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| <p>[44] Item, drive the Inverter thus:  
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| <p>[44] Item, drive the Inverter thus: When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, and have gone the half,<ref>A., S., R. "when you are gone half to him with the pre-fencing"</ref> then go the other half further to him, each<ref>A., M., R. "each and every"</ref> with the left foot before, and hew a free Under-hew from the right side in accordance with each step forward,<ref>Mair has "from the right side, in accordance with the right side, in accordance with each step forward", which is probably scribal error of duplication, where the scribe repeated a line of text.</ref> according to the left foot, and with the hew, so Invert (or<ref>A., M. "and"</ref> turn the long edge of<ref>A. "on"</ref> the sword always above). And as quickly as you bind him on his sword therewith, then hang the point in above Meanwhile and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and drives high up with the arms, then Run-through him. Or, if he remains low with the hands in the parrying, then grip his right elbow with the left hand, and hold fast, and spring with the left foot in front of his right, and thrust him thus thereover.</p>
 
 
When you come to the man with the pre-fencing, and have gone the half,<ref>A., S., R. "when you are gone half to him with the pre-fencing"</ref> then go the other half further to him, each<ref>A., M., R. "each and every"</ref> with the left foot before, and hew a free Under-hew from the right side in accordance with each step forward,<ref>Mair has "from the right side, in accordance with the right side, in accordance with each step forward", which is probably scribal error of duplication, where the scribe repeated a line of text.</ref> according to the left foot, and with the hew, so Invert (or<ref>A., M. "and"</ref> turn the long edge of<ref>A. "on"</ref> the sword always above). And as quickly as you bind him on his sword therewith, then hang the point in above Meanwhile and stab him to the face. If he parries the stab and drives high up with the arms, then Run-through him. Or, if he remains low with the hands in the parrying, then grip his right elbow with the left hand, and hold fast, and spring with the left foot in front of his right, and thrust him thus thereover.</p>
 
 
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| <p>[45] Item, and when you shall Run-through, that you will find hereafter described in the technique that speaks "Run-though, let hang with the pommel if you will wrestle."<ref>Couplet 91.</ref></p>
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| <p>[45] Item, and how<ref>A., M. "when"</ref> when you shall Run-through, that you will find hereafter described in the technique that speaks "Run-though, let hang with the pommel if you will wrestle."<ref>Couplet 91.</ref></p>
 
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| {{red|Twofold further,<br/>Step in left and be not lax.}}
 
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<p>Mark, this is called the Twofold Failer, and drive it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you, then spring against him with the right foot well out on your right side, and do as if you will hew him with a free Thwart strike to his left side to the<ref>S. "to his"</ref> head, but pull the hew, and spring with the left foot well around him to his right side, and strike him with the Thwart to his<ref>A. "to the"</ref> head. If he parries you<ref name="word-a"/> and you hit his sword, then step away to the same side near him, and slice him behind his sword's blade with the short edge, with the Doubling in the mouth. Or fall in with the sword over both arms and slice.<ref>"and slice" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> Drive that to both sides. You may also likewise drive the Failer from the Over-hew as from the Thwart strike, if that is what you wish, etc.<ref>"if that is what you wish" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref></p>
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<p>Mark, this is called the Twofold Failer, and drive<ref>S. has ''vier oder trieb'', which should perhaps be read as ''fahr oder treib'', "drive or drive".</ref> it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you,<ref>Scribal error in S. and R., replacing "even to you" with "above".</ref> then spring against him with the right foot well out on your right side, and do as if you will hew him with a free Thwart strike to his left side to the<ref>S. "to his"</ref> head, but pull the hew, and spring with the left foot well around him to his right side, and strike him with the Thwart to his<ref>A. "to the"</ref> head. If he parries you<ref name="word-amr"/> and you hit his sword, then step away to<ref>M. "with"</ref> the same side near him, and slice him behind his sword's blade with the short edge, with the Doubling in the mouth. Or fall in with the sword over both arms and slice.<ref>"and slice" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> Drive that to both sides. You may also likewise drive the Failer from the Over-hew as from the Thwart strike, if that is what you wish, etc.<ref>"if that is what you wish" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref></p>
 
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Revision as of 16:10, 25 April 2020

Jud Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Jud Lew is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a 15th century German fencing master. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the Cod. I.6.4º.3, an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,[2] a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing that is one branch of the so-called Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss (see below). Though some versions of Martin Huntfeltz's treatise on armored fencing are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.[3] By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Liegniczer and Martin Huntfeltz (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Jud Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs Augsburger page.