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| <p>[63] '''Of the Fool'''</p>
 
| <p>[63] '''Of the Fool'''</p>
  
<p>Item, the third guard is called the<ref name="word-a"/> Fool. And position yourself with<ref name="word-s"/> it thus: set the left foot in front and hold your sword before you with stretched arms, with the point on the earth and so that the short edge is above, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, the third guard is called the<ref name="word-amr"/> Fool. And position yourself with<ref name="word-s"/> it thus: set the left foot in front and hold your sword before you with stretched arms, with the point on the earth and so that the short edge is above, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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|-  
 
| <small>71</small>
 
| <small>71</small>
| {{red|Guard yourself before parrying,<br/>If it happens, it hurts you more.}}
+
| {{red|Guard yourself before parrying,<br/>If it happens, it hurts you more.}}<ref>This couplet is listed separately in Salzburg, with a paragraph from the gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck.</ref>
 
|}
 
|}
 
<p>Mark, you have heard before of the Four Guards, so you shall now know that there are the Four Forfendings with which you shall break the Four Guards. Know that no parrying pertains thereto since four hews break the Four Guards.</p>
 
<p>Mark, you have heard before of the Four Guards, so you shall now know that there are the Four Forfendings with which you shall break the Four Guards. Know that no parrying pertains thereto since four hews break the Four Guards.</p>
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| <p>[66] The first is the Crooked-hew, which breaks the guard of the Ox.</p>
+
| <p>[66] Item,<ref name="word-asm">Word omitted from the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Mair.</ref> the first is the Crooked-hew, which breaks the guard of the Ox.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 029v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 029v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[67] The second, that is the Thwart-hew, which breaks the guard From the Day.</p>
+
| <p>[67] Item,<ref name="word-asm"/> the second, that is the Thwart-hew, which breaks the guard From the Day.</p>
 
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| <p>[68] The third, that<ref name="word-s"/> is the Squinter-hew, which breaks the guard of the Plow.</p>
+
| <p>[68] Item,<ref name="word-asm"/> the third, that<ref name="word-s"/> is the Squinter-hew, which breaks the guard of the Plow.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[69] The fourth is the Part-hew, which breaks the guard that is called the<ref name="word-a"/> Fool.</p>
+
| <p>[69] Item,<ref name="word-asm"/> the fourth is the Part-hew, which breaks the guard that is called the<ref name="word-amr"/> Fool.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 030r.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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| {{red|Hear what I teach:<br/>Wrench off quickly with threat.}}
 
| {{red|Hear what I teach:<br/>Wrench off quickly with threat.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Mark, this is when he has parried you and will not draw off from the sword, and he means to let you come to no technique: then do as if you will draw off from the sword, and pull your sword [to] you to half the blade, and drive the sword quickly up therewith and hew him quickly with the short edge, or with the Doubling, to the head.</p>
+
<p>Mark, this is<ref>"this is" omitted in the Augsburg, the Rostock, and the Mair.</ref> when he has parried you and will not draw off from the sword, and he means to let you come to no technique: then do as if you will draw off from the sword, and pull your sword [to] you to half the blade, and drive the sword quickly up therewith and hew him quickly with the short edge, or with the Doubling, to the head.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[72] '''Item, another.'''</p>
 
| <p>[72] '''Item, another.'''</p>
  
<p>When he has parried you, then wrench up over you with with your sword on his sword's blade, against his point (as if you will take off above). Then remain on the sword and hew him simply on the blade, in against his head, etc.<ref>The subsequent two plays in Salzburg are taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and are therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
+
<p>When he has parried you, then wrench up over you with with your sword on his sword's blade, against his point (as if you will take off above). Then remain on the sword and hew him simply on the blade, in<ref name="word-m"/> against his head, etc.<ref>The subsequent two plays in Salzburg are taken from the gloss of [[Sigmund ain Ringeck]], and are therefore omitted here.</ref></p>
 
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| <p>[75] Item, or if he then hews in from above from his left side, then come before with the Forfending and shoot in the point long in to the nearest standing opening of his right side, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[75] Item, or if he then hews in from above from<ref name="word-m"/> his left side, then come before with the Forfending and shoot in the point long in to the nearest standing opening of his right side, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 031v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 031v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[77] Item, or if he hews to you up from below from his left side, then shoot the point long in to the lower opening of his right side, and see the Setting-on therewith always. If he becomes aware of the shooting in and parries, then remain with the sword on his, and work quickly<ref>A. "quickly there".</ref> to the nearest opening, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[77] Item, or if he hews to you up from below from his left side, then shoot the point long in to the<ref>M. "his"</ref> lower opening of his right side, and see the Setting-on therewith always. If he becomes aware of the shooting in and parries, then remain with the sword on his, and work quickly<ref>A. "quickly there".</ref> to the nearest opening, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 032r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 032r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{red|And test the driving<br/>If they are Soft or Hard.}}
 
| {{red|And test the driving<br/>If they are Soft or Hard.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item, mark the Travelings-after are many<ref name="word-a"/> and multiple, and pertain to driving with great prudence against the fencers that fence from free long hews,<ref>"that fence from free long hews" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and otherwise do not hold<ref>"do not hold" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> the right Art of the Sword, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, mark the Travelings-after are many and<ref>"many and" omitted in Mair; Augsburg omits "many" and just says "are and multiple".</ref> multiple, and pertain to driving with great prudence against the fencers that fence from free long hews,<ref>"that fence from free long hews" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping to the second instance of ''fechten''.</ref> and otherwise do not hold<ref>"do not hold" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> the right Art of the Sword, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[79] '''Item, the first technique from the Traveling-after'''</p>
 
| <p>[79] '''Item, the first technique from the Traveling-after'''</p>
  
<p>Drive it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot forward and stand in the guard From the Day, and see well even that which he fences against you. If he then hews in<ref name="word-s"/> long from his right shoulder, then do not parry him, and wait so that he does not reach you with the hew. Then mark while his sword goes below you against the earth, [and] then spring to him<ref>"to him" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> with the right foot, and hew him above in to the opening of his right side before he comes up again. So he is struck, etc.</p>
+
<p>Drive it thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set the left foot forward and stand in the guard From the Day, and see well even that which he fences against you. If he then hews in<ref name="word-s"/> long from his right shoulder, then do not parry him, and wait so that he does not reach you with the hew. Then mark while his sword goes below you against the earth, [and] then spring to him<ref>"to him" omitted from the Salzburg and Mair. Rostock just has "to".</ref> with the right foot, and hew him above in to the opening of his right side ere<ref name="word-m"/> he comes up again. So he is struck, etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[80] '''Item, another technique.'''</p>
+
| <p>[80] '''Item, another technique.'''<ref name="title-m">Title is repeated in Mair.</ref></p>
  
<p>When he forehews at you and you hew after him, if he then drives quickly up with the sword and parries, then remain strongly with the long edge on his sword. If he then lifts upwards with the sword, then spring with the left foot well behind his right, and strike him with the Thwart (or such) to the right side of his head, and work quickly around to his left side with the Doubling (or such with other techniques) thereafter, if you find he is Soft or Hard on the sword. And that is the Outer Conduct, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he forehews at you and you hew after him, if he then drives quickly up with the sword<ref>M. "if he the drives his sword quickly upward".</ref> and parries, then remain strongly with the long edge on his sword. If he then lifts upwards with the sword, then spring with the left foot well behind his right, and strike him with the Thwart (or such) to the right side of his head, and work quickly around to his left side with the Doubling (or such with other techniques) thereafter, if you find he is Hard or Soft<ref>M. "Soft or Hard".</ref> on the sword. And that is the Outer Conduct, etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[81] '''Item, yet another technique.'''</p>
 
| <p>[81] '''Item, yet another technique.'''</p>
  
<p>When he forehews in front of you and you hew after him, if you then bind on his sword against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, and he then strikes quickly around with the weapon<ref>A. ''zwer'': "thwart".</ref> from the parrying to your right side, then come in Meanwhile ahead with the Thwart before, under his sword against his left side [and] on his neck. Or, spring with the left foot on his right side<ref>"on his neck... on his right side" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and hew after his hew to the right side. Or, drive the slice in over his arm to the head, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he forehews in front of you and you hew after him, if you then bind on his sword against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, and he then strikes quickly around with the weapon<ref>A. ''zwer'': "thwart".</ref> from the parrying to your right side, then come in Meanwhile ahead with the Thwart before, under his sword against his left side [and] on his neck. Or, spring with the left foot on his right side<ref>"on his neck... on his right side" omitted from the Salzburg. This omission is probably a scribal error, jumping from to the second instance of ''seiten''.</ref> and strike or<ref>"Strike or" omitted from the Augsburg, Salzburg, and Rostock.</ref> hew after his hew to the right side. Or, drive the slice in over his arm to the head, etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[82] '''Item, yet a Traveling-after.'''</p>
+
| <p>[82] '''Item, yet a Traveling-after.'''<ref name="title-m"/></p>
  
<p>When you fight against him from Under-hewing or from Slashing, or you lie against him in the guard Fool, if he then falls with the sword on yours ere you then come up,<ref>S. "ere when you come up"</ref> then remain thus below on the sword, and lift upwards. If he will then hew you from the parrying or Wind-in on<ref>S. "to"</ref> the sword, then let him not come off from the sword, and follow after him thereon, and work therewith to the nearest opening.</p>
+
<p>When you fight against him from Under-hewing or from Slashing, or you lie against him in the guard Fool, if he then falls with the sword on yours ere you then come up,<ref>S., R. "ere when you come up"</ref> then remain thus below on the sword, and lift upwards. If he will then hew you from the parrying or Wind-in on<ref>S. "to"</ref> the sword, then let him not come off from the<ref name="word-am">Word omitted from the Augsburg and Mair.</ref> sword, and follow after him thereon, and work therewith to the nearest opening.</p>
 
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|-  
 
| <small>78</small>
 
| <small>78</small>
| {{red|The Feeling learn;<br/>Meanwhile, that slices sorely.}}
+
| {{red|The Feeling learn;<br/>The word<ref>"The word" omitted from the Augsburg, the Rostock, and Mair.</ref> "Meanwhile", that slices sorely.}}
 
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<p>Know that, on<ref>A. "in"</ref> the sword, the Feeling<ref>Salzburg doubles "the feeling".</ref> and the word "Meanwhile" are the greatest Art. And whoever is a Master of the Sword, or wants to be, and<ref name="word-s"/> he cannot Feel and cannot undertake<ref>"Feel and cannot undertake" omitted from the Salzburg. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from one instance of ''nicht'' to the next.</ref> the word "Meanwhile", so is he not a Master, [rather] he is a Buffalo of the Sword. Therefore you shall, before all things, learn the word "Meanwhile" and the Feeling well.</p>
+
<p>Know that, on<ref>A., R. "in"</ref> the sword, the Feeling<ref>Salzburg doubles "the feeling".</ref> and the word "Meanwhile" are the greatest Art. And whoever is a Master of the Sword, or wants to be, and<ref name="word-s"/> he cannot Feel and cannot undertake<ref>"Feel and cannot undertake" omitted from the Salzburg. This is probably a scribal error, jumping from one instance of ''nicht'' to the next.</ref> the word "Meanwhile", so is he not a Master, [rather] he is a Buffalo of the Sword. Therefore you shall, before all things, learn the word "Meanwhile" and the Feeling well.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[85] Mark<ref>S. "work".</ref> the Feeling thus: When you come with him to the pre-fencing, and one binds the other on the sword, then Meanwhile, as the swords clash together, you shall Feel with the hand if he has bound on Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you Feel<ref>S. ''entphindest'': "perceive".</ref> Soft or Hard, then think on the word "Meanwhile", that is, that you shall work quickly with the sword in the Feeling, so he becomes struck ere<ref>S. "ere when".</ref> you are.</p>
+
| <p>[85] Item,<ref name="word-am"/> mark<ref>S. "work".</ref> the Feeling thus: When you come with him to the pre-fencing, and one binds the other on the sword, then Meanwhile, as the swords clash together, you shall Feel with the hand if he has bound on Soft or Hard. And as quickly as you Feel<ref>S., R. ''entphindest'': "perceive".</ref> Soft or Hard, then think on the word "Meanwhile", that is, that you shall work quickly with the sword in the Feeling, so he becomes struck ere<ref>S., R. "ere when".</ref> you are.</p>
 
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| <p>[86] Item, now you shall know that Feeling and the word "Meanwhile" may not be one without the other, and undertake that thus: when you bind on his sword, then you must Feel Soft or Hard with the word "Meanwhile". And when you Feel, then you must yet work Meanwhile. Thus are they always by one another, since the word "Meanwhile" is in all techniques. </p>
+
| <p>[86] Item, now you shall know that Feeling and the word "Meanwhile" may not be one without the other, and undertake that thus: when you bind him<ref name="word-s"/> on his sword, then you must Feel Soft or Hard with the word "Meanwhile". And when you Feel, then you must yet work Meanwhile. Thus are they always by one another, since the word "Meanwhile" is in all techniques.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| <p>[87] Mark that thus: Meanwhile Doubles, Meanwhile Mutates, Meanwhile Changes-through, Meanwhile Runs-through, Meanwhile takes the Slice, Meanwhile wrestles with, Meanwhile<ref>Word doubled in the Salzburg.</ref> takes the sword.<ref>S. "word".</ref> Meanwhile does whatever your heart desires. "Meanwhile" is a sharp word by which all masters become sliced, and they do not know or understand the word "Meanwhile" from previously, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[87] Mark<ref>M. "undertake"</ref> that thus: Meanwhile Doubles, Meanwhile Mutates, Meanwhile Changes-through, Meanwhile Runs-through, Meanwhile takes the Slice, Meanwhile wrestles with, Meanwhile<ref>Word doubled in the Salzburg.</ref> takes the sword.<ref>S. "word".</ref> Meanwhile does whatever your heart desires. "Meanwhile" is a sharp word by which all masters become sliced, and they do not know or understand the word "Meanwhile" from previously, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 035v.jpg|3|lbl=-}}
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|-  
 
|-  
 
| <small>80</small>
 
| <small>80</small>
| {{red|Whoever overcomes,<br/>Over-run, then he becomes ashamed.}}
+
| {{red|Whoever overcomes,<ref>S. "Whoever aims below", which matches the standard Recital. R. "whoever winds below".</ref><br/>Over-run, then he becomes ashamed.}}
 
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|-  
 
| <small>81</small>
 
| <small>81</small>
| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>So strengthen, that do I praise.}}
+
| {{red|When it clashes above,<br/>So strengthen, that do I<ref name="word-r"/> praise.}}
 
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|-  
 
| <small>82</small>
 
| <small>82</small>
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|-  
| <p>[90] Item, mark when you have bound<ref>S. ''bindest gebünde~''.</ref> him strongly on his sword, if he then strikes from the parrying around you to the other side, then bind him yet with the long edge strongly on his sword, above to the head, and work to the openings as before. Drive that to both sides, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[90] Item, mark when you have bound<ref>S. ''bindest gebünde~''.</ref> him strongly on his sword, if he then strikes from the parrying around<ref>M. "under"</ref> you to the other side, then bind him<ref name="word-r"/> yet with the long edge strongly on his<ref>S. "his"</ref> sword, above to the head, and work to the openings as before. Drive that to both sides, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 037r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 037r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{red|From both sides,<br/>Hit all, if you will step.}}
 
| {{red|From both sides,<br/>Hit all, if you will step.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item, mark when you come to him with the pre-fencing: if he then stands against you as if he will stab, then set your left foot forward and lay yourself against him in the Plow to your right side, and give an opening with your left. If he then stabs to the opening, then Wind with your sword on your left side against his stab, the short edge on his sword, and set it off therewith, that<ref name="word-s"/> your point remains thus<ref name="word-a"/> standing against him, and step to him with<ref name="word-a"/> the right foot and stab him Meanwhile to the face or to<ref name="word-a"/> the breast, etc.</p>
+
<p>Item, mark when you come to him with the pre-fencing: if he then stands against you as if he will stab, then set your left foot forward and lay yourself against him in the Plow to your right side, and give an opening with your left.<ref>M. "left side"</ref> If he then stabs to the opening, then Wind with your sword on your left side against his stab, the short edge on his sword, and set it off therewith, that<ref name="word-s"/> your point remains thus<ref name="word-a"/> standing against him, and step to him with<ref name="word-a"/> the right foot and stab him Meanwhile to the face or to<ref name="word-am"/> the breast, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[92] '''Item, another technique.'''</p>
 
| <p>[92] '''Item, another technique.'''</p>
  
<p>When you stand to your right side in the Plow, if he then hews above to your left side<ref name="word-s"/> to the opening, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew therewith on your left side, the hilt before the head in the Ox, and step ahead with the right foot therewith, and stab in to the face or the<ref name="word-s"/> breast. And also drive the technique from the Plow on the left side, etc.</p>
+
<p>When you stand to your right side in the Plow, if he then hews above to your left side<ref name="word-sr"/> to the opening, then drive up with the sword and Wind against his hew therewith on your left side, the hilt before the<ref>S. "his"</ref> head in the Ox, and step ahead with<ref name="word-m"/> the right foot therewith, and stab in to the face or the<ref name="word-s"/> breast. And also drive the technique from the Plow on the left side, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 038r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 038r.jpg|2|lbl=-}}
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| {{red|Whoever binds on you,<br/>Change-through him; closely slice or find.}}
 
| {{red|Whoever binds on you,<br/>Change-through him; closely slice or find.}}
 
|}
 
|}
<p>Item, know the Changing-throughs are many and multiple, and you may drive them from all hews against the fencers that hew there to<ref>S. "after".</ref> the sword, and not to the openings of the man. And you shall learn very well to drive them with prudence, so that one does not Set-on you while you Change-through him.</p>
+
<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr"/> know the Changing-throughs are many and multiple, and you may drive them from all hews against the fencers that hew there to<ref>S. "after".</ref> the sword, and not to the openings of the man. And you shall learn very well to drive them with prudence, so that one does not Set-on you while you Change-through him.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[94] Item, drive the Changing-through thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then hew in long above<ref name="word-s"/> to the head. If he then hews against your sword and not to your body, then let your point whisk through below with the hew, before he binds you<ref name="word-s"/> on the sword, and stab him to the other side. If he then becomes aware of the stab, and quickly drives with the sword after the stab with parrying, then Change-though yet [again] to the other side, and drive then always when he drives after your sword with the parrying to both sides, etc.</p>
+
| <p>[94] Item, drive the Changing-through thus: when you come to him with the pre-fencing, then hew in long above<ref name="word-s"/> to the head. If he then hews<ref>R. "hews you"</ref> against your sword and not to your body, then let your point whisk through<ref>S., R. "change through"</ref> below with the hew, before he binds you<ref name="word-s"/> on the sword, and stab him to the other side. If he then becomes aware of the stab, and quickly drives with the sword after the stab with parrying, then Change-though yet [again] to the other side, and drive then always when he drives after your sword with the parrying to both sides, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 039r.jpg|1|lbl=39r}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 039r.jpg|1|lbl=39r}}
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| <p>[95] '''Item, yet a Changing-through.'''</p>
 
| <p>[95] '''Item, yet a Changing-through.'''</p>
  
<p>When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set your left foot forward and hold the Long Point against his face. If he then hews you from above or below to the sword, and wants to strike that away or bind<ref>S. "wind".</ref> thereon, let the point sink underneath and stab to the other side, and do that against all hews, etc.</p>
+
<p>When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>S. "the"</ref> left foot forward and hold the Long Point against his face. If he then hews you from above or below to the sword, and wants to strike that away or bind<ref>S., R. "wind".</ref> thereon, let the point sink underneath and stab to the other side, and do that against all hews, etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[96] '''Item, this technique mark very evenly.'''</p>
 
| <p>[96] '''Item, this technique mark very evenly.'''</p>
  
<p>When he has parried you (or has otherwise bound on your sword), if he then holds his point on your sword [but] not against the opening of your body, and lets it go near on the side beside you,<ref name="word-s"/> then Change-through under<ref name="word-a"/> him boldly. Or, if he remains with the point before the face or<ref name="word-s"/> against the opening, then do not Change-through, and remain on the sword and work therewith to his nearest opening; thus he may not Travel-after or Set-on you.</p>
+
<p>When he has parried you (or has otherwise bound on your sword), if he then holds his point on your sword [but] not against the opening of your body, and lets it go near on the side beside you, then Change-through under<ref name="word-amr"/> him boldly. Or, if he remains with the point before the face or<ref name="word-s"/> against the opening, then do not Change-through, and remain on the sword and work therewith to his nearest opening; thus he may not Travel-after or Set-on you.</p>
 
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<p>''The wrestling in the long sword''</p>
 
<p>''The wrestling in the long sword''</p>
  
<p>Mark,<ref>A. "Item".</ref> the Running-through and the wrestling pertain to driving against the masters that like to run in, and drive it thus: when he parries you and<ref name="word-a"/> drives high up with the arms therewith, and runs in on you and will overwhelm you with strength above, then drive up with the arms and hold your sword over your head (with the left hand by the pommel), and let the blade hang low behind [you], over your back, and run with the head through the arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his right<ref>Word doubled in the Augsburg.</ref> side, and spring with the right foot behind his right, and with the spring, drive in with the right arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, well around the body, and grasp him thus on your right hip, and throw him down before you on his head, etc.</p>
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<p>Item,<ref name="word-sr"/> mark<ref name="word-am"/> the Running-through and the wrestling pertain to driving against the masters that like to run in, and drive it thus: when he parries you and drives high up with the arms therewith,<ref name="word-am"/> and runs in on you and will overwhelm you with strength above, then drive up with the arms and hold your sword over your head (with the left hand by the pommel), and let the blade hang low behind [you], over<ref>R. "on"</ref> your back, and run with the head through the arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his right<ref>Word doubled in the Augsburg.</ref><ref name="word-m"/> side, and spring with the right foot behind his right, and with the spring, drive in with the right arm against<ref name="word-s"/> his left side, well around the body, and grasp him thus on your right hip, and throw him down before you on his head, etc.</p>
 
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| <p><br/></p>
 
| <p><br/></p>
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| <p>[100] '''Item, another wrestling.'''</p>
 
| <p>[100] '''Item, another wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you with arms stretched up, and you against him, then Run-through him with the head to his right side, and step with the right foot in front before his right, and drive in with the right arm under his right arm, around through behind his body, and sink down a little,<ref>"down a little" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and grasp him on the right hip and throw him behind you. You shall drive these two wrestlings to both sides, etc.</p>
+
<p>When he runs in on you with arms stretched up, and you against him, then Run-through him with the head to his<ref>S. "your"</ref> right side, and step with your<ref>A., R. "the"</ref> right foot in front before his right, and drive in with the right arm under his right arm,<ref name="word-sr"/> around through behind his body, and sink down a little,<ref>"down a little" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> and grasp him on the right hip and throw him behind you. You shall drive these two wrestlings to both sides, etc.</p>
 
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| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 042r.jpg|1|lbl=42r}}
 
| {{section|Page:Cod.I.6.4º.3 042r.jpg|1|lbl=42r}}
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| <p>[101] '''Item, yet<ref name="word-s"/> another wrestling.'''</p>
 
| <p>[101] '''Item, yet<ref name="word-s"/> another wrestling.'''</p>
  
<p>When he runs in on you to your right side<ref name="word-s"/> and is high with the arms, and you also, then hold your sword in your right<ref name="word-s"/> hand and thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with your left foot in-front before his right, and drive in with the left arm well around behind the body, and sink down a little, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him before you<ref>"before you" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> on the face, etc.</p>
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<p>When he runs in on you to your right side<ref name="word-s"/> and is high with the arms, and you also, then hold your sword in your<ref>A., M., R. "the"</ref> right<ref name="word-s"/> hand and thrust his arm from you therewith, and spring with your left foot in-front before his right, and drive in with the left arm well around behind his<ref>A., S., R. "the"</ref> body, and sink down a little, and grasp him on your left hip and throw him before you<ref>"before you" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> on the face, etc.</p>
 
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Revision as of 03:58, 26 April 2020

Jud Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Jud Lew is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a 15th century German fencing master. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the Cod. I.6.4º.3, an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,[2] a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing that is one branch of the so-called Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss (see below). Though some versions of Martin Huntfeltz's treatise on armored fencing are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.[3] By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Liegniczer and Martin Huntfeltz (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Jud Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs Augsburger page.