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<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A, M: "the</ref> left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew<ref>"the hew" omitted in Mair.</ref> with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
 
<p>Item, you shall also drive the Crooked-hew from the Barrier-guard from both sides, and position yourself in the guard thus: when you come to the man with the pre-fencing, then set your<ref>A, M: "the</ref> left foot before [you] and hold your sword with the point near your right side on the earth so that the long edge on the sword is turned above, and thus you give an opening with the left side. If he then hews above to your opening, then spring from the hew<ref>"the hew" omitted in Mair.</ref> with the right foot well on the right side against him, and thrust the pommel of your sword under your right arm with the left hand, and strike him with the long edge (with crossed hands) with the point in his hands, etc.</p>
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<p>Item, mark, you shall Travel-after him from all guards and from all hews as quickly as you can, when he forehews in front of you or opens himself with the sword.</p>
 
<p>Item, mark, you shall Travel-after him from all guards and from all hews as quickly as you can, when he forehews in front of you or opens himself with the sword.</p>
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| <p>[123] Item, here<ref name="word-s"/> mark how you shall drive the Eight Windings from the Four Hangings. The first Over-Hanging has two Windings, drive that thus. When you come to the man<ref>A. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then stand on your right side in the Ox. If he then hews in<ref name="word-a"/> above in to your left side, then Wind against his hew, the short edge on his sword, yet in Ox, and stab him above in to the face. That is the Winding-in. If he sets the stab off to<ref>S. "against".</ref> his left side, then remain on the sword, and Wind again on your right side in the Ox, the long edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. That is one Hanging from your right side with two Windings on his sword.</p>
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| <p>[123] Item, here<ref name="word-s"/> mark how you shall drive the Eight Windings from the Four Hangings. The first Over-Hanging has two Windings, drive that thus. When you come to the man<ref>A., M., R. "him".</ref> with the pre-fencing, then stand on your right side in the Ox. If he then hews in<ref name="word-a"/> above in to your left side, then Wind against his hew,<ref>M. "against his hew oppositely"</ref> the short edge on his sword, yet in Ox, and stab him above in to the face. That is the<ref name="word-m"/> Winding-in. If he sets the stab off to<ref>S., R. "against".</ref> his left side, then remain on the sword, and Wind again on your right side in the Ox, the long edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. That is one<ref>S., R. "the one"</ref> Hanging from your right side with two Windings on his sword.</p>
 
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<p>Item, drive the two Over-Hangings yet with two Windings thus. When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then stand on your left side in the Ox. If he then hews above in to your right side, then Wind the long edge on his sword against his hew and stab him above to the face. That is but one Winding. If he sets the stab off against your<ref>A. "his".</ref> right side, then remain on the sword and Wind again on your left side in the Ox, the short (?) edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. This is the second Over-Hanging from the<ref>S. "your".</ref> left side, yet with two Windings on his sword, etc.</p>
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<p>Item, drive the two Over-Hangings yet with two Windings<ref>M. "hangings"</ref> thus. When you come to him with the pre-fencing, then stand on your left side in the Ox. If he then hews above in to your right side, then Wind the long edge on his sword against his hew and stab him above to the face. That is but one Winding. If he sets the stab off against your<ref>A. "his".</ref> right side, then remain on the sword and Wind again on your left side in the Ox, the short (?) edge on his sword, and stab him above in to the face. This is the second<ref>M. "another"</ref> Over-Hanging from the<ref>S., R. "your".</ref> left side, yet with two Windings on his sword, etc.</p>
 
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| <p>[125] Item, Now you shall know that from the two Under Hangings, that is the Plow from both sides, you shall also drive Four Windings with all your drivings, as from the Overs. These are the Eight Windings. And as often as you Wind, then think in each single Wind particularly on the hew, and<ref name="word-s"/> on the stab, and on the slice. Thus come from the Eight Windings twenty-four, and from whatever Winding, and against whatever technique, and against whatever hew you shall drive the hew, or the stab, or the slice. You find all that described before in the techniques,<ref>"in the techniques" omitted from the Salzburg.</ref> etc.</p>
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| <p>[125] Item, Now you shall know that from the two Under Hangings, that is the Plow from both sides, you shall also drive Four Windings with all your drivings, as from the Overs. These are the Eight Windings. And as often as you Wind, then think in each single Wind particularly on the hew, and<ref name="word-s"/> on the<ref>"on the" omitted from Mair.</ref> stab, and on the slice. Thus twenty-four come from the Eight Windings, and from whatever Winding, and against whatever technique, and against whatever hew you shall drive the hew, or the<ref name="word-m"/> stab, or the slice. You find all that described before in the techniques,<ref>"in the techniques" omitted from the Salzburg and the Rostock.</ref> etc.</p>
 
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  | title = Mounted Fencing Gloss
 
  | title = Mounted Fencing Gloss

Revision as of 23:01, 26 April 2020

Jud Lew
Occupation Fencing master
Ethnicity Jewish (?)
Movement Liechtenauer Tradition
Genres
Language Early New High German
Principal
manuscript(s)
Manuscript(s)
Concordance by Michael Chidester
Translations Traducción castellano

Jud Lew is the name (or possibly pseudonym) of a 15th century German fencing master. The appellation "Jude" seems to signify that he was Jewish, though Jude was also a surname of some non-Jewish families, and he seems to have stood in the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, though he was not included in Paulus Kal's ca. 1470 list of the members of the Fellowship of Liechtenauer.[1]

Lew is often erroneously credited with authoring the Cod. I.6.4º.3, an anonymous compilation of various fencing treatises created in the 1460s. In fact, his name is only associated with a single section of that book,[2] a gloss of Johannes Liechtenauer's Recital on mounted fencing that is one branch of the so-called Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss (see below). Though some versions of Martin Huntfeltz's treatise on armored fencing are also attributed to Lew, this is almost certainly an error.[3] By convention, the gloss of Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword fencing that generally accompanies this mounted gloss is also attributed to Lew.

Stemma

Early on in its history, the Pseudo-Peter von Danzig gloss seems to have split into at least three branches, and no definite copies of the unaltered original are known to survive. The gloss of Sigmund ain Ringeck also seems to be related to this work, due to the considerable overlap in text and contents, but it is currently unclear if Ringeck's gloss is based on that of pseudo-Danzig or if they both derive from an even earlier original gloss (or even if Ringeck and pseudo-Danzig are the same author and the "Ringeck" gloss should be considered a fourth branch).

Branch A, first attested in the Augsburg version (1450s) and comprising the majority of extant copies, has more plays overall than Branch B but generally shorter descriptions in areas of overlap. It also glosses only Liechtenauer's Recital on long sword and mounted fencing; in lieu of a gloss of Liechtenauer's short sword, it is generally accompanied by the short sword teachings of Andre Liegniczer and Martin Huntfeltz (or, in the case of the 1512 Vienna II, Ringeck's short sword gloss). Branch A is sometimes called the Jud Lew gloss, based on a potential attribution at the end of the mounted gloss in a few copies. Apart from the Augsburg, the other principal text in Branch A is the Salzburg version (1491), which was copied independently[4] and also incorporates twelve paragraphs from Ringeck's gloss and nineteen paragraphs from an unidentified third source. Branch A was redacted by Paulus Hector Mair (three mss., 1540s), Lienhart Sollinger (1556), and Joachim Meyer (1570), which despite being the latest is the cleanest extant version and was likely either copied directly from the original or created by comparing multiple versions to correct their errors. It was also one of the bases for Johannes Lecküchner's gloss on the Messer in the late 1470s.

Branch B, attested first in the Rome version (1452), is found in only four manuscripts; it tends to feature slightly longer descriptions than Branch A, but includes fewer plays overall. Branch B glosses Liechtenauer's entire Recital, including the short sword section, and may therefore be considered more complete than Branch A; it also differs from Branch A in that three of the four known copies are illustrated to some extent, where none in the other branch are. The Krakow version (1535-40) seems to be an incomplete (though extensively illustrated) copy taken from the Rome,[5] while Augsburg II (1564) collects only the six illustrated wrestling plays from the Krakow. Even more anomalous is the Glasgow version (1508), consisting solely of a nearly complete redaction of the short sword gloss (assigning it to Branch B), which is appended to the opening paragraphs of Ringeck's gloss of the same section; since it accompanies Ringeck's long sword and mounted fencing glosses, a possible explanation is that the scribe lacked a complete copy of Ringeck and tried to fill in the deficit with another similar text.

Branch C is first attested in the Vienna version (1480s). It is unclear whether it was derived independently from the original, represents an intermediate evolutionary step between Branches A and B, or was created by simply merging copies of the other branches together. The structure and contents of this branch very closely align with Branch B, lacking most of the unique plays of Branch A and including the gloss of the short sword, but the actual text is more consistent with that of Branch A (though not identical). The other substantial copy of Branch C is the Augsburg version II (1553), which was created by Paulus Hector Mair based on the writings of Antonius Rast, and which segues into the text of Ringeck's gloss for the final eighteen paragraphs. A substantial fragment of Branch C is present in five additional 16th century manuscripts alongside the illustrated treatise of Jörg Wilhalm Hutter; one of these, Glasgow II (1533) assigns the text a much earlier origin, stating that it was devised by one Nicolaüs in 1489. This branch has received the least attention and is currently the least understood.

(A final text of interest is the 1539 treatise of Hans Medel von Salzburg,[6] which was acquired by Mair and bound into the Cod. I.6.2º.5 after 1566.[7] Medel demonstrates familiarity with the teachings of a variety of 15th century Liechtenauer masters, and his text often takes the form of a revision and expansion of the long sword glosses of Ringeck and Nicolaüs. Because of the extent of the original and mixed content, Medel's versions are not included in any of these pages.)

Treatises

While all branches were originally presented in a single concordance in the pseudo-Peter von Danzig article, the differences between them are extensive enough that they merit separate consideration. Thus, Branch A has been placed here on the page of Jud Lew, Branch B has been retained on the main pseudo-Danzig page, and branch C is now on the Nicolaüs Augsburger page.