  6. Baierische Landtags-Handlungen in den Jahren 1429 bis 1513, vol. 7. Bavaria: Landtag, Franz von Krenner, F.S. Hübschmann, 1804.
  7. Beyträge zur vaterländischen Historie, Geographie, Staatistik, etc, vol. 2. Lindauer: Lorenz von Westenrieder, 1789.
  8. Zeitschrift des Ferdinandeums für Tirol und Vorarlberg. Herausgegeben von dem verwaltungs-ausschusse desselben. Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, 1890.