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Nuremberg Hausbuch (MS 3227a)/18r - 40r

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Draft Translation Draft translation
by Christian Trosclair

Transcription [edit]
by Dierk Hagedorn

This is the general preface of the bare-fencing on foot. Mark this well.

1 Young knight learn
 to love god. Always honor women,
2 Thus cultivate your honor.
 Practice knight-craft and learn
3 Art that decorates you
 and in wars serves well.
4 Wrestling's good grips,
 Glaive, spear, sword and messer,
5 Manfully brandish
 and in other hands ruin.
6 Hew therein and charge there,
 rushing on, joining or driving out.
7 Those maturing in this wisdom,
 this one sees praising.
8 Thereupon you hold,
 all things have length and measure.
i And whatever you wish to conduct,
 shall stay in the realm of good reason.
ii In earnest or in play,
 have a joyous spirit with moderation
iii So that you may pay attention
 and consider with a good spirit
iv Whatever you shall command
 and whip up against him.
v Because a good spirit with authority
 someone's rebuke timid.
vi Thereafter, orient yourself.
 Give no advantage with anything.
vii Avoid imprudence.
 Do not step in front of four or six
viii With your overconfidence.
 Be modest, that is good for you.
ix It is a brave man
 that dares to confront his equal.
x It is not shameful
 to flee four or six at hand.

This is the general lore of the sword

9 If you wish to examine[2] the art.
 Go left and right with hewing.
10 And left with right
 is what you strongly desire to fence.
11 Whoever chases-after hews,
 they allow themselves to hardly enjoy the art.
12 Hew nearby whatever you wish,
 No change comes on your shield.
xi Do not hew to the sword.
 Rather, Constantly watch the openings.
13 To the head, to the body,
 Do not omit the flesh-wounds.
14 With the entire body fence
 whatever you desire to conduct strongly.
15 Hear what is bad for that:
 Do not fence from above left if you are right.
16 And if you are left,
 in the right, you are severely hindered.
xii So always prefer to fence
 from above left downwards.
17 Before, after, the two things
 are the one origin of all art.
18 Weak and strong,
 Within, with that mark the word.
19 So you may learn
 to defend yourself with art and work.
20 If you terrify easily,
 never learn any fencing.
xii Audacity and swiftness,
 prudence, astuteness and ingenuity,
xiv Acumen, concealment,
 measure, obscuration, scouting
xv And skill will fencing have
 and carry a joyous spirit.

General gloss hereafter.[3] First of all, note and know that the point of the sword is the center, the middle and the core of the sword from which all applications leave and come back into it. So are the hangings and the windings are the attachments and the revolutions of the center and of the core. From them, quite a few good plays of fencing also come. And are invented and conceived so that a fencer, who begins to hew or thrust directly to the point, of course may not hit every single time; yet they can hit someone with those same plays hewing, stabbing or cutting; with treading out and in; and with stepping-around or springing. And if one mislaid or mis-extended the point of his sword with shooting or with lunging[4] then he may realign and retract and shorten it again with winding or treading-out,[5] in such a way that he again comes into the certain[6] plays and principles of fencing. From them, he may bring hews, stabs, or cuts. For according to Liechtenauer's art, the hews, stabs and cuts come from all applications and principles of the art of the sword, as one will hear hereafter how one play and principle comes from the other. And as it goes from one to the other, if the one will be warded, then the other hits and has gone-forward.[7]

[18v] Das ist eyne gemeyne lere des swertes

W|Iltu kunst schawen ·
sich link gen vnd recht mete hawen ·
|Vnd link mit rechten
is das du stark gerest fechten ·
|Wer noch get hewen ·
der darf sich kunst kleyne frewen ·
|haw nu was du wilt ·
keyn wechsler kawm an dich schild/
|Haw nicht czu~ swerte /
zonder / stets der bloße warte /
|Czu koppe czu leibe ·
dy czecken do nicht vormeide /
|Mit ganczem leiben ·
ficht was du stark gerest treiben /
|Höer was do slecht ist ·
ficht nicht oben link zo du recht pist /
|Vnd ob du link pist ·
ym rechten auch sere hinkest /
|So vicht io liber ·
von oben rechtlinkischen nider /
|Vor · |noch · dy czwey dink ·
syn allen kunsten eyn orsprink /
|Swach · vnde · |sterke ·
|Indes · das wort mete merke /
|So machstu lere~ ·
mit / vnd erb / kunst vnd erbeit dich weren /
|Irschrikstu gerne ·
key~ fechte~ nym~er lerne /
|Kunheit vnd rischeit ·
vorsichtikeit list vnd |klugheit/
†† |Vornu~ft verborge~heit /
moße bevorbetrachtu~ge / hobsheit /fetikeit /
|Wil fechten haben ·
vnd frölichs gemüte tragen

Glosa gn°alis hui9 seq°r / | |Von allererste~ merke vnd wisse / das der ort des swertes ist das czentru~ vnd das mittel vnd der kern des swertes |aus deme alle gefechte gen / vnd weder / yn in komen · |So sint dy hengen / vnd dy winden / synt dy anhenge vnd dy vmlewfe des czentru~s vnd des kerns [19r] aus den auch / gar vil guter stöcke des fechtens komen / |vnd sint dorvm fvnden vnd irdocht / das eyn fechter / der da gleich czum orte czu hewt ader sticht / nicht wol allemal treffen mak / das  der mit den selben stöcken / hawende stechende ader sneydende / mit abe / vnd czutreten / vnd mit vm~eschreiten ader springen eynen treffen mag / |vnd ab eyner syn ort des swertes / mit schißen ader mit voltreten / vorlewst ader vorlengt / |zo mag her in mit wi~den ader abetreten / weder / irlengen vnd / ynbrengen vnd körczen / alzo das her weder yn gewisse stöcke vnd gesetze kü~pt des fechtens / aus den her hewe stiche ader snete brengen mag / |wen noch lychtnaw°s ku~st / zo komen aus allen gefechte~ vnd gesetze des f der ku~st des swertes / hewe stiche vnd snete / |als mã wirt hernoch hören / |wy eyn stöcke vnd gesetze aus dem andñ ku~pt / vnd wy sich eyns aus de~ andern macht / ab eyns wirt geweret / das daz ander treffe vnd vorgank habe

On second count, note and know that no part on the sword was invented and conceived without reason.[8] In particular, a fencer shall utilize the point, both edges, the hilt, the pommel as it is on the sword accordingly as each has its particular principle in the art of fencing according to these as the practices embody and uncover, as you will hereafter hear and see each in particular.

| |Czu dem andñ mal merke vnd wisse / daz keyn dink an dem sw°te / vm~e züst fu~den vnd irdocht ist / |zvnder eyn fechter / den ort / beide sneiden gehilcze klos / vnd als das am swerte ist / nuetczen sal / noch dem [19v] als itzlieichs syn sönderleichs gesetze hat yn der ku~st des fechtens / noch dem als dy Vebunge hat vnd finder / als du itzlichs besvnder hernoch wirst sehen vnd hören /

Also note and know with this as he speaks, If you wish to examine the art, etc. He means that a skilled fencer, they shall: set-forward the left foot and with that, hew from the right side directly to the opponent with threatening hews as long as he sees where he may certainly have the opponent and reach certainly with his stepping. And he means: when someone wishes to fence strongly, so shall he fence from the left side on with the entire body and complete authority to the head and to the body wherever he may solely hit and never to the sword, in particular he shall do it as if the opponent has no sword and as if he cannot see and he shall not omit any flesh-wounds or blows, rather always be in work and in contact so that the opponent cannot come to strikes.

He also means that one shall not identically follow and track the hew, rather, somewhat aside and curved around so that he comes to the side of the opponent. For there he may have him better with everything than frontally on. Whatever he from then on hews or stabs upon the opponent, that may ward or lead off well any and all changings-through or other applications of the opponent, only if the hews or stabs go forth directly into the opponent against the openings to the head or to the body with stepping-around and treading.

Also note and know about this when he speaks, before, after the two things, etc. There he means the five words: before, after, weak, strong, within-this. On these words lay the entire art of Master Liechtenauer's and the fixed foundation and the core of all fencing on foot or on horse, uncovered or in harness.

With the word "before", he means that a particularly good fencer shall have and have won the fore-strike every time he hits or misses. As Liechtenauer says, Hew therein and charge there, rush onwards, hit or let drive. When he goes or runs at someone, Just as soon as he sees he may reach him with a step or with a spring, wherever he then sees him somehow open, there he shall drive onwards with ease to the head or to the body, bravely without any fear wherever he may have him with surety. For as such, he always wins the fore-strike, whether it does well or poorly for them. And with that, shall also be certain in his steps and shall have measured them correctly so that he does not step too short nor too long.

Now, when he executes the fore-strike, if he hits, then he quickly pursues the hit. But if he wards the fore-strike of the opponent in such a way, that with his sword, he leads off or commands their fore-strike, be it a hew or stab, So long as he is then still on the sword of the opponent. With it like this, he will lead off from the openings which he had targeted, Then he shall quite precisely feel and note whether the opponent in his leading-off and defense of the hews or stabs is soft or hard, weak or strong on the sword.

That is when he now fully feels how the opponent is in his technique. If within-this, the opponent is strong and hard, now that he completely notes and feels, then he shall within-this or during-this be soft and weak if the opponent defends himself like this. And in that, before the opponent comes to strikes, so shall he then execute the after-strike. That is, he begins to hew while the opponent defends himself and wards himself of the fore-strike, be it hew or stab, so shall he seek out other applications and plays. With those, he shall again hurry and rush into his openings. Also in this, he is continually in motion and in contact so that he also confounds the opponent and soundly robs the opponent amid his defending and warding. Thus has too much work so that he, the defender, cannot come to his strikes. Because someone who shall defend themselves and fixate on the strikes, they are always in greater danger than they that strike at them, so that they must then continually ward the strikes or must allow themselves to be hit, so that they must come to strikes burdensomely by their own accord. About that Liechtenauer speaks: I say to you truthfully, no one defends themselves without danger. If you have understood this, he cannot come to strikes.

If you execute otherwise according to the five words, this dictum goes entirely against that and all of [that] fencing often results in a peasant slaying a master, because he is brave and won the fore-strike according to this precept.

|Mit deme worte · |Vor · meynt her das eyn itzlicher gut° fechter / sal alle mal den vorslag haben vnd gewiñen / [her treffe ader vele / |als lichnawer / spricht / |Haw dreyn vnd hurt dar / rawsche hin trif ader la va] |weñe her czu / eyme gehet ader lewft / als balde als her nur siet / das her in mit eynem schrete / ader mit eynem sprunge dirreichen mag / wo her deñe indert in blos siet / do sal her hin varn / mit frewden / czu koppe ader czu leibe / künlich an alle vorchte wo her in am gewisten gehabñ mag / alzo das her ia den vorslag gewiñe / is tu ieme wol ader we · |vnd sal auch mit dem / in syne~ schreten gewisse sein / vnd sal dy haben recht zam gemessen / das her nicht czu korcz ader czu lank schreite / |wen her nü den vorslag / tuet / trift her zo volge her dem treffen vaste / noch · |weret · her aber |iener den vorslag alzo das her im den vorslag / is sy haw ader stich mit syme swerte / abeweiset vnd leitet / |Dy weile her deñe ieme noch / an syme swerte ist / mit deme als her wirt abe geweist / von der blößen / der her geremet / hat / zo sal her gar eben fülen vnd merken [20v] ab iener in syme abeleiten vnd schützen der hewe ader stiche / an syme swerte / weich ader herte / swach ader stark / sey / |Ist deñe das her nü wol fület / wy iener in syme geferte ist / |Is das iener stark vnd herte ist / |Indes / das hers nü genczlich merkt vnd fület / zo sal her ader |Indes ader vnderdez das sich iener zo schützt / weich vnd swach dirweder syn / |vnd in dem selben / e den / das iener czu keyme slage kome / zo sal her deñe den nochslag tuen / |das ist / das her czu haut / dy weile sich iener schützt vnd sich des vorslags weret / is sy haw ader stich zo sal her ander gefechte vnd stöcke hervörsüchen / mit den her aber czu synen blößen hurt vnd rawschet / alzo dis her vm~ermer in bewegunge vnd in berürunge sy · |das her ienen als irre / vnd berawbet mache / das iener mit syme schützen vnd weren / alzo vil czu schaffen habe / das her / der schützer / czu syner slege / keyne kome~ mag / |wen eyner der sich sal schützen / vnd der slege warnemen / der ist alle mal in grösser var / deñe der /· der da slet of in / |deñe her mus ia dy slege were~ / ader mus sich laen treffen / daz her selber mülich / czu slage mag kome~ / |Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° |Ich sage vorware · sich schutzt key~ mã ane vare / |Hastu vornome~ · czu slage mag her kleyne kome~ / |Tustu and°s noch de~ fünff wörtern / of dy dese rede gar get / vnd alles fechten |Dorvm slet oft/ey~ bawer ey~ meist° wen her küne ist vnd de~ vorslag / gewiñet / noch deser lere /

Because with the word 'before', as was spoken earlier, he means that someone with a good fore-strike or with the first strike, they shall bravely charge there without any fear and rush against the openings to the head or to the body. He hits or misses such that he also at once stuns, overwhelms and terrifies them so that they do not know what he should do against this and also before the opponent recovers themselves again or comes at him with the same. Then he immediately executes the after-strike and continually compels him to ward and the defend himself so much that he cannot come to strikes.

Then when the fencer executes the first strike or the fore-strike and the opponent then wards him, in the same warding and defending, the fencer then always comes earlier into the after-strike than the opponent into the first. Then he may: initiate a hew, initiate a drive with the pommel or may come in the thwart-hews, they are good to count on, or may otherwise throw the sword forwards [by means of] the thwart-hew. With that he comes into other applications or else alternately, he may begin well. Before the opponent comes to strikes as you will hear how it makes one from the other so that the opponent may not come from him unstruck if he does differently according to this lesson. Because he shall execute with one mind and with one effort alike,[10] if it is possible to accomplish, the fore-strike and the after-strike, swiftly and promptly after each other.

Also, it would fully come to this if the opponent wards the fore-strike. For he must ward it with the sword and in this way, he must always come to the fencer on his sword. And when the opponent subsequently wards somewhat late and unready, the fencer would then remain on the sword and shall then wind at once and shall quite precisely note and feel whether or not the opponent will withdraw themselves from the sword.

If the opponent withdraws themselves, when they are engaged with one another on the sword and have extended their points toward one another into the openings, before the opponent can recover themselves again against hew or stab of the fencer with his withdrawal, the fencer immediately pursues with a good stab into the chest with his point or else forwards into wherever he may hit him surest and closest in such a way that the opponent may come from the sword without harm with nothing, because immediately with his following-after, the fencer is always closer to the opponent; as he has arranged his point forward on the sword against the opponent according to the nearest and shortest of all with that.

When the opponent shall deliver hew or stab wide around at someone with his withdrawal, the fencer can always come before into the after-strike or -stab, before the opponent into the first like this. And Liechtenauer means this with the word: 'after': when someone has done the fore-strike, so shall he immediately without pause upon the same drive execute the after-strike and shall always be in motion and in contact and always conduct one after the other. If the first fails him, then the second, the third or the fourth hits and continually does not allow the opponent come to any blows. Because no one may have greater advantage of fencing than they who execute these five words according to the lesson.

|Czewt sich ien° ab / als sy im vor mit ey~nander an dy sw°t sint kome~ / vnd dy orter key~ ey~nand° recken / czu de~ blossen / |E deñe sich / deñe iener key~s haws ader stichs / of ey~ news weder [21v] irhole~ mag mit syme abeczihe~ · |zo hat im deser czu hant / mit syme orte noch gevolget / mit eyne~ gute~ stiche czu der brost / ader söst vorne czu wo her in am schireste~ vnd neheste~ getreffe~ mag / |alzo das im ien° mit nichte / ane schade~ von dem sw°te mag kome~ / |we~ deser hat io / czu hãt mit syme nochvolge~ / neher czu ieme / mit dem als her syne~ ort / vor / an dem sw°te gestalt hat key~ ieme / noch de~ aller neheste~ vnd körczste~ / |we~ das ien° mit syme abeczihe~ / of / ey~ news solde hewe ader stiche / |weit vm~e / dar bre~ge~ / |alzo mag io deser alle mal · e czu dem nochslage ader stiche kome~ / e deñe ien° czu dem ersten / |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° mit dem worte / noch / |we~ eyn° im de~ vorslag hat getan / |zo sal her czu hant an vnderloz / of der selben vart den nochslag / tue~ / |vnd sal vm~erm° in bewegu~ge / |vnd in rüru~ge syn / vnd vm°mer ey~s noch dem and°n treibñ / |ab ym das erste vele / |dacz daz ander das dritte |ader daz vierde treffe / |vnd io iene~ nicht lasse czu ky~me slage kome~ / |Wen keyn / mag grosser vorteil of fechte~ habñ / den der nach der lere / deser fünff / wörter tuet /

But if the opponent remains on the sword; with that, as it is coming onto his sword with his warding and defending [himself from] the fencer and it has drawn itself out like this such that the fencer is remaining with him on the sword and has not yet executed the after-strike, so shall the fencer wind up[12] and stay with him like this on the sword and shall quite precisely note and feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword.

If then, the fencer notes and feels that the opponent is strong, hard and firm on the sword and the fencer only means to force out[13] his sword; so shall the fencer be weak and soft against that and shall stand weakening and relinquishing his strength and shall allow his sword to swept out and driven away with his forcing that the opponent executes and the fencer shall then allow his sword to immediately and swiftly lead off and withdraw and shall quickly shall drive that against his openings, to the head or to the body, wherever; with hewing, stabbing and cutting, only where he can approach the closest and surest.

Because the harder and the surer the opponent forces and presses with his sword and the fencer is then weak and soft against that and allows his sword to lead off and in this way weakens him, the farther and the wider his sword then repels the opponent such that he then becomes quite open and thus the fencer then may hit and wound him according to desire before the opponent can recover himself against the hew or the stab of the fencer.

|Ist deñe das deser merkt vnd fület / das iener stark herte vnd veste an dem sw°te ist / vnd dese~ / nü mey~t syn sw°t hin dringe~ · |zo sal deser deñe swach vnd weich dirweder syn / |vnd sal syñ sterke weiche~ vnd stat gebñ / |vnd sal im syn sw°t / hin lasse~ preln vnd wer varn / mit sy~ dringe~ daz her tuet / |vnd deser sal deñe syn sw°t snelle [22r] lassen abegleiten · |vnd abeczihñ / balde vnd risch · |vnd sal snelle dar varn key~ synen blosse~ / czu koppe ader czu leibe / |wo / mit hewe~ stiche~ vnd snete~ / wo her nür / am neheste~ vnd schireste~ mag czu kome~ / |wen e herter vnd e sürer ien° dringt vnd druckt mit syme sw°te / |vnd deser deñe swach vnd weich dirwed° ist · |vnd syn sw°t lest abegleite~ / vnd im alzo weicht / e verrer vnd e weit° deñe ieme sy~n sw°t wek prelt · |das her deñe gar blos wirt / |vnd das in deñe deser noch wonsche mag treffen vnd rüren / e deñe her sich selber / key~s haws ader stichs irholen mag /

But if the opponent is weak and soft on the sword, in the same way, if the fencer now notes and feels it, so shall the fencer then be strong and hard against that on the sword and shall then strongly drive out and rush forward equally on the sword with his point against the opponent's openings, wherever he may be closest, just as if a cord or thread were bound forwards on his point earlier, that leads his point to the nearest of the opponent's openings. And with that same stabbing the fencer executes, he becomes fully aware whether the opponent is so weak that they let his sword force them out and lets themselves be struck.

But if he is strong and wards and leads off the stab, such that he again becomes strong on the sword and carries off his sword and wards the stab also that the opponent forces-out the fencer's sword, so shall the fencer again become weak and soft against that and shall allow his sword to lead off and weaken him and swiftly seek his openings with hewing, stabbing and with cutting as it may solely be. And this is what Liechtenauer means with these words: soft and hard.

And this goes to the Authorities. As Aristotle spoke in the book Peri Hermanias: "Opposites positioned near themselves shine greater, or rather, opposites which adjoin augment. Weak against strong, hard against soft, and contrary." For should it be strong against strong, then the stronger would win every time. Therefore Liechtenauer undertakes fencing according to the more appropriate and truer art, so that one weaker and cunning with his art as surely wins as with one stronger with his strength (for which would be of a different art).

|Is das her stark wirt weder an dem sw°te / vnd desem syn sw°t abeweiset vnd den stich weret / |also das her dese~ sy~ sw°t vaste hin dringt · |zo sal deser aber swach vnd weich dirweder w°den / |vnd sal sy~ sw°t lasse~ abegleite~ / |vnd im weichen / |vnd syne blosse~ rischlichen süche~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader mit snete~ |wy her nür mag · |Vnd das mey~t lichtnaw° / mit dese~ wörter / weich vnd herte / |vnd das get of dy aucto’i-[22v] tas / |als aristotyles spricht in lib° pyarmenias |Oppo~ita iuxta se po~ita · m~g~ elucescu~t / |vel / oppo~ita opposit~ cui aut° / |Swach weder stark / herte weder weich / et eqt° / |Deñe solde stark weder stark syn / |zo gesigt allemal der sterker / ·|dorvm get lichtnawer fechte~ noch recht° vnd worhaftiger ku~st dar / |das ey~ swacher mit syn° ku~st vnd list / als schire gesigt / mit /als ey~ starker mit syn° sterke / |worvm were and°s ku~st /

Therefore fencer, learn to feel well as Liechtenauer spoke: Learn the feeling. Within, that words cuts sharply. Because when you are on the sword of the opponent and now feel whether the opponent is weak or strong on the sword well, within-this or during, so you must then consider and know well whatever you shall execute against him according to this aforementioned lore and art. For truly, he cannot withdraw himself from the sword without harm with anything. Because Liechtenauer spoke: Strike that it snaps whoever withdraws before you.

If you act according to this lesson, fastening well so that you always have and won the fore-strike and as soon as you execute that, you then hasten the after-strike into the opponent thereafter, immediately without refrain (that is the second, the third or the fourth strike, be it hew or stab) then the opponent can never come to strikes. If you then come onto the sword with him, be surer at the feeling and execute as is written before.

Because this is the foundation of fencing that a person is always in motion and not pause and it then comes to the feeling, so do above as able. And whatever you conduct and begin, always have measure and moderation. Like, if you have won the fore-strike, then don't do it so impetuously and so powerfully that you then cannot recover yourself for the after-strike. About this, Liechtenauer spoke: Thereupon you hold, all things have moderation and measure. And also understand this about the stepping and about all other plays and principles of fencing, etc.

This is the text, in this he names the five hews and other plays of fencing.

21 Five hews learn.
 From the right hand, endure the weapons.
23 Wrath-hew, crook, thwart,
 have squinter with parters,
24 Fool displaces,
 race-behind, run-across hew disrupt,
25 Change-through, disengage,
 run-through, cut-off, press hands
26 Hang, wind amid the openings
 Strike catch, scrape, stab with colliding.

[No gloss]

This is about the Wrath-hew, etc.

27 Whoever over-hews you,
 The Wrath-hew point threatens them.
28 If he becomes aware of it,
 Take it off above without fear
29 Be stronger, wind against,
 Thrust. If he sees it, take it below.
30 Precisely note this:
 Hews, stabs, position soft or hard
31 Within and before, after
 Without charging to the wars. Do not be rash.
32 Whoever's war targets
 Above, he will be shamed below.
33 In all winds,
 Learn to find: hews, stabs, cuts.
34 You shall also, with that
 Test hew, stab or cut
35 In all hits
 Of the masters, if you wish to dupe them.
xvi Do not hew to the sword,
 Rather, stand watch for the openings
xvii In the head, in the body
 If you wish to remain without harm
xviii You hit or miss
 Aspiring like this so that you target the openings
xix In every lesson,
 Turn the point against the openings.
xx Whoever hews around widely,
 They will often be shamed severely.
xxi At the closest of all,
 Deliver sudden hews, stabs [wisely].[14]
xxii And one shall also always step
 To the right side
xxiii So you may begin
 Fencing or wrestling with advantage.

Gloss. Here note and know that Liechtenauer calls an over-hew struck[15] from the shoulder the wrath-hew. When one is in his fury and wrath of someone, there is no hew as ready as this same over-hew struck from the shoulder to the man. About that, Liechtenauer means when someone begins to hew at you with an over-hew, so shall you counter-hew the wrath-hew against him, and also that you firmly shoot the point against him. If he wards your point from you, then immediately draw off above and drive suddenly[16] to the other side of his sword. But if he wards that, then be hard and strong in the sword and wind and stab immediately and bravely. If he wards your stab, separate and immediately initiate a hew below, where you hit to the legs in such a way that you continuously conduct one after the other, so that they cannot come to strikes. And the afore-spoken words: before, after, within-this, weak, strong and hews, stabs and cuts; you shall have them brought to mind at the same time and forget with nothing in the applications.

Das ist von deme Czornhawe etc ~

D|Er dir oberhawet ·
|czornhaw ort deme drewet /
|Wirt her is gewar ·
nym is oben ab / ane vaer /
|Pis sterker / weder
wint / stich / |siet her is / |nym is neder /
|Das eben merke ·
|hewe · |stiche · |leger · |weich ader |herte /
|Indes vnd · |vor · |noch ·
ane hurt deme krige sey nicht goch /
|wes der krig remet ·
oben / neden wirt her beschemet /
|In allen winden ·
|hewe · |stiche · |snete · lere finden /
|Auch saltu mete ·
prüfen |hewe |stiche ader |snete /
|In allen treffen ·
den meistern wiltu sie effen /
|Haw nicht czum swerte ·
zonder stets der blößen warte /
|Czu koppe czu leibe ·
wiltu an schaden bleyben /
|du trefts ader ader velest ·
zo trachte das du der blossen remest
* |In aller lere /
den ort / keyn den blößen kere /
|Wer weite vm~e hewet /
d° w°t oft sere bescheme[t]
|Off das aller neste /
bre~ge hewe stiche dar gew[isse][17]
|Vnd salt auch io schreite~ /
eyme czu der rechte~ seiten /
[?] ader iagens
[?] begyñen /

Glosa |Hie merke vnd wisse das lichtnaw° / ey~ öberhaw slecht von der achsel / heisset den czornhaw / Den eyn wen eym itzlichem in syme gry~me vnd czorne [23v] |zo ist im keyn haw als bereit / |als der selbe aberhaw slecht von der achsel / czum mañe / |Dorvem meynt lichtnawer / We~ dir eyner czu hewt / mit eym obirhaw / |zo salt du key~ im weder hawe~ de~ czornhaw / |alzo das du mit dyme ort vaste key~ im schisset / |wert her dir dyn ort / |zo czewch balde oben ab / vnd var czu der and°n syte~ dar / syns sw°ts · |wert her dir daz aber / |zo bis harte vnd stark im sw°te / |vnd wind / vnd stich balde vnd ku~lich / |w°t her dir de~ / stich / |zo smeis vnd haw balde vnde~ czu / wo du trifft / czu~ beyne~ / |alzo das du vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibest / das ien° nicht czu slage kome / |Vnd dy vorgesproche~ wörter · vor · noch · Indes · swach · stark / |vnd · hewe · stiche · vnd · snete · |der saltu czu male wol gedenken / |vnd mit nichte vorgessen in deme gefechte

You shall also not seriously rush with the war, because if one of which you target fails above, then you you hit below as you will hear how one makes itself out of the other according to the legitimate art, particularly: hews, stabs, cuts.

And [one] shall not hew to the opponent's sword, rather into the opponent, to the head and to the body, wherever one may, etc. One may also consider that the first verse may also state: Whomever you over-hew the wrath-hew, the point of the wrath-hew threatens them, etc. Just act according to this lore and be continuously in motion. Either you hit or do not so that the opponent cannot come to strikes. And with the hewing, always step-out well to the side. Also know that there are only two hews, all other hews come from them however they are preferred to be named locally. That is the over-hew and the under-hew from both sides. They are the chief hews and foundation of all other hews. However, those hews causally and accordingly come from the point of the sword. Which is the core and the center of all other plays here like what was written well before. And from those same hews come the four displacements from both sides. With them one disrupts and breaks all hews, stabs or positions. And from them one also comes into the four hangings. From them one may conduct art well as one shall hear hereafter. And however one may particularly fence someone, so shall the point ever and always be turned against their face or breast so that each and every time the opponent must discourage themselves so that he cannot come before by sake of[18] it, for it has immediately shifted[19] somewhere[20] closer to him.

|Vnd salt nicht czu eyns sw°te hawe~ / |zonder czu im selber / czu koppe vnd czu leibe / wo eyn° mag |etc |Auch mag mã vorneme~ / das der erste v°se mochte alzo stehen / |wem du öberhewest czornhaw / |deme drewt der ort / des czornhaws |etc |Nür tu noch deser lere / vnd bis vm~erm° i~ / motu / du treffest ad° nicht / daz ien° nicht czu slage Kome |vnd schret io wol besytz aus / mit den hewen / |Auch wise das nur czwene hewe seyn aus den alle ander hewe[21] wy dy komen |wy dy vm~er genãt möge~ werdn / das [24r] |das ist der öberhaw · vnd der vnderhaw / von beiden seiten · |dy sint dy hawpt hewe |vnd gru~t aller ander hewe / |wy wol dy selbñ vrsachlich vnd gru~tlich / |auch kome~ aus dem orte des sw°tes / |der do ist der kern vnd das czentru~ aller and° stocke / |als das wol vor ist geschrebn # [|vnd aus den selbe~ hewe~ kome~ dy vier vorsetcze~ |von beiden seite~ / mt den mã alle hewe vnd stiche ader leger / letzt vnd bricht / |vnd aus den man auch yn dy vier he~ge~ ku~pt / aus den mã[g] wol ku~st treibñ mag / |als mã hernoch wirt horen] |Vnd wy ey~ mã nur ficht / zo sal io allemal den ort key~ eyns gesichte / ader brust keren / |zo mus sich iener alleczeit besorgen · |das her icht e kome we~ her · |wen her io neher czu im hat we~ ien° /

And if it happens like this that they won the fore-strike, so shall the fencer be secure and sure and be quick with the winding and as soon as he has wound, so shall he begin to drive to the side agilely and courageously. And his point shall shall seek the opponent's breast, turning and positioning themselves against it. As you will hear better hereafter. And the point, as soon as he comes upon the sword of someone, it shall always come to be around a half an ell away from another's breast or face and take quite good care that it intends to arrive inside that and certainly to the closest and not wide around, so that the opponent cannot come first by sake of this. Provided the fencer will not allow themselves to become lax and hesitant and ward too lazily nor be willing to arrive too wide and too far around.

This is about the four openings, etc, etc.

36 Know to target the four openings
 so you strike certainly
37 Without any danger
 without doubt however he behaves.

Gloss. Note here that Liechtenauer, who tiles a person in four parts, just as if he made a line in front of them from the top of the head downwards on his body just to down-here between his legs. And the second line by the girdle that crosses over the body thus becoming four quarters: a right and a left above the girdle and also in the same way under the girdle. Those are the four openings, which each have their particular applications. He targets them and never against the sword, rather the openings.

About the four openings, how one breaks them.

38 If you wish to reckon yourself,
 breaking the four openings artfully,
39 Double above,
 Mutate there-below directly.
40 I say truthfully,
 no one defends themselves without danger.
41 If you have understood,
 he may scarcely come to blows.

[No gloss]

This is about the crook-hew, etc.

42 Crook up swiftly,
 throw your point onto the hands.
43 Whoever waits well crooked,
 disrupts many hews with stepping.
44 Hew crooked to the flats
 of the masters if you wish to weaken them.
45 When it sparks above,
 Then dismount, that I will praise.
46 Crook not, hew short.
 Change through and with that expose him.
47 Crook whoever misleads you.
 The noble war baffles them
48 That he truthfully truthfully
 Does not know where is without danger.

Gloss. Here note and know that the crook-hew is an over-hew which travels crooked along with a good step outwards, likewise to one side. What Liechtenauer means about this is whoever wishes to command this hew properly, they shall step-out to the right side fully flanking, then he delivers the hew and shall crook-hew fully and swiftly and shall throw or shoot his point over his hilt upon the hands of the opponent or shall hew to the opponent's flat. If he then hits the flat, then he shall remain strong thereupon and press firmly and shall see whatever he may then deliver the most decisive and straightest with hews, stabs or cuts and shall hew too short with nothing and shall not forget of the changing-through if it bears itself.

A hew called the failer, and comes from the crook-hew and it stands written after the thwart-hew (where the hand is drawn), and it should stand before the thwart-hew, and it besets[23] crookedly and obliquely from below, in over the hilt of the opponent, with point shooting right the same as the crook-hew from above downwards.

53 The failer misleads
 It wounds according to desire from below.
54 The inverter dominates.
 The runner through also wrestles with it.
55 Take the elbow wisely
 Spring into his stance.
56 The failer doubles.
 One connects the slice with might.
57 Double it further
 Step to the left and do not be lazy.
xxiv Because all fencing
 Will by all rights, have speed
xxv Also in it: audacity,
 Prudence, astuteness and ingenuity.

[No gloss]

This is about the thwart-hew, etc.

49 The thwart seizes
 Whatever comes from the roof.
50 Thwart with the strong
 Remember your work with it.
51 Thwart to the plow
 Yoke it hard to the ox
52 Whoever thwarts themselves well
 Threatens the head[24] with springing

Gloss. Here note and know that of the entire sword, no hew is as efficient, so fierce, so complete and so good as is the thwart-hew. And it besets like a crossbar[25] to both sides: with both edges, the back and the front; to all openings, below and above. And everything that arrives from above, those are the over-hews or whatever otherwise goes from above downward, one breaks and wards those with the thwart-hews.

They that can deliver or fling the sword forwards well, they twirl before the head to whichever side he wishes. Just like would would come in the upper hangings or windings, only that for someone in the thwart-hew, the flats of the sword turn: one above or upward, the other below or downward; and the edges to the sides. They twirl, one to the right and one to the left side. And it is quite good to come upon the sword of the opponent with these thwart-hews.

And then, when one comes upon the sword of the opponent, just as it arrives, so that the opponent must come away from it burdensomely, he will be struck from this with the thwart-hews to both sides. For just as he delivers a thwart-hew, to whichever side it is: below or above, the sword then always goes up with the hilt before the head via the hand flung forwards, so that he is absolutely warded and covered. And one shall deliver the thwart-hews with some strength.

And when one shall fence for their neck, so shall they proceed with the afore-written lore so that they win the fore-strike with a good thwart-hew. When he closes with someone, as soon as he realizes that he is able to engage the opponent with a step or a spring, he then bursts in there from the right side with a thwart-hew above at the head of the opponent with the back edge of the sword likewise[27] above and shall let the point shoot and shall quite fully twirl so that the point careens and winds or girds itself around the opponent's head, like a belt. Because when one thwarts well with a good stepping out or spring, then the opponent must burdensomely defend or escape this. And when he then wins the fore-strike with the thwart-hew like this to the one side, whether he hits or misses, the he shall then immediately win the after-strike in a rush directly without pause with the thwart-hew to the other side with the forward-edge before any strike or little thing somehow redeems them according to the afore-written lore. And shall then thwart to both sides into the oxen and into the plows. That is, into the high openings and into the low from one side to the other, below and above, ceaselessly without pause in this way, so that he is always in motion and does not allow the opponent to come to strikes. And each time he does a thwart-hew above or below, so shall he thwart completely and throw the sword above that they twirl well before his head so that he is well covered.

|Vnd wen eyner vem syne~ hals sölde fechten |So solde her schaffen / mit her der vorgeschrebñ [28r] lere / |das her mit eyme gute~ twerhawe den vorslag / gewuñe · |wen her mit eyme czu gi~ge als balde |als her irkente / |das her ienen dir reichen mochte / mit eyne~ schrete ader spronge |das her deñe dar placzte / mit eyme twerhaw obñ von der rechte~ seiten / mit der hindern sneidñ ieme gleich obñ czu hawpte czu / |vnd sal den ort lassen schiessen / |vnd sal gar wol tweren |das sich der ort wol lenke / vnd winde / ader gorte vm iens hawpt / |zam eyn rime / we |deñe wen eyner wol tweret / mit eyme gute~ ausschrete ader spronge / |zo mag sichs ien° mülich schutze~ / ader abewe~de~ / |Vnd we~ her deñe den vorslag alzo gewi~t mt de~ twerhaw her treffe / czu der eyne~ seyte~ / |her treffe ader vele · |zo sal her deñe als balde in eyme rawsche im~ediate an vnd°loz / |den nochslag gewiñen / mit dem twerhaw czu der and°n seiten / mit der vörd°n sneiden / e den sich ien° key~s slags ader ichsichcz irhole / noch d° vorgeschrebe~ lere / |Vnd sal deñe twern czu beiden seite~ / |czu~ ochsen vnd czu~ pfluge / |das ist / czu den ob°n blössen |vnd czu den vnd°n / von eyner seite~ of dy ander / |vnden vnd obñ / |vm~erm° / an vnderloz / |alzo das her vm°mer in motu sey |vnd iene~ nicht losse czu slage kome~ / |vnd als oft / als her eyne~ twerhaw tuet obñ ad° vndñ / |zo sal her io wol twere~ / |vnd das sw°t obñ dy twer / |wol vor syn hawpt / werfen / |das her wol bedekt sey /

This is about the squint-hew, etc.

58 The squinter breaks
 inside Whatever the buffalo cuts or thrusts.
59 Whoever threatens to change,
 the squinter robs him of it.
60 Squint. If he short changes you,
 The changing through defeats him.
61 Squint into the point
 And take the neck without fear.
62 Squint to the top of the head
 If you wish to ruin the hand.
xxvi Squint against the right,
 if you desire to fence well.
xxvii The squint-hew I prize,
 if it does not arrive too lazily.

Gloss Here note and know that a squint-hew is an over-hew from the right side with the back edge of the sword that the left side is approached and goes there just as slanted or skewed, stepping out to one side to the right with a twisted sword and hand flung forwards and this same hew breaks as the buffalo, that is a peasant, might strike from above downward as they incline to do. This also breaks just like the thwart-hew as was written before. And whoever threatens with changing-through, they become shamed with the squint-hew. And one shall squint-hew fully and long enough and shoot the point firmly. Otherwise, he will become impeded with changing-through and one shall squint fully with the point into the throat bravely without fear and...[28]

This is about the part-hew, etc.

63 The parter
 Is dangerous to the face;
64 With it's turn
 The chest is yet endangered.
65 Whatever comes from him
 The crown removes.
66 Slice through the crown
 So that you break it beautifully and hard;
67 Press the strokes
 Snatch them away with slicing.
xxviii The scalp-hew I prize
 If it arrives not too lazily.

[No gloss]

Liechtenauer holds just a little about the four positions. In that they proceed from the over and under hangings, and from there one may surely bring applications.

This is about the four positions, etc.

68 Four positions alone
 From there hold and flee the common.
69 Ox, plow, fool,
 From-the-roof are not despised by you.

Gloss, etc. Here he names the four positions or four guards. About them, little is to be held. Instead, in any confrontation, a person shall absolutely not lay too long therein. For Liechtenauer has a particular proverb: Whoever lays there, they are dead. Whoever rouses themselves, they yet live. And that pertains to the positions that a person shall preferably rouse themselves with applications. Because he that idles [in] the guards, he might preclude the moment of truth with that.

The first guard, plow, is this in which one lays the point forward, upon the earth or to the side. After the offsetting, this is otherwise called the barrier-guard or the gate.

The second guard, ox, is the over-hanging[31] from the shoulder.

xxix The fool always breaks
 Whatever one hews or stabs
xxx With hanging, strokes [and]
 Racing-behind, set [into action][32] at once.

The third guard, the fool, is the under-hanging.[33] With it, one breaks all hews and stabs, whoever commands it correctly.

The fourth guard, from-the-roof, is the long-point. Whoever commands it with extended arms, one may not hit them well with hews nor with stabs. Also, it may well be called the hanging over the head.

Also know that one breaks all positions and guards with hewing. For one bravely initiates a hew at the opponent with them so they must urgently drive up and defend themselves. Therefore Liechtenauer does not hold much about the positions or guards, rather he preferably crafts it so that someone discourages themselves before him so that he then wins the fore-strike. (As they are able.)

This is about the four displacements

70 Four are the displacements
 Which also severely disrupt the positions.
71 Guard yourself from displacing
 If that happens, it also severely beleaguers you.
72 If you are displaced,
 And as that comes to be,
73 Hear what I advise:
 Deftly leave the cut with haste.
74 Place at four extremities
 Learn to remain upon them if you wish to finish.
xxxi Whoever displaces well,
 This technique disrupts many hews.
xxxii Because in the hangings
 You swiftly come with the displacements.

Gloss. Here note that the four displacements are to both sides. To each side, one over and one under. And they disrupt or break all guards or positions and however you, from above or from below, carry off or reject someone's hew, stab or cut with your sword, that may well be called displacing. And if they will displace you, as that arrives, then withdraw swiftly and with that, quickly initiate a hew in one charge. If you then displace someone or turn away a hew or stab, so shall you immediately tread in and pursue on the sword so that the opponent cannot withdraw from you and shall then do what you may. However lightly you hesitate and delay yourself, so you take harm. You shall also wind well and turn your point against the opponent's chest every time, so that he must discourage himself.

Also a good fencer shall fully learn coming onto the sword of the opponent and he must do that well with the displacements, because they come from the four hews. From each side, an over-hew and an under-hew and go into the four hangings. For as soon as one displaces from below or above, so shall they immediately come into the hangings. And as he winds-off all hews and stabs with the forward edge, it is as with the displacements.

This is about the racing behind, etc, etc

75 Learn to race behind
 Twice or cut into the weapon
76 Yoke the two to the outside
 The work begins thereafter
77 Testing the attack
 Whether it is soft or hard
78 Learn to feel it
 Within-this, this word cuts sharply
79 Racing twice
 With that make the parting cut.
xxxiii Follow all hits
 Then strengthen if you wish to dupe the masters
xxxiv In every lesson,
 Turn the point against one's face.
xxxv With the entire body
 Race behind, always keep your point there.
xxxvi Also learn to swiftly
 Race, so you may end well.

[No gloss]

This is about the overrunning. Fencer seek within.

80 Whoever hunts below
 Overrun, then they will be shamed.
81 When it clashes above,
 Strengthen, This I wish to praise.
82 Make your work
 Or press hard twice.
xxxvii Whoever presses you down,
 Overrun them, slash sharply again.
xxxviii From both sides
 Overrun and remember the cuts.

[No gloss]

This is about offsetting. Learn this well.

83 Learn to offset
 Artfully disrupt hews, stabs.
84 Whoever stabs upon you
 Your point hits and his breaks.
85 From both sides
 Hit every time, if you will step.
xxxix In every lesson,
 Turn the point against one's face.

[No gloss]

This is about the changing-through, etc, etc.

86 Learn to change-through
 From both sides, with that stab sharply.
87 Whoever binds upon you,
 Change-through, surely find him.
xl When you have changed-through,
 Do not slash, stab or wind lax.
xli Do not hew into the sword
 Change-through, with that watch.

Gloss. Here note that the changing-through goes in completely straight from above downwards and from below upwards to both sides if it is otherwise conducted swiftly. Now if you wish to change-through to the right side from above down, then hew an over-hew straight into him also so that you shoot-in your point to his left side above the hilt also so that you hit the same little hole and little window between the edges and the hilt completely straight. If you hit, then you have won. If he wards it so that he leads off and presses-out your point with his sword, then let your point sink from the same side under his sword around it to the other side, not wide around, rather, below on his sword so you may keep close and from there drive-in quite swiftly above the hilt with a good, complete stab and when you feel that you hit, fully pursue. And as you do from one side, below and above, so you do from the other.

And whoever binds-on with you, rush[39] past on his sword with your point against his opening. If he wards, then change-through as before or wind and feel is technique whether it is soft or hard. Thereafter seek hew, stab, or cut against the openings.

This is about the disengaging. Fencer note.

88 Tread near in the bind
 The disengaging gives good discoveries.
89 Disengage. If he hits, disengage more.
 If he works, wind that does him woe.
90 Disengage all hits
 Of the masters if you will dupe them.
xlii Disengage off from the sword
 And always ponder your drive.

[No gloss]

This is about the running-through. Look closely.

91 Allow the hanging, run-through.
 Grab with the pommel if you wish to wrangle.
92 Whoever comes against the strong
 Runner-through, with that, note,
xliii Run-through and shove.
 Invert if he grabs for the pommel.

[No gloss]

This is about the severing, etc, etc

93 Sever the hard-ones
 From below in both drives.
94 Four are the cuts
 With two below, two above.
xliv Cross whoever wish to cut.
 It easily evades the harm.
xlv Do not cut in fright,
 Always consider racing before this.
xlvi You can cut well
 Any cross, just omit the racing.
xlvii If you wish to remain without harm,
 Then do not be too eager with the cutting.

[No gloss]

This is about the hand pressing, etc, etc.

95 Turn your edge
 Into the flats. Press the hands.
xlviii Another is turning
 One's winding. The third, hanging.
xlix If you wish to make the fencers
 Weary, then press with contention.
l Over the hands,
 If one hews, cut swiftly.
li Also draw the cuts
 Above, out over the head.
lii Whoever presses the hands
 Without harm, disengages from the fingers.

Also know as soon as you turn away the opponent's hew or stab with the winding, so shall you immediately tread-in and swiftly drive there into the opponent. However lightly you hesitate and delay yourself, so you take harm.

Also note and know that one with the forward edge of the sword, from the middle of that side to the hilt, turns away all hews and stabs. And the closer the opponent's hew or stab comes to the hilt upon that edge, with that, as he turns his forward edge with it, the better and the more powerful he can turn away hews or stabs. Because the nearer to the hilt, the stronger and the mightier. And the closer to the point, the weaker and the sicklier. Therefore, whoever wishes to be a good fencer, they shall learn to turn away well before anything. For if he turns that away well with this, he comes immediately into the winds. From them he can conduct the skill and beauty of the technique well.

The forward edge of the sword is called the right edge and all hews or stabs are ruined with the turning.

This is about the hanging. Fencer learn this, etc.

96 Two hangings emerge
 From each side from the ground
97 In all applications
 Hew, stab, position soft or hard.
98 Make the speaking-window
 Stand freely, seek his trigger.
99 Slash that it snaps
 Whoever withdraws themselves before you.
100 I say to you truthfully,
 No one defends themselves without danger.
101 If you have understood,
 he may scarcely come to blows.
liii That is, if you remain
 Upon the sword, also conduct with that
liv Hews, stabs or cuts.
 With that, note the feeling
lv Without any preference.
 You shall also not flee from the sword
lvi Because master applications
 Are on the sword by rights.
lvii Whoever binds onto you
 The war wrestles with him sharply.
lviii The noble winding
 Can also surely find him
lix With hewing, with stabbing
 With cutting you tenaciously find him.
lx In all winding
 You shall find hews, stabs, cuts.
lxi The noble hanging
 Will not exist without the winding.
lxii Because from the hangings
 You shall bring the windings.

Gloss, etc. Here note and know that to each side are two hangings: one under-hanging[41] and one over-hanging.[42] With them, you may come upon the sword of the opponent well. Because they come from the over-hews and the under-hews. Just when it happens that you bind on with someone or as you otherwise come to him on the sword, so shall you remain on the sword and shall wind and shall also quite merrily stay on the sword with him with a good spirit and bravely without fear. And shall quite precisely see, note and watch whatever he will do or what his situation, is with which he will go the rounds against you. And this standing like so on the sword, Liechtenauer calls this a speaking-window. And just when you stand with him on the sword, so shall you quite precisely note and feel his application whether it is soft or hard. Thereafter, you shall then orient yourself as is often spoken before. If he then withdraws himself from the sword before any situation, earlier than you begin, then you shall immediately pursue and shall strike hews or stabs whatever you may most surely deliver, before he comes to anything at all. Because you are always closer to him with that. Thus, you remain on the sword and extend your point against him.

When the opponent withdraws with his, before he recovers himself of one of his strikes he delivered to you, immediately drive on with the point. But if he remains with you on the sword, then always test and note whether he is soft or hard on the sword.

If it is that he is soft and weak, then you shall swiftly and bravely drive full on and charge there with your strong and shall force and press his sword out and shall press and force out his sword and seek his openings to the head, to the body; just wherever you can get to.

If the opponent is subsequently hard and strong on the sword and means to force and force you firmly out, so shall you then be soft and weak against his strong and dissipate his forcing with your sword.

And in that ebbing as his sword crashes and slides away, also as is written about that as before, in that or the moment as that happens to him, before he can recover himself again, so that he cannot come to any strikes or stabs, so shall you explore his openings with hews, stabs or cuts wherever you may most surely possess him according to the afore-written lore swiftly, bravely and quickly so that he can never come to blows.

That's why Liechtenauer says I say to you truthfully, no one defends themselves without danger. If you have grasped this, he can barely come to blows. By this he means that no one may defend themselves without danger or harm if you do this according to the written lore. If you execute and win the fore-strike from him, then they must continually defend or must allow themselves to be struck.

For when you execute the fore-strike, you hit or miss; so shall you swiftly execute the after-strike in one rush before when the opponent comes to any blows. For when you wish to execute the fore-strike, so shall you just as if in one thought and mind also execute the after-strike just as if you will execute them with one another because it likely defends.

That's why Liechtenauer says Before, After, the two things, etc. Because if you execute the fore-strike, you hit or miss, then execute the after-strike verily in one rush, swiftly and quickly so that the opponent comes to blows with nothing and you shall work like this so that you always come earlier than the opponent in all confrontations of fencing. And as soon as you come earlier than the opponent and won the fore-strike, then you immediately execute the after-strike.

When you shall execute no fore-strike, you still have the after-strike along with in sense and in spirit such that you always be in motion and neither dawdle nor hesitate with nothing, especially you always conduct one after the other swiftly and quickly, so that the opponent comes to nothing.

If you truthfully do this, then he must be quite a phenom, whoever comes away from you unstruck. Because with this art or with the advantage that it often happens that a peasant or an unlearned strikes a good master with this for he conducts the fore-strike and bravely hurries there. Because however lightly it is overlooked, it hits within-this and shames him like this and strikes. Because one who takes watch of the blow and will wait for the defence, they are in greater danger than the one who strikes thereupon him and wins the fore-strike. Therefore orchestrate that you are the first in all confrontations of fencing and come to the right side of someone. There you will be surer of everything than the opponent.

[37r] Das ist von hengen / ffecht° daz lere / etc

C|zwey hengen werden ·
aus eyner hant von der erden /
|In allen / geferten /
|hewe · |stiche · |leger · |weich ader |herte /
|Sprechfenster mache ·
stant frölich sich syne sache / Sch /
|Slach · das her snabe ·
wer vor dir zich czewt abe /
|Ich sage vor ware /
sich schützt keyn man ane vare /
|Hastu vornome~ ·
czu slage mag her kleyne komen /
|Is das du bleibest ·
am swerte da mete auch treibest /
|Hewe |stiche ader |snete
· das |fülen merke mete /
|An alles vorczhczihen ·
vom swerte du // auch[43] nicht salt flien /
|wen meister gefechte /
ist am swerte von rechte /
|wer an dich bindet ·
krik mit im sere ringet /
|Das edle winden ·
kan in auch schire vinden /
|Mit |hewen mit |stichen
mit |sneten vindest in werlichen /
|In allen winden
|hewe |stiche |snete saltu vinden /
|Das edle hengen /
wil nicht syn an dy windñ
|wen aus den henge~ ·
saltu dy wi~den bre~gen /

Glosa etc | |Hie merke vnd wise das czu itzlicher seiten sint czwey hengen · |Eyn vnderhengen / vnd eyn öbirhengen / mit den du eyme wol an das swert magst komen + [|wen dy kome~ aus den öb°hewe~ vnd vnderhewen] / |Wen das nu geschiet / das du mit eyme an bindest / ader wy du süst mit im an das swert kömps |zo salt du an dem swerte bleybñ vnd salt |vnd salt winden · |vnd salt alzo mit im gar [37v] frölichen / mit gutem mute / vnd künlichen an alle vorchte · an dem sw°te stehen / |Vnd salt gar ebñ sehen / merken vnd warten was her wolle tuen / |ader was syne sache sey / der her key~ dir pflegen wölle · |Vnd daz stehen / alzo an deme swerte / das heisset lichtnaw° eyn sprechvanster · |Vnd wen du nü mit im alzo an dem sw°te stehst / |zo salt du gar ebñ merken vnd fülen syne geferte / ab sie sint weich aber herte / |dornoch salt du dich deñe richte~ als vor ofte gesproche~ ist · |Ist / das her sich vör allen sachen / e deñe du noch ichsicht begyñest / abe czewt von deme sw°te / |zo salt du czu hant noch volgen vnd salt in slaen hawe~ ader steche~ was du am schiresten magst dar bre~gen / e den her czu keyn°leye dinge kome + [|weñe du hast io neher czu im mit dem das du[44] am sw°te blibest / |vnd dyn ort key~ im reckest / we~ iener mit syme abe czihen / |den e her sich ey~s slags erholt dir dar brengt / |zo var czu hãt dar mt dy~ orte /] / |Bleibt her aber mit dir an dem sw°te / |zo prüfe / io vnd merke / ab her sy weich aber herte an dem swerte / |Ist das her ist / weich vnd swach / |zo saltu rischlichen vnd künlichen volvaren vnd dar hurten / mit dyner sterke / |vnd salt / im syn swert hin dringen vnd drücken / |vnd süche~ syne bloßen / czu koppe ader czu leibe / wo du nür czu magst komen / |Ist iener deñe herte vnd stark an deme sw°te / |vnd meynt dich vaste hin dringen vnd stossen / |zo saltu deñe weich vnd swach seyn / keyn syner sterke / |vnd salt syner sterke vnd syme dringen mit dynen sw°te entwychen / [38r] |vnd yn dem weiche~ als im syn sw°t im hin prelt vnd wischt / |als vor auch von deme geschrebñ ist / |In deme ad° dy weile als das im geschit · e · deñe her sichs weder irholen mag / |dar her czu keyme slage ader stiche kome / |Zo saltu selber syner blössen war neme~ / mit hewe~ stiche~ ader sneten / |wo du in am schireste~ gehabñ magst / noch der vorgeschrebñ lere / risch / künlich vnd snelle das io iener mit nichte czu slage kome |Dorvm spricht lichtnaw° / ich sag vorwar · sich schutzt key~ man ane var / |Hastu vornomen / czu slage mag er kleyne kome~ / |Do mitt meynt her / |das sich keyn° mag ane var ader ane schaden schutcze~ / |Is das du tust noch der geschrebñ lere / |Ab du im den vorslag gewyñest vnd tust den mus io iener were~ / ad° mus sich lasse slaen / wen du deñe den vorslag tust / du trefst ader velest / |zo saltu rischlich vnd in eyme rawsche den nochslag tue~ · e · deñe iener czu keyme slage kome / |Deñe wen du den vorslag wilt tue~ / |zo saltu recht / zã yn eyme gedanke vnd mute den nochslag auch tue~ / recht zam du sy mit ey~nander wellest tue~ / we~ is möglich were / |Dorvm spricht her · vor · noch · dy cwey dink etc ~ den tust du den vorslag / du treffest / ader velest / zo tu io / in eyme rawsche / risch vnd snelle den nochslag / das iener mit nichte [38v] czu slage kome / |vnd alzo saltu schaffen das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens io · e · komest deñe iener / |vnd als balde als du · e · kum~est deñe ien° / vnd den vorslag gewiñest / |zo tu czu hãt den nochslag / ·|Wen du salt key~ vorslag tue~ / |du habst io / de~ nochslag auch mete ym synne vnd ym mute / also dastu vm~mer in motu seist / vnd mit nichte feyerst ader last / |zonder vm~erm° eyns noch dem and°n treibst · risch · vnd snelle |das iener czu keyne~ dingen moge kome~ / ·|Vorwar tustu / das / zo mus her gar eyn guter syn  der ungeslage~ von dir kum~t / ·|Weñe mt der selben ku~st / ader mt dem vorteil das / ku~pt is oft / das ey~ pawer ader eyn ungelarter eyn gute~ meist° / slet / mt deme · das her den vorslag tuet / vnd künlich dar hurt / |den wy leiche ist das obersehñ / |das in/deß trift vnd in alzo beschemet vnd slet / |deñe eyn° der der slege war nym~et / vnd des schütcze~s wil warten / |der ist io in grosser var / |deñe ien° der do of in slet / vnd den vorslag gewyñet / |Dorvm~e schaffe / das du yn allen sache~ des fechtens der erste bist / vnd io eyme of dy linkerechte / seiten komest / |do bist du wol aller dinge sicher deñe ien° /

108 From both sides
 Learn eight winds with stepping.
106 And always unite them
 Yoke[45] the winds with three plays
107 So are they twenty
 And four. Simply count them.
105 Fencer, mind this
 And consider the winds correctly
lxiii And learn to command them well
 So you may wound the four openings
lxiv Because each opening
 Objectively has six wounds.

Gloss. Here note and know that the winds are the right art and fixed foundation of all fencing of the sword. From them, all other applications and plays come. And one might tediously be a good fencer without the winds, although numerous illegitimate masters, they dismiss and say whatever comes from the winds is quite weak and name it "from the shortened sword", for they are simple and approach naively and meaning that they are fought from the long sword whatever arrives with extended arms and with extended sword and whatever arrives quite fiendishly and strong from the entire power of the body will barely flourish to the end and that is terrible to behold when someone extends themselves like this just as if they will run-down a hare. And that is all against the winding and against Liechtenauer's art when there is no strength against. Because if whoever's art differs on this, you should prefer the strong every time.

  1. Remainder is blacked out.
  2. alt: behold, peer-into, witness, probe, observe, perceive, inspect, investigate, realize, comprehend. alt: show, present, embody, illuminate
  3. latin
  4. lit: tread-full. completing a step or completing the course of a thing.
  5. alt: giving-way, stepping-off. to give something up. to let something go.
  6. alt: safe, sure
  7. alt: has success
  8. ume züst => umsonst
  9. Text gives "deñe her"; correct order based on markings is given here.
  10. schlage, not schlag
  11. Word is almost illegible.
  12. aufwinden: 1) to entangle, wind into a ball 2) to turn or twist upwards.
  13. hindringen: to break or force through. overcome
  14. "Wisely" inferred from the summary
  15. alt: straight
  16. darfahren: unversehens dazu kommen
  17. Continued up the side margin; due to paper clipping, the bottom line is unclear. 65r gives "gewisse".
  18. wegen preposition
  19. wegen verb
  20. ienen
  21. "Ander" is placed after "Hewe" in the manuscript, with markings indicating the correct order.
  22. Inserted in the margin
  23. dargehen: the approach something in a hostile manner. Literally: to go-there.
  24. The page is clipped. only 'hew' remains. This manuscript spells 'haupte' as 'hewpte'
  25. twer: noun: something that gets in the way, something that cuts across something else, something that crosses. verb: to twist, to twirl, to turn obliquely in relation to something
  26. "Hew" is inserted in the margin.
  27. alt: directly, immediately
  28. The comment ends here and remains unfinished.
  29. Inserted in margin.
  30. Unlike other places where there are definitely passages originally forgotten and inserted with a caret, such is missing here. Thus, it can be conjectured that this is a later addition or comment.
  31. überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline
  32. Grimm: setzen C.2)a)
  33. unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree
  34. Inserted in margin.
  35. Inserted in margin.
  36. Latin: "as [they] are able"
  37. Inserted in margin
  38. Inserted in the margin.
  39. rauschen: like a strong wind rustling quickly through the trees
  40. Inserted in the margin.
  41. unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree
  42. überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline
  43. Inserted in the margin.
  44. Inserted in the margin.
  45. menen: treiben, fuhren, leiten