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'''Jud Lew''' is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], though he was not included in [[Paulus Kal]]'s ca. 1470 list of the members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]].<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
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'''Lew''' or '''Lewe''' is the presumed name of a [[century::15th century]] [[nationality::German]] [[fencing master]]. The name "Lewe" means lion and might have been a nickname or pseudonym; alternatively, the colophon of the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Cod. I.6.4º.3]] could be interpreted to mean that he was Jewish, in which case it might be the German spelling of a Jewish name like Levi. He seems to have stood in the tradition of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]], though he was not included in [[Paulus Kal]]'s ca. 1470 list of the members of the [[Fellowship of Liechtenauer]].<ref>The Fellowship of Liechtenauer is recorded in three versions of [[Paulus Kal]]'s treatise: [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS 1825)|MS 1825]] (1460s), [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (Cgm 1507)|Cgm 1570]] (ca. 1470), and [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|MS KK5126]] (1480s).</ref>
  
Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Cod. I.6.4º.3]], an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,<ref>See [[Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 123r.jpg|folio 123r]].</ref> a [[gloss]] of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]'s [[Recital]] on [[mounted fencing]] that is one branch of the so-called [[Pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] gloss (see below). Though some versions of [[Martin Huntfeltz]]'s treatise on [[armored fencing]] are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.<ref>Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.</ref> By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on [[long sword]] fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.
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Lew is sometimes erroneously credited with authoring the whole of the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Cod. I.6.4º.3]], which is an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises, created in the 1460s. His name is actually associated with just two sections of that book: he is credited as the author of an armored fencing treatise which was really written by [[Martin Huntsfeld]],<ref>Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.</ref> and is mentioned at the end of a [[gloss]] of [[Johannes Liechtenauer]]'s [[Recital]] on [[mounted fencing]]<ref>See the colophon on [[Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 123r.jpg|folio 123r]].</ref> (by convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on [[long sword]] fencing that almost always accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew). Though this colophon is generally regarded as indicating that Lew authored the gloss (which is one branch of the larger [[Pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] gloss family), it could alternatively be interpreted to mean that Lew was the scribe or client for the whole manuscript.
  
 
== Stemma ==
 
== Stemma ==
  
Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig [[gloss]] seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]] also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).
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Early on in its history, the prototype of the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]] also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).
  
Branch A, first attested in the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Augsburg version]] (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of [[Andre Liegniczer]] and [[Martin Huntfeltz]] (or, in the case of the 1512 [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna II]], Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the [[Jud Lew]] gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|Salzburg version]] (1491), which was copied independently<ref>Both Augsburg and Salzburg contain significant scribal errors of omission that allow us to identify manuscripts copied from them.</ref> and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by [[Paulus Hector Mair]] (three mss., 1540s), [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Lienhart Sollinger]] (1556), and [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Joachim Meyer]] (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for [[Johannes Lecküchner]]'s gloss on the [[Messer]] in the late 1470s.
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Branch A, first attested in the [[Codex Lew (Cod.I.6.4º.3)|Augsburg version]] (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of [[Andre Lignitzer]] and [[Martin Huntsfeld]] (or, in the case of the 1512 [[Oplodidaskalia sive Armorvm Tractandorvm Meditatio Alberti Dvreri (MS 26-232)|Vienna II]], Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the [[Lew]] gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the [[Codex Speyer (MS M.I.29)|Salzburg version]] (1491), which was copied independently<ref>Both Augsburg and Salzburg contain significant scribal errors of omission that allow us to identify manuscripts copied from them.</ref> and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by [[Paulus Hector Mair]] (three mss., 1540s), [[Maister Liechtenawers Kunstbuech (Cgm 3712)|Lienhart Sollinger]] (1556), and [[Fechtbuch zu Ross und zu Fuss (MS Var.82)|Joachim Meyer]] (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for [[Johannes Lecküchner]]'s gloss on the [[Messer]] in the late 1470s.
  
 
Branch B, attested first in the [[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome version]] (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The [[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow version]] (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,<ref>Zabinski, pp 82-83</ref> while [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Augsburg II]] (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow version]] (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.
 
Branch B, attested first in the [[Codex Danzig (Cod.44.A.8)|Rome version]] (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The [[Goliath Fechtbuch (MS Germ.Quart.2020)|Krakow version]] (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,<ref>Zabinski, pp 82-83</ref> while [[Hutter/Sollinger Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.2)|Augsburg II]] (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the [[Glasgow Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.341)|Glasgow version]] (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.
  
 
Branch C is first attested in the [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|Vienna version]] (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg version II]] (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of [[Antonius Rast]], and which segues into the text of [[Ringeck]]'s gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of [[Jörg Wilhalm Hutter]]; one of these, [[Gregor Erhart Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.354)|Glasgow II]] (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one [[Nicolaüs Augsburger|Nicolaüs]] in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.
 
Branch C is first attested in the [[Paulus Kal Fechtbuch (MS KK5126)|Vienna version]] (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the [[Rast Fechtbuch (Reichsstadt "Schätze" Nr. 82)|Augsburg version II]] (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of [[Antonius Rast]], and which segues into the text of [[Ringeck]]'s gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of [[Jörg Wilhalm Hutter]]; one of these, [[Gregor Erhart Fechtbuch (MS E.1939.65.354)|Glasgow II]] (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one [[Nicolaüs Augsburger|Nicolaüs]] in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.
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(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of [[Hans Medel|Hans Medel von Salzburg]],<ref>Medel's section of the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] is internally dated on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 21r.jpg|folio 21r]].</ref> which was acquired by Mair and bound into the [[Hans Medel Fechtbuch (Cod.I.6.2º.5)|Cod. I.6.2º.5]] after 1566.<ref>The record of the [[Marxbrüder]] in the manuscript ends on [[page:Cod.I.6.2º.5 20r.jpg|folio 20r]] with the year 1566, so Mair couldn't have acquired it before then.</ref> Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)
  
 
== Treatises ==
 
== Treatises ==
  
While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the [[pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the [[Nicolaüs Augsburger]] page.
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While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the [[pseudo-Peter von Danzig]] article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the [[Nicolaüs]] page.
  
 
{{master begin
 
{{master begin
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{| class="floated master"
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{| class="master"
 
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! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Cory Winslow]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|B|Complete Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Cory Winslow]]</p>
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 001r.jpg|1|lbl=1r}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 001r.jpg|1|lbl=1r}}
 
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| <p>{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 082r.png|1|lbl=82r|p=1}}<br/><br/></p>
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{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 082r.png|1|lbl=82r|p=1}}<br/><br/>
  
 
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| {{red|And left with right,<br/>If you most strongly will fence.}}
 
| {{red|And left with right,<br/>If you most strongly will fence.}}
 
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<p>The first lesson of the long sword is that before all things, you shall rightly learn the hews so that you will otherwise fence strongly, and undertake that thus: when you stand with the left foot fore and hew from the right side, then the hew is false and incorrect (since the right side remains there behind), and thereby the hew<ref>"thereby the hew" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> becomes too short and may not have its correct going to the right side, etc.</p>
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<p>The first lesson of the long sword is that before all things, you shall rightly learn the hews so that you will otherwise fence strongly, and undertake that thus: when you stand with the left foot fore and hew from the right side, then the hew is false and incorrect (since the right side remains there behind), and thereby the hew<ref>"the hew" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> becomes too short and may not have its correct going to the right side, etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|With the entire body,<br/>Fight so that you most strongly drive.}}
 
| {{red|With the entire body,<br/>Fight so that you most strongly drive.}}
 
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<p>Undertake that thus: When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, whatever you then wish to fence, you shall drive it with the entire strength of your body, and hew in therewith, near to his head. Therewith you force him so that he must parry, and come to no Changing-through when you come near to him with the point. If he comes then with the parrying strongly on your sword, then give him a touch on his left arm and step backwards therewith before he comes in.</p>
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<p>Undertake that thus: When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, whatever you then wish to fence, you shall drive it with the entire strength of your body, and hew in therewith, near to his head. Therewith you force him so that he must parry, and come to no Changing-through when you come near to him with the point. If he comes then with the parrying strongly on your sword,<ref>Mair: "If he comes then onto your sword with the strong".</ref> then give him a touch on his left arm and step backwards therewith before he comes in.</p>
 
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| {{red|And if you are left,<br/>In the fencing<ref>Liechtenauer's verse has ''in der rechten'', "on the right", here, but it has been changed in all copies except the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> you also sorely limp.}}
 
| {{red|And if you are left,<br/>In the fencing<ref>Liechtenauer's verse has ''in der rechten'', "on the right", here, but it has been changed in all copies except the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> you also sorely limp.}}
 
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<p>This is a good lesson and touches upon a left-hander and a right-hander. And know how you shall hew so that one does not win the Weak of your sword with the first hew, and undertake that thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, if you are then right and will strongly fence, then hew the first hew with purpose (not from the left side). Then he is weak and may not hold against when you bind strongly on him, or, if you hew from the right side, then you may well strongly hold against him and work on the sword whatever you wish.</p>
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<p>This is a good lesson and touches upon a left-hander and a right-hander. And know how you shall hew so that one does not win the Weak of your sword with the first hew, and undertake that thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, if you are then right and will strongly fence, then hew the first hew with purpose (not from the left side). Then he is weak and may not hold against when you bind strongly on him; but<ref>A. "or"</ref> if you hew from the right side, then you may well strongly hold against him and work on the sword whatever you wish.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>20</small>
 
| <small>20</small>
| {{red|If you frighten easily<br/>Learn no fencing evermore.}}
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| {{red|If you frighten easily<br/>Learn no fencing<ref>S. "art or fencing".</ref> evermore.}}
 
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<p>This is that you shall, before all things, correctly undertake and understand the two things: that is, the Before and the After, and Weak and Strong, and the word "Meanwhile". When you rightly undertake and understand these things, from them comes the entire foundation of all the Art of Fencing. And going forward, do not forget the word "Meanwhile" in all techniques that you drive; thus you may well be a good Master of the Sword and may well teach princes and lords, that they may be best in play and in earnest with the correct Art of the Sword, etc.</p>
 
<p>This is that you shall, before all things, correctly undertake and understand the two things: that is, the Before and the After, and Weak and Strong, and the word "Meanwhile". When you rightly undertake and understand these things, from them comes the entire foundation of all the Art of Fencing. And going forward, do not forget the word "Meanwhile" in all techniques that you drive; thus you may well be a good Master of the Sword and may well teach princes and lords, that they may be best in play and in earnest with the correct Art of the Sword, etc.</p>
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| {{red|Then we praise<br/>Your Arts, to teach well.}}
 
| {{red|Then we praise<br/>Your Arts, to teach well.}}
 
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<p>Mark, there are Five hidden Hews. Whoever can break them with correct art, without injury, becomes praised by other masters, and shall become rewarded more inexpensively in his art than another. And how you shall hew the Hews with three techniques, you will find all that described hereafter, etc.</p>
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<p>Mark, there are Five hidden Hews. Whoever can break them with correct art, without injury, becomes praised by<ref>S., R. "before"</ref> other masters, and shall become rewarded more inexpensively in his art than another. And how you shall hew the Hews with three techniques, you will find all that described hereafter, etc.</p>
 
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>23</small>
 
| <small>23</small>
| {{red|Wrath hew, Crooked, Thwart,<br/>Have Squinter with Parter.}}
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| {{red|Wrath hew, Crooked,<ref>S. "crooked hew"</ref> Thwart,<ref>S. "thwart hew"</ref><br/>Have Squinter with Parter.}}
 
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| <small>24</small>
 
| <small>24</small>
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| <p>[16] Thus seventeen are the hews and the techniques. You will find them likewise described hereafter, one after another, and also that which you shall fence therefrom, etc.</p>
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| <p>[16] Thus are the hews and the techniques seventeen<ref>Mair: "twelve"</ref>. You will find them likewise described hereafter, one after another, and also that which you shall fence therefrom, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 007v.jpg|1|lbl=7v}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 007v.jpg|1|lbl=7v}}
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| {{red|If he becomes aware,<br/>Take-off above without danger.}}
 
| {{red|If he becomes aware,<br/>Take-off above without danger.}}
 
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<p>Item, the Wrath-hew breaks all Over-hews with the point, and yet it is nothing more than a simple peasant strike,<ref>S. "peasant hew".</ref> and drive that thus: when he hews above from the right side to the head, then wrathfully hew with him also (without any parrying), likewise from above from your right side,<ref name="word-s">Word omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> above onto his sword, and let the point shoot in straight ahead of you to the face or the breast.<includeonly></p></includeonly><section end="wrath-1"/> <section begin="wrath-2"/><includeonly><p></includeonly>If he then becomes aware of the point and parries with strength, then with your sword on his sword’s blade, tear off from his sword up above over yourself, and hew in to the other side, on his sword’s blade, again in to the head. That is called taking-off above, etc.</p><section end="wrath-2"/>
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<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr">Word omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.</ref> the Wrath-hew breaks all Over-hews with the point, and yet it is nothing more than a simple peasant strike,<ref>S. "peasant hew".</ref> and drive that thus: when he hews above from the right side to the head, then wrathfully hew with him also (without any parrying), likewise from above from your right side,<ref name="word-s">Word omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> above onto his sword, and let the point shoot in straight ahead of you to the face or the breast.<includeonly></p></includeonly><section end="wrath-1"/> <section begin="wrath-2"/><includeonly><p></includeonly>If he then becomes aware of the point and parries with strength, then with your sword on his sword’s blade, tear off from his sword up above over yourself, and hew in to the other side, on his sword’s blade, again in to the head. That is called taking-off above, etc.</p><section end="wrath-2"/>
 
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{{section|Page:Cod.icon. 393 I 082r.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Cod.icon. 393 I 082v.jpg|1|lbl=82v|p=1}}
 
{{section|Page:Cod.icon. 393 I 082r.jpg|5|lbl=-|p=1}} {{section|Page:Cod.icon. 393 I 082v.jpg|1|lbl=82v|p=1}}
 
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| <p>{{section|Page:MS Var.82 016r.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}}<br/><br/></p>
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{{section|Page:MS Var.82 016r.png|6|lbl=-|p=1}}<br/><br/>
  
<p><br/></p>
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| {{red|Be stronger against<br/>Wind, stab, if he sees, then take it down.}}
 
| {{red|Be stronger against<br/>Wind, stab, if he sees, then take it down.}}
 
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<p>This is when you hew in wrathfully with him: if he then holds strongly against [you] with the sword, if you do not wish to take off above then be strong against [him], and drive up with the arms to your right side and Wind the short edge on his sword, and stab him above into his face. If he becomes aware of the stab and drives up and parries, then remain standing thus in the Winding and set the point on him below, etc.</p><section end="wrath-8"/>
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<p>This is when<ref>Mair: "This is a lesson on when".</ref> you hew in wrathfully with him: if he then holds strongly against [you] with the sword, if you do not wish to take off above then be strong against [him], and drive up with the arms to your right side and Wind the short edge on his sword, and stab him above into his face. If he becomes aware of the stab and drives up and parries, then remain standing thus in the Winding and set the point on him below, etc.</p><section end="wrath-8"/>
 
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| {{red|Meanwhile, Before and After,<br/>And guard that your War is not rushed.}}
 
| {{red|Meanwhile, Before and After,<br/>And guard that your War is not rushed.}}
 
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<p>This is a lesson: when he binds on your sword (with a hew or with a stab), then you shall not be too rushed with the War (that is, with the Winding) before you mark very precisely if, when his sword clashes or binds on the other, it is Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you find this, then Wind Meanwhile and work with the War, after the Soft and after the Hard, to the nearest opening. And you have learned previously that which are called the Before and the After, etc.</p>
+
<p>This is a lesson: when he binds on your sword (with a hew or with a<ref>"with a" omitted from Rostock.</ref> stab), then you shall not be too rushed with the War (that is, with the Winding) before you mark very precisely if, when his sword clashes or binds on the other, it is Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you find this, then Wind Meanwhile and work with the War, after the Soft and after the Hard,<ref>Mair adds "not", making it "after the Soft and not after the Hard".</ref> to the nearest opening. And you have learned previously that which are called the Before and the After, etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| {{red|Whoever enters the War above,<br/>He becomes ashamed below.}}
 
| {{red|Whoever enters the War above,<br/>He becomes ashamed below.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Know that the Winding, and the work therefrom to the Four Openings with the point, that same is called the War; drive it thus: when you hew in with the Wrath-hew, as quickly as he then parries, then drive up with the arms, and Wind in the point on his sword above into the upper openings of his left side. If he then sets the upper stab off, then remain thus standing with the Winding and let the point sink down under you to the lower opening on his left side. If he then follows after your sword with the parrying, then seek the lower opening of his right side with your point. If he then follows further with the parrying, then drive up with the sword on the left side and hang the point above into the upper opening of his right side, and thus he becomes ashamed with the War below and above (if you correctly drive in), etc.</p>
+
<p>Know that the Winding, and the work therefrom to the Four Openings with the point, that same is called the War; drive it thus: when you hew in with the Wrath-hew, as quickly as he then parries, then drive up with the arms, and Wind in the point on his sword above into the upper openings of his left side. If he then sets the upper stab off, then remain thus standing with the Winding and let the point sink down under you to the lower opening on his left side.<ref>"The lower opening" is omitted in Mair, shortening it to "to the left side".</ref> If he then follows after your sword with the parrying, then seek the lower opening of his right side with your point. If he then follows further with the parrying, then drive up with the sword on the left side and hang the point above into the upper opening of his right side, and thus he becomes ashamed with the War below and above (if you correctly drive in), etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| {{red|In all hits<br/>You will trick the masters.}}
 
| {{red|In all hits<br/>You will trick the masters.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Know that you shall be entirely ready with all Windings on the sword, since each Winding has three particular techniques: that is, a Hew, a Stab, and a Slice. And when you Wind on the sword, then you shall well proof and mark that you do not drive the incorrect techniques that pertain in the Winding thus: that you do not Hew when you should Stab, and do not Slice when you should Hew, and also not Stab when you should Slice. And you shall so drive that when the man parries your one, you hit with the other,<ref>"And you shall... with the other" omitted from the Augsburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''also soltu''.</ref> and thus shall you always find the correct technique with which to drive rightly pertaining techniques in all hits and all Windings of the sword, if you will trick and deceive the other masters when they are set against you. And how you will Wind on the sword, and how you shall drive, that you will find in the last technique of the Epitome, which says “Who well Hangs”,<ref>Couplet 104, part of the group 102-109.</ref> etc.</p>
+
<p>Know that you shall be entirely ready with all Windings on the sword, since each Winding has three particular techniques: that is, a Hew, a Stab, and a Slice. And when you Wind on the sword, then you shall well proof and mark that you do not drive the incorrect techniques that pertain in the Winding thus: that you do not Hew when you should Stab, and do not Slice when you should Hew, and also not Stab when you should Slice. And you shall so drive that when the man parries your one, you hit with the other,<ref>"And you shall... with the other" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''also soltu das''.</ref> and thus shall you always find the correct technique with which to drive rightly pertaining techniques in all hits and all Windings of the sword, if you will trick and deceive the other masters when they are set against you. And how you will Wind on the sword, and how you shall drive, that you will find in the last technique of the Epitome, which says “Who well Hangs”,<ref>Couplet 104, part of the group 102-109.</ref> etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>36</small>
 
| <small>36</small>
| {{red|Four openings know,<br/>Aim<ref name="word-a">Word omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> so you strike wisely,}}
+
| {{red|Four openings know,<br/>Aim<ref name="word-a">Word omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.</ref> so you strike wisely,}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>37</small>
 
| <small>37</small>
 
| {{red|Without any fear,<br/>Without confusion for how he acts.}}
 
| {{red|Without any fear,<br/>Without confusion for how he acts.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>That is when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, if you will then wisely fence, then you shall namely not hew in to the sword, since you should aim for the Four Openings. These are [one] the right side, the other the left, of the half over the girdle of the man. The other two openings, these are the left and the right side of the half under the girdle.<ref>"of the man… of the girdle" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''der gürttell''.</ref> Take the same openings Before and hew then boldly to [them], and regard not whatever he fences against you. If he then parries, then work in the parrying quickly to the nearest opening. Thus wait out the body and not the sword, etc.<ref name="Ringeck">The subsequent play in Salzburg is taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and is therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
+
<p>That is when you come<ref name="word-s"/> to the man with the pre-fencing, if you will then wisely fence, then you shall namely not hew in to the sword, since you should aim for the Four Openings. These are [one] the right side, the other the left, of the half over the girdle of the man. The other two openings, these are the left and the right side of the half under the girdle.<ref>"of the man… of the girdle" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''der gürttell''.</ref> Take the same openings Before and hew then boldly to [them], and regard not whatever he fences against you. If he then parries, then work in the parrying quickly to the nearest opening. Thus wait out the body and not the sword, etc.<ref name="Ringeck">The subsequent play in Salzburg is taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and is therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>40</small>
 
| <small>40</small>
| {{red|I say to you truthfully,<ref>"To you truthfully" omitted from the Augsburg.</ref><br/>No man protects himself without danger.}}
+
| {{red|I say to you truthfully,<ref>"To you truthfully" effaced from the Augsburg by damage to the page.</ref><br/>No man protects himself without danger.}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>41</small>
 
| <small>41</small>
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[26] Item, the Mutating to the right side. When you hew in strongly above from your right shoulder and you bind with the long edge on his sword, then drive up quickly with the arms and remain thus standing at the sword;<ref>"and you bind with… standing on the sword" omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> if he parries and is Soft in the sword, then Wind the short edge on his sword on your left side, and drive up well with the arms and hang the point above over his sword, and drive the arms therewith and stab in to the other opening, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[26] Item, the Mutating to the right side. When you hew in strongly above from your right shoulder and you bind with the long edge on his sword, then drive up quickly with the arms and remain thus standing at the sword;<ref>"and you bind with… standing on the sword" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.</ref> if he parries and is Soft in the sword, then Wind the short edge on his sword on your left side, and drive up well with the arms and hang the point above over his sword, and drive the arms<ref>"with the arms… and drive" omitted from the Rostock. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''den armen''.</ref> therewith and stab in to the other opening, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 013r.jpg|1|lbl=13r}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 013r.jpg|1|lbl=13r}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[27] Item, the Mutating to the left side. Or if you hew in from the left side with the long edge bound<ref name="word-a"/> on his sword, then drive up with the arms and remain with the same edge standing on the sword, and wind yet the short edge over his sword, and drive well up with the arms, and hang the point in above over his sword, and drive there well with the arms, and stab him to the lower opening of his left side.<ref>"And wind yet… and stab him" omitted from the Augsburg.</ref> Thus you may drive the two techniques from all hewing hereafter as you find the Weak and Strong of the sword, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[27] Item, the Mutating to the left side. Or if you hew in from the left side with the long edge bound<ref name="word-a"/> on his sword, then drive up with the arms and remain with the same edge standing on the sword, and wind yet the short edge over his sword, and drive well up with the arms, and hang the point in above over his sword, and drive there well with the arms, and stab him to the lower opening of his left side.<ref>"And wind yet… and stab him" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.</ref> Thus you may drive the two techniques from all hewing hereafter as you find the Weak and Strong of the sword, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 013r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 013r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{red|Whoever sets well Crooked<br/>With steps injures many hews.}}
 
| {{red|Whoever sets well Crooked<br/>With steps injures many hews.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Know that the Crooked-hew is one of the Four Forfendings against the Four Guards.<ref>Here Salzburg segues into [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]]'s gloss of the same verse describing how the Crooked hew is used as a counter-cut: "This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands, and execute the play thus: When he cuts from your[sic: his] right side with the over- or under-cut, spring away from the cut with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him with outstretched arms with the [point] upon his hands."</ref> When therewith one Wars [against] the Ox and also the Over- and the Under-hew, then drive thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him"</ref> with the the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you and holds his sword before the head in the guard of the Ox on his left side, then set your left foot before [you] and hold your sword on the right shoulder in the guard, and from the guard, spring with the right foot well on the right side, and strike him over his hands with the long edge (with crossed arms), etc.</p>
+
<p>Know that the Crooked-hew is one of the Four Forfendings against the Four Guards.<ref>Here Salzburg segues into [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]]'s gloss of the same verse describing how the Crooked hew is used as a counter-cut: "This is how you shall cut crooked to the hands, and execute the play thus: When he cuts from your right side with the over- or under-cut, spring away from the cut with the right foot against him well to his left side, and strike him with outstretched arms with the [point] upon his hands."</ref> When therewith one Wars [against] the Ox and also the Over- and the Under-hew,<ref>Literally "boar" (''eber'') in Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair, probably due to a scribal error from ''über''. Rostock further changes this to ''alber''.</ref> then drive thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him"</ref> with the the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you and holds his sword before the head in the guard of the Ox on his left side, then set your left foot before [you] and hold your sword on your<ref>A., M. "the"</ref> right shoulder in the guard, and from the guard, spring with the right foot well on the right side, and strike him over his hands with the long edge (with crossed arms), etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[29] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
+
| <p>[29] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A, M: "the</ref> left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew<ref>"the hew" omitted in Mair.</ref> with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[30] Item, position yourself thus with the Barrier-guard to your left side: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set the right foot forward and hold your sword with the point near your left side on the earth with crossed hands, so that the short edge on the sword is above, and give an opening with the right side. If he then hews you to the opening, then step well with the left foot from the hew on your left side, and strike him with the step with the short edge<ref>"with the short edge" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> over his hands, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[30] Item, position yourself thus with the Barrier-guard to your left side: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> right foot forward and hold your sword with the point near your left side on the earth with crossed hands, so that the short edge on the sword is above, and give an opening with the right side. If he then hews you to the opening, then step well with the left foot from the hew on your left side, and strike him with the step with the short edge<ref>"with the short edge" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> over his hands, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 014v.jpg|1|lbl=14v}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 014v.jpg|1|lbl=14v}}
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| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>Then stand off, that will I praise.}}
 
| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>Then stand off, that will I praise.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, this technique you shall drive against the masters from the bind of the swords,<ref>S. "bind of the sword hews".</ref> and mark it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then lay your sword to your right side in the Barrier-guard, or hold it on your nearest shoulder. If he then hews above to your opening, then hew strongly with the long edge (with crossed arms) against his hew, and as quickly as the swords clash together, then wind Meanwhile with the sword against your left side and drive up with the arms, and stab in to the upper opening. Or, if you will not stab him, then mark as quickly as it clashes, [and] then hew him Meanwhile with the short edge to the head and to the body, etc.</p>
+
<p>Mark, this technique you shall drive against the masters from the bind of the swords,<ref>S. "bind of the sword hews".</ref> and mark it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A., R. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then lay your sword to your right side in the Barrier-guard, or hold it on your nearest shoulder. If he then hews above to your opening, then hew strongly with the long edge (with crossed arms) against his hew, and as quickly as the swords clash together, then wind Meanwhile with the sword against your left side and drive up with the arms, and stab in to the upper opening. Or, if you will not stab him, then mark as quickly as it clashes, [and] then hew him Meanwhile with the short edge to the head and to the body, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 981: Line 985:
 
| {{red|Crooked not, hew short;<br/>Show changing-through therewith.}}
 
| {{red|Crooked not, hew short;<br/>Show changing-through therewith.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>This is a counter against the guard of the Ox, drive it thus: when you go to the man with the pre-fencing, if he then stands in the guard and holds his sword on his left side before the head, then throw your sword on your right shoulder and do as if you will bind on his sword with the Crooked-hew, and hew short and change through below therewith, and shoot the point long in to the other side to the opening, so he must parry. Therewith you come to strikes (and to other work with the sword).</p>
+
<p>This is a counter against the guard of the Ox, drive it thus: when you come<ref>A., M., S. "go"</ref> to the man with the pre-fencing, if he then stands in the guard and holds his sword on his left side before the head, then throw your sword on your right shoulder<ref>"the head, then throw your sword on" omitted from Mair. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from ''dem'' to ''dein''.</ref> and do as if you will bind on his sword with the Crooked-hew, and hew short and change through below therewith, and shoot the point long in to the other side to the opening, so he must parry. Therewith you come to strikes (and to other work with the sword).</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,027: Line 1,031:
 
| {{red|[So] that he does not know truthfully<br/>Where he is without danger.}}
 
| {{red|[So] that he does not know truthfully<br/>Where he is without danger.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, when you drive the Crooked-hew then you must always give an opening therewith, and that means thus: when you hew in with the Crooked-hew from your right side (or bind on his sword), you are meanwhile open with the left side. Thus, if he is then clever and will hew you from the sword to the opening, and will make you astray with agility; then remain with your sword on his and follow after his hew thereon, and wind the point in Meanwhile to the face, and work in further with the War to the openings, so he truthfully does not know whatever end he should guard or protect<ref>Augsburg just has "protect".</ref> himself on before your hews or stabs.<ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
+
<p>Mark, when you drive the Crooked-hew then you must always give an opening therewith, and that means thus: when you hew in with the Crooked-hew from your right side (or bind on his sword), you are meanwhile open with the left side. Thus, if he is then clever and will hew you from the sword to the opening, and will make you astray with agility; then remain with your sword on his and follow after his hew thereon, and wind the point in Meanwhile to the face, and work in further with the War to the openings, so he truthfully does not know whatever end he should guard or protect<ref>Augsburg and Mair just have "protect".</ref> himself on before your hews or before your<ref>"before your" omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.</ref> stabs.<ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,057: Line 1,061:
 
| {{red|Thwart takes<br/>What comes From the Day.}}
 
| {{red|Thwart takes<br/>What comes From the Day.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, the Thwart-hew breaks the guard From the Day (and all hews that come hewn down From the Day above), and drive the Thwart-hew thus: when you go with the pre-fencing to the man, if he then stands against you and holds his sword with arms up-stretched over himself (high over his<ref>A. "your"</ref> head in the guard) and waits on you, then mark when you come near to him. Then set the left foot forward and hold your sword with the flat on your right shoulder. If he then steps to you and threatens to strike you, then come Before [him] and spring with the right foot well on your right side, and in the spring, turn your sword with the hilt before your head (so that your thumb comes below), and strike him with the short edge to the left side of his head, etc.</p>
+
<p>Mark, the Thwart-hew breaks the guard From the Day (and all hews that come hewn down From the Day above), and drive the Thwart-hew thus: when you go with the pre-fencing to the man, if he then stands against you and holds his sword with arms up-stretched over himself (high over his<ref>A., M., R. "your"</ref> head in the guard) and waits on you, then mark when you come near to him. Then set your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> left foot forward and hold your sword with the flat on your right shoulder. If he then steps to you and threatens to strike you, then come Before [him] and spring with the right foot well on your right side, and in the spring, turn your sword with the hilt before your head (so that your thumb comes below), and strike him with the short edge to the left side of his head, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,131: Line 1,135:
 
| {{red|Thwart with the Strong;<br/>Mark your work therewith.}}
 
| {{red|Thwart with the Strong;<br/>Mark your work therewith.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, this is when you hew to him with the Thwart, which you shall do with strength. If he then parries, then drive up with the Strong of your sword after the Weak of his sword. You then seize his Weak with the Strong, [and] then work with the Mutating in over his sword to the lower opening, or above to the neck. If you cannot come to there, then work from the Doubling behind his sword (with the strike to the head), etc.</p>
+
<p>Mark, this is when you hew to him with the Thwart, which you shall do with strength. If he then parries, then drive up with the Strong of your sword after the Weak of his sword.<ref>"after the Weak of his sword" omitted from Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''Schwerts''.</ref> You then seize his Weak with the Strong, [and] then work with the Mutating in over his sword to the lower opening, or above to the neck. If you cannot come to there, then work from the Doubling behind his sword (with the strike to the head), etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,153: Line 1,157:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[37] If he is too strong for you with the parrying (so that you may not come to the technique), then thrust his sword away with the hilt and strike him with the Thwart to the other side. Or if he will run in on you, then take the Slice under his arms, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[37] Item,<ref name="word-s"/> if he is too strong for you with the parrying (so that you may not come to the technique), then thrust his sword away with the hilt and strike him with the Thwart to the other side. Or if he will run in on you, then take the Slice under his arms, etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
Line 1,221: Line 1,225:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[39] {{red|b=1|Here mark the Thwart strike to the Four Openings, etc.}}</p>
+
| <p>[39] {{red|b=1|Item,<ref name="word-amr">Word omitted from the Augsburg, Rostock, and Mair.</ref> here mark the Thwart strike to the Four Openings, etc.}}</p>
  
<p>Item, when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you in the guard From the Day, then spring with the right foot against him (well on your right side), and strike him above with the Thwart to the Ox on his left side with full art. If he parries you,<ref name="word-a"/> then strike<ref>Salzburg doubles "schlag".</ref> him quickly below to the Plow on his right side, and then quickly drive the Thwart-strike further, always one to the Ox, the other to the Plow, crosswise from one side to the other, to the head and to the body,<ref>"and to the body" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he then stands against you in the guard From the Day, then spring with the right foot against him (well on your right side), and strike him above with the Thwart to the Ox on his left side with full art. If he parries you,<ref name="word-a"/> then strike<ref>Salzburg and Rostock double "schlag".</ref> him quickly below to the Plow on his right side, and then quickly drive the Thwart-strike further, always one to the Ox, the other to the Plow, crosswise from one side to the other, to the head and to the body,<ref>"and to the body" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> etc.</p>
 
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Line 1,278: Line 1,282:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[42] {{red|b=1|''Another''}}</p>
+
| <p>[42] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
<p>Item, drive the Failer thus, when you come to the man<ref>A. "him"</ref> with the pre-fencing, then hew the Under-hews from both sides. If you then come on him with an Under-hew from your right side, then shoot in<ref name="word-a"/> the point therewith long in to the breast, so he must parry. Then spring quickly with the left foot on his right side, and do as if you will strike him thereto, but pull the hew and strike quickly around again to the left side. Or, if you come before the left side with the Under-hew on him, then shoot in the point yet long, and drive the driving as it stands before in the nearest description, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, drive the Failer thus, when you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him"</ref> with the pre-fencing, then hew the Under-hews from both sides. If you then come on him with an Under-hew from your right side, then shoot in<ref name="word-a"/> the point therewith long in to the breast, so he must parry. Then spring quickly with the left foot on his right side, and do as if you will strike him thereto, but pull the hew and strike quickly around again to the left side with the Thwart. Or,<ref name="word-r">Word omitted from the Rostock.</ref> if you come before the left side with the Under-hew on him, then shoot in the point yet long, and drive the driving as it stands before in the nearest description, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| {{red|The elbow take knowingly,<br/>Spring in his balance.}}
 
| {{red|The elbow take knowingly,<br/>Spring in his balance.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, you shall covertly bring the Inverter in the pre-fencing, when you force the man therewith so that you may Run-through him and correctly grasp him with wrestling.</p>
+
<p>Mark, you shall covertly bring the Inverter<ref>M. "you shall bring the Inverter with extended arms".</ref> in the pre-fencing, when you force the man therewith so that you may Run-through him and correctly grasp him with wrestling.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,332: Line 1,336:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[44] Item, drive the Inverter thus: when you are gone half to him with the pre-fencing, then go the other half further to him, each and every<ref>"and every" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> with the left foot before, and hew a free Under-hew from the right side in accordance with each step forward, according to the left foot, and with the hew, so Invert and<ref>S. "or"</ref> turn the long edge of<ref>A. "on"</ref> the sword always above. And as quickly as you bind him on his sword therewith, then hang the point in above Meanwhile and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and drives high up with the arms, then Run-through him. Or, if he remains low with the hands in the parrying, then grip his right elbow with the left hand, and hold fast, and spring with the left foot in front of his right, and thrust him thus thereover.</p>
+
| <p>[44] Item, drive the Inverter thus: When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, and have gone the half,<ref>A., S., R. "when you are gone half to him with the pre-fencing"</ref> then go the other half further to him, each<ref>A., M., R. "each and every"</ref> with the left foot before, and hew a free Under-hew from the right side in accordance with each step forward,<ref>Mair has "from the right side, in accordance with the right side, in accordance with each step forward", which is probably scribal error of duplication, where the scribe repeated a line of text.</ref> according to the left foot, and with the hew, so Invert (or<ref>A., M. "and"</ref> turn the long edge of<ref>A. "on"</ref> the sword always above). And as quickly as you bind him on his sword therewith, then hang the point in above Meanwhile and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and drives high up with the arms, then Run-through him. Or, if he remains low with the hands in the parrying, then grip his right elbow with the left hand, and hold fast, and spring with the left foot in front of his right, and thrust him thus thereover.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,346: Line 1,350:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[45] Item, and when you shall Run-through, that you will find hereafter described in the technique that speaks "Run-though, let hang with the pommel if you will wrestle."<ref>Couplet 91.</ref></p>
+
| <p>[45] Item, and how<ref>A., M. "when"</ref> when you shall Run-through, that you will find hereafter described in the technique that speaks "Run-though, let hang with the pommel if you will wrestle."<ref>Couplet 91.</ref></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 021r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 021r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{red|Twofold further,<br/>Step in left and be not lax.}}
 
| {{red|Twofold further,<br/>Step in left and be not lax.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, this is called the Twofold Failer, and drive it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you, then spring against him with the right foot well out on your right side, and do as if you will hew him with a free Thwart strike to his left side to the<ref>S. "to his"</ref> head, but pull the hew, and spring with the left foot well around him to his right side, and strike him with the Thwart to his<ref>A. "to the"</ref> head. If he parries you<ref name="word-a"/> and you hit his sword, then step away to the same side near him, and slice him behind his sword's blade with the short edge, with the Doubling in the mouth. Or fall in with the sword over both arms and slice.<ref>"and slice" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> Drive that to both sides. You may also likewise drive the Failer from the Over-hew as from the Thwart strike, if that is what you wish, etc.<ref>"if that is what you wish" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref></p>
+
<p>Mark, this is called the Twofold Failer, and drive<ref>S. has ''vier oder trieb'', which should perhaps be read as ''fahr oder treib'', "drive or drive".</ref> it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you,<ref>Scribal error in S. and R., replacing "even to you" with "above".</ref> then spring against him with the right foot well out on your right side, and do as if you will hew him with a free Thwart strike to his left side to the<ref>S. "to his"</ref> head, but pull the hew, and spring with the left foot well around him to his right side, and strike him with the Thwart to his<ref>A. "to the"</ref> head. If he parries you<ref name="word-amr"/> and you hit his sword, then step away to<ref>M. "with"</ref> the same side near him, and slice him behind his sword's blade with the short edge, with the Doubling in the mouth. Or fall in with the sword over both arms and slice.<ref>"and slice" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> Drive that to both sides. You may also likewise drive the Failer from the Over-hew as from the Thwart strike, if that is what you wish, etc.<ref>"if that is what you wish" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,400: Line 1,404:
 
| {{red|Who threatens to Change,<br/>Squinter robs him therefrom.}}
 
| {{red|Who threatens to Change,<br/>Squinter robs him therefrom.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Know that the Squinter is a strange, good, serious<ref name="word-s"/> technique, when it breaks in with power, with hew and with stab, and goes ahead with inverted sword. Therefore many masters of the sword know nothing to say of the hew. And also [it breaks] the guard that is called the Plow.</p>
+
<p>Know that the Squinter is a strange, good, serious<ref name="word-s"/> technique, when it breaks in with power, with hew and with stab, and goes ahead with inverted sword. Therefore many masters of the sword<ref>"of the sword" omitted in Mair.</ref> know nothing to say of the hew. And also [it breaks] the guard that is called the Plow.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,421: Line 1,425:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[48] Item, drive the Squinter thus: when you come with the pre-fencing to the man, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on your right shoulder. If he then hews you from above to your head, then turn your sword and spring ahead with the right foot, and hew long against his hew with the short edge, with arms stretched over his sword in<ref name="word-s"/> to his face or breast. If he then is thus clever and Fails with the hew and Changes-through below your sword, then remain with long arms with the point before his face so he may not harm you, nor come through below, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[48] Item, drive the Squinter thus: when you come with the pre-fencing to the man, then set your<ref>A., R. "the"</ref> left foot fore and hold your sword on your right shoulder. If he then hews you from above to your head, then turn your sword and spring ahead with the right foot, and hew long against his hew with the short edge, with arms stretched over his sword in<ref name="word-s"/> to his face or his<ref name="word-s"/> breast. If he then is thus clever and Fails with the hew and Changes-through below your sword, then remain with long arms with the point before his face so he may not harm you, nor come through below, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,452: Line 1,456:
 
| <p>[50] '''Another item'''</p>
 
| <p>[50] '''Another item'''</p>
  
<p>When you stand against and have your sword on your right shoulder, if he stands then against you in the guard of the Plow and threatens to stab you below, then turn your hew in with the short edge, long in above, so he may not reach you below with the stab.</p>
+
<p>When you stand against and have your sword on your right shoulder, if he stands then against you in the guard of the Plow and threatens to stab you below, then turn your hew in with the short edge, long in above, so he may not reach you below with the stab.<ref>"with the stab" omitted from the Rostock.</ref></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| {{red|Squint that he is short on you,<br/>Changing-through defeats him.}}
 
| {{red|Squint that he is short on you,<br/>Changing-through defeats him.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>This is a lesson, that when you go ahead with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with your face or see if he fights you short, and the shortening of the sword is undertaken thus: when he does not lengthen the arms with his<ref>A. "the"</ref> hew, then he is shortened. If you lie in the guard Fool,<ref>A. ''aber'': "yet".</ref> if he will fall thereon with the sword, so is he<ref name="word-a"/> but shortened. If he fights against you from the Ox or from the Plow, that is also short, and all Windings before the man, they are all short,<ref>"and all Windings... are all short" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and such fencers shall you then Change-through. Therewith you compel them that they must parry, so then you may freely hew and work with the sword, and also with wrestling, etc.</p>
+
<p>This is a lesson, that when you go ahead with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with your face or see if he fights you short, and the shortening of the sword is undertaken thus: when he does not lengthen the arms with his<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> hew, then he is shortened. If you lie in the guard Fool,<ref>A., M., R. ''aber'': "yet"; this seems to be a misspelling of ''alber''.</ref> if he will fall thereon with the sword, so is he<ref name="word-a"/> but shortened. If he fights against you from the Ox or from the Plow, that is also short, and all Windings before the man, they are all short,<ref>"and all Windings... are all short" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''kurtz vnd''.</ref> and such fencers shall you then Change-through. Therewith you compel them that they must parry, so then<ref name="word-s"/> you may freely hew and work with the sword, and also with wrestling, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,497: Line 1,501:
 
| <p>[52] '''Item, another lesson'''</p>
 
| <p>[52] '''Item, another lesson'''</p>
  
<p>When you go to him with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with the face if he fights short against you. You shall thus discern if, when he hews, he does not stretch the arms before himself long from him with the hew, then is his sword shortened. And [against] all fencers that so fight short, Change-through freely then from hews and from stabs with the Longpoint, therewith you beset them on the sword so that they must let you come to bind on<ref>A. ''anwind'': "wind on".</ref> them and allow you to strike.</p>
+
<p>When you go to him with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with the face if he fights short against you. You shall thus discern if, when he hews, he does not stretch the arms before himself long from him with the hew, then is his sword shortened. And [against] all fencers that so fight short,<ref>"that so fight short" omitted from Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping from ''fechtern'' to ''fechten''.</ref> Change-through freely then from hews and from stabs with the Longpoint, therewith you beset them on the sword so that they must let you<ref name="word-m">Word omitted from Mair.</ref> come to bind on<ref>A., M. ''anwind'': "wind on".</ref> them and allow you to strike.</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,517: Line 1,521:
 
| {{red|Squint to the point,<br/>Take the neck without fear.}}
 
| {{red|Squint to the point,<br/>Take the neck without fear.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, this is a technique against the Longpoint with a betrayal of the face, drive it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, if he then stands and holds his<ref>S. "your"</ref> point against your face or breast, then hold your sword on your right shoulder and squint with the face to the point, and do as if you will hew in thereto, and hew strongly with the Squinter (with the short edge on his sword), and shoot in the point long therewith to the neck with a step forward of your right foot, etc.</p>
+
<p>Mark, this is a technique against the Longpoint with a betrayal of the face, drive it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, if he then stands and holds his<ref>S. "your"</ref> point against your face or breast,<ref>R. "the breast".</ref> then hold your sword on your right shoulder and squint with the face to the point, and do as if you will hew in thereto, and hew strongly with the Squinter (with the short edge on his sword), and shoot in the point long therewith to the neck with a step forward of your right foot, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| {{red|Twofold it further<br/>Step in left and be not lax}}
 
| {{red|Twofold it further<br/>Step in left and be not lax}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>This is how you shall drive the failer twofold to both sides. And undertake that thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you, then spring against him well out with the right foot on your right side, and do as if you will hew a free Over-hew to his left side to his head. If he drives then before with the parrying, then pull the hew again up and spring quickly with the left foot well around the man to his right side, and in the spring but do as if you will strike to the right side,<ref>Rostock ends here with the statement (written in Latin) "Previously in the chapter Vom Feler", which is odd because this is the exact point when the text ceases to bear any resemblance to the earlier version in that chapter.</ref> and fore-pull and spring again with the right foot around him on his left side and strike to the same side freely with one. Meanwhile, if he will attack after the opening, then fall in with the long edge in the arms with the edge<ref>"in the arms with the edge" omitted from Dresden and Vienna.</ref> and press from you.</p>
+
<p>This is how you shall drive the failer twofold to both sides. And undertake that thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you, then spring against him<ref name="word-r"/> well out with the right foot on your<ref>R. "his"</ref> right side, and do as if you<ref>"as if you" omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.</ref> will hew a free Over-hew to his left side to his head. If he drives then before with the parrying, then pull the hew again up and spring quickly with the left foot well around the man to his right side, and in the spring but do as if you will strike to the right side,<ref>Rostock ends here with the statement (written in Latin) "Previously in the chapter Vom Feler", which is odd because this is the exact point when the text ceases to bear any resemblance to the earlier version in that chapter.</ref> and fore-pull and spring again with the right foot around him on his left side and strike to the same side freely with one. Meanwhile, if he will attack after the opening, then fall in with the long edge in the arms with the edge<ref>"in the arms with the edge" omitted from Mair and the Rostock. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from ''schneiden'' to ''schnitt''.</ref> and press from you.</p>
  
 
<p>And you shall know to drive from both sides, and that may you drive from the Thwart strike.</p>
 
<p>And you shall know to drive from both sides, and that may you drive from the Thwart strike.</p>
Line 1,636: Line 1,640:
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 026r.png|1|lbl=26r|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 026r.png|1|lbl=26r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[57] Item, drive the Parter thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he<ref>S. "he then".</ref> lies in the guard Fool, then set the left foot forward and hold your sword with outstretched arms high over your head in the guard From the Day, and spring to him with the right foot, and hew with the long edge strongly down from above, and remain high with the arms and sink in the point below you to his face or breast. If he then parries with the Crown (that the point and the hilt<ref>S. "the one hilt".</ref> on his sword both stand over him thus), and drives up therewith and thrusts your point over you,<ref>S. "thrusts your point up".</ref> then turn your sword under through his Crown with the edge in his arm, and Press so the Crown is again broken, and with the Pressing take the edge and pull yourself off therewith, and step near to him when he again parries.<ref>Clause omitted from the Augsburg.</ref><ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
+
| <p>[57] Item, drive the Parter thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he<ref>S. "he then".</ref> lies in the guard Fool, then set the left foot forward and hold your sword with outstretched arms high over your head in the guard From the Day, and spring to him with the right foot, and hew with the long edge strongly down from above, and remain high with the arms and sink in the point below you to his face or breast. If he then parries with the Crown (that the point and the hilt<ref>S. "the one hilt".</ref> on his sword both stand over him thus), and drives up therewith and thrusts your point over you,<ref>S. "thrusts your point up".</ref> then turn your sword under through his Crown with the edge in his arm, and Press so the Crown is again broken, and with the Pressing take the edge and pull yourself off therewith, and step near to him when he again parries.<ref>Clause omitted from the Augsburg, Mair, and the Rostock.</ref><ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
 
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| {{section|Page:MS M.I.29 028r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS M.I.29 028r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 097v.png|1|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 097v.png|1|lbl=-}}
| {{section|Page:Cod.10825 080v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
+
| {{section|Page:Cod.10825 080v.png|2|lbl=-}}
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 026r.png|2|lbl=26r|p=1}}
+
| {{section|Page:MS Var.82 026r.png|2|lbl=26r}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,668: Line 1,672:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>68</small>
 
| <small>68</small>
| {{red|Four Leaguers alone<br/>Therefrom you hold, curse the common.}}
+
| {{red|Four Leaguers alone<br/>Therefrom you hold, and<ref>Word omitted in the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair.</ref> curse the common.}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>69</small>
 
| <small>69</small>
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{{section|Page:MS M.I.29 029r.jpg|1|lbl=29r}}
 
{{section|Page:MS M.I.29 029r.jpg|1|lbl=29r}}
|  
+
| {{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 097v.png|2|lbl=-}}
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 097v.png|2|lbl=-|p=1}}
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
{{section|Page:Cod.10825 080v.png|3|lbl=-}}
 
{{section|Page:Cod.10825 080v.png|3|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[59] '''Of the Oxen'''</p>
 
| <p>[59] '''Of the Oxen'''</p>
  
<p>Position yourself in the Ox thus: stand with the left foot in front and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front<ref>Augsburg doubles the phrase "and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front". This is probably a scribal error.</ref> of the head, so that the short edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against the face, etc.</p>
+
<p>Position yourself in the Ox thus: stand with the left foot in front and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front<ref>Augsburg doubles the phrase "and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front". This is probably a scribal error in which the scribe's eye jumped to the wrong line.</ref> of the head, so that the short edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against the face, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,717: Line 1,720:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[60] Item, position yourself on the left side in the Ox thus: stand with the right foot before and hold your sword on your left side with the hilt in front of the head, so that the long edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against his face. And that is the Ox from both sides.</p>
+
| <p>[60] Item, position yourself on the left side in the Ox thus: stand with the right foot before and hold your sword on your left side with the hilt in front of the head, so that the long edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against his face. And<ref name="word-sr"/> that is the Ox from both sides.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,747: Line 1,750:
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 026v.png|3|lbl=-}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Var.82 026v.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 1,766: Line 1,769:
 
| <p>[63] '''Of the Fool'''</p>
 
| <p>[63] '''Of the Fool'''</p>
  
<p>Item, the third guard is called the<ref name="word-a"/> Fool. And position yourself with<ref name="word-s"/> it thus: set the left foot in front and hold your sword before you with stretched arms, with the point on the earth and so that the short edge is above, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, the third guard is called the<ref name="word-amr"/> Fool. And position yourself with<ref name="word-s"/> it thus: set the left foot in front and hold your sword before you with stretched arms, with the point on the earth and so that the short edge is above, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,811: Line 1,814:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>71</small>
 
| <small>71</small>
| {{red|Guard yourself before parrying,<br/>If it happens, it hurts you more.}}
+
| {{red|Guard yourself before parrying,<br/>If it happens, it hurts you more.}}<ref>This couplet is listed separately in Salzburg, with a paragraph from the gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck.</ref>
 
|}
 
|}
 
<p>Mark, you have heard before of the Four Guards, so you shall now know that there are the Four Forfendings with which you shall break the Four Guards. Know that no parrying pertains thereto since four hews break the Four Guards.</p>
 
<p>Mark, you have heard before of the Four Guards, so you shall now know that there are the Four Forfendings with which you shall break the Four Guards. Know that no parrying pertains thereto since four hews break the Four Guards.</p>
Line 1,831: Line 1,834:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[66] The first is the Crooked-hew, which breaks the guard of the Ox.</p>
+
| <p>[66] Item,<ref name="word-asm">Word omitted from the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair.</ref> the first is the Crooked-hew, which breaks the guard of the Ox.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 029v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 029v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 1,844: Line 1,847:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[67] The second, that is the Thwart-hew, which breaks the guard From the Day.</p>
+
| <p>[67] Item,<ref name="word-asm"/> the second, that is the Thwart-hew, which breaks the guard From the Day.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,857: Line 1,860:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[68] The third, that<ref name="word-s"/> is the Squinter-hew, which breaks the guard of the Plow.</p>
+
| <p>[68] Item,<ref name="word-asm"/> the third, that<ref name="word-s"/> is the Squinter-hew, which breaks the guard of the Plow.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 1,869: Line 1,872:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[69] The fourth is the Part-hew, which breaks the guard that is called the<ref name="word-a"/> Fool.</p>
+
| <p>[69] Item,<ref name="word-asm"/> the fourth is the Part-hew, which breaks the guard that is called the<ref name="word-amr"/> Fool.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 1,902: Line 1,905:
 
| {{red|Hear what I teach:<br/>Wrench off quickly with threat.}}
 
| {{red|Hear what I teach:<br/>Wrench off quickly with threat.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, this is when he has parried you and will not draw off from the sword, and he means to let you come to no technique: then do as if you will draw off from the sword, and pull your sword [to] you to half the blade, and drive the sword quickly up therewith and hew him quickly with the short edge, or with the Doubling, to the head.</p>
+
<p>Mark, this is<ref>"this is" omitted in the Augsburg, the Rostock, and the Mair.</ref> when he has parried you and will not draw off from the sword, and he means to let you come to no technique: then do as if you will draw off from the sword, and pull your sword [to] you to half the blade, and drive the sword quickly up therewith and hew him quickly with the short edge, or with the Doubling, to the head.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 1,909: Line 1,912:
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
{{section|Page:MS M.I.29 030v.jpg|2|lbl=-|lbl=30v}}
+
{{section|Page:MS M.I.29 030v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
Line 1,926: Line 1,929:
 
| <p>[72] '''Item, another.'''</p>
 
| <p>[72] '''Item, another.'''</p>
  
<p>When he has parried you, then wrench up over you with with your sword on his sword's blade, against his point (as if you will take off above). Then remain on the sword and hew him simply on the blade, in against his head, etc.<ref>The subsequent two plays in Salzburg are taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and are therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
+
<p>When he has parried you, then wrench up over you with with your sword on his sword's blade, against his point (as if you will take off above). Then remain on the sword and hew him simply on the blade, in<ref name="word-m"/> against his head, etc.<ref>The subsequent two plays in Salzburg are taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and are therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,978: Line 1,981:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[75] Item, or if he then hews in from above from his left side, then come before with the Forfending and shoot in the point long in to the nearest standing opening of his right side, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[75] Item, or if he then hews in from above from<ref name="word-m"/> his left side, then come before with the Forfending and shoot in the point long in to the nearest standing opening of his right side, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 031v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 031v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 2,003: Line 2,006:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[77] Item, or if he hews to you up from below from his left side, then shoot the point long in to the lower opening of his right side, and see the Setting-on therewith always. If he becomes aware of the shooting in and parries, then remain with the sword on his, and work quickly<ref>A. "quickly there".</ref> to the nearest opening, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[77] Item, or if he hews to you up from below from his left side, then shoot the point long in to the<ref>M. "his"</ref> lower opening of his right side, and see the Setting-on therewith always. If he becomes aware of the shooting in and parries, then remain with the sword on his, and work quickly<ref>A. "quickly there".</ref> to the nearest opening, etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 032r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 032r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 2,041: Line 2,044:
 
| {{red|And test the driving<br/>If they are Soft or Hard.}}
 
| {{red|And test the driving<br/>If they are Soft or Hard.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item, mark the Travelings-after are many<ref name="word-a"/> and multiple, and pertain to driving with great prudence against the fencers that fence from free long hews,<ref>"that fence from free long hews" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and otherwise do not hold<ref>"do not hold" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> the right Art of the Sword, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, mark the Travelings-after are many and<ref>"many and" omitted in Mair; Augsburg omits "many" and just says "are and multiple".</ref> multiple, and pertain to driving with great prudence against the fencers that fence from free long hews,<ref>"that fence from free long hews" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''fechten''.</ref> and otherwise do not hold<ref>"do not hold" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> the right Art of the Sword, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,063: Line 2,066:
 
| <p>[79] '''Item, the first technique from the Traveling-after'''</p>
 
| <p>[79] '''Item, the first technique from the Traveling-after'''</p>
  
<p>Drive it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot forward and stand in the guard From the Day, and see well even that which he fences against you. If he then hews in<ref name="word-s"/> long from his right shoulder, then do not parry him, and wait so that he does not reach you with the hew. Then mark while his sword goes below you against the earth, [and] then spring to him<ref>"to him" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> with the right foot, and hew him above in to the opening of his right side before he comes up again. So he is struck, etc.</p>
+
<p>Drive it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot forward and stand in the guard From the Day, and see well even that which he fences against you. If he then hews in<ref name="word-s"/> long from his right shoulder, then do not parry him, and wait so that he does not reach you with the hew. Then mark while his sword goes below you against the earth, [and] then spring to him<ref>"to him" omitted from the Salzburg and Mair. Rostock just has "to".</ref> with the right foot, and hew him above in to the opening of his right side ere<ref name="word-m"/> he comes up again. So he is struck, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,078: Line 2,081:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[80] '''Item, another technique.'''</p>
+
| <p>[80] '''Item, another technique.'''<ref name="title-m">Title is repeated in Mair.</ref></p>
  
<p>When he forehews at you and you hew after him, if he then drives quickly up with the sword and parries, then remain strongly with the long edge on his sword. If he then lifts upwards with the sword, then spring with the left foot well behind his right, and strike him with the Thwart (or such) to the right side of his head, and work quickly around to his left side with the Doubling (or such with other techniques) thereafter, if you find he is Soft or Hard on the sword. And that is the Outer Conduct, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he forehews at you and you hew after him, if he then drives quickly up with the sword<ref>M. "if he the drives his sword quickly upward".</ref> and parries, then remain strongly with the long edge on his sword. If he then lifts upwards with the sword, then spring with the left foot well behind his right, and strike him with the Thwart (or such) to the right side of his head, and work quickly around to his left side with the Doubling (or such with other techniques) thereafter, if you find he is Hard or Soft<ref>M. "Soft or Hard".</ref> on the sword. And that is the Outer Conduct, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,095: Line 2,098:
 
| <p>[81] '''Item, yet another technique.'''</p>
 
| <p>[81] '''Item, yet another technique.'''</p>
  
<p>When he forehews in front of you and you hew after him, if you then bind on his sword against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, and he then strikes quickly around with the weapon<ref>A. ''zwer'': "thwart".</ref> from the parrying to your right side, then come in Meanwhile ahead with the Thwart before, under his sword against his left side [and] on his neck. Or, spring with the left foot on his right side<ref>"on his neck... on his right side" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and hew after his hew to the right side. Or, drive the slice in over his arm to the head, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he forehews in front of you and you hew after him, if you then bind on his sword against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, and he then strikes quickly around with the weapon<ref>A. ''zwer'': "thwart".</ref> from the parrying to your right side, then come in Meanwhile ahead with the Thwart before, under his sword against his left side [and] on his neck. Or, spring with the left foot on his right side<ref>"on his neck... on his right side" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping from to the second instance of ''seiten''.</ref> and strike or<ref>"Strike or" omitted from the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Rostock.</ref> hew after his hew to the right side. Or, drive the slice in over his arm to the head, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,110: Line 2,113:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[82] '''Item, yet a Traveling-after.'''</p>
+
| <p>[82] '''Item, yet a Traveling-after.'''<ref name="title-m"/></p>
  
<p>When you fight against him from Under-hewing or from Slashing, or you lie against him in the guard Fool, if he then falls with the sword on yours ere you then come up,<ref>S. "ere when you come up"</ref> then remain thus below on the sword, and lift upwards. If he will then hew you from the parrying or Wind-in on<ref>S. "to"</ref> the sword, then let him not come off from the sword, and follow after him thereon, and work therewith to the nearest opening.</p>
+
<p>When you fight against him from Under-hewing or from Slashing, or you lie against him in the guard Fool, if he then falls with the sword on yours ere you then come up,<ref>S., R. "ere when you come up"</ref> then remain thus below on the sword, and lift upwards. If he will then hew you from the parrying or Wind-in on<ref>S. "to"</ref> the sword, then let him not come off from the<ref name="word-am">Word omitted from the Augsburg and Mair.</ref> sword, and follow after him thereon, and work therewith to the nearest opening.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,126: Line 2,129:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[83] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
+
| <p>[83] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
 
<p>Item, mark, you shall Travel-after him from all guards and from all hews as quickly as you can, when he forehews in front of you or opens himself with the sword.</p>
 
<p>Item, mark, you shall Travel-after him from all guards and from all hews as quickly as you can, when he forehews in front of you or opens himself with the sword.</p>
Line 2,152: Line 2,155:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>78</small>
 
| <small>78</small>
| {{red|The Feeling learn;<br/>Meanwhile, that slices sorely.}}
+
| {{red|The Feeling learn;<br/>The word<ref>"The word" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.</ref> "Meanwhile", that slices sorely.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Know that, on<ref>A. "in"</ref> the sword, the Feeling<ref>Salzburg doubles "the feeling".</ref> and the word "Meanwhile" are the greatest Art. And whoever is a Master of the Sword, or wants to be, and<ref name="word-s"/> he cannot Feel and cannot undertake<ref>"Feel and cannot undertake" omitted from the Salzburg. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from one instance of ''nicht'' to the next.</ref> the word "Meanwhile", so is he not a Master, [rather] he is a Buffalo of the Sword. Therefore you shall, before all things, learn the word "Meanwhile" and the Feeling well.</p>
+
<p>Know that, on<ref>A., R. "in"</ref> the sword, the Feeling<ref>Salzburg doubles "the feeling".</ref> and the word "Meanwhile" are the greatest Art. And whoever is a Master of the Sword, or wants to be, and<ref name="word-s"/> he cannot Feel and cannot undertake<ref>"Feel and cannot undertake" omitted from the Salzburg. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from one instance of ''nicht'' to the next.</ref> the word "Meanwhile", so is he not a Master, [rather] he is a Buffalo of the Sword. Therefore you shall, before all things, learn the word "Meanwhile" and the Feeling well.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,176: Line 2,179:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[85] Mark<ref>S. "work".</ref> the Feeling thus: When you come with him to the pre-fencing, and one binds the other on the sword, then Meanwhile, as the swords clash together, you shall Feel with the hand if he has bound on Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you Feel<ref>S. ''entphindest'': "perceive".</ref> Soft or Hard, then think on the word "Meanwhile", that is, that you shall work quickly with the sword in the Feeling, so he becomes struck ere<ref>S. "ere when".</ref> you are.</p>
+
| <p>[85] Item,<ref name="word-am"/> mark<ref>S. "work".</ref> the Feeling thus: When you come with him to the pre-fencing, and one binds the other on the sword, then Meanwhile, as the swords clash together, you shall Feel with the hand if he has bound on Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you Feel<ref>S., R. ''entphindest'': "perceive".</ref> Soft or Hard, then think on the word "Meanwhile", that is, that you shall work quickly with the sword in the Feeling, so he becomes struck ere<ref>S., R. "ere when".</ref> you are.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,189: Line 2,192:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[86] Item, now you shall know that Feeling and the word "Meanwhile" may not be one without the other, and undertake that thus: when you bind on his sword, then you must Feel Soft or Hard with the word "Meanwhile". And when you Feel, then you must yet work Meanwhile. Thus are they always by one another, since the word "Meanwhile" is in all techniques. </p>
+
| <p>[86] Item, now you shall know that Feeling and the word "Meanwhile" may not be one without the other, and undertake that thus: when you bind him<ref name="word-s"/> on his sword, then you must Feel Soft or Hard with the word "Meanwhile". And when you Feel, then you must yet work Meanwhile. Thus are they always by one another, since the word "Meanwhile" is in all techniques.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 2,201: Line 2,204:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[87] Mark that thus: Meanwhile Doubles, Meanwhile Mutates, Meanwhile Changes-through, Meanwhile Runs-through, Meanwhile takes the Slice, Meanwhile wrestles with, Meanwhile<ref>Word doubled in the Salzburg.</ref> takes the sword.<ref>S. "word".</ref> Meanwhile does whatever your heart desires. "Meanwhile" is a sharp word by which all masters become sliced, and they do not know or understand the word "Meanwhile" from previously, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[87] Mark<ref>M. "undertake"</ref> that thus: Meanwhile Doubles, Meanwhile Mutates, Meanwhile Changes-through, Meanwhile Runs-through, Meanwhile takes the Slice, Meanwhile wrestles with, Meanwhile<ref>Word doubled in the Salzburg.</ref> takes the sword.<ref>S. "word".</ref> Meanwhile does whatever your heart desires. "Meanwhile" is a sharp word by which all masters become sliced, and they do not know or understand the word "Meanwhile" from previously, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
Line 2,247: Line 2,250:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>80</small>
 
| <small>80</small>
| {{red|Whoever overcomes,<br/>Over-run, then he becomes ashamed.}}
+
| {{red|Whoever overcomes,<ref>S. "Whoever aims below", which matches the standard Recital. R. "whoever winds below".</ref><br/>Over-run, then he becomes ashamed.}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>81</small>
 
| <small>81</small>
| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>So strengthen, that do I praise.}}
+
| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>So strengthen, that do I<ref name="word-r"/> praise.}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>82</small>
 
| <small>82</small>
Line 2,273: Line 2,276:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[90] Item, mark when you have bound<ref>S. ''bindest gebünde~''.</ref> him strongly on his sword, if he then strikes from the parrying around you to the other side, then bind him yet with the long edge strongly on his sword, above to the head, and work to the openings as before. Drive that to both sides, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[90] Item, mark when you have bound<ref>S. ''bindest gebünde~''.</ref> him strongly on his sword, if he then strikes from the parrying around<ref>M. "under"</ref> you to the other side, then bind him<ref name="word-r"/> yet with the long edge strongly on his<ref>S. "his"</ref> sword, above to the head, and work to the openings as before. Drive that to both sides, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 037r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 037r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 2,297: Line 2,300:
 
| {{red|From both sides,<br/>Hit all, if you will step.}}
 
| {{red|From both sides,<br/>Hit all, if you will step.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item, mark when you come to him with the pre-fencing: if he then stands against you as if he will stab, then set your left foot forward and lay yourself against him in the Plow to your right side, and give an opening with your left. If he then stabs to the opening, then Wind with your sword on your left side against his stab, the short edge on his sword, and set it off therewith, that<ref name="word-s"/> your point remains thus<ref name="word-a"/> standing against him, and step to him with<ref name="word-a"/> the right foot and stab him Meanwhile to the face or to<ref name="word-a"/> the breast, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, mark when you come to him with the pre-fencing: if he then stands against you as if he will stab, then set your left foot forward and lay yourself against him in the Plow to your right side, and give an opening with your left.<ref>M. "left side"</ref> If he then stabs to the opening, then Wind with your sword on your left side against his stab, the short edge on his sword, and set it off therewith, that<ref name="word-s"/> your point remains thus<ref name="word-a"/> standing against him, and step to him with<ref name="word-a"/> the right foot and stab him Meanwhile to the face or to<ref name="word-am"/> the breast, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,318: Line 2,321:
 
| <p>[92] '''Item, another technique.'''</p>
 
| <p>[92] '''Item, another technique.'''</p>
  
<p>When you stand to your right side in the Plow, if he then hews above to your left side<ref name="word-s"/> to the opening, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew therewith on your left side, the hilt before the head in the Ox, and step ahead with the right foot therewith, and stab in to the face or the<ref name="word-s"/> breast. And also drive the technique from the Plow on the left side, etc.</p>
+
<p>When you stand to your right side in the Plow, if he then hews above to your left side<ref name="word-sr"/> to the opening, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew therewith on your left side, the hilt before the<ref>S. "his"</ref> head in the Ox, and step ahead with<ref name="word-m"/> the right foot therewith, and stab in to the face or the<ref name="word-s"/> breast. And also drive the technique from the Plow on the left side, etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 038r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 038r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
Line 2,364: Line 2,367:
 
| {{red|Whoever binds on you,<br/>Change-through him; closely slice or find.}}
 
| {{red|Whoever binds on you,<br/>Change-through him; closely slice or find.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item, know the Changing-throughs are many and multiple, and you may drive them from all hews against the fencers that hew there to<ref>S. "after".</ref> the sword, and not to the openings of the man. And you shall learn very well to drive them with prudence, so that one does not Set-on you while you Change-through him.</p>
+
<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr"/> know the Changing-throughs are many and multiple, and you may drive them from all hews against the fencers that hew there to<ref>S. "after".</ref> the sword, and not to the openings of the man. And you shall learn very well to drive them with prudence, so that one does not Set-on you while you Change-through him.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,384: Line 2,387:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[94] Item, drive the Changing-through thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then hew in long above<ref name="word-s"/> to the head. If he then hews against your sword and not to your body, then let your point whisk through below with the hew, before he binds you<ref name="word-s"/> on the sword, and stab him to the other side. If he then becomes aware of the stab, and quickly drives with the sword after the stab with parrying, then Change-though yet [again] to the other side, and drive then always when he drives after your sword with the parrying to both sides, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[94] Item, drive the Changing-through thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then hew in long above<ref name="word-s"/> to the head. If he then hews<ref>R. "hews you"</ref> against your sword and not to your body, then let your point whisk through<ref>S., R. "change through"</ref> below with the hew, before he binds you<ref name="word-s"/> on the sword, and stab him to the other side. If he then becomes aware of the stab, and quickly drives with the sword after the stab with parrying, then Change-though yet [again] to the other side, and drive then always when he drives after your sword with the parrying to both sides, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 039r.jpg|1|lbl=39r}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 039r.jpg|1|lbl=39r}}
Line 2,399: Line 2,402:
 
| <p>[95] '''Item, yet a Changing-through.'''</p>
 
| <p>[95] '''Item, yet a Changing-through.'''</p>
  
<p>When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set your left foot forward and hold the Long Point against his face. If he then hews you from above or below to the sword, and wants to strike that away or bind<ref>S. "wind".</ref> thereon, let the point sink underneath and stab to the other side, and do that against all hews, etc.</p>
+
<p>When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>S. "the"</ref> left foot forward and hold the Long Point against his face. If he then hews you from above or below to the sword, and wants to strike that away or bind<ref>S., R. "wind".</ref> thereon, let the point sink underneath and stab to the other side, and do that against all hews, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,414: Line 2,417:
 
| <p>[96] '''Item, this technique mark very evenly.'''</p>
 
| <p>[96] '''Item, this technique mark very evenly.'''</p>
  
<p>When he has parried you (or has otherwise bound on your sword), if he then holds his point on your sword [but] not against the opening of your body, and lets it go near on the side beside you,<ref name="word-s"/> then Change-through under<ref name="word-a"/> him boldly. Or, if he remains with the point before the face or<ref name="word-s"/> against the opening, then do not Change-through, and remain on the sword and work therewith to his nearest opening; thus he may not Travel-after or Set-on you.</p>
+
<p>When he has parried you (or has otherwise bound on your sword), if he then holds his point on your sword [but] not against the opening of your body, and lets it go near on the side beside you, then Change-through under<ref name="word-amr"/> him boldly. Or, if he remains with the point before the face or<ref name="word-s"/> against the opening, then do not Change-through, and remain on the sword and work therewith to his nearest opening; thus he may not Travel-after or Set-on you.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,490: Line 2,493:
 
<p>''The wrestling in the long sword''</p>
 
<p>''The wrestling in the long sword''</p>
  
<p>Mark,<ref>A. "Item".</ref> the Running-through and the wrestling pertain to driving against the masters that like to run in, and drive it thus: when he parries you and<ref name="word-a"/> drives high up with the arms therewith, and runs in on you and will overwhelm you with strength above, then drive up with the arms and hold your sword over your head (with the left hand by the pommel), and let the blade hang low behind [you], over your back, and run with the head through the arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his right<ref>Word doubled in the Augsburg.</ref> side, and spring with the right foot behind his right, and with the spring, drive in with the right arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, well around the body, and grasp him thus on your right hip, and throw him down before you on his head, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr"/> mark<ref name="word-am"/> the Running-through and the wrestling pertain to driving against the masters that like to run in, and drive it thus: when he parries you and drives high up with the arms therewith,<ref name="word-am"/> and runs in on you and will overwhelm you with strength above, then drive up with the arms and hold your sword over your head (with the left hand by the pommel), and let the blade hang low behind [you], over<ref>R. "on"</ref> your back, and run with the head through the arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his right<ref>Word doubled in the Augsburg.</ref><ref name="word-m"/> side, and spring with the right foot behind his right, and with the spring, drive in with the right arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, well around the body, and grasp him thus on your right hip, and throw him down before you on his head, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,516: Line 2,519:
 
| <p>[100] '''Item, another wrestling.'''</p>
 
| <p>[100] '''Item, another wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you with arms stretched up, and you against him, then Run-through him with the head to his right side, and step with the right foot in front before his right, and drive in with the right arm under his right arm, around through behind his body, and sink down a little,<ref>"down a little" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and grasp him on the right hip and throw him behind you. You shall drive these two wrestlings to both sides, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he runs in on you with arms stretched up, and you against him, then Run-through him with the head to his<ref>S. "your"</ref> right side, and step with your<ref>A., R. "the"</ref> right foot in front before his right, and drive in with the right arm under his right arm,<ref name="word-sr"/> around through behind his body, and sink down a little,<ref>"down a little" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and grasp him on the right hip and throw him behind you. You shall drive these two wrestlings to both sides, etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 042r.jpg|1|lbl=42r}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 042r.jpg|1|lbl=42r}}
Line 2,531: Line 2,534:
 
| <p>[101] '''Item, yet<ref name="word-s"/> another wrestling.'''</p>
 
| <p>[101] '''Item, yet<ref name="word-s"/> another wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you to your right side<ref name="word-s"/> and is high with the arms, and you also, then hold your sword in your right<ref name="word-s"/> hand and thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with your left foot in-front before his right, and drive in with the left arm well around behind the body, and sink down a little, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him before you<ref>"before you" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> on the face, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he runs in on you to your right side<ref name="word-s"/> and is high with the arms, and you also, then hold your sword in your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> right<ref name="word-s"/> hand and thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with your left foot in-front before his right, and drive in with the left arm well around behind his<ref>A., S., R. "the"</ref> body, and sink down a little, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him before you<ref>"before you" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> on the face, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[102] '''Item, yet another<ref name="word-s"/> wrestling.'''</p>
+
| <p>[102] '''Item, yet another<ref>S., R. "a"</ref> wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you and is high with the arms, and you also, then you shall hold your sword in your right hand and then thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with the left foot behind his right, and drive with the left arm below through before his breast, in his left side, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him behind you. Drive these two wrestlings also to both sides, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he runs in on you and is high with the arms, and you also, then you shall hold your sword in your right hand and then<ref name="word-sr"/> thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with the left foot behind his right,<ref>M. "rightful"</ref> and drive with the left arm below through before his breast, in his left side, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him behind you. Drive these two wrestlings also to both sides, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[103] Mark, when he runs into you with the sword, and holds his arms low so that you may not run through him, then drive this wrestling as hereafter described.</p>
+
| <p>[103] Mark, when he runs into you with the<ref name="word-s"/> sword, and holds his arms low so that you may not<ref>Word doubled in Mair.</ref> run through him, then drive this wrestling as hereafter described.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 043r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 043r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[105] '''Item, yet another wrestling.'''</p>
 
| <p>[105] '''Item, yet another wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you with the sword and is low with the hands, then release your left hand ahead from the sword, and with the right drive in with the pommel outside over his right hand, and press down therewith, and grasp him with the left hand by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and press him thus over.</p>
+
<p>When he runs in on you with the sword and is low with the hands, then release your left hand ahead from the sword, and with the right drive in<ref name="word-s"/> with the pommel outside over his right hand, and press down therewith, and grasp him with the left hand by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and press him thus over.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| <p>[107] '''Item, yet another wrestling.'''</p>
 
| <p>[107] '''Item, yet another wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you with the sword, then let your sword fall, and invert your right hand and grip his right outwardly therewith, and with the left grasp him by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and thrust his right hand over your left with the right arm,<ref>"and thrust... the right" omitted from the Augsburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''siner rechte~''.</ref> and lift him upwards therewith. Thus he is locked, and you may thus break the arm or throw [him] before you over the left leg.</p>
+
<p>When he runs in on you with the sword, then let your sword fall, and invert your right hand and grip his right<ref>M. "rightful"</ref> outwardly therewith, and with the left hand<ref name="word-asr">Word omitted from the Augsburg, the SAlzburg, and the Rostock.</ref> grasp him by the right elbow, and spring with the left foot before his right, and thrust his right hand over your left with the right arm,<ref>"and thrust... the right" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''siner rechte~''.</ref> and lift him upwards therewith. Thus he is locked, and you may thus break the arm or<ref>R. "but"</ref> throw [him] before you over the left leg.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| {{red|Slice off the hard ones<br/>From below in both drivings.}}
 
| {{red|Slice off the hard ones<br/>From below in both drivings.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>{{blue|That is a counter against the over-binding of your sword, drive that thus. When you fight to him from Under-hews, or from the Strife Hewing, or you lie against him in the guard that is called the Fool, if he falls then with the sword on yours before you then come up with the sword; then remain below on the sword and lift with the short edge fast upwards. If he then presses down fast, then slash below behind you with the sword on his sword's blade, off from his sword, and hew on the sword again quickly into his face, etc.}}</p>
+
<p>{{blue|That is a counter against the over-binding<ref>S., M., R. "over-winding"</ref> of your sword, drive that thus. When you fight to him from Under-hews, or from the Strife Hewing, or you lie against him in the guard that is called the<ref name="word-r"/> Fool, if he falls then with the sword on yours before you then come up with the sword; then remain below on the sword and lift with the short edge fast upwards. If he then presses down fast, then slash below behind<ref name="word-s"/> you with the sword on his sword's blade, off from his sword, and hew on the sword again quickly into his face, etc.}}</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,659: Line 2,662:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[109] '''Item, another.'''<ref>S. "Another wrestling".</ref></p>
+
| <p>[109] '''Item, another.'''<ref>S., R. "Another wrestling".</ref></p>
  
<p>When you fight to his body<ref>A. "him".</ref> with Under-hewing, or lie in the guard Fool, if he then<ref name="word-s"/> falls with the sword on yours near by the hilt so that his point goes out to your<ref>A. "his".</ref> right side, then drive quickly up with the pommel over his sword, and strike him with the long edge to the head. Or, if he binds on your sword to your left side, then drive agilely up with the pommel over his sword and strike him with the short edge to the head. And that is called the Snapping or the Speeding, etc.</p>
+
<p>When you fight to his body<ref>A., M. "him".</ref> with Under-hewing, or lie in the guard Fool, if he then<ref name="word-sr"/> falls with the sword on yours near by the hilt so that his point goes out to your<ref>A. "his"; M. "the".</ref> right side, then drive quickly up with the pommel over his sword, and strike him with the long edge to the head. Or, if he binds on your sword to<ref>M. "on"</ref> your left side, then drive agilely up with the pommel over his sword and strike him with the short edge to the head. And that is called the Snapping or the Speeding, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| {{red|Four are the Slices,<br/>Two below, with two above.}}
 
| {{red|Four are the Slices,<br/>Two below, with two above.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item,<ref name="word-s"/> mark the Four Slices. The first are the two Overs that pertain to driving against the fencers that like striking around to the other side from the parrying or from the bind of the swords. And counter that<ref name="word-s"/> before with the slice thus: when he binds on your sword with the parrying or such to your left side, and strikes therewith quickly around with the Thwart<ref>S. "weapon".</ref> or such to your right side, then spring from the hew with the left foot on his<ref>S. "your".</ref> right side and fall in with the long edge above over both arms, and press with the slice from you. You shall drive that from both sides, always when he strikes around from the parrying, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr"/> mark the Four Slices. The first are the two Overs that pertain to driving against the fencers that like striking around to the other side from the parrying or from the bind of the swords. And counter that<ref name="word-s"/> before with the slice thus: when he binds on your sword with the parrying or such to your left side, and strikes therewith quickly around with the Thwart<ref>S. "weapon".</ref> or such to your right side, then spring from the hew with the left foot on his<ref>S. "your".</ref> right side and fall in with the long edge above over both arms, and press with the slice from you. You shall drive that from both sides, always when he strikes around from the parrying, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,703: Line 2,706:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[111] Item, the two Under-slices pertain to driving against the fencers that run in with arms stretched up, and drive them thus: When he binds you on your sword, be it with parrying or such, if he then drives high up with the arms and runs in on you to your left side, then turn your sword so that your thumb comes below, with the long edge under his hilt in his arm, and press upward with the slice.</p>
+
| <p>[111] Item, the two Under-slices pertain to driving against the fencers that run in with arms stretched up, and drive them thus: When he binds you on your sword, be it with parrying or such, if he then drives high up with the arms and runs in on you to your<ref>M. "with his"</ref> left side, then turn your sword so that your thumb comes below, with the long edge under his hilt in his arm, and press upward with the slice.</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
 
|  
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| {{red|Turn your edge,<br/>To escape, press your hands.}}
 
| {{red|Turn your edge,<br/>To escape, press your hands.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>That is how you shall change from the Under-slices to the Over-slices, mark that thus. When he runs in on you to your left side with arms stretched up, then turn your sword with the long edge under his hilt in his arms, and press upwards fast, and step therewith on his right side, and Wind through below with the pommel, and come with the sword not<ref>A. "with".</ref> from his arms, and turn the sword from the Under-slice to the Over, over his arms with the long edge, etc.</p>
+
<p>That is how you shall change from the Under-slices to the Over-slices, mark that thus. When he runs in on you to your left side with arms stretched up, then turn your sword with the long edge under his hilt in his arms, and press upwards fast, and step therewith on his right side, and Wind through below with the pommel, and come with the sword not<ref>A. "with".</ref> from his arms, and turn the sword from<ref>S. "on"</ref> the Under-slice to the Over, over his arms with the long edge, etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 109r.png|4|lbl=-|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 109r.png|4|lbl=-}}
  
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 109v.png|1|lbl=109v|p=1}}
+
{{section|Page:MS Dresd.C.93 109v.png|1|lbl=109v}}
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
  
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| {{red|In all driving<br/>Hew, stab, Leaguer, Soft or Hard.}}
 
| {{red|In all driving<br/>Hew, stab, Leaguer, Soft or Hard.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Know the Two Hangings from the earth, that is the Plow from both sides, therein you shall also have the Feeling in hewing, and in stabbing, and in the binds of the swords, if he is Soft or Hard therein, etc.</p>
+
<p>Know the Two Hangings from the earth, that is the Plow from both sides, therein you shall also have the Feeling in hewing, and<ref name="word-sr"/> in<ref name="word-am"/> stabbing, and in the binds of the swords, if he is Soft or Hard therein, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,802: Line 2,805:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[116] Also you shall know that you shall therefrom drive the Four Windings, and from each single Winding<ref>"and from each single Winding" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> particularly a hew, a stab, and a slice, as from the upper Hangings.</p>
+
| <p>[116] Also you shall know that you shall therefrom drive the Four Windings, and from each single Winding<ref name="word-m"/><ref>"and from each single Winding" omitted from the Salzburg. This is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''winden''.</ref> particularly a hew, a stab, and a slice, as from the upper Hangings.<ref name="word-m"/></p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 048r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 048r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{red|If you have understood,<br/>He may not come to strikes.}}
 
| {{red|If you have understood,<br/>He may not come to strikes.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item, mark, you have heard before how you shall position yourself before the man with the sword in the Four Guards. So you shall now know that the Speaking-Window is a guard wherein you may stand well, and the guard is the Long Point, that is the noblest and the<ref name="word-a"/> best ward with the sword. Who can fence correctly therefrom forces the man therewith so that he must allow striking without thinking, and may therefore not well come to strikes, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr"/> mark, you have heard before how you shall position yourself before the man with the sword in the Four Guards. So you shall now know that the Speaking-Window is a guard wherein you may stand well, and the guard is the Long Point, that is the noblest and the<ref name="word-am"/> best ward with the sword. Who can fence correctly therefrom forces the man therewith so that he must allow striking without thinking, and may therefore not well come to strikes, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 2,861: Line 2,864:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[118] Item, make the Speaking-Window thus: when you go to the man with the pre-fencing with whatever hew you then come on him, be it an Over or an Under-hew,<ref>S. "be it an Over-/Under-hew".</ref> then let the point always shoot-in long from the arms with the hew, to the face or the<ref name="word-s"/> breast. Therewith you force him so that he must parry or bind on, and when he has bound-on thus, then remain strong with the long edge on the sword, and stand freely and see his manner; what he will fence further. If he pulls backwards from the sword, then follow after him with the point to the face or the<ref name="word-s"/> breast. Or, if he strikes from the bind around to the other side, then slice him strongly over the arms, and work in above to the head. Or, if he will not pull off nor strike around, then work with the Doubling or such with other techniques thereafter, as you find if he is Strong or Weak on the sword, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[118] Item, make the Speaking-Window thus: when you go to the man with the pre-fencing with whatever hew you then come on him, be it an Over or<ref name="word-r"/> an Under-hew,<ref>S. "be it Over-/Under-hew".</ref> then let the point always shoot-in long from the arms with the hew, to the face or the<ref name="word-sr"/> breast. Therewith you force him so that he must parry or bind on, and when he has bound-on thus, then remain strong with the long edge on the sword, and stand freely and see his manner; what he will fence further. If he pulls backwards from the sword, then follow after him with your<ref>A., S., R. "the"</ref> point to the face or the<ref name="word-s"/> breast. Or, if he strikes from the bind around to the other side, then slice him strongly over the arms, and work in<ref name="word-m"/> above to the head. Or, if he will not pull off nor strike around, then work with the Doubling or such with other techniques thereafter, as you find if he is Strong or Weak on the sword, etc.</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,890: Line 2,893:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[120] Item, I say truthfully that the Long Point is the best<ref>A. "noblest"</ref> ward on the sword, when therewith you compel the man that he must let you strike, and therefore to no strikes may come. Wherefore you shall drive the point in to the man with all hews, to the breast or to the face, and further therefrom drive stab and strike, etc...</p>
+
| <p>[120] Item, I say truthfully that the Long Point is the noblest<ref name="word-sr"/> [and] best<ref name="word-am"/> ward on the sword, when therewith you compel the man that he must let you strike, and therefore to no strikes may come. Wherefore you shall drive the point in to the man with all hews, to the breast or to the face, and further therefrom drive stab and strike, etc...</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 050r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 050r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[121] Item, mark that is also<ref name="word-s"/> called a Speaking-Window when you are<ref name="word-s"/> come close<ref name="word-s"/> to the man with the pre-fencing. Then set the left foot before, and hold the point long from the arms against the face or the breast ere when you bind him on the sword, and stand joyfully and see what he will fence against you. If he then hews in above, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew in the Ox, and stab him to the face. Or, if he hews to the sword and not to the body, then Change-through bravely and stab in to the other side. Or, if he runs in and is high with the arms, then drive the Under-slice; or if he is low with the arms, then await the wrestling. Thus you may drive all techniques from the arms, whichever is best, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[121] Item, mark that is also<ref name="word-sr"/> called a Speaking-Window when you are<ref name="word-s"/> come close<ref name="word-s"/> to the man with the pre-fencing. Then set the left foot before, and hold the point long from the arms against the face or the breast ere when you bind him on the sword, and stand joyfully and see what he will fence against you. If he then hews in above, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew in the Ox, and stab him to the face. Or, if he hews to the sword and not to the body, then Change-through<ref>R. "change"</ref> bravely and stab in to the other side. Or, if he runs in and is high with the arms, then drive the Under-slice; or if he is low with the arms, then await the wrestling. Thus you may drive all techniques from the arms, whichever is best, etc.</p>
 
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|  
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[122] {{red|b=1|The conclusion of the new epitome}}</p>
+
| <p>[122] {{red|b=1|The conclusion of the new<ref>R. "correct"</ref> epitome}}</p>
 
{| class="zettel"
 
{| class="zettel"
 
|-  
 
|-  
Line 2,934: Line 2,937:
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>106</small>
 
| <small>106</small>
| {{red|And you each<br/>The Windings triple,}}
+
| {{red|And you each<br/>The Windings triple, I mean,<ref>"I mean" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.</ref>}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>107</small>
 
| <small>107</small>
| {{red|Twenty-<br/>And-four pieces only.}}
+
| {{red|So they are<ref>"So they are" omitted from the Augsburg and Mair.</ref> Twenty-<br/>And-four pieces only.}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>108</small>
 
| <small>108</small>
Line 2,945: Line 2,948:
 
| {{red|And prove the driving,<br/>Not more than Soft or Hard.}}
 
| {{red|And prove the driving,<br/>Not more than Soft or Hard.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>This is a lesson and admonition of the Art of the Sword that you therein shall very well judge and meditate on, so that you quickly drive bravely, and correctly drive the counters against his techniques. Thus you shall particularly drive the Three Wounders in each counter, which become explained hereafter. Also you shall know that the Four Hangings are two below and two above: the upper is the Ox, the lower is the Plow, to both sides. And from the Four Hangings you shall thus further contemplate and rightly weigh Eight Windings, so that you shall particularly drive a hew, a stab, and a slice from each Winding. These are the previously described Four Windings, etc.</p>
+
<p>This is a lesson and admonition of the Art of the Sword that you therein shall very well judge and meditate on,<ref>S., R. "meditate and judge"</ref> so that you quickly drive bravely, and correctly drive the counters against his techniques. Thus you shall particularly<ref name="word-s"/> drive the Three Wounders in each counter, which become explained hereafter. Also you shall know that the Four Hangings are two below and two above: the upper is the Ox, the lower is the Plow, to both sides. And from the Four Hangings you shall bring Eight Windings, and the same Eight Windings<ref>"and the same Eight Windings" omitted from Mair. This is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''winden''.</ref> you shall thus further<ref name="word-sr"/> contemplate and rightly weigh, so that you shall particularly drive a hew, a stab, and<ref name="word-sr"/> a slice from each Winding. These are the previously described Four Windings, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 051r.jpg|1|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 051r.jpg|1|lbl=-}}
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|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[123] Item, here<ref name="word-s"/> mark how you shall drive the Eight Windings from the Four Hangings. The first Over-Hanging has two Windings, drive that thus. When you come to the man<ref>A. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then stand on your right side in the Ox. If he then hews in<ref name="word-a"/> above in to your left side, then Wind against his hew, the short edge on his sword, yet in Ox, and stab him above in to the face. That is the Winding-in. If he sets the stab off to<ref>S. "against".</ref> his left side, then remain on the sword, and Wind again on your right side in the Ox, the long edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. That is one Hanging from your right side with two Windings on his sword.</p>
+
| <p>[123] Item, here<ref name="word-s"/> mark how you shall drive the Eight Windings from the Four Hangings. The first Over-Hanging has two Windings, drive that thus. When you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then stand on your right side in the Ox. If he then hews in<ref name="word-a"/> above in to your left side, then Wind against his hew,<ref>M. "against his hew oppositely"</ref> the short edge on his sword, yet in Ox, and stab him above in to the face. That is the<ref name="word-m"/> Winding-in. If he sets the stab off to<ref>S., R. "against".</ref> his left side, then remain on the sword, and Wind again on your right side in the Ox, the long edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. That is one<ref>S., R. "the one"</ref> Hanging from your right side with two Windings on his sword.</p>
 
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|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 2,978: Line 2,981:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[124] {{red|b=1|Another}}</p>
+
| <p>[124] ''{{red|b=1|Another}}''</p>
  
<p>Item, drive the two Over-Hangings yet with two Windings thus. When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then stand on your left side in the Ox. If he then hews above in to your right side, then Wind the long edge on his sword against his hew and stab him above to the face. That is but one Winding. If he sets the stab off against your<ref>A. "his".</ref> right side, then remain on the sword and Wind again on your left side in the Ox, the short (?) edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. This is the second Over-Hanging from the<ref>S. "your".</ref> left side, yet with two Windings on his sword, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, drive the two Over-Hangings yet with two Windings<ref>M. "hangings"</ref> thus. When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then stand on your left side in the Ox. If he then hews above in to your right side, then Wind the long edge on his sword against his hew and stab him above to the face. That is but one Winding. If he sets the stab off against your<ref>A. "his".</ref> right side, then remain on the sword and Wind again on your left side in the Ox, the short (?) edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. This is the second<ref>M. "another"</ref> Over-Hanging from the<ref>S., R. "your".</ref> left side, yet with two Windings on his sword, etc.</p>
 
|  
 
|  
 
| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
Line 3,000: Line 3,003:
  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| <p>[125] Item, Now you shall know that from the two Under Hangings, that is the Plow from both sides, you shall also drive Four Windings with all your drivings, as from the Overs. These are the Eight Windings. And as often as you Wind, then think in each single Wind particularly on the hew, and<ref name="word-s"/> on the stab, and on the slice. Thus come from the Eight Windings twenty-four, and from whatever Winding, and against whatever technique, and against whatever hew you shall drive the hew, or the stab, or the slice. You find all that described before in the techniques,<ref>"in the techniques" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> etc.</p>
+
| class="noline" | <p>[125] Item, Now you shall know that from the two Under Hangings, that is the Plow from both sides, you shall also drive Four Windings with all your drivings, as from the Overs. These are the Eight Windings. And as often as you Wind, then think in each single Wind particularly on the hew, and<ref name="word-s"/> on the<ref>"on the" omitted from Mair.</ref> stab, and on the slice. Thus twenty-four come from the Eight Windings, and from whatever Winding, and against whatever technique, and against whatever hew you shall drive the hew, or the<ref name="word-m"/> stab, or the slice. You find all that described before in the techniques,<ref>"in the techniques" omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> etc.</p>
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{{master end}}
 
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! <p>{{rating|start|Zettel Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
 
! <p>{{rating|start|Zettel Translation (from the German)}}<br/>by [[Christian Tobler]]</p>
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| <p><br/><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/><br/></p>
  
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<p><br/><br/><br/><br/></p>
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| <p>[120]</p>
 
| <p>[120]</p>
 
| <p>Ride in on the right side, and attack the opponent's openings wherever you see them with strikes and thrusts, and if it were to happen that the opponent parries and gets in close to you, you pull forward his right arm just by the wrist, with your left hand turned and hold it firmly to you, and press his hilt to the outside of his left arm, and he will be forced to drop his sword. If you hold his arm as described above, you may also strike him with the sword or throw him with the crest grip however you wish, and take his reins.</p>
 
| <p>Ride in on the right side, and attack the opponent's openings wherever you see them with strikes and thrusts, and if it were to happen that the opponent parries and gets in close to you, you pull forward his right arm just by the wrist, with your left hand turned and hold it firmly to you, and press his hilt to the outside of his left arm, and he will be forced to drop his sword. If you hold his arm as described above, you may also strike him with the sword or throw him with the crest grip however you wish, and take his reins.</p>
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|-  
 
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| <p>[140]</p>\
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| <p>[142]</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>[142]</p>
| <p>'''Some other excellent pieces of advice'''</p>
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| class="noline" | <p>'''Some other excellent pieces of advice'''</p>
  
 
<p>Learn how to steer and turn the horse on both sides.</p>
 
<p>Learn how to steer and turn the horse on both sides.</p>
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<p>Then you cut off his reins(and furthermore threaten his left leg).</p>
 
<p>Then you cut off his reins(and furthermore threaten his left leg).</p>
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* Bergner, U. and Giessauf, J. ''[http://www.adeva.com/produkt_detail.asp?id=223 Würgegriff und Mordschlag. Die Fecht- und Ringlehre des Hans Czynner (1538)]''. ADEVA Graz, 2006. ISBN 978-3-201-01855-5
 
* Bergner, U. and Giessauf, J. ''[http://www.adeva.com/produkt_detail.asp?id=223 Würgegriff und Mordschlag. Die Fecht- und Ringlehre des Hans Czynner (1538)]''. ADEVA Graz, 2006. ISBN 978-3-201-01855-5
 
* [[Dierk Hagedorn|Hagedorn, Dierk]]. ''Jude Lew: Das Fechtbuch.'' VS-Books, 2017. ISBN 978-3-932077-46-3
 
* [[Dierk Hagedorn|Hagedorn, Dierk]]. ''Jude Lew: Das Fechtbuch.'' VS-Books, 2017. ISBN 978-3-932077-46-3
* Jaquet, Daniel. "The collection of Lew the Jew in the lineage of German Fight Books corpus". ''Acta Periodica Duellatorum'' '''5'''(1):151–191. April 2017. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2017-0004}}.
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* Jaquet, Daniel. "The collection of Lew the Jew in the lineage of German Fight Books corpus". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''5'''(1):151–191. April 2017. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2017-0004}}.
 
* Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.
 
* Jaquet, Daniel; [[Bartłomiej Walczak|Walczak, Bartłomiej]]. "Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings". ''[[Acta Periodica Duellatorum]]'' '''2'''(1): 105-148. 2014. {{doi|10.1515/apd-2015-0015}}.
  
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Revision as of 19:44, 31 July 2020

Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Lew or Lewe is the presumed name of a 15th century German fencing master. The name "Lewe" means lion and might have been a nickname or pseudonym; alternatively, the colophon of the Cod. I.6.4º.3 could be interpreted to mean that he was Jewish, in which case it might be the German spelling of a Jewish name like Levi. He seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is sometimes erroneously credited with authoring the whole of the Cod. I.6.4º.3, which is an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises, created in the 1460s. His name is actually associated with just two sections of that book: he is credited as the author of an armored fencing treatise which was really written by Martin Huntsfeld,[2] and is mentioned at the end of a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing[3] (by convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that almost always accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew). Though this colophon is generally regarded as indicating that Lew authored the gloss (which is one branch of the larger Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss family), it could alternatively be interpreted to mean that Lew was the scribe or client for the whole manuscript.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the prototype of the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Lignitzer and Martin Huntsfeld (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs page.