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Pol Hausbuch (MS 3227a)

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Pol Hausbuch
MS 3227a, Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Nuremberg, Germany

MS 3227a 13v.jpg
MS 3227a 14r.jpg
ff 13v - 14r
Type Commonplace book
Date ca. 1400s
Compiler Unknown
Material Paper and parchment, in a leather
Size 169 folia (105 mm × 145 mm)
Format Double-sided, with black and red ink
External data Museum catalog entry
Treatise scans
Other translations

The Pol Hausbuch (MS 3227a) is a German commonplace book (or Hausbuch in German) thought to have been created some time between 1389 and 1494.[1] The original currently rests in the holdings of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg, Germany. It is sometimes erroneously attributed to Hans Döbringer,[2] when in fact he is but one of the four authors of a brief addendum to Johannes Liechtenauer's art of long sword fencing, the only fencing material in the manuscript that appears in another fencing manual. The rest of the manuscript is a typical example of a commonplace book, containing a variety of unrelated treatises on mundane and esoteric topics, including fencing and grappling. The martial sections of the text seem to consist of commentary on and expansion of the teachings of Liechtenauer, even containing the only biographical details of the master yet discovered, and it is even speculated that he was still alive at the time of the writing.[3]

Christian Tobler argues that it is unjustified to assume a date of 1389 based purely on the presence of a century-long calendar. The eclectic nature of commonplace books means that the calendar could easily have been an old calendar or even a future one. As the date of the Pol Hausbuch is also used to estimate the time period of Liechtenauer's career, this is a significant error. (Using it to date Liechtenauer is further complicated by the fact that even if he were alive when the fencing treatise was written, the version in this manuscript is potentially a later copy rather than the original.)[4] An upper limit on the origin of the manuscript can be set based on the date in the cover, but realistically it could still originate from any time between the turn of the 15th century and Nicolaus Pol's ownership in 1494.



1r - 5v Liber Ignium by Marcus Graecus
6r Recipes for powders used for painting
6v - 10v Latin recipes (paint, alchemy, medicine)
11r - 12r
12v - 13r Alchemical recipes in Latin
13v - 17v
18r - 40r
43r - 52v Long sword by Andres Juden, Jobs von der Nyssen, Nicklass Prewßen, and "the Priest" Hans Döbringer
53r - 59v Recital on mounted fencing by Johannes Liechtenauer
60r - 61r Recital on short sword by Johannes Liechtenauer
64r - 65r
66v - 67r Astrological texts, magical and medicinal recipes, name magic
68r - 73v Astrological texts, magical and medicinal recipes, name magic
74v - 77v Recipes for paint, tumors, metal and ivory treatment
79r - 81v Miscellaneous Latin recipes, treatment of gems, preparation of a miraculous potion
83v Interval between Epiphany and Ash Wednesday for years 1390-1495
84r - 85r
85r - 85v, 86v Magical recipes
86r, 87r - 89r
90v - 91v Medical Recipes for the Mouth and Teeth
92r - 165v Various alchemical recipes, food recipes, nonsense recipes, in various hands
161v - 165v "Horse pharmacopeia" (Rossarzneibuch) by Master Albrant
166r - 169v Index to the recipes in the manuscript, partly illegible


Cover 1
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Cover 2
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MS 3227a Ir.jpg
MS 3227a Iv.jpg
MS 3227a IIr.jpg
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Folio 1r
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Folio 1v
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Folio 2r
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Folio 2v
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Folio 3r
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Folio 3v
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Folio 4r
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Folio 4v
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Folio 5r
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Folio 5v
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Folio 6r
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Folio 6v
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Folio 7r
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Folio 7v
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Folio 8r
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Folio 8v
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Folio 9r
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Folio 9v
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Folio 10r
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Folio 10v
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Folio 11r
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Folio 11v
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Folio 12r
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Folio 12v
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Folio 13r
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Folio 13v
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Folio 14r
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Folio 14v
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Folio 15r
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Folio 15v
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Folio 16r
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Folio 16v
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Folio 17r
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Folio 17v
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Folio 18r
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Folio 18v
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Folio 19r
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Folio 19v
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Folio 20r
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Folio 20v
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Folio 21r
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Folio 21v
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Folio 22r
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Folio 22v
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Folio 23r
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Folio 23v
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Folio 24r
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Folio 24v
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Folio 25r
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Folio 25v
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Folio 26r
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Folio 26v
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Folio 27r
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Folio 27v
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Folio 28r
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Folio 28v
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Folio 29r
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Folio 29v
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Folio 30r
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Folio 30v
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Folio 30v
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Folio 30v
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Folio 32r
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Folio 32v
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Folio 33r
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Folio 33v
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Folio 34r
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Folio 34v
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Folio 35r
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Folio 35v
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Folio 36r
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Folio 36v
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Folio 37r
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Folio 37v
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Folio 38r
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Folio 38v
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Folio 30v
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Folio 39v
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Folio 40r
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Folio 40v
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Folio 30v
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Folio 30v
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Folio 30v
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Folio 30v
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Folio 43r
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Folio 43v
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Folio 44r
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Folio 44v
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Folio 45r
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Folio 45v
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Folio 46r
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Folio 46v
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Folio 47r
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Folio 47v
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Folio 48r
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Folio 48v
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Folio 49r
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Folio 49v
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Folio 50r
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Folio 50v
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Folio 51r
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Folio 51v
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Folio 52r
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Folio 52v
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Folio 53r
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Folio 53v
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Folio 54r
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Folio 54v
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Folio 55r
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Folio 55v
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Folio 56r
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Folio 56v
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Folio 57r
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Folio 57v
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Folio 58r
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Folio 58v
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Folio 59r
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Folio 59v
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Folio 60r
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Folio 60v
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Folio 61r
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Folio 61v
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Folio 62r
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Folio 62v
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Folio 63r
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Folio 63v
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Folio 64r
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Folio 64v
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Folio 65r
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Folio 65v
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Folio 66r
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Folio 66v
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Folio 67r
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Folio 67v
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Folio 68r
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Folio 68v
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Folio 69r
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Folio 69v
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Folio 70r
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Folio 70v
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Folio 71r
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Folio 71v
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Folio 72r
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Folio 72v
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Folio 73r
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Folio 73v
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Folio 74r
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Folio 74v
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Folio 75r
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Folio 75v
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Folio 76r
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Folio 76v
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Folio 77r
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Folio 77v
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Folio 78r
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Folio 78v
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Folio 79r
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Folio 79v
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Folio 80r
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Folio 80v
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Folio 81r
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Folio 81v
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Folio 82r
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Folio 82v
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Folio 83r
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Folio 83v
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Folio 84r
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Folio 84v
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Folio 85r
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Folio 85v
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Folio 86r
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Folio 86v
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Folio 87r
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Folio 87v
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Folio 88r
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Folio 88v
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Folio 89r
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Folio 89v
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Folio 90r
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Folio 90v
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Folio 91r
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Folio 91v
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Folio 92r
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Folio 92v
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Folio 93r
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Folio 93v
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Folio 94r
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Folio 94v
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Folio 95r
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Folio 95v
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Folio 96r
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Folio 96v
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Folio 97r
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Folio 97v
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Folio 98r
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Folio 98v
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Folio 99r
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Folio 99v
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Folio 100r
Folio 100v
Folio 101r
Folio 101v
Folio 102r
Folio 102v
Folio 103r
Folio 103v
Folio 104r
Folio 104v
Folio 105r
Folio 105v
Folio 106r
Folio 106v
Folio 107r
Folio 107v
Folio 108r
Folio 108v
Folio 109r
Folio 109v
Folio 110r
Folio 110v
Folio 111r
Folio 111v
Folio 112r
Folio 112v
Folio 113r
Folio 113v
Folio 114r
Folio 114v
Folio 115r
Folio 115v
Folio 116r
Folio 116v
Folio 117r
Folio 117v
Folio 118r
Folio 118v
Folio 119r
Folio 119v
Folio 120r
Folio 120v
Folio 121r
Folio 121v
Folio 122r
Folio 122v
Folio 123r
Folio 123v
Folio 124r
Folio 124v
Folio 125r
Folio 125v
Folio 126r
Folio 126v
Folio 127r
Folio 127v
Folio 128r
Folio 128v
Folio 129r
Folio 129v
Folio 130r
Folio 130v
Folio 130v
Folio 130v
Folio 132r
Folio 132v
Folio 133r
Folio 133v
Folio 134r
Folio 134v
Folio 135r
Folio 135v
Folio 136r
Folio 136v
Folio 137r
Folio 137v
Folio 138r
Folio 138v
Folio 130v
Folio 139v
Folio 140r
Folio 140v
Folio 130v
Folio 130v
Folio 130v
Folio 130v
Folio 143r
Folio 143v
Folio 144r
Folio 144v
Folio 145r
Folio 145v
Folio 146r
Folio 146v
Folio 147r
Folio 147v
Folio 148r
Folio 148v
Folio 149r
Folio 149v
Folio 150r
Folio 150v
Folio 151r
Folio 151v
Folio 152r
Folio 152v
Folio 153r
Folio 153v
Folio 154r
Folio 154v
Folio 155r
Folio 155v
Folio 156r
Folio 156v
Folio 157r
Folio 157v
Folio 158r
Folio 158v
Folio 159r
Folio 159v
Folio 160r
Folio 160v
Folio 161r
Folio 161v
Folio 162r
Folio 162v
Folio 163r
Folio 163v
Folio 164r
Folio 164v
Folio 165r
Folio 165v
Folio 166r
Folio 166v
Folio 167r
Folio 167v
Folio 168r
Folio 168v
Folio 169r
Folio 169v
Cover 3
Cover 4

Additional Resources

  • Alderson, Keith. “Arts and Crafts of War: die Kunst des Schwerts in its Manuscript Context”. Can The Bones Come to Life?”: Insights from Reconstruction, Reenactment, and Re-creation 1: 24-29. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-937439-13-2
  • Burkart, Eric. “The Autograph of an Erudite Martial Artist: A Close Reading of Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Hs. 3227a”. Late Medieval and Early Modern Fight Books. Transmission and Tradition of Martial Arts in Europe: 451-480. Ed. Daniel Jaquet, et al. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2016. ISBN 978-9004312418.
  • Chidester, Michael. The Long Sword Gloss of GNM Manuscript 3227a. Somerville, MA: HEMA Bookshelf, 2021. ISBN 978-1-953683-13-7
  • Chidester, Michael and Hagedorn, Dierk. “The Foundation and Core of All the Arts of Fighting”: The Long Sword Gloss of GNM Manuscript 3227a. Somerville, MA: HEMA Bookshelf, 2021. ISBN 978-1-953683-05-2
  • Dürer, Albrecht and Wassmannsdorff, Karl. Die Ringkunst des deutschen Mittelalters. Liepzig: Priber, 1870.
  • Hull, Jeffrey, with Maziarz, Monika and Żabiński, Grzegorz. Knightly Dueling: The Fighting Arts of German Chivalry. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2007. ISBN 1-58160-674-4
  • Wallhausen, James. Knightly Martial Arts: An Introduction to Medieval Combat Systems. Self-published, 2010. ISBN 978-1-4457-3736-2
  • Welle, Rainer. "...und wisse das alle höbischeit kompt von deme ringen". Der Ringkampf als adelige Kunst im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. ISBN 3-89085-755-8
  • Vodička, Ondřej. “Origin of the oldest German Fencing Manual Compilation (GNM Hs. 3227a)”. Waffen- und Kostümkunde 61(1): 87-108, 2019.
  • Żabiński, Grzegorz. “Unarmored Longsword Combat by Master Liechtenauer via Priest Döbringer.” Masters of Medieval and Renaissance Martial Arts: 59-116. Ed. Jeffrey Hull. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58160-668-3


  1. The date of 1389 is based on the presence of a 105-year religious calendar on folio 83v that begins in 1390, while the date 1494 is included with the signature of Nicolaus Pol inside the front cover.
  2. The attribution to Hans "Hanko" Döbringer is based on how prominently the name "Hanko pfaffen Döbringers" appears to be displayed on folio 43r, but upon examination this is revealed as a simple correction inserted in the margin indicating that Döbringer's name had been accidentally omitted from the list of four authors of the treatise beginning on that page. Attributing this manuscript to Döbringer therefore requires him to have forgotten to include his own name in his own treatise.
  3. The manuscript uniformly lacks the traditional prayer for the dead when mentioning his name.
  4. Tobler, Christian Henry. "Chicken and Eggs: Which Master Came First?" In Saint George's Name: An Anthology of Medieval German Fighting Arts. Wheaton, IL: Freelance Academy Press, 2010.
  5. The silver "soon" was added later above the line
  6. lit: entirely finished sword
  7. lit: verses
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Page has a round hole at this point.
  9. latin
  10. Remainder is blacked out.
  11. alt: behold, peer-into, witness, probe, observe, perceive, inspect, investigate, realize, comprehend. alt: show, present, embody, illuminate
  12. latin
  13. lit: tread-full. completing a step or completing the course of a thing.
  14. alt: giving-way, stepping-off. to give something up. to let something go.
  15. alt: safe, sure
  16. alt: has success
  17. ume züst => umsonst
  18. Text gives "deñe her"; correct order based on markings is given here.
  19. schlage, not schlag
  20. Word is almost illegible.
  21. aufwinden: 1) to entangle, wind into a ball 2) to turn or twist upwards.
  22. hindringen: to break or force through. overcome
  23. "Wisely" inferred from the summary
  24. alt: straight
  25. darfahren: unversehens dazu kommen
  26. A guide letter “w” is visible under the “D” (apparently ignored by the rubricator), making the intended word “Wer”.
  27. Continued up the side margin; due to paper clipping, the bottom line is unclear. 65r gives "gewisse".
  28. wegen preposition
  29. wegen verb
  30. ienen
  31. "Ander" is placed after "Hewe" in the manuscript, with markings indicating the correct order.
  32. Inserted in the margin
  33. dargehen: the approach something in a hostile manner. Literally: to go-there.
  34. The page is clipped. only 'hew' remains. This manuscript spells 'haupte' as 'hewpte'
  35. twer: noun: something that gets in the way, something that cuts across something else, something that crosses. verb: to twist, to twirl, to turn obliquely in relation to something
  36. "Hew" is inserted in the margin.
  37. alt: directly, immediately
  38. The comment ends here and remains unfinished.
  39. Inserted in margin.
  40. Inserted in the margin.
  41. Unlike other places where there are definitely passages originally forgotten and inserted with a caret, such is missing here. Thus, it can be conjectured that this is a later addition or comment.
  42. überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline
  43. Grimm: setzen C.2)a)
  44. unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree
  45. Inserted in margin.
  46. Inserted in margin.
  47. Latin: "as [they] are able"
  48. Inserted in margin
  49. Inserted in the margin.
  50. rauschen: like a strong wind rustling quickly through the trees
  51. Inserted in the margin.
  52. unterhangen: hang down, like the branches of a tree
  53. überhangen: to hang over, to lean over, to incline
  54. Inserted in the margin.
  55. Inserted in the margin.
  56. menen: treiben, fuhren, leiten
  57. latin: dampno => damno => harm
  58. »Nicht« appears in the margin, but its proper placement is unclear.
  59. Text cuts off here, and the rest of the page is blank.
  60. Latin passage follows; very difficult.
  61. Please note that there are only three methods described against the turning-out.
  62. A guide letter “w” is visible under the “D” (apparently ignored by the rubricator), making the intended word “Wer”.
  63. Alternate description follows, it hopefully should make the method clearer:
    If he holds you by the shoulders, and you grab his shoulders from the outside. Then you sling your right arm with the elbow over his left and below his right, and push downwards, so his right arm moves up. Take this arm over your head and secure the grip with your left hand behind your head; and then push against his chest with your right again. This will lead to a painful breaking lock.
  64. This is a partner exercise, similar to one I know in chinese shuai chiao

Copyright and License Summary

For further information, including transcription and translation notes, see the discussion page.

Work Author(s) Source License
Images Germanisches Nationalmuseum Digitale Bibliothek
Translation (11r - 12r) Jeffrey Hull "Fight-Book Clues to the Quality and Build of Knightly Weaponry"
Translation (13v - 89v) Thomas Stoeppler Private communication
Translation (74r) Michael Chidester Wiktenauer
Translation (78r) Betsy Winslow Wiktenauer
Transcription Dierk Hagedorn Index:Pol Hausbuch (MS 3227a)