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| <p>[52] '''Item, another lesson'''</p>
 
| <p>[52] '''Item, another lesson'''</p>
  
<p>When you go to him with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with the face if he fights short against you. You shall thus discern if, when he hews, he does not stretch the arms before himself long from him with the hew, then is his sword shortened. And [against] all fencers that so fight short, Change-through freely then from hews and from stabs with the Longpoint, therewith you beset them on the sword so that they must let you come to bind on<ref>A. ''anwind'': "wind on".</ref> them and allow you to strike.</p>
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<p>When you go to him with the pre-fencing, then you shall squint with the face if he fights short against you. You shall thus discern if, when he hews, he does not stretch the arms before himself long from him with the hew, then is his sword shortened. And [against] all fencers that so fight short,<ref>"that so fight short" omitted from Mair. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping from ''fechtern'' to ''fechten''.</ref> Change-through freely then from hews and from stabs with the Longpoint, therewith you beset them on the sword so that they must let you<ref name="word-m">Word omitted from Mair.</ref> come to bind on<ref>A., M. ''anwind'': "wind on".</ref> them and allow you to strike.</p>
 
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| {{red|Squint to the point,<br/>Take the neck without fear.}}
 
| {{red|Squint to the point,<br/>Take the neck without fear.}}
 
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<p>Mark, this is a technique against the Longpoint with a betrayal of the face, drive it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, if he then stands and holds his<ref>S. "your"</ref> point against your face or breast, then hold your sword on your right shoulder and squint with the face to the point, and do as if you will hew in thereto, and hew strongly with the Squinter (with the short edge on his sword), and shoot in the point long therewith to the neck with a step forward of your right foot, etc.</p>
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<p>Mark, this is a technique against the Longpoint with a betrayal of the face, drive it thus: when you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, if he then stands and holds his<ref>S. "your"</ref> point against your face or breast,<ref>R. "the breast".</ref> then hold your sword on your right shoulder and squint with the face to the point, and do as if you will hew in thereto, and hew strongly with the Squinter (with the short edge on his sword), and shoot in the point long therewith to the neck with a step forward of your right foot, etc.</p>
 
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| {{red|Twofold it further<br/>Step in left and be not lax}}
 
| {{red|Twofold it further<br/>Step in left and be not lax}}
 
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<p>This is how you shall drive the failer twofold to both sides. And undertake that thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you, then spring against him well out with the right foot on your right side, and do as if you will hew a free Over-hew to his left side to his head. If he drives then before with the parrying, then pull the hew again up and spring quickly with the left foot well around the man to his right side, and in the spring but do as if you will strike to the right side,<ref>Rostock ends here with the statement (written in Latin) "Previously in the chapter Vom Feler", which is odd because this is the exact point when the text ceases to bear any resemblance to the earlier version in that chapter.</ref> and fore-pull and spring again with the right foot around him on his left side and strike to the same side freely with one. Meanwhile, if he will attack after the opening, then fall in with the long edge in the arms with the edge<ref>"in the arms with the edge" omitted from Dresden and Vienna.</ref> and press from you.</p>
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<p>This is how you shall drive the failer twofold to both sides. And undertake that thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot fore and hold your sword on your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> the right shoulder, and when you see that he is even to you, then spring against him<ref name="word-r"/> well out with the right foot on your<ref>R. "his"</ref> right side, and do as if you<ref>"as if you" omitted from the Salzburg and Rostock.</ref> will hew a free Over-hew to his left side to his head. If he drives then before with the parrying, then pull the hew again up and spring quickly with the left foot well around the man to his right side, and in the spring but do as if you will strike to the right side,<ref>Rostock ends here with the statement (written in Latin) "Previously in the chapter Vom Feler", which is odd because this is the exact point when the text ceases to bear any resemblance to the earlier version in that chapter.</ref> and fore-pull and spring again with the right foot around him on his left side and strike to the same side freely with one. Meanwhile, if he will attack after the opening, then fall in with the long edge in the arms with the edge<ref>"in the arms with the edge" omitted from Mair and the Rostock. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from ''schneiden'' to ''schnitt''.</ref> and press from you.</p>
  
 
<p>And you shall know to drive from both sides, and that may you drive from the Thwart strike.</p>
 
<p>And you shall know to drive from both sides, and that may you drive from the Thwart strike.</p>
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| <p>[57] Item, drive the Parter thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he<ref>S. "he then".</ref> lies in the guard Fool, then set the left foot forward and hold your sword with outstretched arms high over your head in the guard From the Day, and spring to him with the right foot, and hew with the long edge strongly down from above, and remain high with the arms and sink in the point below you to his face or breast. If he then parries with the Crown (that the point and the hilt<ref>S. "the one hilt".</ref> on his sword both stand over him thus), and drives up therewith and thrusts your point over you,<ref>S. "thrusts your point up".</ref> then turn your sword under through his Crown with the edge in his arm, and Press so the Crown is again broken, and with the Pressing take the edge and pull yourself off therewith, and step near to him when he again parries.<ref>Clause omitted from the Augsburg.</ref><ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
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| <p>[57] Item, drive the Parter thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, if he<ref>S. "he then".</ref> lies in the guard Fool, then set the left foot forward and hold your sword with outstretched arms high over your head in the guard From the Day, and spring to him with the right foot, and hew with the long edge strongly down from above, and remain high with the arms and sink in the point below you to his face or breast. If he then parries with the Crown (that the point and the hilt<ref>S. "the one hilt".</ref> on his sword both stand over him thus), and drives up therewith and thrusts your point over you,<ref>S. "thrusts your point up".</ref> then turn your sword under through his Crown with the edge in his arm, and Press so the Crown is again broken, and with the Pressing take the edge and pull yourself off therewith, and step near to him when he again parries.<ref>Clause omitted from the Augsburg, Mair, and the Rostock.</ref><ref name="Ringeck"/></p>
 
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| <p>[59] '''Of the Oxen'''</p>
 
| <p>[59] '''Of the Oxen'''</p>
  
<p>Position yourself in the Ox thus: stand with the left foot in front and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front<ref>Augsburg doubles the phrase "and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front". This is probably a scribal error.</ref> of the head, so that the short edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against the face, etc.</p>
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<p>Position yourself in the Ox thus: stand with the left foot in front and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front<ref>Augsburg doubles the phrase "and hold your sword on your right side with the hilt in front". This is probably a scribal error in which the scribe's eye jumped to the wrong line.</ref> of the head, so that the short edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against the face, etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[60] Item, position yourself on the left side in the Ox thus: stand with the right foot before and hold your sword on your left side with the hilt in front of the head, so that the long edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against his face. And that is the Ox from both sides.</p>
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| <p>[60] Item, position yourself on the left side in the Ox thus: stand with the right foot before and hold your sword on your left side with the hilt in front of the head, so that the long edge stands against you, and hold the point thus against his face. And<ref name="word-sr">Word omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> that is the Ox from both sides.</p>
 
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Revision as of 21:12, 25 April 2020

Jud Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Jud Lew is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a 15th century German fencing master. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the Cod. I.6.4º.3, an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,[2] a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing that is one branch of the so-called Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss (see below). Though some versions of Martin Huntfeltz's treatise on armored fencing are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.[3] By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Liegniczer and Martin Huntfeltz (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Jud Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs Augsburger page.